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interactions of streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase with a methionine product analogue: a structural study at 1.53 a resolution.sgap is an aminopeptidase present in the extracellular fluid of streptomyces griseus cultures. it is a double-zinc enzyme with a strong preference for large hydrophobic amino-terminus residues. it is a monomeric (30 kda) heat-stable enzyme, with a high and efficient catalytic activity modulated by calcium ions. the small size, high activity and heat stability make sgap a very attractive enzyme for various biotechnological applications. only one other related aminopeptidase (aeromonas proteolytic ...200010771423
neem (azadirachta indica) extract as an antibacterial agent against fish pathogenic bacteria.aquaneem, an emulsified product prepared from the neem (a. indica) kernel was tested against four pathogenic bacteria of fish (i.e. aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas fluorescens, escherichia coli and myxobacteria spp.) to test its efficacy as an antibacterial agent. growth inhibitory property of the product at 10, 15 and 20 ppm has been noticed and recorded. the percentage reduction of bacterial cell population was noted to be maximum on 9th day at 20 ppm concentration (i.e. 70.14%, 74.15% and 6 ...199910783742
molecular analysis of genetic differences between virulent and avirulent strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish.aeromonas hydrophila, a normal inhabitant of aquatic environments, is an opportunistic pathogen of a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. a. hydrophila ppd134/91 is defined as virulent whereas ppd35/85 is defined as avirulent on the basis of their different ld50 values in fish. suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) was used to identify genetic differences between these two strains. sixty-nine genomic regions of differences were absent in ppd35/85, and the dna seque ...200010784058
the pseudomonas group as an indicator of potential regrowth in water distribution systems.the regrowth of micro-organisms in the water distribution system is assisted by the presence of biodegradable organic matter (bdoc). the low concentration of available organic carbon in this type of water favours the growth of bacteria belonging to the pseudomonadaceae family, as this group can grow better at low concentrations of substrate than other bacteria also present in the distribution system. although the genus aeromonas has already been adopted as an indicator of this potential regrowth ...200010792530
evaluation of the environmental impact of microbial aerosols generated by wastewater treatment plants utilizing different aeration systems.using three sampler devices (sas, andersen six-stages and all glass impinger), the environmental impact of bacterial and fungal aerosols generated by municipal wastewater treatment plants operating with different methods of sludge oxygenation were evaluated. the highest microbial concentrations were recovered above the tanks (2247 cfu m-3) and in downwind positions (1425 cfu m-3), where a linear correlation (p < 0.05) was found between the quantity of sewage treated and the entities of microbial ...200010792545
interaction between aeromonas veronii and epithelial cells of spotted sand bass (paralabrax maculatofasciatus) in culture.an in vitro fish model to study the interaction between aeromonas veronii and skin, gill and intestinal epithelial cells was developed using primary cultures of mucosal cells (isolated from healthy organisms). primary cultures were exposed to aeromonas veronii strain a186 isolated from a patient with severe gastrointestinal disease. microbial adherence was assessed by a spectrophotometric evaluation of an enzyme-linked, biotin-streptavidin aer. veronii cell-adhesion assay to confluent monolayers ...200010792551
numerical taxonomy of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from skin of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and surrounding water.a numerical taxonomic study of 473 gram negative heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from skin of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and its culture water was performed. the study included 53 type and reference strains belonging to the genera vibrio, aeromonas and listonella. the strains were characterized using 90 tests and data were examined by simple matching coefficient (s(sm)) and jaccard coefficient (s(j)). upgma (unweighted pair group method, arithmetic average) defined 66 ph ...199910794149
in vitro susceptibilities of aeromonas genomic species to 69 antimicrobial agents.a total of 217 strains representing all 14 currently described genomic species in the genus aeromonas were tested for susceptibility to 69 antimicrobial agents by a microdilution method. all species were susceptible to tetracyclines, quinolones, chloramphenicol, and most of the aminoglycosides and the cephalosporins, but were resistant to lincosamides, vancomycin, teicoplanin and some penicillins. in general, no significant differences were found that correlated with the taxonomic designation or ...199910794154
site-directed mutagenesis of asp313, glu315, and asp391 residues in chitinase of aeromonas caviae.site-directed mutagenesis was used to explore the roles of amino acid residues involved in the activity of chitinase from aeromonas caviae. kinetic parameters for 4-methylumbelliferyl-n,n'-diacetyl-chitobiose or 4-methylumbelliferyl-n,n',n"-triacetylchitotriose hydrolysis were determined with wild-type and mutant chitinases. chitinases with the mutations e315d (or q) and d391e (or n) were severely impaired and had dramatically decreased kcat. however, the effect of the these mutations on the km ...199910794597
[physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of groundwater from observation boreholes of a deep radioactive liquid waste repository].a radioactive liquid waste repository was found to be a habitat of the rich microbial community with a high catabolic potential. groundwater from a depth of 162-189 m contained aerobic saprotrophic and anaerobic fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and denitrifying bacteria. nitrate-reducing bacteria residing in this groundwater were isolated in pure cultures. based on the results of their physiological studies, 16s rrna sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, the microorganisms isolated were ascribed ...200010808497
some emerging food and water borne pathogens.emerging pathogens are those infective organisms whose incidence has recently increased or is likely to increase during the next two decades due to changes in demography, food habits, food technology, commerce, water sources and environmental factors. some important emerging food and water borne bacterial pathogens include listeria monocytogenes, campylobacter jejuni, yersinia enterocolitica, salmonella enteritidis, escherichia coli o157: h7, vibrio cholerae biotype e1 tor serotype 0139, vibrio ...199910810592
aeromonas wound infection in burns.infection of burn patients with the aeromonas organism is an uncommon event. this paper documents four cases of aeromonas hydrophila and one case involving both a. hydrophila and a. caviae occurring in burn patients between 1990 and 1998 at the royal brisbane hospital burns unit. the organism was isolated from either skin swabs, tissue samples, blood cultures or cultured lines. in all patients there was a history of immersion in water immediately post burn. there is one case of invasion and dest ...200010812272
a comparison of solid and liquid media for resuscitation of starvation- and low-temperature-induced nonculturable cells of aeromonas hydrophila.like many other gram-negative bacteria, starved cells of aeromonas hydrophila can be induced into a viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state by incubation at low temperature, as shown here by using various bacterial enumeration methods. starved a. hydrophila strain hr7 cells at 4 degrees c reached the nonculturable stage in about 45 days. the cells were resuscitated by either a solid medium resuscitation method, using solid agar amended with h2o2-degrading agents, catalase or sodium pyruvate, or a ...200010816051
enteropathogens in adult patients with diarrhea and healthy control subjects: a 1-year prospective study in a swedish clinic for infectious diseases.a 1-year prospective study was conducted to identify enteropathogens in adults with diarrhea (n=851) and in healthy control subjects (n=203) by use of conventional laboratory methods. virulence factor genes for diarrheagenic escherichia coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction. enteropathogens were identified in 56% of patients and 16% of control subjects. the isolation rate was 65% for patients with symptoms for <1 week and for travelers; >1 pathogen was found in 11% of patients. the mos ...200010816147
a major secreted elastase is essential for pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in rainbow trout. a gene encoding an elastolytic activity, ahyb, was cloned from aeromonas hydrophila ag2 into puc18 and expressed in escherichia coli and in the nonproteolytic species aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida. nucleotide sequence analysis of the ahyb gene revealed an open reading frame of 1,764 nucleotides with coding capacity for a 588-amino-acid protein with a molecular weight ...200010816468
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection of bacterial biomarker proteins isolated from contaminated water, lettuce and cotton cloth.matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) mass spectra of bacterial proteins were obtained from water, lettuce and cloth samples contaminated with shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, and aeromonas hydrophila. spectra were obtained using proteins directly isolated from water (or water used for rinsing samples) without culturing the bacteria. for s. flexneri and e. coli, two marker ions for specific proteins associated with a virulence-related property (acid resistanc ...200010825256
[septic arthritis caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 200010827789
bacteraemia caused by non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli and aeromonas species in patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumours.the clinical characteristics and outcome of bacteraemia caused by non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli and aeromonas spp. were examined in 115 adults with haematological malignancies or solid tumours. the most aggressive pathogens were pseudomonas aeruginosa, stenotrophomonas maltophilia, aeromonas spp., acinetobacter spp. and burkholderia cepacia, all of which caused either septic syndrome or pneumonia in more than 40% of cases. pseudomonas aeruginosa was involved less often in catheter ...200010834826
primary pseudomonas meningitis in an adult, splenectomized, multitransfused thalassaemia major patient.a 19-year-old splenectomized, multitransfused female patient with beta-thalassaemia major developed primary meningitis due to p. putida. her blood cultures were negative. p. putida is an unusual nosocomial organism to cause primary meningitis. infection due to this organism carries high mortality. however, owing to early diagnosis and energetic treatment this patient survived without any sequelae. a review of serious infections over the last 7 years in patients in our thalassaemia care centre re ...200010841329
aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica subsp. nov., a new pectinase-positive subspecies isolated from a heavily polluted river.aeromonas strains which phenotypically and genetically belong to the aeromonas salmonicida species but that according to their phenotypic properties constitute a new subspecies have been isolated from the water of a heavily polluted river, the matanza river, situated near the central district of buenos aires city. these strains were ascribed to the a. salmonicida species by using 65 biochemical tests and by dna-dna hybridization. they produce acid from -sorbitol, an unusual biochemical property ...200010843053
virulence properties of motile aeromonads isolated from farmed frogs rana tigerina and r. rugulosa.virulence factors were compared in aeromonas species isolated from clinically normal and septicaemic farmed frogs from thailand. haemolysin activities against frog erythrocytes were significantly different within the collection of aeromonads. groups of high haemolytic activity (unspeciated aeromonas, au), moderate haemolytic activity (a. hydrophila), and low haemolytic activity (a. veronii biovar sobria, a. veronii biovar veronii, a. caviae, a. schubertii) were noted. dna colony hybridisation st ...200010843556
the cardiovascular hemodynamics and leukotriene kinetics during prostacyclin and anti-prostacyclin antibody infusions in septic shock.this study evaluated whether or not prostacyclin (pgi2) was necessary or sufficient by itself in a pathophysiologic concentration to mediate the cardiovascular dysfunction of septic shock. anesthetized adult swine received anesthesia only (anesthesia control, n = 6); graded aeromonas hydrophila, 10(10)/ml, infusion at 0.2 ml/kg/h that increased to 4.0 ml/kg/h over 3 h (septic shock control, n = 6); pathophysiologic prostacyclin infusion to match septic shock control plasma levels without bactere ...200010847636
survey for psychrotrophic bacterial pathogens in minimally processed lettuce.a total of 120 minimally processed, cut and packaged lettuce samples were purchased from retail supermarkets or provided by a salad production facility over an 8-month period. the samples were tested for total aerobic plate counts and for the presence of potentially pathogenic species belonging to the genera of listeria, aeromonas and yersinia. the aerobic plate counts ranged from 103 to 109 colony forming units (cfu) g-1. most samples (76%) contained between 105 and 107 cfu g-1 total aerobic ba ...200010849276
anti-adhesive activity of sulphated exopolysaccharides of microalgae on attachment of red sore disease-associated bacteria and helicobacter pylori to tissue culture cells.because of the affinity of certain bacterial species for sulphated glycoconjugates exposed on the epithelial cells of susceptible hosts, we hypothesized that sulphated exopolysaccharides of microalgae can be used in anti-adhesive therapies against bacterial infections, both in cold- and warm-blooded animals. in this study we found that adhesion of the human pathogen helicobacter pylori to the hela s3 cell line, and adhesion of the fish pathogens vibrio campbellii, v. ordalii, streptococcus sapro ...200010849279
antibacterial activity of a chitooligosaccharide mixture prepared by cellulase digestion of shrimp chitosan and its application to milk preservation.the antibacterial activity of a chitooligosaccharide mixture prepared by digestion of shrimp chitosan with cellulase at 50 degrees c for 14 h was evaluated. sugars with 1 to 8 degrees of polymer (dp) were found in this chitooligosaccharide mixture, and the weight percentage of sugars with dp > or = 6 was 44.3%. minimal lethal concentrations of this mixture against aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhimurium, shigella dysenteriae, ...200010852568
[immunoenzyme method for detecting microbial producers of palytoxin].a competitive elisa using the intact toxin as a coating antigen for detecting palytoxin was developed. this immunoassay allows palytoxin (ptx) to be determined in the range of 6-250 ng/ml. in sensitivity, this determination is comparable with ria but is three times inferior to elisa using monoclonal antibodies. inhibition experiments using some toxins of marine invertebrates proved the serological specificity of the palytoxin binding to antibodies. both the indirect and competitive elisa were us ...200010857024
investigation of the role of type iv aeromonas pilus (tap) in the pathogenesis of aeromonas gastrointestinal infection.although there is substantial evidence that type iv pili purified from diarrhea-associated aeromonas species (designated bfp for bundle-forming pilus) are intestinal colonization factors (s. m. kirov, l. a. o'donovan, and k. sanderson, infect. immun. 67:5447-5454, 1999), nothing is known regarding the function of a second family of aeromonas type iv pili (designated tap for type iv aeromonas pilus), identified following the cloning of a pilus biogenesis gene cluster tapabcd. related pilus gene c ...200010858220
typing of clinical and environmental aeromonas veronii strains based on the 16s-23s rdna spacers.genetic relationships of aeromonas veronii strains isolated from human and environmental sources were investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified intergenic spacer region (isr) flanked by the 16s and 23s rrna genes. when using endonucleases alui, hinfi and cfoi the 16s-23s rdna-rflp patterns showed considerable overall similarity, although most strains yielded specific profiles. several intra-specific lines of descent comprised clini ...200010865175
use of restriction fragment length polymorphism of the pcr-amplified 16s rrna gene for the identification of aeromonas spp. 200010866546
modification of the bile salts-irgasan-brilliant green agar for enumeration of aeromonas species from food.the present study evaluated the productivity of bibg medium for the isolation of aeromonas spp. from food and describes a modification of the bibg medium (mbibg) (increased ph (8.7), replacement of xylose by soluble starch as a carbon source, decreased concentration of bile salts) to increase its selectivity and electivity. using the mbibg medium, growth of the majority of the enterobacteriaceae (9/10) was suppressed except for citrobacter freundii. the mbibg medium supported growth of pseudomon ...200010868682
clinically relevant aeromonas species. 200010880331
[bacterial origin of acute diarrhea in merida, venezuela].464 stool specimens from children under 5 with acute diarrheal disease and other 149 specimens from the control group were studied from july, 1993, to may, 1995. the specimens were collected at the pediatric emergency department of the autonomous institute of the teaching hospital of los andes, mérida, venezuela. the presence of the internationally recommended bacterial, parasitary and viral agents was investigated. the commonest bacteria isolated as unique pathogens were: shigella (42.85%), shi ...199910887550
identification of aeromonas strains of clinical origin with atypical phenotypical profiles.a total of 47 strains of aereomonas isolated from patients with gastroenteritis was analyzed for 40 phenotypical characters and for evaluating the numeric taxonomy based on 27 discriminatory tests. it was proved that the clinical isolates showed a relative phenotypical distance and the groups of strains that had atypical profiles were compared with the type species by the present identification schemes.199910887556
cloning, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding the extracellular metalloprotease of aeromonas caviae.a gene (apk) encoding the extracellular protease of aeromonas caviae ae6 has been cloned and sequenced. for cloning the gene, the dna genomic library was screened using skim milk lb agar. one clone harboring plasmid pkk3 was selected for sequencing. nucleotide sequencing of the 3.5 kb region of pkk3 revealed a single open reading frame (orf) of 1,785 bp encoding 595 amino acids. the deduced polypeptide contained a putative 16-amino acid signal peptide followed by a large propeptide. the n-termin ...200010888351
kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. the ph decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the od of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. the counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. the antimicrobial ...200010888589
rattus norvegicus: not a model for aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis in man.the lack of a suitable animal model of aeromonas-associated diarrhoea has hampered investigations into aeromonas pathogenic mechanisms. hence, a published report that clindamycin-pretreated rats developed signs and symptoms of enteritis following intragastric inoculation of an aeromonas strain required further investigation. although we could demonstrate long-term colonisation (>12 days) and histological damage in this animal model with pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with chronic ...200010891655
combined infection of norwalk-like virus and verotoxin-producing bacteria associated with a gastroenteritis outbreak.detection of multiple pathogens, particularly a combination of viruses and bacteria, is infrequently documented in outbreaks of gastroenteritis. this paper reports the presence of norwalk-like virus (nlv) and enterohaemorrhagic verotoxin-producing escherichia coli in one individual, and nlv and verotoxin-producing aeromonas sobria in another individual, both part of a large gastroenteritis outbreak. the causes of gastroenteritis in such outbreaks may be more complex than previously thought.199910892495
virulence patterns of aeromonas eucrenophila isolated from water and infected fish.six isolates of aeromonas eucrenophila--2 from water and 4 from superficial skin ulcer of cat fish--were examined for haemagglutination, serum sensitivity, chitinase production and enterotoxicity, and correlation, if any, between them; only one strain showed haemagglutination and was inhibited by both d-mannose and l-fucose. all the strains showed resistance to normal human serum, but produced chitinase; one of them elaborated inducible chitinase. all these strains caused fluid accumulation only ...199910892496
characterization of virulence factors of aeromonas isolated from children with and without diarrhoea in tripoli, libya.during september 1992-august 1993, stool samples from 157 children with diarrhoea and 157 matched healthy controls were examined for the presence of aeromonas and other enteropathogens. aeromonas strains were tested for haemolytic activity, haemagglutination patterns, and antibiotic susceptibility. in total, 62 aeromonas were isolated, of which 27 (17.2%) were from children with diarrhoea and 35 (22.3%) from healthy controls. only 23 (14.6%) of the diarrhoeal children and 28 (17.8%) of the healt ...199910897890
virulence factors in aeromonas veronii bv veronii. 199910897894
assessment of the microbiological quality and wash treatments of lettuce served in university restaurants.one hundred and forty-four samples of lettuce from 16 university restaurants were analyzed. the mesophilic aerobic counts of all samples ranged from 3.01 to 7.81 log10 cfu g(-1). results of total coliforms ranged from < 0.47 to > 3.38 log10 most probable number (mpn) g(-1). of the lettuce samples, 25.7% harbored escherichia coli, 22.9% staphylococcus aureus and 84% group d streptococci. similarly, 10.4% of the samples harbored aeromonas hydrophila, 2.8% pseudomonas aeruginosa, and coliforms such ...200010898470
necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacillus commonly found in soil, sewage, and fresh or brackish water in many parts of the united states. in healthy people, the most common clinical manifestations attributed to aeromonas are diarrhea and soft tissue infections. in people with suppressed immune systems or liver disease, a hydrophila can cause meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or septicemia. we present the first known case of fulminant necrotizing fasciitis f ...200010900069
impact of an urban effluent on the bacterial community structure in the arga river (spain), with special reference to culturable gram-negative rods.the arga river is an interesting system in which to study the impact of urban effluent pollution because it receives a single effluent in the form of wastewater discharge from the city of pamplona. to analyze the extent of this discharge, total bacteria, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, and gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated and 409 isolates of the latter were identified. one sampling station was located upstream from the inflow, while five were located up to 30 km downstream ...199910907419
diversity of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in pristine stream bed sediments.more than 900 culturable, heterotrophic aerobic isolates were obtained from the sediments of a forested, pristine stream and analyzed using three classical microbiological tests: api 20e, amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis (ardra), and fatty acid analysis. gram-negative bacteria comprised most of the heterotrophic aerobic isolates (66.7%), similar to other oligotrophic environments. the isolates were assigned to the genus level as pseudomonas, flavobacterium, micrococcus, bacillus, chr ...199910907425
clinical features and therapeutic implications of 104 episodes of monomicrobial aeromonas bacteraemia.aeromonas bacteraemia is not a common infectious disease, but can cause a grave outcome in infected cases. in this study, clinical presentations and prognostic factors of cases of monomicrobial aeromonas bacteraemia were analysed. also, the impact of beta-lactam and aminoglycoside in combination and of emerging cephalosporin-resistance during therapy was discussed.200010908022
corrigendum to: kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of native and metal-substituted beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophila ae036 (febs 23250). 200010908738
acute community-acquired diarrhea requiring hospital admission in swiss children.in order to ascertain the prevalence of agents that cause childhood diarrheal illness, stool specimens of 312 consecutive children with community-acquired diarrhea requiring admission were evaluated. pathogens were detected in 166 (53%) of the 312 children (>/=2 pathogens in 28 children): rotavirus (n=75), salmonella spp. (n=37), campylobacter spp. (n=24), shigella spp. (n=5), giardia spp. (n=4), yersinia spp. (n=2), aeromonas spp. (n=15), cryptosporidium (n=15), enteropathogenic escherichia col ...200010913424
isolation of aeromonas hydrophila in children with diarrhea.aeromonas species are gram-negative bacilli that lead to a wide spectrum of infectious diseases in human. in the present study, these bacilli were reviewed to assess their significance as enteric pathogens in this area. during the years of 1994 to 1998, the clinical microbiology laboratory received 2150 stool specimens of children with diarrhea. medical charts of patients who had positive culture for aeromonas hydrophila were reviewed. a. hydrophila were isolated from 50 (2.3%) of 2150 children ...200010917882
isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown kuala lumpur.four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown kuala lumpur: chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya rufifacies, musca domestica, and musca sorbens. burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from chrysomya megacephala. klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from chrysomya megacephala, musca domestica, and musca sorbens. aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was pre ...200010925800
rifampicin sub-inhibitory concentrations reduce the expression of haemolysin in aeromonas spp. 200010926450
bacterial contamination of bottle milk in infants under 6 months in children's hospital, bangkok, thailand.the bacterial contamination of bottle milk samples obtained randomly from 500 infants under 6 months of age who came to the out-patient department of children's hospital bangkok was determined by collecting bottle milk samples prepared at home following interview of their caretakers after obtaining their consent. bacterial contamination was found in 91.8% (459/500) of bottle milk samples. among the positive samples, 82.8% (380/459) contained enteric bacteria, another 17.2% were unidentified bact ...199910928374
enhanced attachment of bradyrhizobium japonicum to soybean through reduced root colonization of internally seedborne microorganisms.internally seedborne microorganisms are those surviving common surface sterilization procedures. such microbes often colonize the radicle surface of a germinating soybean (glycine max) seed, introducing an undefined parameter into studies on attachment and infection by bradyrhizobium japonicum. bacterial isolates from surface-sterilized soybean seed, cv. williams 82 and cv. maverick, used in our studies, were identified as agrobacterium radiobacter, aeromonas sp., bacillus spp., chryseomonas lut ...200010932352
host cell invasion and intracellular residence by aeromonas salmonicida: role of the s-layer.virulent strains of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida, which have surface s-layers (s+), efficiently adhere to, enter, and survive within macrophages. here we report that s+ bacteria were 10- to 20-fold more adherent to non-phagocytic fish cell lines than s-layer-negative (s-) mutants. when reconstituted with exogenous s-layers, these s- mutants regained adherence. as well, latex beads coated with purified s-layers were more adherent to fish cell lines than uncoated beads, or beads coated ...200010932360
co-culture of aeromonas salmonicida and host cells in intraperitoneal implants is associated with enhanced bacterial survival.an experimental procedure that we named "in vivo co-culture technology" allowed us to study the interactions between aeromonas salmonicida and host cells, inside semipermeable chambers implanted in the peritoneal cavity of atlantic salmon. intraperitoneal implants containing bacteria and host cells, or bacteria and lysed cells, consistently yielded higher numbers of viable bacteria than implants containing bacteria only. electron microscopy confirmed that 30 min after chamber inoculation, numero ...200010932362
isolation of vibrio and pseudomonas from brown shrimp (penaeus californiensis holmes) intestine.bacteria of the genera vibrio, pseudomonas and aeromonas were isolated from the intestine of apparently healthy brown shrimp (penaeus californiensis holmes) cultured in a tidal pond. species from these genera of bacteria have been reported as shrimp pathogens and have been involved in human gastrointestinal disorders related to seafood consumption. isolation was done first in marine broth, then in selective media (tcbs, cetrimide and macconkey). the oxidase negative strains were discarded as ins ...199710932719
identification of bacteria in water for pharmaceutical use.different systems for the obtention of water used in biopharmaceutical industry were characterized from the bacteriological point of view. determination of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was performed; as well as the isolation of contaminant microorganisms for what the techniques of membrane filtration was used. for the identification of the more representative species there were made conventional biochemical tests and quick systems: api. the results show that water serving as tap water for p ...199810932743
[antimicrobial resistance among species of salmonella, shigella, escherichia, and aeromonas isolated from children with diarrhea in 7 argentinian centers].the increasing levels of resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria against antimicrobial agents present geographic variations. we have analysed the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates obtained from 4,364 children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea, in 7 cities of argentina. diarrheagenic e. coli exhibited 74.5% of resistance against ampicillin, 64.2% against sulfametoxazole-trimethoprim, and shigella spp., 62% and 75.6% respectively. salmonella sp. showed 35%, 14%, 41.8%, 65.4%, 14.5%, ...199910932758
a putative heat-labile enterotoxin expressed by strains of aeromonas media.fifteen isolates of aeromonas media (seven from diarrhoeal stools, four from water and four from superficial skin ulcers of catfish) were examined for enterotoxin production. ten of these isolates (six diarrhoeal, one from water and three from fish) caused accumulation of fluid in the initial rabbit ileal loop (ril) tests. isolates from diarrhoeal stools and fish caused relatively more fluid accumulation than those from water. those strains that caused little or no fluid accumulation in the init ...200010933251
antimicrobial resistance of mesophilic aeromonas spp. isolated from two european rivers.the activity of 19 antibiotics and four antiseptics and/or disinfectants was studied against 138 non-redundant strains of aeromonas spp. (104 aeromonas caviae, 22 aeromonas sobria and 12 aeromonas hydrophila) isolated from two european rivers. antibiotic resistance frequencies were: nalidixic acid, 59%; tetracycline, 14%; fosfomycin, 8%; tobramycin and cotrimoxazole, 7%; cefotaxime, 4%; chloramphenicol, 2%; gentamicin, 1%. most of the nalidixic acid-resistant strains were susceptible to fluoroqu ...200010933657
[liver abscess accompanied by ttp and liddle's syndrome-like symptoms]. 200010934773
bath exposure of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.) yolk sac larvae to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps): absorption and distribution of the lps and effect on fish survival.radiolabelled bacterial lipopolysaccharide (3h-lps) obtained from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was added to the petri dishes containing yolk sac larvae of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.). the larvae were exposed either to 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 micrograms 3h-lps ml-1. the uptake was both dependent on the lps concentration and the time of exposure. after 5 days of exposure, each larva contained 1.8-7.4 ng 3h-lps dependent on the initial concentration. after 10 days ...200010938728
suppression of the humoral immune response of atlantic salmon, salmo salar l. by the 64 kda serine protease of aeromonas salmonicida.bacteria-free supernatants of broth cultures of aeromonas salmonicida inhibited the humoral immune response, but not the cell-mediated immune response, of atlantic salmon to bacteriophage ms2. the immunosuppressive factor was the 64 kda serine protease secreted by a. salmonicida. the suppressive activity was not due to degradation of epitopes of ms2, and although serine protease degraded the heavy chain of salmon igm in vitro there was no evidence for significant degradation in vivo. the princip ...200010938745
carp interleukin-1 beta in the role of an immuno-adjuvant. 200010938746
outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila induce protective immunity in goldfish. 200010938747
production of siderophores & effect of iron restriction on the protein profiles of aeromonas species isolated from water & patients suffering from acute diarrhoeal disease.among 48 strains of aeromonas species, 21 isolates from patients suffering from acute diarrhoea and 27 from metropolitan water samples grown under iron-restricted conditions, 45 strains produced siderophores. forty one of the 46 strains tested produced siderophores on chrome azurol s (cas) agar, while 43 isolates did so when the culture supernatants of the bacterial isolates grown in minimal medium were assayed with chrome azurol s assay solution. the whole cell protein profiles of a. hydrophila ...200010943068
prevalence and virulence properties of vibrio cholerae non-o1, aeromonas spp. and plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from cambé stream (state of paraná, brazil).the incidence of vibrio cholerae, aeromonas spp. and plesiomonas shigelloides was determined in water samples from cambé stream. the samples were collected from seven different sites. the serogroups, virulence markers and drug resistance profiles were also evaluated. twelve aer. hydrophila, 12aer. caviae, eight aer. sobria, seven ple. shigelloides and two v. cholerae non-o1 were isolated. they belonged to different serogroups and all produced haemolysis in different assays. five of the aeromonas ...200010945781
denitrification by indigenous microbial populations of river water measured using membrane inlet mass spectrometry.the major process that reduces nitrate levels in soils and water is denitrification, which converts nitrate and nitrite into gaseous forms of nitrogen, which are then released into the atmosphere. this study used membrane inlet mass spectrometry (mims) to investigate denitrification in river water bacterial isolates supplied with nitrate and succinate as an energy source as well as in the total population by provision of different carbon compounds to untreated river water samples. substantial va ...200010945788
the response of aeromonas hydrophila to oxidative stress induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide.aeromonas hydrophila, an opportunist human pathogen of low virulence, was shown to display a high degree of sensitivity upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. as with other species, aer. hydrophila is able to develop the capacity to resist loss of viability induced by such oxidative stress. development of stress resistance follows the archetypal profile where pre-exposure of a population to sub-lethal levels of h2o2 stimulates onset of tolerance to further exposure. acquisition of tolerance critica ...200010945791
occurrence and seasonal variation of airborne gram negative bacteria in a sewage treatment plant.a study was carried out to determine the microbial density and the seasonal variation of airborne gram negative bacteria in a sewage treatment plant. sampling was made at 16 sites and the settle plate technique was used. of the 201 samples examined, 43.2% revealed fecal coliforms (mean value = 14 cfu/p/h), 53% pseudomonas spp. (mean value = 11 cfu/p/h), 46.5% shigella spp. (mean value = 13 cfu/p/h), 3% legionella spp. (mean value = 2 cfu/p/h) and 2% salmonella (mean value = < 1 cfu/p/h). 72% of ...200010946412
grouping by plasmid profiles of atypical aeromonas salmonicida isolated from fish, with special reference to salmonid fish.plasmid profile analyses were performed for 113 strains of atypical aeromonas salmonicida and the reference strain a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida atcc 14174. the atypical a. salmonicida strains comprised 98 strains obtained from fish originating from 54 farms and 2 lakes in norway, 10 strains from canada (2), denmark (2), finland (1), iceland (1) and sweden (4), the reference strains ncmb 1109 and atcc 15711 (haemophilus piscium) of a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, and the type cultures a. ...200010950178
intestinal cell adhesion and maximum growth temperature of psychrotrophic aeromonads from surface water.investigation of 650 aeromonas strains taken from surface water--used as a source of drinking water--and from the associated drinking water treatment plants has demonstrated that only a small proportion of the strains are endowed with intestinal cell adhesion and growth at 39 degrees c; these characteristics are concurrently encountered in aeromonas strains from clinical material. the investigations permit the conclusion that even the aeromonas species, of which certain strains are pathogenic to ...200010956594
inhibition of aeromonas caviae and a. sobria by sodium choloride, citric acid, ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate and extracts of thymus vulgaris.the respective and combined effects of sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, citric acid, potassium sorbate, and thymus vulgaris extract on the growth of aeromonas caviae and aeromonas sobria were investigated. sodium chloride (3%) significantly reduced the growth and 4% nacl inhibited growth of the tested strains. ascorbic acid (0. 1%), potassium sorbate (0.05%), and citric acid (0.03%) slightly inhibited growth. t. vulgaris extract (0.3%) greatly reduced the growth. various combinations of these com ...200010957708
distribution of oxytetracycline resistance plasmids between aeromonads in hospital and aquaculture environments: implication of tn1721 in dissemination of the tetracycline resistance determinant tet a.oxytetracycline-resistant (ot(r)) mesophilic aeromonads were recovered from untreated hospital effluent (72 isolates) and from fish farm hatchery tanks (91 isolates) at sites within the english lake district, cumbria, england. the transfer of ot(r) plasmids from these isolates was investigated. using escherichia coli j53-1 as a recipient, 11 isolates from the hospital site and 6 isolates from the fish farm site transferred ot(r) plasmids (designated pfbaot1 to 17). original isolates were identif ...200010966404
lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).the present study reports the effect of excessive handling stress and starvation on the lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). a relatively low population level (approximately 2 x 103 bacteria per gram wet tissue) of viable adherent heterotrophic bacteria was associated with the digestive tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut). of the 752 bacterial isolates isolated from diet, water and the digestive tract, 201 isolates belonged to the carnobac ...200010971765
spontaneous bacterial empyema caused by aeromonas veronii biotype sobria.spontaneous bacterial empyema is a complication of hepatic hydrothorax in cirrhotic patients. the pathogen, clinical course and treatment strategy are different to the empyema secondary to pneumonia. a 54-year-old man, who was a cirrhotic patient with hepatic hydrothorax, was admitted to national taiwan university hospital for fever, dyspnea and right side pleuritic pain. the image study revealed massive right pleural effusion and no evidence of pneumonia. the culture of pleural effusion yielded ...200010974579
[cultivation optimization of prolyl endopeptidase and high cell density fermentation].engineered e. coli bl21/pgem-pep could constitutively express recombinant prolyl endopeptidase from aeromonas punctata, which was extremely effected by culture conditions, so fermentation conditions were optimized to obtain it's high expression level. firstly, the stability of bl21/pgem-pep was investigated, then, culture temperature, ph, time, medium were optimized in shake flaskd. the l9(3(4)) orthogonal experiment confirmed that shaker speed, ph, culture temperature, culture time had high deg ...200010976323
immune responses of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.) clones: i. non-specific responses.the importance of genetic variation in the non-specific immune responses of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.) clones was investigated. fully inbred clones (ic) of nile tilapia, produced using gynogenesis and sex reversal, and crosses between these lines (outbred clones) were used in this study. non-specific immune responses were compared between the ics, including serum lysozyme activity and phagocytosis, and significant differences were observed between the different groups. their natural ...200110980318
pulsed-field gel electrophoriesis analyis of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.a total of 133 strains of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida, isolated from a wide variety of sources, were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. sixteen profiles were demonstrated, with one profile being predominant in samples from all the countries and species of fish. our results suggest a clonal distribution of this subspecies, with a predominant clone being responsible for most of the outbreaks worldwide.200010981708
reduction of endogenous bacteria associated with catfish fillets using the grovac process.fresh catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets are known to be contaminated with a large number of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. the grovac method, a new patented (u.s. 5,543,163) process, was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the number of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms associated with food. this process involves using a processing solution containing ascorbic acid (aa) and sodium chloride (nacl), vacuum, and tumbling. a total of 51 bacterial isolates were isolated and identified f ...200010983798
microbial evaluation of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in university restaurants.the focus of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples including pork loin, chicken croquettes, long pork sausage, chicken breast, and meatballs from university restaurants. microbiological analyses of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples resulted in aerobic plate counts from <1.00 to 2.90 and from <1.00 to 6.04 log10 cfu g(-1), respectively. total coliforms ranged from <3 to 43 most probable number (mpn) g(-1) and from <3 to > ...200010983805
microbial iron transport via a siderophore shuttle: a membrane ion transport paradigm.a mechanism of ion transport across membranes is reported. microbial transport of fe(3+) generally delivers iron, a growth-limiting nutrient, to cells via highly specific siderophore-mediated transport systems. in contrast, iron transport in the fresh water bacterium aeromonas hydrophila is found to occur by means of an indiscriminant siderophore transport system composed of a single multifunctional receptor. it is shown that (i) the siderophore and fe(3+) enter the bacterium together, (ii) a li ...200010995480
role and behaviour of the hydrophobic conditions in bacterial adhesion to incurrent siphon in a bivalve mollusc.surface hydrophobicity is a widely distributed characteristic among human bacterial pathogens playing an important role in microbes retention by the incurrent siphon of a marine bivalve. feeding retention experiments with the bivalve mesodesma donacium was done with hydrophobic strains alone (staphylococcus aureus, salmonella paratyphi, vibrio cholerae) or with mixed cultures using a hydrophilic strain (aeromonas hydrophila). results showed that hydrophobic bacteria are retained in greater numbe ...200010997493
epidemiological relationships between aeromonas strains isolated from symptomatic children and household environments as determined by ribotyping.ribotyping was used to study the epidemiology of aeromonas associated gastro-enteritis in young children. ribotyping patterns of 29 aeromonas strains (16 aeromonas caviae, 8 aeromonas hydrophila, 3 aeromonas eucrenophila, 1 aeromonas veronii, and 1 aeromonas encheleia) isolated from primary stool cultures of sick children were compared using the gelcompare software with patterns of 104 strains (39 aeromonas eucrenophila, 29 aeromonas caviae, 11 aeromonas encheleia, 10 aeromonas hydrophila, 6 aer ...200010997832
atypical chryseobacterium meningosepticum and meningitis and sepsis in newborns and the immunocompromised, taiwan.from 1996 to 1999, 17 culture-documented systemic infections due to novel, atypical strains of chryseobacterium meningosepticum occurred in two newborns and 15 immunocompromised patients in a medical center in taiwan. all clinical isolates, which were initially misidentified as aeromonas salmonicida by an automated bacterial identification system, were resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents. the isolates were characterized as atypical strains of c. meningosepticum by complete biochemical ...200010998378
aeromonas hydrophila infection secondary to an electrical burn. 200011008599
selective enrichment broth for the isolation of aeromonas sp. from chicken meat.six selective agents (ampicillin, novobiocin, cephalothin, bile salts, brilliant green and ethanol) were tested during the development of a selective enrichment broth for the isolation of aeromonas sp. from food. cephalothin at 10 mg/l was found to be the best selective agent owing to its greater selectivity and efficiency in recovering stressed and lower cell concentrations of aeromonas sp. higher concentrations (15-25 mg/l) of cephalothin were inhibitory to some strains of a. sobria. cephaloth ...200011014523
aeromonas hydrophila isolated from wild freshwater fish in croatia.aeromonas hydrophila was recovered from fish living in lake vrana on the croatian island of cres. the occurrence of the bacterium in the fish was assessed and related to gross signs of disease and findings at necropsy as a potential health hazard for fish. isolated bacteria were subjected to morphological, physiological, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests. a total of 26 a. hydrophila isolates were obtained. there was a clear seasonality, as no isolates were recovered in the summer m ...200011014606
production of heat-labile enterotoxin by strains of aeromonas veronii bv veronii.three isolates of aeromonas veronii bv veronii (2 environmental, one blood infection) were examined to see if they produce any enterotoxin and, if so, to determine its characteristics. two isolates caused fluid accumulation in the initial rabbit ileal loop tests. the other strain did so after a single passage through the rabbit ileal loop. all the isolates showed gradual enhancement of fluid secretion after each subsequent passage. inocula of 1 x 10(4) viable cells and 0.25 ml of culture filtrat ...200011014770
prevalence of enterotoxin genes in aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea, healthy controls, and the environment.aeromonads are causative agents of a number of human infections. even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear. in spite of a number of virulence factors produced by aeromonas species, their association with diarrhea has not been clearly linked. recently, we have characterized a heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), a heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and a cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) from a diarrhe ...200011015403
isolation and characterisation of a serum lectin from blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus (pallus).a novel lectin, designated bgl, has been purified from the serum of blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus, with the use of (nh4)2so4 fractionation, affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. electrophoretic analyses and mass spectrometric study of purified bgl showed that the lectin is composed of two isoforms with native molecular masses estimated to be 65 and 66 kda, and two subunits of 32 and 34 kda on sds-page under non-reducing conditions. upon reduction with 20 mm dithiot ...200011016584
microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of coffea arabica in brazil.the magnitude and diversity of the microbial population associated with dry (natural) processing of coffee (coffea arabica) has been assessed during a 2-year period on 15 different farms in the sul de minas region of brazil. peptone water-washed samples were taken of maturing cherries on trees (cherries, raisins and dried cherries) and from ground fermentations. the microbial load varied from 3 x 10(4) to 2.2 x 10(9) cfu/cherry with a median value of 1.6 x 10(7) cfu/cherry. the microbial load in ...200011016614
the channel-forming protein proaerolysin remains a dimer at low concentrations in solution.proaerolysin, the proform of the channel-forming protein aerolysin, is secreted as a dimer by aeromonas sp. the protein also exists as a dimer in the crystal, as well as in solution, at least at concentrations in the region of 500 microg/ml. recently it has been argued that proaerolysin becomes monomeric at concentrations below 100 microg/ml and that only the monomeric form of the protoxin can bind to cell surface receptors (fivaz, m., velluz, m.-c., and van der goot, f. g. (1999) j. biol. chem. ...200111016941
the expression of proteinases and haemolysins by aeromonas hydrophila under modified atmospheres.the study estimated the proteolytic activity (against hide powder azure) and haemolytic activity (against horse erythrocytes) in cell-free filtrates (cff) from four strains of aeromonas hydrophila growing under a range of commercially relevant modified atmospheres (2% o2, 78% n2, 20% co2; 10% o2, 80% n2, 10% co2; 50% n2, 50% co2; 100% co2). the examined strains exhibited significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the extent and times of onset of expression of these enzymes under aer ...200011021573
identification of genes associated with copper tolerance in an adhesion-defective mutant of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria.tnphoa mutagenesis was used to identify adhesins of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria 3767, a strain isolated from a diarrhoeal stool specimen. six mutants, from a library of 154, exhibited significantly reduced levels of adhesion to hep-2 cells. primers to the terminal regions of tnphoa were used for inverse pcr and the product from one mutant was cloned into pbluescript and partial sequence data obtained. scanning genbank and embl data bases revealed dna sequence similarity to the copa gene of p ...200011024350
[cytoplasmic protein vaccine against bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia (aeromonosis) of fish].water-soluble proteins from aeromonas sobria, a causative agent of bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia of fishes, were separated into six fractions by gel chromatography on sephadex g-100. injections of fraction ii (67 kda) provided the highest protection of carps against the disease. injections of proteins contained in fraction ii caused stronger effects on certain biochemical parameters in the fish liver (fatty acids of phospholipids and cathepsin b and d activities) in comparison to infections o ...200011042886
[comparative study of various biochemical parameters in pathogenic and nonpathogenic aeromonas strains].we studied certain biochemical properties of virulent and avirulent strains of mobile aeromonads. the pathogenic strain featured a higher proportion of odd fatty acids in the lipids, increased protease activity, and a high concentration of 55 kda protein. we propose that these compounds be used as pathogenic markers of these microorganisms.200011042957
use of a chia probe for detection of chitinase genes in bacteria from the chesapeake bay(1).pcr primers specific for the chia gene were designed by alignment and selection of highly conserved regions of chia sequences from serratia marcescens, alteromonas sp., bacillus circulans and aeromonas caviae. these primers were used to amplify a 225 bp fragment of the chia gene from vibrio harveyi to produce a chia gene probe. the chia pcr primers and probe were used to detect the presence of the chia gene in an assemblage of 53 reference strains and gave consistent results. selected chia fragm ...200011053737
production and secretion of collagen-binding proteins from aeromonas veronii.collagen-binding protein (cnbp) synthesized by aeromonas veronii is located conserved within the subcellular fraction. the results of this study show that 98% of the total cnbp produced by aer. veronii is present in the extracellular medium, and that the remaining cnbp is distributed either on the cell surface, within the periplasm or anchored on the outer membrane. cnbp is specifically secreted from aer. veronii into the culture medium, because all the beta-lactamase activity was located in the ...200011054164
ingested blood contributes to the specificity of the symbiosis of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech.hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, usually carries in its digestive tract a pure culture of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria. such specificity is unusual for digestive tracts that are normally colonized by a complex microbial consortium. important questions for the symbiotic interaction and for the medical application after microvascular surgery are whether other bacteria can proliferate or at least persist in the digestive tract of h. medicinalis and what factors contribute to the reported sp ...200011055917
occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fish-pathogenic and environmental bacteria associated with four danish rainbow trout farms.surveillance of bacterial susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents was performed during a 1-year period in and around four freshwater fish farms situated along a stream in western denmark. besides assessing the levels of antibiotic resistance among the culturable fraction of microorganisms in fish, water, and sediment samples, two major fish pathogens (88 flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and 134 yersinia ruckeri isolates) and 313 motile aeromonas isolates, representing a group of ubiquit ...200011055942
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