TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
use of garlic, allium sativum, to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).garlic, allium sativum, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g garlic per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 4% compared with the controls (88%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was stimulation of the number of erythrocytes and leuco ...200919843196
use of dietary ginger, zingiber officinale roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).ginger, zingiber officinale, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at 0.5 g ginger per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 0% compared with the controls (64%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was proliferation in the number of neutrophils, macrophages and lym ...200919843197
prevalence of genes encoding the type three secretion system and the effectors aext and aexu in the aeromonas veronii group.the prevalence of important virulence factors, the type iii secretion system (t3ss) and two t3ss-dependent toxins, aext and aexu, was evaluated in the aeromonas veronii group (avg). members of the avg have a broad host range, including vertebrates and invertebrates, and form a variety of associations, spanning from pathogenic to mutualistic. our avg strain collection consists of human, duck, eel, and leech isolates. these isolates were examined for the presence of the t3ss, aext, and aexu throug ...200919534604
tri-trophic linkages in disease: pathogen transmission to rainbow trout through stonefly prey.relationships between macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in aquatic environments are only poorly understood despite the fact that many aquatic macroinvertebrates feed on microbial biofilms during some life stage. better understanding of trophic interactions between microbial biofilms, macroinvertebrates, and fish may also help control fish diseases and loss of natural resources. it has also been suggested that pollution, habitat fragmentation, and poor water quality may contribute to increase ...200919689880
characterization of electrochemical activity of a strain iso2-3 phylogenetically related to aeromonas sp. isolated from a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.the microbial communities associated with electrodes in closed and open circuit microbial fuel cells (mfcs) fed with glucose were analyzed by 16s rrna approach and compared. the comparison revealed that bacteria affiliated with the aeromonas sp. within the gammaproteobacteria constituted the major population in the closed circuit mfc (harvesting electricity) and considered to play important roles in current generation. we, therefore, attempted to isolate the dominant bacteria from the anode biof ...200919575435
identification and pathogenicity to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), of some aeromonads.twelve strains of fish pathogenic aeromonads were identified by 16s rrna sequencing as aeromonas bestiarum, a. hydrophila, a. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis, a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a. sobria biovar sobria and a. veronii biovar sobria. following intramuscular injection, a. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis caused dark liquefying, raised furuncle-like lesions in rainbow trout within 48 h. extracellular products of all cultures contained gelatinase and lecithinase, and most revealed lipase. cong ...200919602093
biopreservation of refrigerated and vacuum-packed dicentrarchus labrax by lactic acid bacteria.two lactic acid bacteria (lab) were selected from 100 lab isolated from various sea products to examine their use in dicentrarchus labrax preservation. the isolates, tentatively named strain nr 3 and 7, were identified as lactobacillus plantarum and l. pentosus, respectively. they showed antagonistic activity against psychrotroph, pathogenic, and coliform bacteria. the antagonistic activity of strain 3 was suggested to be by bacteriocins since activity was abolished by protease treatment, while ...200919723220
inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular products of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas determine whether the extracellular products (ecps) from aeromonas hydrophila, a frog bacterial pathogen that is resistant to skin antimicrobial peptides of three different frog species xenopus laevis, litoria aurea and litoria raniformis, can modulate the activity of these peptides.200919728406
n-acylhomoserine lactones involved in quorum sensing control the type vi secretion system, biofilm formation, protease production, and in vivo virulence in a clinical isolate of aeromonas this study, we delineated the role of n-acylhomoserine lactone(s) (ahls)-mediated quorum sensing (qs) in the virulence of diarrhoeal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila by generating a double knockout delta ahyri mutant. protease production was substantially reduced in the delta ahyri mutant when compared with that in the wild-type (wt) strain. importantly, based on western blot analysis, the delta ahyri mutant was unable to secrete type vi secretion system (t6ss)-associated effectors, namely ...200919729404
dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a study was conducted to investigate the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (mos) on the gut microbiota and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout under commercial farming conditions. juvenile (mean initial bw 38.2 +/- 1.7 g) and subadult (111.7 +/- 11.6 g) trout were fed 2 dietary treatments for 111 and 58 d, respectively. the control treatment consisted of a standard commercial diet, and the mos treatment consisted of the control diet supplemented with 0.2% mos. morphology of the anterior and th ...200919617514
application of an immunoaffinity-based preconcentration method for mass spectrometric analysis of the o-chain polysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida from in vitro- and in vivo-grown this study, application of magnetic beads (dynabeads) coated with aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide-specific polyclonal antisera to ms-based characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides has been evaluated. the results showed that the affinity-based preconcentration strategy resulted in at least a 100-fold increase in the detection of sensitivity, affording direct capillary electrophoresis (ce)-ms analysis of a. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide o-chain polysaccharide from in vitro-cu ...200919456871
divergent evolution and purifying selection of the flaa gene sequences in aeromonas.the bacterial flagellum is the most important organelle of motility in bacteria and plays a key role in many bacterial lifestyles, including virulence. the flagellum also provides a paradigm of how hierarchical gene regulation, intricate protein-protein interactions and controlled protein secretion can result in the assembly of a complex multi-protein structure tightly orchestrated in time and space. as if to stress its importance, plants and animals produce receptors specifically dedicated to t ...200919622168
inhibition of gamma-thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation by histone h1subtypes and h1.3 fragments.human platelets are differentially activated by varying concentrations of alpha-thrombin or by beta- and gamma-thrombin via three thrombin receptors, par-1, par-4 and is likely that the development of a normal or abnormal hemostatic event in humans is dictated, in part, by the selective activation of these receptors. the ability to differentially inhibit these thrombin receptors could, therefore, have clinical significance. we have previously demonstrated that histone h1 selectively ...200919637099
integration of microfiltration and anion-exchange nanoparticles-based magnetic separation with maldi mass spectrometry for bacterial analysis.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) is powerful in characterizing and identifying bacterial isolates. however, sufficient quantities of bacterial cells are required for generating maldi mass spectra and a procedure to isolate and enrich target bacteria from sample matrix prior to maldi-ms analysis is often necessary. in this paper, anion-exchange superparamagnetic nanoparticles (nps), i.e., fluidmag-deae and fluidmag-q, were employed to capture aeromonas, sal ...200919782231
a bifunctional enzyme in a single gene catalyzes the incorporation of glcn into the aeromonas core lipopolysaccharide.the core lipopolysaccharide (lps) of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 and aeromonas salmonicida a450 is characterized by the presence of the pentasaccharide alpha-d-glcn-(1-->7)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->2)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->3)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->5)-alpha-kdo. previously it has been suggested that the waha protein is involved in the incorporation of glcn residue to outer core lps. the waha protein contains two domains: a glycosyltransferase and a carbohydrate esterase. in this work we demonstrate that the in ...200919805547
mutations in the aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type iii secretion system affect atlantic salmon leucocyte activation and downstream immune responses.deletion mutants of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were used to determine the effect of the type three secretion system (ttss) on atlantic salmon anterior head kidney leucocytes (ahkl). one strain had a deletion in the outer membrane pore gene, ascc; and the other in three effector genes: aopo, aoph and aext (we call this strain deltaaop3). host cell invasion success and 24h survival were depressed in deltaascc, as was 24h survival of deltaaop3, when compared to the wild type strain. c ...200919751835
a novel method for the diagnosis of drowning by detection of aeromonas sobria with pcr method.the acid digestion method has been widely used for the diagnosis of death by drowning, but it is not always sensitive. however, there has been no definitive method to replace acid digestion until now. we speculate that bacteria are more useful markers than plankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. in this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific dna fragments of aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using pcr. the ...200919766051
typing of clinical and environmental strains of aeromonas spp. using two pcr based methods and whole cell protein analysis.two pcr based typing methods i.e. random amplified polymorphic dna analysis (rapd) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (eric)-pcr were evaluated for typing of 42 aeromonas isolates from clinical and environmental sources and whole cell protein (wcp) profiles were analyzed. both rapd and eric-pcr showed a high level of genetic diversity. numerical index of the discriminatory (d) values were 0.94 and 0.96 (>0.90) for rapd and eric-pcr, respectively. no correlation in bandi ...200919622374
in vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections at a medical center in taiwan: results of the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) 2002-2006.the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) was initiated to monitor the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (gnb) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (iai). this report summarizes the smart data from 1 of the study centers from 2002 to 2006.200919949755
inhibition by chestnut honey of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in erwinia carotovora, yersinia enterocolitica, and aeromonas hydrophila.bacteria are able to communicate and coordinate certain processes using small secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. this phenomenon, known as "quorum sensing" (qs), may be essential for the synchronization of virulence factors as well as biofilm development. the interruption of bacterial qs is acknowledged to attenuate virulence and considered to be a potential new therapy to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (ahls) have been identified as t ...200919950997
[development of taqman real-time pcr in detection of aeromonas hydrophila].to develop a taqman real-time pcr for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila.200919954074
the carboxy-terminal tail of aeromonas sobria serine protease is associated with the chaperone.asp is the only bacterial protease in the kexin group of the subtilisin family. previous studies have revealed that the orf2 protein encoded at the 3' end of the asp operon is required for asp to change from a nascent form into an active form in the periplasm. however, the mechanism by which orf2 makes contact and interacts with asp in the maturation process remains unknown. the present study examined the effect of mutations in the carboxy-terminal region of asp on the asp maturation process. bo ...200919954452
decolorization of anthraquinone vat blue 4 by the free cells of an autochthonous bacterium, bacillus subtilis.uncontaminated soil, vat blue 4 contaminated soil and vat blue 4 effluent were screened for heterotrophic bacterial population and the bacterial density were found to be 19.3 x 10(4) colony forming units (cfu)/gm, 5.5 x 10(4) cfu/gm and 1.1 x 10(4) cfu/ml respectively. student's 't' test analysis affirmed that significant variation prevailed between the three set of 't' tests conducted (p<0.001 to 0.002). the heterotrophic bacterial population of dye contaminated soil comprised of 32.5% of pseud ...200919955647
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro gene transfer in bacteria isolated from the ulcers of eus-affected fish in india.the occurrence of drug resistance and plasmid-mediated transferability was investigated in 15 aeromonas isolates collected from the ulcers of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected fishes katla (catla catla), mrigel (cirrhinus mrigala) and punti (puntius sp.).200919709369
detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in mexico.we determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. species were identified as a. caviae, a. hydrophila, a. veronii and a. media using pcr-rflp of the 16s rdna. selected isolates were further characterized by eric-pcr. resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the kirby-ba ...200919810047
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis in a preterm neonate. 200919887702
the dc-sign of zebrafish: insights into the existence of a cd209 homologue in a lower vertebrate and its involvement in adaptive immunity.dendritic cell-specific icam-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign/cd209) has become hot topic in recent studies because of its important roles in immune responses and immune escape. cd209 has been well characterized in humans and several other mammals, but little documentation exists about it in lower vertebrates. this is the first report on the identification and functional characterization of a fish dc-sign/cd209 molecule. the zebrafish dc-sign/cd209 cdna translates into 343 aa organized into three ...200919890038
environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in fish from the zambezi floodplains, zambia.this study was conducted to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in fish in the zambezi floodplains. eus is a fish disease that causes economic loses to the fishing industry. streambed colour in affected water was rusty-, reddish- or yellowish- brown and ph 4.5-6.0 while ph of non affected water was 7.2. the rusty-brown precipitate on fish gills was positive for prussian blue iron stain. therefore, predisposing factors for eus in the za ...200919565173
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of asap1_e294a and asap1_e294q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase asap1 from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes.two mutants of the toxic extracellular zinc endopeptidase asap1 (asap1_e294q and asap1_e294a) of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes were expressed in escherichia coli and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. crystals were obtained using several precipitants and different protein concentrations. protein crystals were found in a monoclinic (c2) as well as an orthorhombic (p2(1)2(1)2(1)) space group. the crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group c2 had unit-cell parameters a = ...200919574642
atypical furunculosis vaccines for atlantic cod gadhus morhua: impact of reattached aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein on vaccine efficacy.atypical furunculosis caused by atypical aeromonas salmonicida bacteria is reported as an increasing problem in farmed atlantic cod gadus morhua in norway. at present, furunculosis vaccines adapted for cod or other marine fish species are not available. to identify bacterial components important for inducing protection in cod, we compared oil-adjuvanted vaccines based on a. salmonicida isolates phenotypically differing in their major cell surface constituents, such as the a-layer protein and lip ...200919694171
outbreaks of an ulcerative and haemorrhagic disease in arctic char salvelinus alpinus caused by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia.arctic char salvelinus alpinus farmed in different places in austria and free of the viral diseases viral haemorrhagic septcaemia (vhs), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (ihn) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (ipn) experienced disease and mortality. diseased fish showed skin ulceration and pathological signs of sepsis. aeromonas sp. was isolated as pure culture from the kidney of freshly euthanized diseased fish. three independent isolates from outbreaks that occurred on 2 of the affected fa ...200919899353
assessment of microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its public health assess the microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its impact on public health.200919880150
magnetic circular dichroism study of a dicobalt(ii) complex with mixed 5- and 6-coordination: a spectroscopic model for dicobalt(ii) hydrolases.the magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) study of [co(2)(mu-oh)(mu-ph(4)dba)(tmeda)(2)(otf)], in which ph(4)dba is the dinucleating bis(carboxylate) ligand dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(diphenylacetate) and tmeda is n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine, is presented. this complex serves as an excellent spectroscopic model for a number of dicobalt(ii) enzymes and proteins that have both the mu-hydroxo, mu-carboxylato bridging and asymmetric 6- and 5-coordination. the low-temperature mcd spectrum of the model ...200919691327
transcription factor gata-3 in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): molecular characterization, promoter activity and expression analysis.gata-3 is a t cell-specific transcription factor and is essential for the development of the t cell lineage and differentiation of t helper type 2 cells. we have identified and characterized the full-length atlantic salmon gata-3 cdna (3074bp), having two zinc finger domains which are fully conserved within teleosts and higher vertebrates. rt-pcr analysis revealed that the atlantic salmon gata-3 (asgata-3) is strongly expressed in gills, thymus, and brain. moreover, the involvement of gata-3 in ...200919576635
in vivo modulation of immune response and antioxidant defense in atlantic cod, gadus morhua following oral administration of oxolinic acid and florfenicol.oxolinic acid and florfenicol are the commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in atlantic cod, gadus morhua. the changes in selected innate humoral immune response of the fish, bacterial proliferation in serum and transcriptional activity of selected immune and antioxidant defense-related genes following oral administration of these antimicrobial compounds were evaluated. juvenile cod (75-100 g) were fed commercial feed coated with either florfenicol (10 mg kg(-1) fish, ...200919596082
prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarroeal human stools from vhembe district, south the present study, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections in relation to diarrhoea in vhembe district and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial pathogens was conducted. stool samples were collected from 528 patients attending major public hospitals and 295 children attending two public primary schools and were analyzed by standard microbiological and parasitological techniques. entamoeba histolytica/e. dispar (34.2%) and cryptospori ...200920099757
[isolation and identification of pathogenic aeromonas veronii isolated from infected siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii)].our study aimed at searching for the pathogenic factor causing siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii) disease.200920069873
beta-lactam resistance in variants of aeromonas spp. selected in vitro under antibiotic pressure. 200920071297
development of an inhibitive enzyme assay for this work the development of an inhibitive assay for copper using the molybdenum-reducing enzyme assay is presented. the enzyme is assayed using 12-molybdophosphoric acid at ph 5.0 as an electron acceptor substrate and nadh as the electron donor substrate. the enzyme converts the yellowish solution into a deep blue solution. the assay is based on the ability of copper to inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme from the molybdate-reducing serratia sp. strain dry5. other heavy metals tested did ...200920112861
rosmarinus officinalis l.: chemical modifications of the essential oil and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was separated into its hydrocarbon and oxygenated fractions. the major compounds in the hydrocarbon fraction were alpha-pinene (44.2%), camphene (24.5%), and limonene (11.7%), while in the oxygenated fraction they were 1,8-cineole (37.6%), camphor (16.5%), and bornyl acetate (21.4%). the hydrocarbon fraction was submitted to a hydroformylation process and the antioxidant activity of the product was screened by the dpph and beta-carotene/linoleic acid tests. t ...200920120107
arsenic binding to iron(ii) minerals produced by an iron(iii)-reducing aeromonas strain isolated from paddy iron reducing bacterial strain was isolated from a paddy soil and identified as a member of the aeromonas group by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. when the cells were growing with dissolved fe(iii) as electron acceptor in the presence of as(v), fe(ii) minerals (siderite and vivianite) were formed and dissolved as was removed efficiently from solution. when the cells were growing with the fe(iii) hydroxide mineral (ferrihydrite) as electron acceptor in the presence of as(v), ferrihydrite was ...200919572768
viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (marb) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (ttse) used for irrigation, was investigated at the sultan qaboos university sewage treatment plant (stp). this water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout oman and the gulf region. samples of ttse were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the stp. viable ba ...200919934516
comparison of the biolog omnilog identification system and 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing for accuracy in identification of atypical bacteria of clinical origin.the biolog omnilog identification system (biolog) and the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequencing methods were compared to conventional microbiological methods and evaluated for accuracy of bacterial identification. these methods were evaluated using 159 clinical isolates. each isolate was initially identified by conventional biochemical tests and morphological characteristics and subsequently placed into one of seven categories: aerobic actinomycetes, bacillus, coryneforms, fastidious gram-neg ...200919837117
occurrence of motile aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in león (nw of spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of aeromonas spp. samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility ...200919720415
comparative immunological analysis of innate immunity activation after oral administration of wheat fermented extract to teleost fish.intradermal or oral administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from pantoea agglomerans (ip-pa1) has shown prophylactic and antitumor effects without serious side-effects. while it is known that tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha produced by activated macrophages plays an important role in the expression mechanism following intradermal administration, details of the mechanism after oral administration remain unclear. in this study, the activation of innate immunity using fish as an animal model ...200920032450
[real-time pcr in rapid diagnosis of aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].we report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. we suspected vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. no microbe had been detected at death. we extracted dna from a blood culture bottle. sybr green i real-time pcr was conducted but could not detect v. vulnificus vvh in the dna sample. aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized ...200920034324
evaluation of dairy-yeast prebiotic supplementation in the diet of juvenile goldfish in the presence or absence of phytoplankton and zooplankton.prebiotics recently have been shown to increase immune responses and disease resistance in certain fish species; therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the commercially available dairy-yeast prebiotic, grobiotic-a, for use with juvenile goldfish carassius auratus. the study consisted of two 10-week feeding trials in which juvenile goldfish were fed practical diets that were either unsupplemented or supplemented with the dairy-yeast prebiotic at 2% by dry weight. juvenile fish wer ...200920043400
virulence factor-activity relationships (vfar) with specific emphasis on aeromonas species (spp.).the human population most commonly inflicted with aeromonas infection includes young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. importantly, the isolation rate of aeromonas species from children suffering from diarrhea is similar in developing and developed countries. it is becoming clear that only a small subset of aeromonas species belonging to a particular hybridization group causes disease in humans. human infections with this pathogen occur by consuming contaminated food and w ...200919717930
hepatic gene expression profiling reveals protective responses in atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis.furunculosis, a disease caused with gram negative bacteria aeromonas salmonicida produces heavy losses in aquaculture. vaccination against furunculosis reduces mortality of atlantic salmon but fails to eradicate infection. factors that determine high individual variation of vaccination efficiency remain unknown. we used gene expression analyses to search for the correlates of vaccine protection against furunculosis in atlantic salmon.200919878563
antimicrobial therapy for water-associated wound infections in a disaster setting: gram-negative bacilli in an aquatic environment and lessons from banda members of the japan disaster relief (jdr) team in banda aceh, three of the authors treated 1,891 patients following the tsunami of 2004. of the 367 cases with traumatic injuries, 216 cases required antimicrobial therapy. the medical services were continued by the japan self-defense (jsd) medical team until mid-march 2005. of the 216 cases initially treated by jdr, 54 required prolonged antimicrobial therapy for persistent symptoms despite repeated debridement. the aim of this study is to rec ...200919618353
effect of chemotherapy, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immunity of goldfish infected with aeromonas hydrophila.we report the effect of various chemicals, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, superoxide anion production of blood leukocytes, complement activity and plasma lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish carassius auratus (23 +/- 2 g) against aeromonas hydrophila on days 15 and 30 post-infection. in infected fish, the administration of diets supplemented with either probiotics, tri-herbal extract or azadirachtin for 30 d significantly ...200920183964
[microbial load of reprocessable trocars after gynecological videolaparoscopy].to identify the microbial charge present in reusable trocars used in gynecological laparoscopies.200920101372
clinical relevance of the recently described species aeromonas aquariorum.twenty-two human extraintestinal isolates (11 from blood) and three isolates recovered from patients with diarrhea were genetically characterized as aeromonas aquariorum, a novel species known only from ornamental fish. the isolates proved to bear a considerable number of virulence genes, and all were resistant to amoxicillin (amoxicilline), cephalothin (cefalotin), and cefoxitin. biochemical differentiation from the most relevant clinical species is provided.200919741075
identification, biosynthesis, and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and this study, we found that ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase 1 (phac1(ps)) from pseudomonas sp. 61-3 synthesized a pha copolymer containing a 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and small amounts of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) from fructose as a sole carbon source. 3h4mv is a monomer unit that has hitherto not been reported as a naturally occurring component of phas. to increase the 3h4mv fraction in pha copolymers, the ...200919681605
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of gale encoding udp-galactose 4-epimerase of aeromonas hydrophila.a. hydrophila, a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium present in aquatic environments, has been implicated in illness in humans, fish and amphibians. lipopolysaccharides (lps), a surface component of the outer membrane, are one of the main virulent factors of gram-negative bacteria. udp-galactose 4-epimerase (gale) catalyses the last step in the leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and provides precursor for the biosynthesis of extracellular lps and capsule. due to its key role in lps biosynthes ...200920461162
thiaminase activity of crucian carp carassius carassius injected with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.dietary thiaminase i is a cause of thiamine deficiency in animals. the physiological significance of thiaminase in the organisms containing this enzyme is not known, nor are the factors causing variation in their thiaminase activity. tests were performed to evaluate the effect a pathogen might have on thiaminase activity in fish, when analyzed both with a cosubstrate added (cata tests) and no cosubstrate added (ncata tests). pyridine is known as a cosubstrate specific for thiaminase i activity t ...200920218496
clinical presentations, prognostic factors, and mortality in patients with aeromonas sobria complex bacteremia in a teaching hospital: a 5-year experience.bacteremia due to aeromonas sobria complex is an uncommon clinical presentation, associated with a high mortality rate. this retrospective study reviewed the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of a. sobria complex bacteremia.200920422137
high prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport.200920027306
expression, purification and molecular characterization of elastase from aeromonas hydrophila strain j-1.the enzyme elastase is an important virulent factor of the opportunistic pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. to know better about the molecular characterization of this enzyme, we purified the elatase and investigated its property and activity.200920222447
replication of legionella pneumophila in biofilms of water distribution pipes.biofilms similar to those present in water distribution pipes of anthropogenic aquatic systems were simulated in a rotating annular reactor using a non-legionella community consisting of aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, flavobacterium breve and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the impact of this community and acanthamoeba castellanii on the replication of legionella pneumophila was investigated. despite the presence of 10(7) non-legionella bacteria, culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction ...200917644359
aetiology of diarrhoea among persons with hiv and their family members in rural uganda: a community-based identify pathogens associated with diarrhoea in hiv-infected persons and their hiv-uninfected family members.200921644412
factors affecting preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans to bacterial enhance our understanding of the factors affecting feeding selectivity of bacterivorous protists in aquatic systems, we examined the preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans towards three bacterial prey taxa, pseudomonas luteola, serratia rubidaea, and aeromonas hydrophila. potential factors influencing the predator-prey contact rate included the previous feeding history of the ciliate and physiological state of bacteria. preference indexes were obtained from multiple- ...200921462552
genome sequence of the emerging pathogen aeromonas caviae.aeromonas caviae is a gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. here we present the first genome sequence of an a. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.201021183677
development and experimental validation of a 20k atlantic cod (gadus morhua) oligonucleotide microarray based on a collection of over 150,000 ests.the collapse of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. in order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. the atlantic cod genomics and broodstock development project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cdna libraries representing various tissues, development ...201021127932
diversity of clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases in aeromonas spp. from the seine river, paris, france.environmental aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the seine river, in paris, france, in november 2009. selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16s rrna and rpob genes. pcr and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (esbl) genes were identified in 71% of the aeromon ...201021149627
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201021154843
aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.members of the genus aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. this review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. antimicrobial resistance and therap ...201021163298
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in siliguri city of west bengal, india.sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in siliguri cityof west bengal, india. in regular surveys undertaken during june to august 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (qim) was applied to assess its quality raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samp ...201021387907
influence of alginic acid and fucoidan on the immune responses of head kidney leukocytes in cod.the present study investigated the immunomodulatory activities of alginic acid and fucoidan, both derived from brown seaweeds, on selected cellular immune responses and antibacterial activity of head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod, gadus morhua. primary cultures of hk leukocytes were incubated with either 10 or 100 μg ml(-1) of the substances and the effects on respiratory burst, cellular proliferation, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and cellular myeloperoxidase were measured at 3- and 24 ...201021191809
maturation pathway of metalloprotease produced by aeromonas sobria.previously, we cloned the metalloprotease gene of aeromonas sobria (amp) and determined its nucleotide sequence (genbank accession number dq784565). the protease is composed of 591 amino acid residues. in this study, we purified the mature metalloprotease from the culture supernatant of a. sobria and determined the amino terminal sequence and molecular size of amp. in addition, we examined the production of amp diachronically and found that amp emerges outside of the cell as an intermediate comp ...201021118297
differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.the proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima) were evaluated. additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. for this purpose, a total of 144 pseudomonas spp. and 127 aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and cal ...201021339162
[comparasion of two methods for recovery of aeromonas spp. in feces from agar cin (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)]. 201021191564
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
differential regulation of caspase-1 activation via nlrp3/nlrc4 inflammasomes mediated by aerolysin and type iii secretion system during aeromonas veronii infection.aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that cause serious infectious disease in humans. such bacteria have been shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages, yet the host responses triggered by macrophage death are largely unknown. in this study, we demonstrate that the infection of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with aeromonas veronii biotype sobria triggers activation of caspase-1 with the ensuing release of il-1β and pyroptosis. caspase-1 activation in response to a. veronii in ...201021037094
clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of gram-negative bacterial spinal epidural abscess in adults.gram-negative (g(-)) bacterial spinal epidural abscess (sea) in adults is uncommon. of the 42 adult patients with bacterial sea admitted to the chang gung memorial hospital - kaohsiung, between 2003 and 2007, 12 with g(-) sea were included in this study. of these 12 patients, seven were men and five were women; their ages ranged between 17 years and 81 years (median=72.5 years, mean=62.5 years). the patients were admitted at different stages of symptom onset (four were in the acute stage and fou ...201021185728
effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. there is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. but problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clo ...201021186711
conventional and molecular methods to detect bacterial pathogens in detect aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio vulnificus in mussels and water samples from a farming area, conventional and molecular methods were applied to enrichment cultures.201021070267
biologic responses of bacteria communities living at the mucus secretion of common carp (cyprinus carpio) after exposure to the carbon nanomaterial fullerene (c(60)).bacteria communities living in mucus secretions of common carp cyprinus carpio (cyprinidae) were exposed to the organic nanomaterial fullerene (c(60)) to evaluate its potential bactericidal effects. end points analyzed were viability, growth, reactive oxygen species (ros) concentration, and total antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals. viability was not affected (p > 0.05), whereas growth was arrested (p < 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure to the three concentration of c(60) assayed (0.1, ...201021072630
mortality of centrarchid fishes in the potomac drainage: survey results and overview of potential contributing lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the south branch of the potomac river in 2002. since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the shenandoah and monocacy rivers. despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens aer ...201021192549
influence of microbial interactions and eps/polysaccharide composition on nutrient removal activity in biofilms formed by strains found in wastewater treatment systems.the study of biofilm function, structure and microbial interactions might help to improve our understanding of biofilm wastewater treatment processes. however, few reports specifically address the influence of interactions within multispecies biofilms on microbial activity and biofilm composition. thus, the relationship between biofilm formation, denitrification activity, phosphorus removal and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (eps), exopolysaccharides and the bacterial comm ...201020869860
isolation and characterization of bacteria from the gut of bombyx mori that degrade cellulose, xylan, pectin and starch and their impact on digestion.bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae) have been domesticated and widely used for silk production. it feeds on mulberry leaves. mulberry leaves are mainly composed of pectin, xylan, cellulose and starch. some of the digestive enzymes that degrade these carbohydrates might be produced by gut bacteria. eleven isolates were obtained from the digestive tract of b. mori, including the gram positive bacillus circulans and gram negative proteus vulgaris, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, citro ...201020874394
a lipase with broad temperature range from an alkaliphilic gamma-proteobacterium isolated in greenland.a gamma-proteobacterium related to the genera alteromonadales and pseudomonadales, isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in greenland, has been shown to produce a lipase active between 5 degrees c and 80 degrees c, with optimal activity at 55 degrees c and ph 8. pcr-based screening of genomic dna from the isolated bacterium, followed by genome walking, resulted in two complete open reading frames, which were predicted to encode a lipase and its helper protein, a lipase foldase. the amino ...201020718291
effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. the present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of a. hydrophila. exposure to arsenic (1 mg l(-1) and 2 mg l(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to ...201021074603
potential of the melanophore pigment response for detection of bacterial toxicity.chromatophore cells have been investigated as potential biodetectors for function-based detection of chemically and biologically toxic substances. oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) melanophores, a chromatophore cell type containing brown pigment, rapidly detect the salmonid pathogens aeromonas salmonicida, yersinia ruckeri, and flavobacterium psychrophilum and the human pathogen bacillus cereus.201020952639
gut microbial status induced by antibiotic growth promoter alters the prebiotic effects of dietary dvaqua® on aeromonas hydrophila-infected tilapia: production, intestinal bacterial community and non-specific immunity.the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether dietary antibiotic-induced changes in the fish intestinal microbiota altered host physiological responses to the infection with aeromonas hydrophila in hybrid tilapia (oreochromis niloticus ♀ × o. aureus ♂). after an 8-week induction period with an antibiotic-supplemented or antibiotic-non-supplemented diet, 160 hybrid tilapias in 16 tanks were each injected with phosphate buffered saline (pbs) or a. hydrophila at a dose of one-half of ...201021146333
molecular basis of bacterial defense against host lysozymes: x-ray structures of periplasmic lysozyme inhibitors plii and plic.lysozymes play a key role in the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan, a vital component of the bacterial cell wall. gram-negative bacteria produce various types of lysozyme inhibitors that allow them to survive the bactericidal action of lysozyme when their outer membrane is permeabilized. so far, three lysozyme inhibitor families have been described: the ivy (inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme) family, the mlic/plic (membrane-associated/periplasmic l ...201021146533
enhancement of protective immunity in european eel (anguilla anguilla) against aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria by a recombinant aeromonas outer membrane develop a vaccine, which can simultaneously prevent the diseases caused by various pathogenic bacteria in fish, we try to find a conserved outer membrane protein (omp) antigen from different bacterial pathogens. in this study, an omp fragment of 747 bp (named as omp-g), which was highly conserved in seven aeromonas omp sequences from the ncbi database, was amplified by pcr from one aeromonas sobria strain (b10) and two aeromonas hydrophila strains (b27 and b33) with the designed specific prim ...201021148192
an acute gastroenteritis outbreak of vibrio parahaemolyticus o4:k55 in nursing college, thailand.a cluster of acute gastroenteritis among nursing students was noticed on 13th september 2005. between 13th and 17th september 2005, a retrospective cohort study was then conducted to identify the most likely cause of gastroenteritis at a nursing college in bangkok, thailand. self-administered questionnaires, interviews, environmental investigations, and rectal swabs from all participants were carried out. in the investigation, 98.9% female nursing students were investigated and had completed the ...201020962724
microbial contamination of disinfectants used for intermittent self-catheterization.we investigated the microbial contamination of 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution used in catheter kits for intermittent self-catheterization. of 20 samples examined, 12 (60.0%) were contaminated with 8.8 x 10(2)-3.1 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml. the contaminants were pseudomonas fluorescens, burkholderia cepacia, and aeromonas spp. these results showed that 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution used for the lubrication/disinfection of catheters for self-catheterization is susceptible ...201020657069
the in vitro effect of bovine lactoferrin on the activity of organ leukocytes in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), european eel (anguilla anguilla) and wels catfish (silurus glanis).lactoferrin (lf) is a glycoprotein found in milk, neutrophil granules, secretions and selected organs of mammals. lactoferrin exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, immunoregulatory and other functions. although fish are devoid of this protein and its cell receptors, lf effect on the immune mechanisms of fish has been demonstrated. the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine lactoferrin, applied in vitro, on the activity of head kidney and spleen leukocytes in thr ...201021077435
the effects of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon retene on rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response.the objective of this study was to examine the immune toxicity of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) in rainbow trout. retene is a common alkyl pah associated with combustion of terrestrial plants or industrial effluents. rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 0, 1, or 10mg/kg of retene and sampled at 21d. within each retene treatment, co-injection of formalin-killed aeromonas salmonicida or a phosphate buffered ...201020810174
simple and direct detection of aeromonas hydrophila infection in the goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), by dot blotting using specific monoclonal antibodies.a combination of eight isolates of aeromonas hydrophila was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs). ten different groups of mabs specific to aeromonas were selected. the first five groups of mabs demonstrated high specificity and bound to only one or two isolates of a. hydrophila. the sixth and the seventh groups of mabs were a. hydrophila specific. they recognized seven of eight a. hydrophila isolates (ah1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8); however, the mab in the seventh group also showed cross-reactiv ...201021091724
lead distributions and risks in new orleans following hurricanes katrina and rita.during the last four years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding the effects that hurricanes katrina and rita had on contaminant distribution and redistribution in new orleans, louisiana, usa, and the surrounding gulf coast area. elevated concentrations were found for inorganic contaminants (including as, fe, pb, and v), several organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and volatiles) and high concentration of bioaerosols, particularly aeromonas and vibrio ...201020821590
acute phase response in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) with aeromonas hydrophila infection.chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) is an important culture reptile. however, little is known about its acute phase response (apr) caused by bacteria. serum amyloid a (saa) is a major acute phase protein (app). in this study, a turtle saa homologue was identified and described in reptiles. the full-length cdna of turtle saa was 554 bp and contained a 381 bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 127 aa. similar to other known saa genes, the turtle saa gene contained three ex ...201021095204
immobilization of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica on mg2+/al3+ layered double hydroxide particles.a novel biomaterial formed by the immobilization of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) on synthetic mg2+ and al3+ ion-containing layered double hydroxide (ldh) particles was prepared. immobilization of aap on the ldh particles in a buffered, aqueous mixture is rapid such that the maximum loading capacity, 1×10(-9) moles of aap/mg ldh, is achieved in a few minutes. x-ray powder diffraction of ldh samples before and after treatment with aap indicates that the enzyme does not inte ...201020825230
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: usefulness for taxonomy and epidemiology.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) mass spectrometry (ms) is a powerful tool for the species and subspecies classification of a broad spectrum of bacteria, including gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococcus, streptococcus and listeria, and gram-negative bacteria such as neisseria, salmonella, aeromonas, campylobacter and helicobacter. maldi-tof ms has also been used for the rapid identification and typing of potential bioterrorism agents, including coxiel ...201020825435
characterization and functional analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) interleukin-10.this is the first report of comprehensive functional analysis of an interleukin-10 in bony fish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish il-10 revealed the greatest mrna levels in the spleen tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes and granulocytes. the stimulation of cells with recombinant goldfish (rg) tnfα2 significantly reduced il-10 mrna levels in granulocytes and monocytes of the goldfish. to functionally assess the goldfish il-10, we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgil-10) ...201021111485
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