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the type ii secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonization by the leech digestive tract symbiont aeromonas veronii.hemolysin and the type ii secretion system (t2ss) have been shown to be important for virulence in many pathogens, but very few studies have shown their importance in beneficial microbes. here, we investigated the importance of the type ii secretion pathway in the beneficial digestive-tract association of aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech hirudo verbana and revealed a critical role for the hemolysis of erythrocytes. a mutant with a minitn5 insertion in exem, which is involved in forming ...201021097598
characterization and expression studies of gaduscidin-1 and gaduscidin-2; paralogous antimicrobial peptide-like transcripts from atlantic cod (gadus morhua).piscidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides (amps) from fish that constitute an important component of their innate immune system. based on previously generated atlantic cod (gadus morhua) expressed sequence tags (ests), we identified sequences representing two paralogous amp-like transcripts. these atlantic cod paralogues were termed gaduscidins (gad-1 and gad-2), derived from the genus name gadus. we obtained full-length cdna sequences for these putative amp-encoding transcripts using bi- ...201021108964
characterization and functional analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) interleukin-10.this is the first report of comprehensive functional analysis of an interleukin-10 in bony fish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish il-10 revealed the greatest mrna levels in the spleen tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes and granulocytes. the stimulation of cells with recombinant goldfish (rg) tnfα2 significantly reduced il-10 mrna levels in granulocytes and monocytes of the goldfish. to functionally assess the goldfish il-10, we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgil-10) ...201021111485
endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of typha angustifolia l. in the constructed beijing cuihu wetland (china).we investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (typha angustifolia l.) roots growing in the beijing cuihu wetland, china, using the 16s rdna library technique. in total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with proteobacteria, other clones grouped into cytophaga/flexibacter/bacteroids (3.3%), fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured ...201021111814
haemato-immunological and stress responses of labeo rohita (hamilton) fingerlings: effect of rearing temperature and dietary gelatinized carbohydrate.a feeding trial of 70-days was carried out to study the haemato-immunological and stress responses of labeo rohita fingerlings reared at two water temperatures [ambient (amb) - 27 °c and 32 °c] fed with graded levels of gelatinized corn carbohydrate (gc). two hundred and sixteen fingerlings were randomly distributed into six treatment groups in triplicate. three semi-purified diets were prepared containing 30% crude protein with graded levels of gc 40%, 50% and 58%. the six treatment groups were ...201021114548
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
resistance of genetically different common carp, cyprinus carpio l., families against experimental bacterial challenge with aeromonas hydrophila.the objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the research institute for fisheries, aquaculture and irrigation (haki, szarvas, hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; t ...201021118271
association of aeromonas caviae polar and lateral flagella with biofilm formation.to evaluate the association of the polar and lateral flagella with biofilm formation on plastic surfaces in 76 aeromonas caviae strains isolated from environment (lagoon water), food (vegetables, fish and cheese) and human source (faeces).201021118278
maturation pathway of metalloprotease produced by aeromonas sobria.previously, we cloned the metalloprotease gene of aeromonas sobria (amp) and determined its nucleotide sequence (genbank accession number dq784565). the protease is composed of 591 amino acid residues. in this study, we purified the mature metalloprotease from the culture supernatant of a. sobria and determined the amino terminal sequence and molecular size of amp. in addition, we examined the production of amp diachronically and found that amp emerges outside of the cell as an intermediate comp ...201021118297
development and experimental validation of a 20k atlantic cod (gadus morhua) oligonucleotide microarray based on a collection of over 150,000 ests.the collapse of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. in order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. the atlantic cod genomics and broodstock development project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cdna libraries representing various tissues, development ...201021127932
microbial communities and electrochemical performance of titanium-based anodic electrodes in a microbial fuel cell.four types of titanium (ti)-based electrodes were tested in the same microbial fuel cell (mfc) anodic compartment. their electrochemical performances and the dominant microbial communities of the electrode biofilms were compared. the electrodes were identical in shape, macroscopic surface area, and core material but differed in either surface coating (pt- or ta-coated metal composites) or surface texture (smooth or rough). the mfc was inoculated with electrochemically active, neutrophilic microo ...201021131513
characterization of two c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins from the cdna library of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis is one of the most important aquaculture crustacean species in china. a cdna library was constructed from mixed tissues of e. sinensis challenged with lps. eight genes involved in immune response were identified from 319 single colonies. among them, two different c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins were firstly identified in chinese mitten crab. the full-length cdna sequences of two c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins named ...201021134464
qm/mm studies of monozinc β-lactamase cpha suggest that the crystal structure of an enzyme-intermediate complex represents a minor pathway.qm/mm studies of the hydrolysis of a β-lactam antibiotic molecule (biapenem) catalyzed by a monozinc β-lactamase (cpha) have revealed the complete reaction mechanism and shown that an experimentally determined enzyme-intermediate complex is a stable intermediate or product in a minor pathway.201021138257
putative virulence properties of aeromonas strains isolated from food, environmental and clinical sources in italy: a comparative study.the distribution of virulence properties in 142 strains of aeromonas isolated from diarrhoeic patients, food and surface water in italy and identified by biochemical and molecular methods was investigated. the virulence properties studied were the presence of genes for the aerolysin (aera), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), cytotoxic enterotoxin (act); and cytotoxicity for vero cells and adhesion on hep-2 cells. a. hydrophila and a. caviae were the ...201021138783
preliminary crystallographic analysis of two oligomerization-deficient mutants of the aerolysin toxin, h132d and h132n, in their proteolyzed forms.aerolysin is a major virulence factor produced by the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila and is a member of the β-pore-forming toxin family. two oligomerization-deficient aerolysin mutants, h132d and h132n, have been overproduced, proteolyzed by trypsin digestion and purified. crystals were grown from the proteolyzed forms and diffraction data were collected for the two mutants to 2.1 and 2.3 å resolution, respectively. the prism-shaped crystals belonged to space group c2. the crystal ...201021139211
ovarian hydrobursitis in female camels (camelus dromedaries): biochemical, bacterial and protozoal evaluation.the aim of this study was to evaluate female camels affected with ovarian hydrobursitis (n = 31) for hematological and biochemical findings and for bacterial and protozoal infections. blood samples were obtained and surgical ablation of the affected bursa was performed. bursal fluid, follicular fluid, and serum were subjected to hormonal and biochemical analyses. bursal fluids were cultured and colonies were identified using biomérieux vitek two compact system. passive haemagglutination test was ...201021144565
the rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in gallibacterium anatis.the present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(a, b, c, d, e, g, h, k, l, m, o). a recent study found tet(b) to be the most prevalent tetracycline resistance determinant in a larger collection of g. anatis field strains from mexico and denmark. however, in 41% of the tetracycline resistant strains no determinant could be assigne ...201021145184
gut microbial status induced by antibiotic growth promoter alters the prebiotic effects of dietary dvaqua® on aeromonas hydrophila-infected tilapia: production, intestinal bacterial community and non-specific immunity.the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether dietary antibiotic-induced changes in the fish intestinal microbiota altered host physiological responses to the infection with aeromonas hydrophila in hybrid tilapia (oreochromis niloticus ♀ × o. aureus ♂). after an 8-week induction period with an antibiotic-supplemented or antibiotic-non-supplemented diet, 160 hybrid tilapias in 16 tanks were each injected with phosphate buffered saline (pbs) or a. hydrophila at a dose of one-half of ...201021146333
molecular basis of bacterial defense against host lysozymes: x-ray structures of periplasmic lysozyme inhibitors plii and plic.lysozymes play a key role in the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan, a vital component of the bacterial cell wall. gram-negative bacteria produce various types of lysozyme inhibitors that allow them to survive the bactericidal action of lysozyme when their outer membrane is permeabilized. so far, three lysozyme inhibitor families have been described: the ivy (inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme) family, the mlic/plic (membrane-associated/periplasmic l ...201021146533
enhancement of protective immunity in european eel (anguilla anguilla) against aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria by a recombinant aeromonas outer membrane protein.to develop a vaccine, which can simultaneously prevent the diseases caused by various pathogenic bacteria in fish, we try to find a conserved outer membrane protein (omp) antigen from different bacterial pathogens. in this study, an omp fragment of 747 bp (named as omp-g), which was highly conserved in seven aeromonas omp sequences from the ncbi database, was amplified by pcr from one aeromonas sobria strain (b10) and two aeromonas hydrophila strains (b27 and b33) with the designed specific prim ...201021148192
diversity of clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases in aeromonas spp. from the seine river, paris, france.environmental aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the seine river, in paris, france, in november 2009. selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16s rrna and rpob genes. pcr and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (esbl) genes were identified in 71% of the aeromon ...201021149627
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201021154843
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in siliguri city of west bengal, india.sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in siliguri cityof west bengal, india. in regular surveys undertaken during june to august 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (qim) was applied to assess its quality raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samp ...201021387907
measurement of k(on) without a rapid-mixing device.we have recently designed a biochemistry laboratory experiment for the purpose of providing students an advanced experience with enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of binding. bestatin, a well-known and commercially available general protease inhibitor, is a slow-binding inhibitor of aminopeptidase isolated from aeromonas proteolytica. the binding is on a timescale slow enough for measurement without the use of a rapid-mixing device. aminopeptidase inhibition is detected via a standard colorimetri ...201021567834
genome sequence of the emerging pathogen aeromonas caviae.aeromonas caviae is a gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. here we present the first genome sequence of an a. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.201021183677
clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of gram-negative bacterial spinal epidural abscess in adults.gram-negative (g(-)) bacterial spinal epidural abscess (sea) in adults is uncommon. of the 42 adult patients with bacterial sea admitted to the chang gung memorial hospital - kaohsiung, between 2003 and 2007, 12 with g(-) sea were included in this study. of these 12 patients, seven were men and five were women; their ages ranged between 17 years and 81 years (median=72.5 years, mean=62.5 years). the patients were admitted at different stages of symptom onset (four were in the acute stage and fou ...201021185728
effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. there is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. but problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clo ...201021186711
[comparasion of two methods for recovery of aeromonas spp. in feces from agar cin (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)]. 201021191564
influence of alginic acid and fucoidan on the immune responses of head kidney leukocytes in cod.the present study investigated the immunomodulatory activities of alginic acid and fucoidan, both derived from brown seaweeds, on selected cellular immune responses and antibacterial activity of head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod, gadus morhua. primary cultures of hk leukocytes were incubated with either 10 or 100 μg ml(-1) of the substances and the effects on respiratory burst, cellular proliferation, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and cellular myeloperoxidase were measured at 3- and 24 ...201021191809
mortality of centrarchid fishes in the potomac drainage: survey results and overview of potential contributing factors.skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the south branch of the potomac river in 2002. since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the shenandoah and monocacy rivers. despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens aer ...201021192549
aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.members of the genus aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. this review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. antimicrobial resistance and therap ...201021163298
potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp.this study reports the effect of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diet on cyprinus carpio (52 +/- 2 g, n = 250) inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 106 cfu ml(-1)). on day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the basal diet (iu) or with diets supplemented with triherbal extract (h), sporolac (s) or lactobacillus (l). a fifth group of non-infected fish fed with the basal diet was used as a control. haematology and immunolo ...201021166313
differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.the proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima) were evaluated. additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. for this purpose, a total of 144 pseudomonas spp. and 127 aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and cal ...201021339162
[biological properties of opportunistic bacteria in aquatic ecosystems].the paper gives the results of studying the enzymatic activity of bacteria in the microbial community of the lena river in the central part of yakutia (the town of yakutsk and its adjoining areas). the study properties were found in 31.8% of the bacteria. aeromonas had the highest enzymatic activity. high (22.0%) dnaase production rates were noted in enterobactericeae.201021341499
melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, pacifastacus leniusculus, by aeromonas hydrophila ah-3.aeromonas hydrophila is the most common aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. pathogenesis of aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (lps), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. several mutant strains of a. hydrophila ah-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, pacifastacus leni ...201021206752
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
[development of rapid detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification].loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method of gene amplification with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. the method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. in the present study, according to the conservative regions of non-structural protein gene ns1, a set of four specific primers were designed, ...201021344755
isolation and distribution of bacterial flora in farmed rainbow trout from mexico.trout farming is a growing aquaculture industry in mexico, with stock mainly supplied by the importation of eyed eggs. the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of bacterial isolations in farmed rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss from mexico. sixty-five farms distributed among seven states of mexico were included in the study. individual samples from gills, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were obtained from 563 apparently healthy fish. in total, 371 bacterial isolates were ...201021413508
isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. the aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.201021483559
isolation of bdellovibrio as biological therapeutic agents used for the treatment of aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish.fourteen strains of bdellovibrio-like organisms were isolated from cultured fish ponds using aeromonas hydrophila j-1 as host, one of them formed large plaques after 48 h of incubation at 28 degrees c on a double layer plate, designated as bdellovibrio c-1. the bdellovibrio was confirmed by electron microscopy and pcr amplification of bdellovibrio-specific 16s rdna. the optimum temperature for the growth of bdc-1 was between 15-37 degrees c and with optimal activity at temperatures of 25-30 degr ...201019486499
arsenic detoxification potential of aox genes in arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural and constructed wetlands in the republic of korea.arsenic is subject to microbial interactions, which support a wide range of biogeochemical transformations of elements in natural environments such as wetlands. the arsenic detoxification potential of the bacterial strains was investigated with the arsenite oxidation gene, aox genotype, which were isolated from the natural and constructed wetlands. the isolates were able to grow in the presence of 10 mm of sodium arsenite (as(iii) as naaso(2)) and 1 mm of d: +glucose. phylogenetic analysis based ...201019548094
burn wounds infected by contaminated water: case reports, review of the literature and recommendations for treatment.first-aid education for the management of burns advocates cool running water over burnt skin to limit soft tissue damage. however, the water used may itself constitute a risk. we report three cases of severe invasive and necrotizing infection in patients who used or immersed themselves in contaminated water in an attempt to extinguish the fire following acute major burns. wound cultures from all patients yielded aeromonas hydrophila and two yielded bacillus cereus. one patient had a complex poly ...201019501977
elimination of symbiotic aeromonas spp. from the intestinal tract of the medicinal leech, hirudo medicinalis, using ciprofloxacin feeding.the use of the medicinal leech (hirudo medicinalis) in promoting venous drainage in tissues whose vitality is threatened by venous congestion and obstruction, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery, has been complicated by infections caused by aeromonas spp. these are leech endosymbionts for which patients undergoing hirudotherapy frequently receive systemic chemoprophylaxis. in order to evaluate the possibility of rendering leeches safe for use on patients, h. medicinalis were fed art ...201019523050
aeromonas fluvialis sp. nov., isolated from a spanish river.a gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated 717(t), was isolated from a water sample collected from the muga river, girona, north-east spain. preliminary analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence showed that this strain belonged to the genus aeromonas, the nearest species being aeromonas veronii (99.5 % similarity, with seven different nucleotides). a polyphasic study based on a multilocus phylogenetic analysis of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and g ...201019648345
human isolates of aeromonas possess shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) highly similar to the most virulent gene variants of escherichia coli.strains producing shiga toxins, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, can cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome. pcr screening of 80 clinical aeromonas strains showed that 19 were stx1-positive and only one was positive for both stx1 and stx2. pcr bands were very faint for some strains and negative results were obtained after subculturing. the obtained sequences of aeromonas stx1 and stx2 genes were highly similar to those of the most virulent stx gene variants of shiga ...201020219084
probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective.probiotics are usually live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefits on host. nowadays, probiotics are also becoming an integral part of the aquaculture practices to obtain high production. the common probiotics that are used for aquaculture practices include lactobacillus, lactococcus, leuconostoc, enterococcus, carnobacterium, shewanella, bacillus, aeromonas, vibrio, enterobacter, pseudomonas, clostridium, and saccharomyces species. the involvement of ...201020219683
immune responses of resistant and sensitive common carp families following experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila.parameters of non-specific immune response and level of specific and natural antibodies were investigated after an experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila in genetically different common carp (cyprinus carpio) families. ten resistant and ten sensitive families were used for the experiment, which had been selected out of 96 families, based on the results of a preliminary challenge test. blood samples were collected 12 h, one week and 21 days following the challenge. phagocytic and respir ...201020211735
random amplified polymorphic dna typing of clinical and environmental aeromonas hydrophila strains from limpopo province, south africa.the aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relatedness of strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool and water specimens collected from water-storage containers from different geographical areas in the limpopo province. in total, 32 aeromonas strains isolated from stool specimens collected from hiv/aids patients suffering from gastroenteritis and their household drinking-water stored in 20-l and 25-l containers were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic dna pcr (rapd). the rapd fin ...201020214080
detection of type iii secretion system genes in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in nile tilapia.the goals of this study were to develop a pcr technique to detect ascv and aopb genes from the type iii secretion system (t3ss), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in nile tilapia. the pcr assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ...201020185253
use of lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).feeding rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), with 1% lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with aeromonas hydrophila. in addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient f ...201020102439
isolation and characterization of sap and crp, two pentraxins from pangasianodon (pangasius) hypophthalmus.from the serum of pangasianodon hypophthalmus, two proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on sepharose and phosphorylcholine-sepharose. their binding on the affinity matrices critically depends on the presence of ca2+ ions. n-terminal sequencing and sequencing of internal tryptic peptides identified the proteins as pentraxins and from their binding properties they are identified as sap (serum amyloid p component) and crp (c-reactive protein). per ml serum, 36 microg sap and 56 microg ...201020109557
peroxiredoxin iv regulates pro-inflammatory responses in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) and protects against bacterial challenge.in this study, we applied a comparative proteomic approach to the analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the spleens of large yellow croaker following treatment with an inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. twenty-four altered proteins were identified by maldi-tof or maldi-tof-tof, including immune-related proteins, antioxidant proteins, signal transducers, protein biosynthesis and catabolism modulators, and carbonic anhydrases. three prx family members, namely, prx i, prx ii, and p ...201020099887
immunoproteomics of extracellular proteins of the aeromonas hydrophila china vaccine strain j-1 reveal a highly immunoreactive outer membrane protein.abstract aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals. it is essential to develop a vaccine to reduce the economic losses caused by this bacterium in aquaculture worldwide. here, an immunoproteomic assay was used to identify the immunogenic extracellular proteins of the chinese vaccine strain j-1. ten unique immunogenic proteins were identified from the two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblot profiles by matrix-assisted laser d ...201020100179
beta2-microglobulin is involved in the immune response of large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila: a proteomic based study.outbreaks of infectious diseases in cultured large yellow croaker have resulted in great economic losses. however, information regarding its immune defense is limited. in the present study, an approach by the combination of differential proteomics with est resource was applied for investigation of a profile of serum immune response by large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila challenge after immunization and for characterizing of one of the targeted immune molecules. of the twelve altered pro ...201019837169
the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum strain 207.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of aeromonas bestiarum 207 lipopolysaccharide was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined by roesy and hmbc experiments. it is concluded that the o-polysaccharide is composed of branched pentasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: [structure: see the text]201020080230
the garlic component, allicin, prevents disease caused by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).allicin was fed at 0 (= control), 0.5 and 1.0 ml of allimed liquid 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), fingerlings before infection with aeromonas hydrophila with a resultant reduction in mortalities from 80% in the controls to 8% [relative percentage survival (rps) = 90%] and 0% (rps = 100%) among the treated fish. allicin was strongly antibacterial compared to the control, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of >400 microl ml(-1) of allimed ...201020082660
genetic and biochemical characterization of tru-1, the endogenous class c beta-lactamase from aeromonas enteropelogenes.aeromonas enteropelogenes (formerly a. tructi) was described to be an ampicillin-susceptible and cephalothin-resistant aeromonas species, which suggests the production of a cephalosporinase. strain atcc 49803 was susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem but resistant to cefazolin (mics of 2, 0.032, 0.125, and >256 microg/ml, respectively) and produced an inducible beta-lactamase. cefotaxime-resistant mutants (mic, 32 microg/ml) that showed constitutive beta-lactamase production could ...201020124004
aeromonas caviae strain induces th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract.aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (vfs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the aeromonas genus. microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 h after oral infection with an a. caviae strain, provides evidence of a th1 type immune response. a large number of gamma-interferon (gamma-ifn) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumo ...201020130691
class 1 integrons in benthic bacterial communities: abundance, association with tn402-like transposition modules and evidence for coselection with heavy-metal resistance.the integron/gene cassette system contributes to lateral gene transfer of genetic information in bacterial communities, with gene cassette-encoded proteins potentially playing an important role in adaptation to stress. class 1 integrons are a particularly important class as they themselves seem to be broadly disseminated among the proteobacteria and have an established role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. the abundance and structure of class 1 integrons in freshwater sediment bacte ...201020132306
prevalence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in turkey.a total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species. the overall incidence of listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7% ...201020132688
immunomodulatory effect of dietary saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucan and laminaran in mercuric chloride treated nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) and experimentally infected with aeromonas hydrophila.six hundred and forty nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) weighing 80-100g were randomly allocated into eight equal groups (80 each). the first group acts as control. groups s, b and l were fed on a ration supplemented with saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucans and laminaran, respectively for 21 days. groups m, ms, mb and ml were subjected throughout the experiment to sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05 ppm). gps. ms, mb and ml were fed on a ration containing s. cerevisiae, beta ...201020139003
biochemical characterization of three putative atpases from a new type iv secretion system of aeromonas veronii plasmid pac3249a.type four secretion systems (tfss) are bacterial macromolecular transport systems responsible for transfer of various substrates such as proteins, dna or protein-dna complexes. tfsss encode two or three atpases generating energy for the secretion process. these enzymes exhibit highest sequence conservation among type four secretion components.201020144229
per-6, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from aeromonas allosaccharophila.an aeromonas allosaccharophila environmental isolate recovered from the seine river (paris, france) produced a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, per-6, that shared 92% amino acid identity with the closest ss-lactamase, per-2. the kinetic properties of per-6 showed a slightly increased affinity for carbapenems. the bla(per-6) gene was chromosomally located and bracketed by non-transposon-related structures.201020145085
immunoproteomic identification of polyvalent vaccine candidates from vibrio parahaemolyticus outer membrane proteins.bacterium is still a major cause of many infectious diseases and a global threat to human health, aquaculture, and animal feeding. prevention by vaccination is the most efficient and economical way of fighting bacterial diseases, but one of the persistent challenges to prevent bacterial infections and disease transmissions is the existence of multiple bacterial species, families, and genera and the lack of efficient polyvalent vaccines against them. the information on candidate immunogens for po ...201020148598
a differential proteomics study of caenorhabditis elegans infected with aeromonas hydrophila.the striking similarities between the innate defences of vertebrates and invertebrates as well as the amenability of caenorhabditis elegans for genetic analysis, have made this free-living ground nematode a popular model system in the study of bacterial pathogenesis. although genetic studies have brought new insights, showing the inducibility and pathogen-specificity of the immune response, there is still much to be discovered about the exact mechanisms underlying resistance to infection. in thi ...201020149819
distribution of virulence factors and molecular fingerprinting of aeromonas species isolates from water and clinical samples: suggestive evidence of water-to-human transmission.a total of 227 isolates of aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the united states and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. these isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the a. hydr ...201020154106
rainwater harvesting: quality assessment and utilization in the netherlands.the use of roof-collected rainwater as a freely available and sustainable alternative to drinking water produced by drinking water companies increases worldwide. initially, rainwater is free of microbial contamination, but it may become contaminated by animals and humans or, alternatively, human pathogens may grow in stored rainwater resulting in a significant human health risk from infectious diseases. this three-year study demonstrated that rainwater stored in different reservoirs in the nethe ...201020154386
phytotherapy of ulcerative dermatitis induced by aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish ( carassius auratus ).goldfish ( carassius auratus ) weighing 13 +/- 2 g were administered intramuscularly a sublethal dose (1.8 x 10 3 cfu/ml) of aeromonas hydrophila to induce ulcerative dermatitis. on day 3 and day 6 after infection the fish were dip-treated (for 5 min/day) with a tri-herbal concoction of curcuma longa, ocimum sanctum and azadirachta indica (1%). the ld 50 value was recorded at a concentration of 2.3 x 10 4 between 30 and 36 days after infection. in the infected untreated group the cumulative mort ...201020159736
proteome changes of caenorhabditis elegans upon a staphylococcus aureus infection.the success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. the aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach.201020163716
accuracy of 6 commercial systems for identifying clinical aeromonas isolates.we compared the accuracy of 6 commercial systems for aeromonas identification by testing 87 clinical isolates in routine conditions, using partial rpob gene sequencing as the reference standard. the systems were api-20e, api-32gn, the id-gn card with the vitek2 system (biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france), the identification portion of the nfc47 panel (microscan walk/away system; siemens healthcare, sacramento, ca), id69 (phoenix system; bd diagnostic systems, sparks, md), and gn2 microplates (om ...201020167449
quinolone-resistant aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a capd patient.peritonitis is a major cause of morbidity in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). aeromonas hydrophila is a rare cause of peritonitis in patients on capd. we herewith report a 44-year-old female patient on capd with aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis. peritoneal fluid grew aeromonas hydrophila. the patient reported that she had accidentally dropped her peritoneal dialysis catheter into the toilet. susceptibility testing revealed that it is susceptible to ceftazidime, but resistant to ...201020178725
concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific dna vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.vaccines are commonly used in salmonid aquaculture as a method of disease prevention. although there is a substantial amount of published research regarding the immunological and physiological effects following the injection of different polyvalent vaccines and dna vaccines, there are no published reports examining the physiological and immunological effects of concurrent vaccine injection, which is the situation encountered in aquaculture. using key immunological parameters such as lysozyme act ...201020045062
full resistance and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from an outbreak. 201020047915
lysozyme inhibitor conferring bacterial tolerance to invertebrate type lysozyme.invertebrate (i-) type lysozymes, like all other known lysozymes, are dedicated to the hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, thereby contributing to the innate immune system and/or digestive system of invertebrate organisms. bacteria on the other hand have developed several protective strategies against lysozymes, including the production of periplasmic and/or membrane-bound lysozyme inhibitors. the latter have until now only been described for chicken (c-) type lys ...201020049505
rapid identification and characterization of vibrio species using whole-cell maldi-tof mass spectrometry.vibrio identification by means of traditional microbiological methods is time consuming because of the many biochemical tests that have to be performed to distinguish closely related species. this work aimed at evaluating the use of maldi-tof mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of vibrio (v.) spp. as an advantageous application to rapidly discriminate the most important vibrio spp. and distinguish vibrio spp. from closely related bacterial species like photobacterium damselae and grim ...201020059616
diversity of extracellular proteases among aeromonas determined by zymogram analysis.the current research was aimed at comparing extracellular proteolytic activities and zymogram profiles among aeromonas spp.201020059617
in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas hydrophila in artificially infected cyprinus carpio l.this study investigated the possible in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and a. hydrophila inhabiting two different organs of cyprinus carpio l. to distinguish transconjugants from naturally occurring antibiotic resistant bacteria, twelve luminescent transposon-tagged a. hydrophila strains using mini tn5luxcdabekm2 transposon were generated. in conjugal transfer experiments, fish were conditioned with the donor bacteria and subsequently immersed in water containing th ...201020059637
expression of immune-related genes in one phase of embryonic development of freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus.crayfish do not have larval stage as other crustacean such as penaeid shrimp they spawn their eggs until hatching and what hatches out from the eggs are miniature crayfish known as juveniles. in order to address the question whether immune genes are initially expressed during the embryo development in the egg stage, the expression of some immune-related genes: prophenoloxidase (propo), peroxinectin, hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf), plcrustin, astakine-1, 2 and transglutaminase ( ...201020060476
quorum sensing regulation in aeromonas hydrophila.we present detailed results on the c4-hsl-mediated quorum sensing (qs) regulatory system of the opportunistic gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. this bacterium contains a particularly simple qs system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. in a model system (i.e., the escherichia coli monitor strain mh205), the c4-hsl production of a. hydrophila is interrupted by fusion of gfp(asv). in the present in vitro study, we measure the response of the qs regulatory ahyri locus in th ...201020064524
the genus aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.over the past decade, the genus aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. in parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, a. hydrophila atcc 7966, has been sequenced. in addition to established disease associations, aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with na ...201020065325
identification and expression analysis of the g-type and c-type lysozymes in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus.lysozyme is an important molecule of innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infections. we identified two genes encoding g-type and c-type lysozymes from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus by the race method. the deduced amino acids of both lysozymes possessed typical structural residues and conserved catalytic sites similar to their counterparts across the species. in contrast, there was only 8.6% similarity of amino acid sequence between these two lysozymes. phylogenetic analy ...201020034515
biosorption of lead using immobilized aeromonas hydrophila biomass in up flow column system: factorial design for process optimization.free and immobilized biomass of aeromonas hydrophila has been utilized for the removal of pb(ii) from aqueous solution. fitness of langmuir sorption model to the sorption data indicated the sorption was monolayer and uptake capacity of biomass was 163.9 and 138.88 mg/g for the free and immobilized biomass respectively. 85.38% pb(ii) removal was achieved at bed height of 19 cm and flow rate of 2 ml/min and bdst model was in a good agreement with the experimental results (r(2)>0.997). an attempt h ...201020036460
simultaneous differential detection of human pathogenic and nonpathogenic vibrio species using a multiplex pcr based on gyrb and pnta genes.to develop a multiplex pcr targeting the gyrb and pnta genes for vibrio species differentiation.201019891709
growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.this paper reports the effects of changing ph (5-7) and temperature (t, 40-60 degrees c) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (som) in wastewater from food waste recycling (fwr) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at ph 5.7 and t = 44.5 degrees c. changes in short-chain volatile organic acid profiles and in acidogenic ...201019894044
genetic insertions and diversification of the polb-type dna polymerase (gp43) of t4-related phages.in escherichia coli phage t4 and many of its phylogenetic relatives, gene 43 consists of a single cistron that encodes a polb family (polb-type) dna polymerase. we describe the divergence of this phage gene and its protein product (gp43) (gene product 43) among 26 phylogenetic relatives of t4 and discuss our observations in the context of diversity among the widely distributed polb enzymes in nature. in two t4 relatives that grow in aeromonas salmonicida phages 44rr and 25, gene 43 is fragmented ...201019896487
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
aeromonas caviae cb101 contains four chitinases encoded by a single gene chi1.aeromonas caviae cb101 secretes four chitinases (around 92, 82, 70, and 55 kda) into the culture supernatant. a chitinase gene chi1 (92 kda) was previously studied. to identify the genes encoding the remaining three chitinases, a cosmid library of cb101 was constructed to screen for putative chitinase genes. nine cosmid clones were shown to contain a chitinase gene on chitin plates. surprisingly, all the positive clones contained chi1. in parallel, we purified the 55-kda chitinase (chi55) from t ...201019960373
glycan flexibility: insights into nanosecond dynamics from a microsecond molecular dynamics simulation explaining an unusual nuclear overhauser effect.an atomistic all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the trisaccharide beta-d-manpnac-(1-->4)[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-l-rhap-ome with explicit solvent molecules has been carried out. the trisaccharide represents a model for the branching region of the o-chain polysaccharide of a strain from aeromonas salmonicida. the extensive md simulations having a 1-micros duration revealed a conformational dynamics process on the nanosecond time scale, that is, a 'time window' not extensively investiga ...201019962132
the 2dx robot: a membrane protein 2d crystallization swiss army knife.among the state-of-the-art techniques that provide experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins, electron crystallography, atomic force microscopy and solid state nmr make use of two-dimensional crystals. we present a cyclodextrin-driven method for detergent removal implemented in a fully automated robot. the kinetics of the reconstitution processes is precisely controlled, because the detergent complexation by cyclodextrin is of stoichiometric nature. the method requires small ...201019963066
the reference strain aeromonas hydrophicla cip 57.50 should be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50.the use of reference strains is a critical element for the quality control of different assays, from the development of molecular methods to the evaluation of antimicrobial activities. most of the strains used in these assays are not type strains and some of them are cited erroneously because of subsequent reclassifications and descriptions of novel species. in this study, we propose that the reference strain aeromonas hydrophila cip 57.50 be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50 based ...201019965992
identification of a novel allele of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (pparg) and its association with resistance to aeromonas salmonicida in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).bacterial and viral diseases are major problems in atlantic salmon aquaculture, but may be challenged through selection of brood stock with enhanced survival to diseases. today's selection strategy is based on controlled challenge tests using siblings of the breeding candidates, and is thus indirect. direct trait records on breeding candidates can potentially be provided through identification of genetic variation linked to the susceptibility to the disease. peroxisome proliferator-activated rec ...201020004720
proposal to assign aeromonas diversa sp. nov. as a novel species designation for aeromonas group 501.the aeromonas group 501, also named aeromonas sp. hg13, is taxonomically close to a. schubertii. results obtained in previous studies, including dna-dna hybridization and dna fingerprinting, suggest that aeromonas group 501 could constitute a different aeromonas species. in this work we have performed a polyphasic study with the two strains comprising the aeromonas sp. hg13 in order to propose a formal species name. they could be differentiated from a. schubertii by the indole and lysine decarbo ...201020005654
immune response and expression analysis of cathepsin k in goldfish during aeromonas hydrophila infection.the innate immunity and expression profiles of cathepsins d were determined in the goldfish (carassius auratus) tissues after challenge with a fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. the innate immunity of reactive oxygen species (ros) and reactive nitrogen species (rns) were determined by peripheral blood leucocytes. blood and tissue samples of the muscle, gills, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine were sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection for cathepsin d expression by semi-quantitati ...201020025977
a novel multivalent vaccine based on secretary antigen-delivery induces protective immunity against vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas hydrophila.in our previous work, four secretory antigen-delivery systems based on different signal peptides (sps) (sp(hlya), sp(rtxa), sp(vah3) and sp(empa)) have been successfully established in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. to investigate the potential application of the antigen-delivery systems in v. anguillarum multivalent vector vaccine, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, as a putative protective antigen, was fused to the four delivery systems, ...201020026209
aeromonas septicemia after medicinal leech use following replantation of severed digits.medicinal leeches are used to control venous congestion. aeromonas in the leech gut are essential for digestion of blood. this case report describes a patient who had aeromonas bacteremia develop after leeching. he had an injury to his hand that required replantation of his thumb. following the surgery, leech therapy was started with ampicillin-sulbactam prophylaxis. sepsis developed. blood cultures were positive for aeromonas that were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam. the antibiotic was chang ...201019940254
herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish against aeromonas hydrophila.goldfish, carassius auratus (47 + or - 3 g, n = 300) were inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). on the 6th day of post-infection the fishes were divided into i) control, without infection fed with normal diet (c), ii) infected fish, fed with normal diet (iu), and infected fishes treated with different doses of iii) 100 mg kg(-1), iv) 200 mg kg(-1), iv) 400 mg kg(-1) and vi) 800 mg kg(-1) mixed herbal extracts supplementation diets. hematolog ...201019941960
identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolated from stool samples of brazilian subjects with diarrhoea and healthy controls. 201019942692
molecular cloning and expression of two hsp70 genes in the wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala yih).two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cdna) clones encoding heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were isolated from the liver of wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala y.) using rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). they were named ma-hsc70 and ma-hsp70, respectively. the cdnas were 2336 and 2224 bp in length [not including poly (a)] and contained 1950 and 1932 bp open reading frames (orfs), respectively. the orfs encoded proteins of 649 and ...201019944170
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