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the development of random dna probes specific for aeromonas salmonicida.rapd-pcr has been used to produce dna probes for aeromonas salmonicida. dna hybridization studies showed that rapd-pcr fragments of the same size did not necessarily hybridize to each other and therefore these sequences were not always homologous. however, a single rapd-pcr fragment (designated 15e) was identified as being common to aer. salmonicida. subsequently, 15e was found to comprise five dna fragments of similar size which differed in their nucleotide sequences. all five fragments were ev ...199815244055
the acetylcholinesterase ichthyotoxin is a common component in the extracellular products of vibrionaceae strains.in previous work, it was reported that a strain of aeromonas hydrophila (b32) produces the most potent lethal toxin with neurotoxic activity described so far for fish. in the present study, the presence and distribution of this acetylcholinesterase toxin lethal for fish were determined in extracellular products (ecp) of 42 vibrionaceae strains using both immunological and colorimetric methods. this neurotoxin was shown to be present in the majority of the ecp from the aeromonas and vibrio strain ...199815244056
clonal identification of aeromonas hydrophila strains using randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.the suitability of arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction (rapd) as a typing technique was evaluated by comparing it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to characterize aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from a cluster of hospital-acquired infections. five isolates from patients and 10 isolates from the water supply were compared to 10 epidemiologically unrelated strains isolated from patients and rivers. two methods were used to prepare dna and two primers (ap3 and ap5) were sel ...19989663524
etiological study of diarrheal patients in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic.the etiological agents of diarrhea in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr), were studied in the period from october 1996 to august 1997. a total of 880 patients with diarrhea visiting medical facilities were examined for shigella, salmonella, diarrheagenic escherichia coli, vibrio, aeromonas, campylobacter, and rotavirus. shigella spp., heat-stable enterotoxin (st)-producing e. coli, and serogroup-based enteropathogenic e. coli were found to be the main organisms causing diarrhe ...19989665990
role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in aeromonas-mediated infections: development of transposon and isogenic mutants.transposon and marker exchange mutagenesis were used to evaluate the role of aeromonas cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and deep wound infections. the transposon mutants were generated by random insertion of tn5-751 in the chromosomal dna of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. some of the transposon mutants had dramatically reduced hemolytic and cytotoxic activities, and such mutants exhibited reduced virulence in mice compared to wild-type aerom ...19989673226
activation of the complement classical pathway (c1q binding) by mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein.the mechanism of killing of aeromonas hydrophila serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway has been studied. the bacterial cell surface component that binds c1q more efficiently was identified as a major outer membrane protein of 39 kda, presumably the porin ii described by d. jeanteur, n. gletsu, f. pattus, and j. t. buckley (mol. microbiol. 6:3355-3363, 1992), of these microorganisms. we have demonstrated that the purified form of porin ii binds c1q and act ...19989673268
bactericidal effect of chlorine on motile aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies and influence of temperature on disinfection efficacy.the susceptibility of toxigenic aeromonas spp. to free chlorine in drinking water supplies, and the influence of environmental temperature on the bactericidal activity of the oxidant, were evaluated. the results showed inactivation curves characterized by an initial phase of rapid reduction of viable cells followed by a slow inactivation of bacteria. the effect of the chlorine compound was markedly influenced by water temperature. at a summer water temperature (20 degrees c), the efficacy of the ...19989674163
false-positive coliform reaction mediated by aeromonas in the colilert defined substrate technology system.the colilert defined substrate technology system allows specific, one-step detection of both coliforms and escherichia coli while claiming to suppress the influence of non-coliform heterotrophs. the colilert assay was examined in order to determine whether organisms from the genus aeromonas could interfere and cause production of a false-positive coliform result as aquatic aeromonas are known to constitute a fraction of the heterotrophic population found in drinking water. results obtained clear ...19989674164
co-migration of rapd-pcr amplicons from aeromonas hydrophila.random amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) uses arbitrary primers and low stringency annealing conditions to amplify anonymous dna fragments which are then depicted in agarose gels. rapd-pcr fingerprints have been used for typing and differentiation of bacteria and, increasingly, for the study of genetic relationships between strains and species of microorganisms, plants and animals. the analysis of such fingerprints is based upon the assumption that co-migration of am ...19989675848
siderophore production by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. lack of strain specificity.siderophore production, presence of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and siderophore specificity was determined among 17 isolates of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida obtained from spain and scotland. all grew in the presence of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (edda) and siderophore production was detected using chrome azurol s (cas) agar, confirming the presence of a high-affinity siderophore iron-uptake mechanism. the arnow test confirmed that all isolates produced ...19989684314
molecular cloning of a bombinin gene from bombina orientalis: detection of nf-kappab and nf-il6 binding sites in its promoter.the sequence of a gene from bombina orientalis was determined which codes for antibacterial peptides. the gene comprises two exons separated by a large intron. exon 1 codes for the signal peptide, while exon 2 contains the genetic information for two identical bombinins and one bombinin h. the promoter region of the bombinin gene contains putative recognition sites for nuclear factors, such as nfkappab and nf-il6. in vivo experiments on b. orientalis have shown that a short contact with bacteria ...19989684858
possible virulence factors of aeromonas spp. from food and water.thirty-one isolates of aeromonas spp. from food and water in norway were classified and tested for possible virulence factors including cytotoxins (tissue cultures, pcr), enterotoxins (pcr) and invasion ability (caco-2 cells). five different species were recorded, a. caviae (9/31), a. hydrophila (15/31), a. schubertii (3/31), a. trota (3/31) and a. veronii biovar veronii (1/31). one of the a. hydrophila strains was probably responsible for a small outbreak of food poisoning caused by ingestion o ...19989685002
the isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milks.in this research, totally 200 raw milk samples in different areas of ankara were collected from various dairy plant. the isolated psychotrophic bacteria from the raw milk samples are the species of pseudomonas spp., acinetobacter spp., alcaligenes and aeromonas. isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria types are determined as p. aeruginosa 11 (5.5%), p. putida 11 (5.5%), p. fluorescens biotype i 10 (5.0%), p. fluorescens biotype ii 4 (2.0%), p. fluorescens biotype iii 6 ...19989637013
sialic acid-binding lectin with antibacterial activity from the horse mussel: further characterization and immunolocalization.a heterogeneous sialic acid-binding lectin with affinity for bacterial lps was isolated and partially characterized from hemolymph of the horse mussel modiolus modiolus.(1) using two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized ph gradients, the lectin revealed three subunits with different molecular weight and isoelectric points (pi); mr14 (pi approximately 5.1 and approximately 5.5), 17.5 (pi approximately 5.5) and 20 (pi approximately 4.9) kda. the affinity purified lectin existed in its nati ...19989639084
macromolecular assembly and secretion across the bacterial cell envelope: type ii protein secretion systems.a decade ago, pugsley and colleagues reported the existence of a large region of klebsiella dna, distinct from the klebsiella gene encoding pullulanase, which was necessary for secretion of this enzyme to the cell surface in escherichia coli (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b). the pul genes it contained proved to be the tip of an iceberg. the sequences reported before 1992 (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b; d'enfert & pugsley, 1989; pugsley & reyss, 1990; reyss & pugsley, 1990) included only one gene (puld) tha ...19989641973
aeromonas hydrophila adenylyl cyclase 2: a new class of adenylyl cyclases with thermophilic properties and sequence similarities to proteins from hyperthermophilic archaebacteria.complementation of an escherichia coli cya mutant with a genomic library from aeromonas hydrophila allowed isolation of clones containing two different cya genes. whereas one of these genes (cyaa) coded for an adenylyl cyclase (ac1) belonging to the previously described class i adenylyl cyclases (acs), the second one (cyab) coded for a protein (ac2) that did not match any previously characterized protein when compared to protein sequence databases. in particular, it did not align with any of mem ...19989642185
the effect of suspending solution supplemented with marine cations on the oxidation of biolog gn microplate substrates by vibrionaceae bacteria.bacteria belonging to the family vibrionaceae were suspended using saline and a solution prepared from a marine-cations supplement. the effect of this on the profile of oxidized substrates obtained when using biolog gn microplates was investigated. thirty-nine species belonging to the genera aeromonas, listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio were studied. of the strains studied, species of listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio could be expected to benefit from a marine-cations supplement that co ...19989643966
antimicrobial activity in the skin of the channel catfish ictalurus punctatus: characterization of broad-spectrum histone-like antimicrobial proteins.three antibacterial proteins were isolated from acid extracts of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) skin by cation exchange chromatography and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. the molecular masses of the proteins were 15.5, 15.5 and 30 kd as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. mass spectrometry, amino acid composition and amino acid sequence data suggest that the most abundant protein is closely related to histone h2b. the h2b-like protein was inhibitory to ...19989645227
effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on some immune responses of blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus (pallus).the immunotoxicological effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on blue gourami were studied. some immune responses ranging from non-specific to specific were investigated. these include tissue lysozyme activity, kidney lymphocyte proliferation and plasma agglutinating antibody titre against bacteria. after 2 weeks of chronic exposure, 0.09 mg/l of hg2+ alone induced a significant increase of kidney lysozyme activity of 4196.3 +/- 1171.0 u/g, but it decreased to 1577.4 +/- 902.4 u/g whe ...19989646523
[ocular infection caused by aeromonas spp.: considerations on its treatment and importance of resistance to antimicrobial agents]. 19989646574
aeromonas as a cause of segmental colitis. 19989647047
molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from aeromonas trota.aeromonas trota ak2, which was derived from atcc 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-tn5km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain ak253. southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb noti fragment of the genomic dna of strain ak253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-tn5km1. the 8.7-kb noti dna fragment was cloned into the vector pgem5zf(-) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, ...19989647817
generation and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed to glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) native epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida.four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed to native glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida were isolated using an esterase capture assay. the molecular mass of this mab-defined antigen was estimated to be 26 kda in sds-page. three different epitope specificities of these mabs were demonstrated. it was shown that all 4 mabs recognize gcat in culture filtrates of the strain mt004 excluding the simultaneous trapping of other components. none of the ...19989653461
aerolysin induces g-protein activation and ca2+ release from intracellular stores in human granulocytes.aerolysin is a pore-forming toxin that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila infections. in this study, we have analyzed the effect of aerolysin on human granulocytes (hl-60 cells). proaerolysin could bind to these cells, was processed into active aerolysin, and led to membrane depolarization, indicating that granulocytes are potential targets for this toxin. fura-2 measurements were used to analyze the effect of aerolysin on cytosolic [ca2+] homeostasis. as expected for a ...19989660770
immunostimulatory effects of dimerized lysozyme (klp-602) on the nonspecific defense mechanisms and protection against furunculosis in salmonids.utilization of natural immunostimulants in fish culture offers a wide range of attractive methods for inducing and building protection against diseases. lysozyme is an enzyme with bacteriolytic properties and is ubiquitous in its distribution among living organisms. this enzyme has antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. in nature, lysozyme is found as a monomer. lysozyme dimer is significantly less toxic than its monomer, and its high biological activity has been ascertained ...19989613448
characterization of a 14 kda plant-related serine protease inhibitor and regulation of cytotoxic activity in earthworm coelomic fluid.we have purified and characterized the serine protease inhibitor activity contained in the coelomic fluid of the earthworms, eisenia. serine protease inhibitor activity was stable between ph3 and 9.5, not flocculable by ph 3.0 and resistant to 100 degrees c for 15 min. or to 4 degrees c for 24 h. ten microl of coelomic fluid was sufficient to inhibit in vitro the protease activity of 0.12 microgram of trypsin. injection of living bacteria into earthworms resulted in increased serine protease act ...19989617579
diverse and related 16s rrna-encoding dna sequences in prostate tissues of men with chronic prostatitis.treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is often empirical because clinical culture methods fail to detect prostate-associated pathogens in >90% of patients. previously, we tested a variety of specific-microorganism pcrs and began a dna sequence study after we found that 77% of prostatitis patients were pcr positive for prokaryotic rrna-encoding dna sequences (rdnas) despite negative cultures using optimal techniques. in the present study, 36 rdna clones from 23 rdna-positi ...19989620394
incidence of non-01 vibrio cholerae and aeromonas spp. in fresh water in araraquara, brazil.the occurrence of aeromonas spp., vibrio cholerae, and plesiomonas shigelloides in fresh water from various sources in araraquara, state of são paulo, brazil was determined. samples from ten distinct irrigation systems used in vegetable cultivation, from five distinct streams, from two reservoirs, from one artificial lake, and from three distinct springs were analyzed. all isolates were serotyped and tested for hemolysin, cytotoxin, heat-stable (st) and heat-labile (lt) enterotoxins production; ...19989625786
purification and characterization of an arylamine n-acetyltransferase from the bacteria aeromonas hydrophilia.n-acetyltransferase from aeromonas hydrophilia was purified by ultrafiltration, deae-sephacel, gel filtration chromatography on sephadex g-100, and deae-5pw on high performance liquid chromatography, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (sds-page) on a 12.% (wt/vol) slab gel. the enzyme had a molecular mass 44.9 kda. the purified enzyme was thermostable at 37 degrees c for 1 h with a half-life 28 min at 37 degrees c, and displayed optimum activity at 37 degrees ...19989625795
aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection as a complication of snake bite: report of three cases.aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection has been associated with fish and reptile bites. there have bee three recent cases from brazil of abscesses complicating snake bites in which a. hydrophila was isolated from the purulent exudates. one of the snakes responsible for the bites was a specimen of bothrops moojeni, and the others were most probably also lance-headed vipers. these snakes have a local necrotizing, myotoxic, oedema-inducing venom that must have favoured the multiplication in the ...19989625918
men 10700, a new penem antibiotic: in-vitro activity and its correlation with beta-lactamase stability, pbp affinity and diffusion through the bacterial cell wall.the in-vitro activity of men 10700, a novel penem, was compared with that of imipenem, ritipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and amikacin against 1088 strains taken from 21 genera, including gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. mic data showed that men 10700 was very active against staphylococci and streptococci (mic90 < or = 0.5 mg/l) and against most members of the enterobacteriaceae (mic90 < or = 2 mg/l), with reduced activity only against providencia stua ...19989630405
the effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas fluorescens.basil essential oils, including basil sweet linalool (bsl) and basil methyl chavicol (bmc), were screened for antimicrobial activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds using an agar well diffusion method. both essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against most of the micro-organisms examined except clostridium sporogenes, flavimonas oryzihabitans, and three species of pseudomonas. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of bmc against aeromon ...19989633630
colonization of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) larvae.polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to v. pelagius and/or aer. caviae. the results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of v. pelagius and aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. populations of ae ...19989633637
molecular characterization of the aeromonas hydrophila aroa gene and potential use of an auxotrophic aroa mutant as a live attenuated vaccine.the aroa gene of aeromonas hydrophila so2/2, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase, was cloned by complementation of the aroa mutation in escherichia coli k-12 strain ab2829, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. the nucleotide sequence of the a. hydrophila aroa gene encoded a protein of 440 amino acids which showed a high degree of homology to other bacterial aroa proteins. to obtain an effective attenuated live vaccine against a. hydrophila infections in fish, the aroa gen ...19989573055
defined deletion mutants demonstrate that the major secreted toxins are not essential for the virulence of aeromonas salmonicida.the importance of the two major extracellular enzymes of aeromonas salmonicida, glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a serine protease (aspa), to the pathology and mortality of salmonid fish with furunculosis had been indicated in toxicity studies. in this study, the genes encoding gcat (sata) and aspa (aspa) have been cloned and mutagenized by marker replacement of internal deletions, and the constructs have been used for the creation of isogenic sata and aspa mutants of ...19989573081
phenotypic identification of aeromonas genomospecies from clinical and environmental sources.a collection of 983 aeromonas isolates from environmental and clinical sources have been identified to the genomospecies level. a phenotypic method identified 93% of the strains. the use of citrate and the production of acid from sorbitol enabled the members of the aeromonas hydrophila complex to be separated. the most common genomospecies from intestinal sources were aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas caviae. the former, together with a. hydrophila, was the most frequently isolated ...19989575026
infected stingray injury. 19989576395
characterization and sequence of the chryseobacterium (flavobacterium) meningosepticum carbapenemase: a new molecular class b beta-lactamase showing a broad substrate profile.the metallo-beta-lactamase produced by chryseobacterium (formerly flavobacterium) meningosepticum, which is the flavobacterial species of greatest clinical relevance, was purified and characterized. the enzyme, named blab, contains a polypeptide with an apparent mr of 26000, and has a pi of 8.5. it hydrolyses penicillins, cephalosporins (including cefoxitin), carbapenems and 6-beta-iodopenicillanate, a mechanism-based inactivator of active-site serine beta-lactamases. the enzyme was inhibited by ...19989576862
fructose and mannose metabolism in aeromonas hydrophila: identification of transport systems and catabolic pathways.aeromonas hydrophila was examined for fructose and mannose transport systems. a. hydrophila was shown to possess a phosphoenolpyruvate (pep): fructose phosphotransferase system (fructose-pts) and a mannose-specific pts, both induced by fructose and mannose. the mannose-pts of a. hydrophila exhibited cross-reactivity with escherichia coli mannose-pts proteins. the fructose-pts proteins exhibited cross-reactivities with e. coli and xanthomonas campestris fructose-pts proteins. in a. hydrophila gro ...19989579084
efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from plant oils by alcaligenes eutrophus and its recombinant strain.the ability of alcaligenes eutrophus to grow and produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) on plant oils was evaluated. when olive oil, corn oil, or palm oil was fed as a sole carbon source, the wild-type strain of a. eutrophus grew well and accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer up to approximately 80% (w/w) of the cell dry weight during its stationary growth phase. in addition, a recombinant strain of a. eutrophus phb-4 (a pha-negative mutant), harboring a pha synthase gene from aeromonas c ...19989581296
[selective screening of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli depending on hemolysis on beutin's washed sheep blood agar plates].recently, beutin et al have studied hemolysin production in a large number of serologically diverse verotoxin (vt) producing escherichia coli (vtec) strains and found a close association between hemolysin production and vt production. this study was to examine whether hemolysin production on sheep blood agar can be used as an epidemiological marker for microbiological screening of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec). in comparison of hemolysis on washed blood agar plates prepared in our la ...19989585695
interactions of bacteria with contact lenses: the effect of soluble protein and carbohydrate on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.during contact lens wear, components in the tear film adsorb to the contact lens surface to form a protein-rich coating. in this study, we investigated the importance of these components in bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.19989586751
aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) from the baltic sea: a case study.aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) from the swedish part of the baltic sea is reported. the pathogen was isolated from both lung and spleen specimens. all of the a. hydrophila isolates produced haemolysin and vero active cytotoxin. the aerolysin gene was found in all tested isolates as evidenced by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. also, all isolates tested showed identical patterns of biochemical and antibiotic resistance. as aeromonas spp. commonl ...19989597306
bacterial density and survey of cultivable heterotrophs in the surface water of a freshwater marsh habitat of anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae (diptera: culicidae).we examined surface water samples collected in september and october 1994 from a freshwater marsh habitat containing larval anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes. bacterial densities in direct microscopic counts ranged from 9.7 x 10(5) to 1.3 x 10(7) cells/ml. densities of cultivable bacteria on trypticase soy agar medium ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 x 10(5) cells/ml. the majority of 888 isolates were gram-positive rods (41%) followed by gram-negative rods (28%). analysis of the cellular fatty acid pro ...19989599327
indwelling device-related and recurrent infections due to aeromonas species.from october 1995 to february 1997, 13 isolates of aeromonas species were recovered from four patients treated at national taiwan university hospital (taipei). one of the patients, a diabetic, had simultaneous aeromonas veronii biotype veronii bacteremia and a. veronii biotype sobria urinary tract infection. seven weeks after the episode, the patient had necrotizing fasciitis due to a. veronii biotype veronii. the other three patients all had underlying hepatobiliary malignancies complicated by ...19989524839
nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the metallo-beta-lactamase, imis, from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.the aeromonas veronii bv. sobria metallo-beta-lactamase gene, imis, was cloned. the imis open reading frame extends for 762 bp and encodes a protein of 254 amino acids with a secreted modified protein of 227 amino acids and a predicted pi of 8.1. to confirm the predicted sequence, purified imis was digested and the resulting peptides were identified, yielding an identical sequence for imis, with 98% identity to cpha. both possessed the putative active-site sequence asn-tyr-his-thr-asp at positio ...19989527802
detection of psychotrophic aeromonads in drinking water.in the context of evaluating their pathogenic relevance, culture on solid media is the only approach presently suitable for culture of psychotrophic aeromonads from drinking water. in this respect, a check must be effected to ensure that the culture medium cannot engender selective culture losses for individual species. for this reason, media to which e.g. ampicillin has been added are unsuitable.19989531729
food borne microbial pathogens of cultured aquatic species.this article provides a broad overview of microbial pathogens associated with marine and fresh water aquatic animals, including vibrio species, escherichia coli, streptococcus iniae, salmonella species, and edwardsiella tarda. historically, cultured fish were not considered important vectors of human pathogens. this situation is changing, partly due to increasing animal densities as a consequence of a rapidly growing industry and partly due to increasing awareness by health care providers of pat ...19989532670
activity of bacterial phosphomonoesterases in batch culture.the phosphomonoesterases catalyse the hydrolysis of primary esters of phosphoric acid which help the bacteria to survive in phosphate stressed environment. ninety-five bacterial isolates were obtained from domestic sewage and industrial effluents of gelatine and soap factories at jabalpur on a medium enriched with phosphate and were screened for phosphatase production. the phosphatase producers were tentatively identified as escherichia coli, vibrio vulnificus, aeromonas hydrophila, staphylococc ...19989536656
identification of lactococcus garvieae by pcr.lactococcus garvieae junior synonym enterococcus seriolicida) is an emerging zoonotic agent isolated from economically important fish (rainbow trout and yellowtail), from cattle, and from humans. clindamycin susceptibility is the only phenotypic test which can differentiate l. garvieae from lactococcus lactis, another emerging agent in humans. a pcr assay for the identification of l. garvieae was developed and resulted in an amplified fragment of 1,100 bp in size. the pcr assay was shown to be s ...19989542921
misidentification of unusual aeromonas species as members of the genus vibrio: a continuing problem.two unusual cases of aeromonas infection are described, one associated with bacteremia (aeromonas schubertii) and another in which the organism was recovered from an infected gall bladder (aeromonas veronii biotype veronii). these strains were initially identified as vibrio damsela and vibrio cholerae by the vitek and api 20e systems, respectively. use of appropriate screening tests and familiarity with the newer aeromonas species could prevent initial misidentifications and potential public hea ...19989542946
evaluation of the role of carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees c.the microflora on spoiled cold-smoked salmon often consists of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (lab) and gram-negative bacteria. to elucidate the role of the different groups, a storage trial was carried out in which nisin and co2 were used for the selective inhibition of the two bacterial groups. the shelf-life of vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon, recorded by sensory evaluation, was four weeks at 5 degrees c and the microflora was composed of lab (10(6)-10(7) cfu/g) with an associate gram-neg ...19989553794
a further review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in canada: 1992-1997 survey results. 19989553800
study of the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during storage at 8 degrees c.microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in cold-smoked salmon were studied during 5 weeks of vacuum storage at 8 degrees c. the aerobic 20 degrees c viable count reached its maximum level after 6 days (3 x 10(6) cfu g-1) however, the shelf-life of the product was estimated to be 2 or 3 weeks by the panellists, confirming that there is no correlation between those two factors. acid, pungent, sour and rancid odours and flavours and pasty texture were the main spoilage characteristics. trimet ...19989562883
analysis of the interaction of aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila and a. sobria with mucins.aeromonas species are known to be involved in human gastrointestinal diseases. these organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract. aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, and a. sobria have been demonstrated microscopically to adhere to animal cell lines that express mucous receptors, but quantitative studies of adherence to mucosal components such as mucin have not been published to date. purified bovine submaxillary gland, hog gastric mucin, and fish skin mucin were used as a model to study mucin-bi ...19989566493
enzyme characteristics of beta-d-galactosidase- and beta-d-glucuronidase-positive bacteria and their interference in rapid methods for detection of waterborne coliforms and escherichia coli.bacteria which were beta-d-galactosidase and beta-d-glucuronidase positive or expressed only one of these enzymes were isolated from environmental water samples. the enzymatic activity of these bacteria was measured in 25-min assays by using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-glucuronide. the enzyme activity, enzyme induction, and enzyme temperature characteristics of target and nontarget bacteria in assays aimed at detecting colifo ...19989501441
inactivation of two haemolytic toxin genes in aeromonas hydrophila attenuates virulence in a suckling mouse model.the contribution of two unrelated aeromonas hydrophila beta-haemolytic toxins to virulence was assessed in a suckling mouse model. the first haemolysin gene, isolated from an a. hydrophila a6 cosmid bank, encoded a potential gene product of 621 amino acids and a predicted molecular size of 69.0 kda. the inferred amino acid sequence showed 89% identity to the ahh1 haemolysin of a. hydrophila atcc 7966, and 51% identity to the hlya haemolysin of vibrio cholerae ei tor strain o17. the second haemol ...19989493366
internalization of aeromonas hydrophila by fish epithelial cells can be inhibited with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that is pathogenic in fish, causing motile aeromonad septicaemia. it can enter (invade) fish cells, and survive as an intracellular parasite. the host-pathogen interaction and signal transduction pathway were studied by screening signal transduction inhibitors using carp epithelial cells and a virulent strain of the bacterium, ppd134/91. genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, postponed internalization of a. hydrophila into host cells, suggesting ...19989493367
antibiotic resistance of bacterial litter isolates.use of antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses as growth-promoting feed additives for animal production is widespread in the u.s. and throughout the world. previous studies by our research group concluded that size fractionation of poultry (broiler) litter followed by storage facilitated reutilization of litter as a soil amendment or bedding supplement. however, litter microbial contamination, including antibiotic-resistant populations, and accumulation of metals and other elements may limit litter ...19989495488
virulence factors in aeromonas spp and their association with gastrointestinal disease.culture filtrates of eight aeromonas strains isolated from the feces of 487 subjects (292 diarrhoeic patients and 195 asymptomatic subjects) were tested for toxin production in cho and mccoy cells, and adhesion and invasive ability in caco-2 cells. among these isolates, three aeromonas sobria and one aeromonas caviae strains possessed virulence-associated properties. toxin production was the most common of the three virulence properties. two a. caviae were associated, in the absence of other dia ...19989497926
a pore-forming toxin interacts with a gpi-anchored protein and causes vacuolation of the endoplasmic reticulum.in this paper, we have investigated the effects of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin, produced by aeromonas hydrophila, on mammalian cells. our data indicate that the protoxin binds to an 80-kd glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored protein on bhk cells, and that the bound toxin is associated with specialized plasma membrane domains, described as detergent-insoluble microdomains, or cholesterol-glycolipid "rafts." we show that the protoxin is then processed to its mature form by host cell p ...19989456314
expression and characterization of (r)-specific enoyl coenzyme a hydratase involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis by aeromonas caviae.complementation analysis of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha)-negative mutant of aeromonas caviae proved that orf3 in the pha locus (a 402-bp gene located downstream of the pha synthase gene) participates in pha biosynthesis on alkanoic acids, and the orf3 gene is here referred to as phaj(ac). escherichia coli bl21(de3) carrying phaj(ac). under the control of the t7 promoter overexpressed enoyl coenzyme a (enoyl-coa) hydratase, which was purified by one-step anion-exchange chromatography. the n-termi ...19989457873
gene cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and purification and characterization of the low-specificity l-threonine aldolase from pseudomonas sp. strain ncimb 10558.a low-specificity l-threonine aldolase (l-ta) gene from pseudomonas sp. strain ncimb 10558 was cloned and sequenced. the gene contains an open reading frame consisting of 1,041 nucleotides corresponding to 346 amino acid residues. the gene was overexpressed in escherichia coli cells, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. the enzyme, requiring pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme, is strictly l specific at the alpha position, whereas it cannot distinguish between threo and er ...19989464392
reduction of diverse electron acceptors by aeromonas hydrophilaaeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966 grew anaerobically on glycerol with nitrate, fumarate, fe(iii), co(iii), or se(vi) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, but did not ferment glycerol. final cell yields were directly proportional to the amount of terminal electron acceptor provided. twenty-four estuarine mesophilic aeromonads were isolated; all reduced nitrate, fe(iii), or co(iii), and five strains reduced se(vi). dissimilatory fe(iii) reduction by a. hydrophila may involve cytochromes. differenc ...19989477259
small bowel and fecal microbiology in children suffering from persistent diarrhea in bangladesh.the etiology of persistent diarrhea in children is multifactorial. the objective of the current study was to ascertain the role of microorganisms in the etiology and pathogenesis of persistent diarrhea in a group of children in bangladesh.19989443113
movement of a loop in domain 3 of aerolysin is required for channel formation.aerolysin is a channel-forming toxin that must oligomerize in order to become insertion-competent. modeling based on the crystal structure of the proaerolysin dimer and electron microscopic images of the oligomer indicated that a loop in domain 3 must move away from the beta-sheet that forms the main body of the protein before oligomerization can proceed. in order to determine if movement actually occurs, strategically located amino acids in the loop and in the sheet were replaced with cysteines ...19989425098
experimental pathogenicity of aeromonas spp. for the zebra mussel, dreissena polymorphaexperiments were conducted to determine whether species of aeromonas were pathogenic to the zebra mussel dreissena polymorpha. a. jandaei, a. veronii, and a. media, identified with biolog, were originally isolated from dead zebra mussels. when inoculated into living mussels, these bacteria resulted in the mortality of the bivalves. two additional species, a. salmonicida salmonicida (atcc 33678) and a. hydrophila (atcc 7966), were also demonstrated to be pathogenic to the mussels. in addition to ...19989405741
new developments in meat starter cultures.meat starter cultures containing one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria,actinobacteria, staphylococci,halomonas elongata, aeromonas spec., and moulds or yeasts are widely in practical use. the progress in microbial systematic has led to changes in the taxonomy of familiar bacterial species which are described. studies of flavour genesis led to the identification of the contribution of the enzyme activities endogenously present in the meat matrix as well as of those exerted by the starter cu ...199822060705
a comparison of bacillus cereus and aeromonas hydrophilia zn-beta-lactamases. 199915263322
aeromonas abscess in an immunocompromised child.an 11-year-old immunocompromised child developed cellulitis and abscess due to aeromonas hydrophila at the site of bone marrow aspiration after swimming in a freshwater lake. the patient required treatment with intravenous antibiotics and surgical debridement to eradicate the infection. both common and unusual organisms may complicate infections at the sites of percutaneous procedures.199910598672
high mortality in zebrafish (danio rerio).a group of 100 adult zebrafish were housed in a new system at a stocking density of 20 fish per tank. four weeks after arrival, 15 fish presented with petechial hemorrhages and ulceration on the surfaces of the skin. samples of the fish were collected for histopathology, fungal culture, and bacterial culture and sensitivity. water samples were analyzed for ph, ammonia, nitrite, and submitted for bacterial and fungal culture. histologically, the epidermis had multiple areas of ulceration and mono ...199912086431
telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation.the telomerase reverse transcriptase component (tert) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. here, we identify the c-myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce tert gene expression. through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-myc (c-myc-er), we demonstrate that myc-induced activation of the ht ...199910022128
effects of malathion on disease susceptibility in woodhouse's toads.adult male woodhouse's toads (bufo woodhousi) developed clinical disease, hepatomegaly, and died at a higher rate when externally exposed once to either a high or low sublethal dose (0.011 or 0.0011 mg malathion/g toad) of field grade malathion and challenged with a sublethal dose of aeromonas hydrophila injected intraperintoneally (1.1 x 10(4) bacteria/g toad) when compared to toads not exposed to malathion but challenged with a. hydrophila (p < 0.007). toads exposed to malathion (high or low d ...199910479088
characterization of virulence factors of aeromonas isolated from children with and without diarrhoea in tripoli, libya.during september 1992-august 1993, stool samples from 157 children with diarrhoea and 157 matched healthy controls were examined for the presence of aeromonas and other enteropathogens. aeromonas strains were tested for haemolytic activity, haemagglutination patterns, and antibiotic susceptibility. in total, 62 aeromonas were isolated, of which 27 (17.2%) were from children with diarrhoea and 35 (22.3%) from healthy controls. only 23 (14.6%) of the diarrhoeal children and 28 (17.8%) of the healt ...199910897890
identification of inadequately cleaned equipment used in a sheep carcass-breaking process.aeromonads deposited on pork during a carcass-breaking process were recovered on hydrophobic grid membrane filters placed on ampicillin-dextrin-ethanol agar. isolates from 85 honey-yellow colonies from filters on that medium were aeromonas hydrophila (95%) or vibrio sp. (5%). presumptive aeromonads, coliforms, and escherichia coli in swab samples from product passing through a sheep carcass-breaking process were enumerated by hydrophobic grid membrane filtration techniques with a detection level ...199910382653
interleukin-1 mediates hemodynamic dysfunction and release of eicosanoids and tumor necrosis factor during graded bacteremia.the pathophysiologic events of sepsis mediated by interleukin-1 (il-1) remain ill-defined. the purpose of this study was to identify the circulatory derangements of which il-1 was a necessary mediator and evaluate its interactions with tumor necrosis factor (tnf) and the eicosanoids during graded bacteremia. eleven adult female swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and monitored with pulmonary artery catheters and arterial lines; they received intravenously either saline vehicle (sep ...199910454832
cloning and nucleotide sequencing of prolyl endopeptidase gene from aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata.prolyl endopeptidase activity was found in aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata. the genomic dna was partially digested with ecori and the recovered 8-16 kb dna fragments were inserted into the ecori site of plasmid puc19, and were transformated into escherichia coli dh5alpha. the resulted clones were screened by using benzyloxycarbonyl-gly-pro-beta-naphthylamide, the specific substrate of prolyl endopeptidase and a positive clone was obtained. the 12 kb insertion fragment of recombinant plasmid w ...199912114972
symbiosis of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech: a novel model for digestive tract associations.hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. infections by aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. the associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of h. medicinalis. early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of bl ...19999864188
properties of recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase.the properties of recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase(appep) were studied using specific substrate and peptides. results show that the optimum catalytic temperature and ph was 34 degrees and 8.4, the stability of the appep was in the range of 4-32 degrees and ph 6.0-10.0, and its k(m) was 0.03 mmol/l based on the z-gly-pro-betana. the appep was not sensitive to pmsf, tlck, tpck, trypsion inhibitor, edta, tetrathionate and some metal ions, but was sensitive to sds and zn(2 ), and ...199912110936
co-expression of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and (r)-enoyl-coa hydratase genes of aeromonas caviae establishes copolyester biosynthesis pathway in escherichia coli.polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes of aeromonas caviae were expressed in escherichia coli ls5218 (fadr atoc(con)), and the polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing ability of the recombinants was investigated. a ls5218 strain harboring only phacac (polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene) did not accumulate any polyhydroxyalkanoate from dodecanoate in spite of the existence of translated polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase protein, whereas co-expression phacac and phajac ((r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase gene) ...19999919653
purification and characterization of an aeromonas caviae metalloprotease that is related to the vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease.a zinc metalloprotease (ap34) from aeromonas caviae was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent gel filtration through sephadex g-100 and sephadex g-50 superfine. the molecular mass was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 34 kda. the protease showed maximum activity at ph 7.0 and was stable at 60 degrees c. ap34 was completely inactivated by edta and zincov. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of ap34 showed a high degree of homology with ...19999919673
prevalence and characteristics of aeromonas species isolated from processed channel catfish.from august 1994 to may 1995, 238 channel catfish fillets collected from three processing plants in the mississippi delta at four time periods were tested for the presence of aeromonas species. identification of aeromonas spp. was accomplished using an automated vitek bioassay system with gram-negative and nonfermenter cards. approximately 36.1% were positive for a. hydrophila, 35.7% for a. sobria, and 10.9% for a. caviae. all three aeromonas spp. were found in all three processing plants, and t ...19999921825
quantitative pcr for listeria monocytogenes with colorimetric detection.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was developed to detect and quantify listeria monocytogenes in food products. the bacterial dna was extracted from artificially contaminated food and co-amplified with a synthetic internal standard (is) using primers specific for the target gene coding for the invasive-associated protein (i.a.p.), a virulence factor of l. monocytogenes (i.a.p.) or is in the presence of fluorescein-dutp pcr products we ...19999921826
bacterial resistance to ultrasonic waves under pressure at nonlethal (manosonication) and lethal (manothermosonication) temperatures.the decimal reduction times of streptococcus faecium, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enteritidis, and aeromonas hydrophila corresponding to heat treatment at 62 degrees c were 7.1, 0.34, 0.024, and 0.0096 min, and those corresponding to manosonication treatment (40 degrees c, 200 kpa, 117 microm) were 4.0, 1.5, 0.86, and 0.90 min, respectively. the manosonication decimal reduction times of the four species investigated decreased sixfold when the amplitude was increased from 62 to 150 microm ...19999872795
polyphosphate-accumulating and denitrifying bacteria isolated from anaerobic-anoxic and anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactorsin this study, phosphate-accumulating bacteria achieved complete phosphate removal in two different systems: an anaerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor and an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor. this result shows that phosphate-accumulating bacteria in the a2 sbr can use nitrate as terminal electron acceptor instead of oxygen. phosphate-accumulating bacteria accumulated phosphate with a rates between 30 and 70 mg p/l/h in the a/o sbr and between 15 and 32 mg p/l/h in the a2 sbr. twenty ...19999841775
structure of in31, a blaimp-containing pseudomonas aeruginosa integron phyletically related to in5, which carries an unusual array of gene cassettes.the location and environment of the acquired blaimp gene, which encodes the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase, were investigated in a japanese pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (isolate 101/1477) that produced the enzyme. in this isolate, blaimp was carried on a 36-kb plasmid, and similar to the identical alleles found in serratia marcescens and klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, it was located on a mobile gene cassette inserted into an integron. the entire structure of this integron, nam ...199910103196
biochemical characterization of the pseudomonas aeruginosa 101/1477 metallo-beta-lactamase imp-1 produced by escherichia coli.the blaimp gene coding for the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase produced by a pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (isolate 101/1477) was overexpressed via a t7 expression system in escherichia coli bl21 (de3), and its product was purified to homogeneity with a final yield of 35 mg/liter of culture. the structural and functional properties of the enzyme purified from e. coli were identical to those of the enzyme produced by p. aeruginosa. the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase exhibits a broad-spectrum ...199910103197
signature region within the 16s rdna sequences of aeromonas popoffii.to identify a group of eight aeromonas strains of our collection showing ribotyping patterns similar to those described for the species aeromonas popoffii, 16s rrna gene sequence analysis was performed. results were in agreement with the dna binding values, and allowed the identification of a 'signature region' differentiating the a. popoffii strains from all other members of the genus aeromonas.199910188252
genetic characterization of a new type iv-a pilus gene cluster found in both classical and el tor biotypes of vibrio cholerae.the vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type iv-a pilus assembly operons. the region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilabcd and yace, based on the nomenclature of related genes from pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli k-12. this cluster is present in both classical and el tor biotypes, and the pila and pild genes are 100% conserved. the pila gene encodes a putative type iv p ...199910024587
the effect of diet on aerobic bacterial flora associated with intestine of arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.).in order to extend the knowledge on the possible effect of diet on the gastrointestinal microbial community of fish, arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.) were fed diets containing high (23.7%) and low (6.4%) levels of carbohydrate. the number of viable aerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria associated with the digestive tract were not influenced by dietary regimen. a wide range of bacterial species was isolated, and the predominant bacterial species of both rearing groups were identified as st ...199910030010
the degradation of sodium o,o-diethyl dithiophosphate by bacteria from metalworking fluids.the breakdown of sodium o,o-diethyl dithiophosphate (o,o-diethyl phosphorodithioate) by four bacterial strains (tentatively identified as strains of aeromonas, pseudomonas, flavobacterium and bacillus) isolated from contaminated metalworking fluids was shown to involve the successive formation of ethanol, aldehyde and orthophosphate. an acid phosphodiesterase was identified in cell-free extracts that was five- to sevenfold enhanced in specific activity in bacteria grown on o,o-diethyl dithiophos ...199910030034
expression and properties of an aerolysin--clostridium septicum alpha toxin hybrid protein.aerolysin is a bilobal channel-forming toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila. the alpha toxin produced by clostridium septicum is homologous to the large lobe of aerolysin. however, it does not contain a region corresponding to the small lobe of the aeromonas toxin, leading us to ask what the function of the small lobe is. we fused the small lobe of aerolysin to alpha toxin, producing a hybrid protein that should structurally resemble aerolysin. unlike aerolysin, the hybrid was not secreted whe ...199910048023
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome in an adult male with aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis. 199910069207
mortality of captive canadian toads from basidiobolus ranarum mycotic dermatitis.twenty-six adult free-ranging canadian toads (bufo hemiophrys) were collected from northeastern north dakota (usa) during the last week of august 1994 and placed in captivity. during late december and january 1995, 21 canadian toads died. clinical signs included increased time sitting in water bowls, darkened dorsal skin, constant arching of their backs, and hyperemia and sloughing of ventral epidermis. the condition progressively worsened until death occurred within 5 to 7 days after onset of c ...199910073347
identification and characterization of is2404 and is2606: two distinct repeated sequences for detection of mycobacterium ulcerans by pcr.molecular analysis of mycobacterium ulcerans has revealed two new insertion sequences (iss), is2404 and is2606. is2404 was identified by complete sequencing of a previously described repetitive dna segment from m. ulcerans. this element is 1,274 bp long, contains 12-bp inverted repeats and a single open reading frame (orf) potentially encoding a protein of 327 amino acids (aa), and apparently generates 7-bp direct repeats upon transposition. amino acid similarity was found between the putative t ...199910074520
[aeromonas septicemia]. 199910088391
peroxide-inducible catalase in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida protects against exogenous hydrogen peroxide and killing by activated rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss l., macrophages.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida expresses a single cytoplasmically located catalase which was found to be inducible by exposure to 20 microm hydrogen peroxide in mid-exponential phase resulting in a 4 fold increase in activity. subsequent exposure to 2 mm peroxide in late-exponential/early-stationary phase resulted in further induction of catalase activity which increased to 20 fold higher levels than those found in uninduced cultures. exponentially induced cultures were protected again ...199910089155
small subunit rrna gene sequences of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and haemophilus piscium reveal pronounced similarities with a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) encoding genes from reference strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and haemophilus piscium were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into escherichia coli cells. almost the entire ssu rrna gene sequence (1505 nucleotides) from both organisms was determined. these dna sequences were compared with those previously described from a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, subsp. achromogenes and subsp. masoucida. this genetic analysis revea ...199910092980
aeromonas hydrophila isolated from cases of bovine seminal vesiculitis in south brazil. 199910098696
secretion of hemolysin of aeromonas sobria as protoxin and contribution of the propeptide region removed from the protoxin to the proteolytic stability of the toxin.the sequence at the amino terminus region of the hemolysin ofaeromonas sobria is homologous with that of aerolysin of a. hydrophila. however, there is no homology between the two toxins in the sequence at the carboxy terminal region. it has been shown that aerolysin is secreted into culture supernatant as a protoxin. this proaerolysin is activated by the proteolytic removal of a carboxy terminal peptide. however, the role of the carboxy terminal region, which is removed in the activation process ...199910100744
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