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bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by aeromonas hydrophila isolated from industrial effluent.economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. in this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in greece. the bacterial isolate was identified as aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a func ...201121808740
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health implications.ice used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
characterization of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (gcsfr) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. in this study we report on the cloning and molecular characterization of goldfish gcsfr. the identified goldfish gcsfr sequence possesses the conserved ig-like domain, the cytokine receptor homology domain (crh), three fibronectin domains as well a ...201121801744
biochemical and hematological reference intervals for krefft's turtles emydura macquarii krefftii from the burnett river catchment, australia.biochemical and hematological reference intervals have not previously been reported for emydura macquarii krefftii. in 2009, 56 e. m. krefftii were captured by hand from the burnett catchment, clinically assessed to determine health status and blood sampled. reference intervals were calculated from the 35 clinically healthy turtles using techniques established in other chelonid species. aberrant blood results were identified from the 21 clinically unhealthy turtles. low numbers of observed cases ...201121797034
isolation and identification of a novel inducible antibacterial peptide from the skin mucus of japanese eel, anguilla japonica.in this study, acetone extracts and acidic extracts were prepared from skin mucus, gill, kidney, liver and spleen of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, and they exhibited different levels of antibacterial activities against three strains of gram-negative bacteria, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sp. and one gram-positive bacterium micrococcus leteus. the mucus was chosen as the source of antibacterial peptide for further purification of antibacterial peptides. following the ...201121796440
emerging gram-negative infections in burn wounds.gram-negative infection remains a major contributor to morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. in the absence of comparative multinational epidemiological studies specific to burn patients, we sought to review literature trends in emerging gram-negative burn wound infections within the past 60 years. mapping trends in these organisms, although in a minority compared with the six "eskape" pathogens currently being targeted by the infectious diseases society of north america, would identify pathog ...201121792068
molecular identification and virulence of three aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in west alabama (usa) in 2009.three isolates (al09-71, al09-72, and al09-73) of aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish ictalurus punctatus during a disease outbreak in west alabama, usa, in august 2009. sequence analysis of the 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region (isr), cpn60, gyrb, and rpod genes of the 3 strains revealed that the 3 strains were closely related to each other, sharing 97 to 99% nucleotide sequence similarities. however, isr sequences of the 3 isolates from 2009 shared only 64% nuc ...201121790073
soft tissue infections caused by marine bacterial pathogens: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.skin and soft tissue infections (sstis) are one of the most common infection syndromes and may be caused by a large number of microorganisms. some principles of aquatic injuries are different than those of land-based trauma. wounds sustained in marine environment are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in different settings. these include vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., shewanella spp., erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, mycobacterium marinum, streptococcus iniae, and other microbes. fail ...201121785929
aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum gene transcriptional hierarchy.aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum class i gene transcription is s(70)-dependent, which is consistent with the fact that a. hydrophila polar flagellum is constitutively expressed. in contrast to other bacteria with dual flagella systems such as vibrio parahaemolyticus, the a. hydrophila lafk protein does not compensate for the lack of the polar flagella regulator flra (v. parahaemolyticus flak homologue). this is consistent with the fact that the a. hydrophila flra mutation abolishes polar fla ...201121784933
effects of dietary ß-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (cyprinus carpio koi).this study was performed to determine the efficacy of three immunomodulators viz., ß-1,3 glucan, chitosan and raffinose on the innate immune response of koi, cyprinus carpio koi. kois were divided into 4 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without immunostimulant for 56 days. total leukocyte counts (wbc), the non-specific humoral (lysozyme, alternative complement pathway and superoxide dismutase) and cellular (phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst activity) response ...201121784160
pathogenic bacteria in sewage treatment plants as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.this study applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze potentially pathogenic bacteria in activated sludge from 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) across four countries (china, u.s., canada, and singapore), plus the influent and effluent of one of the 14 wwtps. a total of 370?870 16s rrna gene sequences with average length of 207 bps were obtained and all of them were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks by using rdp classifier and megan. it was found that the most a ...201121780772
bacterial communities in the gut of the freshwater copepod eudiaptomus gracilis.eudiaptomus gracilis is the most abundant member of the zooplankton, plays a key role in the food web of lake balaton (hungary). in the present study the composition of bacterial communities of this copepod was investigated based on cultivation and molecular cloning. the cultivated bacterial strains from the gut homogenate samples of eudiaptomus gracilis belonged to four different clades: firmicutes, actinobacteria, bacteriodetes and proteobacteria. clone library showed high species diversity, f ...201121780147
gastrointestinal colonization rates for human clinical isolates of aeromonas veronii using a mouse model.a variety of environment-associated gastrointestinal infections have been associated with the aeromonas group of bacteria which contain both non-virulent strains as well as virulent strains within a particular species. this study monitors the colonization rates of colon tissue in a mouse-streptomycin dose/response model involving isolates of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria obtained from human clinical specimens. the ability to successfully colonize mouse colon tissues by the human clinical isola ...201121779939
comparative molecular characterization of the regucalcin (rgn) gene in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and maraena whitefish (coregonus marena).the ca(2+)-binding protein regucalcin (rgn) is crucial for the regulation of ca(2+) ion homeostasis and signal transduction of cells. it is involved in the regulation of ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases and ca(2+) pump enzymes in cell membranes. comparative transcriptome analysis in healthy fish of two aquacultured rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) lines (born, tco) varying in susceptibility to environmental stress identified significant differences in the expression of the rgn gene. therefore ...201121779798
dual chaperone role of the c-terminal propeptide in folding and oligomerization of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.throughout evolution, one of the most ancient forms of aggression between cells or organisms has been the production of proteins or peptides affecting the permeability of the target cell membrane. this class of virulence factors includes the largest family of bacterial toxins, the pore-forming toxins (pfts). pfts are bistable structures that can exist in a soluble and a transmembrane state. it is unclear what drives biosynthetic folding towards the soluble state, a requirement that is essential ...201121779171
multi-functional characteristics of the pseudomonas aeruginosa type iii needle-tip protein, pcrv; comparison to orthologs in other gram-negative bacteria.pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. this virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of t3 effector proteins into infected cells. to accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the t3 needle structure. strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host ce ...201121772833
in vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts.to evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria.201121771453
immune response of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) following experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila.the gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicaemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. however, the immune mechanisms involved in this disease in fish are still poorly understood. for the purpose of this study, gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) specimens received a double intraperitoneal injection of bacterial inoculums: a primary infection with 1 ...201121767651
molecular characterization of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2, analysis of its inductive expression and down-stream signaling following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in rohu (labeo rohita).nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2 is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (prr) and is a member of nod like receptor (nlr) family. it senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products and is involved in innate immune responses. in this report, nod-2 gene was cloned and characterized from rohu (labeo rohita) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. the full length rohu nod-2 (rnod-2) cdna comprised of 3176bp with a singl ...201121767564
molecular basis of sulfonamide and trimethoprim resistance in fish-pathogenic aeromonas isolates.sulfonamide-trimethoprim-resistant aeromonas salmonicida and motile aeromonas spp. from diseased fish of the germ-vet study carried the sul1 gene together with mostly cassette-borne trimethoprim resistance genes, including the novel gene dfra28. the seven dfra and dfrb genes identified were mostly located in class 1 integrons which commonly harboured other gene cassettes.201121764945
identification of aeromonas isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.we evaluated the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identifying aeromonads with an extraction procedure. genus-level accuracy was 100%. compared to rpob gene sequencing, species-level accuracy was 90.6% (29/32) for type and reference strains and 91.4% for a collection of 139 clinical and environmental isolates, making this system one of the most accurate and rapid methods for phenotypic identification. the reliability of this technique wa ...201121763094
crystal structure of serratia fonticola sfh-i: activation of the nucleophile in mono-zinc metallo-ß-lactamases.metallo-ß-lactamases (mbls) or class b ß-lactamases are zinc-dependent enzymes capable of inactivating almost all classes of ß-lactam antibiotics. to date, no mbl inhibitors are available for clinical use. of the three mbl subclasses, b2 enzymes, unlike those from subclasses b1 and b3, are fully active with one zinc ion bound and possess a narrow spectrum of activity, hydrolyzing carbapenem substrates almost exclusively. these remain the least studied mbls. sfh-i, originally identified from the ...201121762699
effect of dietary supplements on cytokine gene expression in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum). 201121762174
incidence of class 1 integron and other antibiotic resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. from rainbow trout farms in australia.there is limited information on antibiotic resistance determinants present in bacteria of aquaculture origin in australia. the presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in victoria (australia). polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes int1, int2 and int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated aada, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes stra-strb, ß ...201121762170
a unique epidermal mucus lectin identified from catfish (silurus asotus): first evidence of intelectin in fish skin slime.the present study reports a new type of skin mucus lectin found in catfish silurus asotus. the lectin exhibited calcium-dependent mannose-binding activity. when mannose eluate from chromatography with mannose-conjugated agarose was analyzed by sds-page, the lectin appeared as a single 35-kda band. gel filtration showed that the lectin forms monomers and dimers. a 1216-bp cdna sequence obtained by race-pcr from the skin encoded a 308 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and fis ...201121757471
three goose-type lysozymes in the gastropod oncomelania hupensis: cdna sequences and lytic activity of recombinant proteins.three goose-type (g-type) lysozymes, designated as ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 were identified from expressed sequence tags (ests) of a gastropod oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of schistosoma japonicum. the full cdna sequences of ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 consisted of 735, 909 and 808 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 198, 214 and 249 codons containing a 21, 7 and 8 amino acid (aa) signal peptide at the n-terminus, respectively. the three g-type lysozymes shared conserv ...201121756934
bacillus amyloliquefaciens g1: a potential antagonistic bacterium against eel-pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. however, few probiotics are available against aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. in the present study, a potential antagonistic strain g1 against the eel-pathogenic a. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of ph, temperature, and proteinase k. it was initially ident ...201121754944
influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. the objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and in goldfish (carassius auratus). faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. vib ...201121692817
[in process citation]. 201121720695
identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections.to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cdna hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of nile tilapia at 6h post infection with aeromonas hydrophila. a total of 31 unique expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from 192 clones of the subtractive cdna library. quantitative pcr revealed that nine of the 31 ests were significantly (p<0.05) ...201121840065
bacterial symbiont and salivary peptide evolution in the context of leech phylogeny.summarythe evolutionary history of leeches is employed as a general framework for understanding more than merely the systematics of this charismatic group of annelid worms, and serves as a basis for understanding blood-feeding related correlates ranging from the specifics of gut-associated bacterial symbionts to salivary anticoagulant peptides. a variety of medicinal leech families were examined for intraluminal crop bacterial symbionts. species of aeromonas and bacteroidetes were characterized ...201121729354
bacterial infection of mudfish clarias gariepinus (siluriformes: clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish clarias gariepinus in africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. in order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between january 2008 and december 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (a, grassland), mid-river (b, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver ( ...201121717856
lactobacillus plantarum (vr1) isolated from an ayurvedic medicine (kutajarista) ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by aeromonas veronii.abstract:201121707995
a specific inorganic triphosphatase from nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism.the cyth superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the cyab adenylyl cyclase from aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kda thiamine triphosphatase. because these proteins often form a closed +¦-barrel, they are also referred to as "triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes" (ttm). functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. these proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions, depending on ...201121840996
prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonas strains from various retail food products in mumbai, india.ôçé a total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in mumbai, india, were analyzed for the presence of aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (january 2006 to march 2008). twenty-two aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. the highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. aeromonas caviae, a. veronii bv. sobria, and a. salmonicida ...201121824136
selection for improved resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp labeo rohita: survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines.selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. in the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohu labeo rohita to assess their suitability as immune markers for use in indirect selection for increased resistance. experimental infe ...201121712094
the microbiological profile and presence of bloodstream infection influence mortality rates in necrotizing fasciitis.abstract: introduction: necrotizing fasciitis (nf) is a life threatening infectious disease with a high mortality rate. we carried out a microbiological characterization of the causative pathogens. we investigated the correlation of mortality in nf with bloodstream infection and with the presence of co-morbidities. methods: in this retrospective study, we analyzed 323 patients who presented with necrotizing fasciitis at two different institutions. bloodstream infection (bsi) was defined as a pos ...201121693053
effects of a prebiotic, immunogen(-«) , on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp cyprinus carpio (linnaeus) fingerlings.this study evaluated the effects of a commercial prebiotic, immunogen, on feed utilization, growth rate, immunity promotion and carcass composition of the common carp cyprinus carpio fingerlings. the fingerlings were adopted for 2ôçâweeks and then reared in triplicate groups in 250-l tanks (nôçâ=ôçâ15 per tank with average initial weights of 11.12ôçâ-¦ôçâ0.55ôçâg). the fish fed on five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing different levels of immunogen (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and ...201121707781
aeromonas hydrophila moty is essential for polar flagellum function, requires coordinate expression of motx and pom proteins.by the analysis of aeromonas hydrophila atcc7966t genome we identified a. hydrophila ah-3 moty. a. hydrophila moty, like motx, is essential for the polar flagellum function energized by an electrochemical potential of na+ as coupling ion, but is not involved in lateral flagella function energized by proton motive force. thus, a. hydrophila polar flagellum stator is a complex integrated by two essential proteins: motx and moty, which interact with one of two redundant pairs of proteins: pomab and ...201121737499
differential immune responses of the green neon shrimp (neocaridina denticulate) to dipropyl phthalate.this study set out to understand the sublethal effect of xenobiotic phthalate esters (paes) on the relationship between the susceptibility of shrimp to bacterial infection and the immune response of the shrimp. neocaridina denticulate were exposed to different concentrations of the pae dipropyl phthalate (dprp), and mortality and six immune parameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after exposure. on days 1 and 3 after exposure, shrimp exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 mg/l of dprp and chall ...201121740974
aeromonas rivuli sp. nov., isolated from the upstream region of a karst water rivulet.two freshwater isolates (wb4.1-19(t) and wb4.4-101), sharing 99.9 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, were highly related to aeromonas sobria (99.7 % similarity; 6 bp differences). a phylogenetic tree derived from a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (mlpa) of the concatenated sequences of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and gyra; 3684 bp) revealed that both strains clustered as an independent phylogenetic line next to members of aeromonas molluscorum and aeromonas bivalvium. the ...201120207806
quorum sensing in aeromonas species isolated from patients in malaysia.bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules called n-acylhomoserine lactone (ahl) controls the expression of virulence determinants in many gram-negative bacteria. we determined ahl production in 22 aeromonas strains isolated from various infected sites from patients (bile, blood, peritoneal fluid, pus, stool and urine). all isolates produced the two principal ahls, n-butanoylhomoserine lactone (c4-hsl) and n-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). ten isolates also produced additional ahls. this re ...201120544198
in vitro study of possible microbial indicators for drowning: salinity and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood.numbers and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood samples mixed with water of various salinity levels were examined to determine the characteristics of species associated with salinity. water samples (total n=88) were collected from the midstream of two rivers (freshwater; n=10; salinity <0.05%), from around their estuaries (areas of freshwater, n=20, salinity <0.05%; areas of brackish water, n=20, salinity <0.05-3.1%; areas of marine water beyond the mouths of the rivers, n=28, salin ...201120554407
molecular quantification of virulence gene-containing aeromonas in water samples collected from different drinking water treatment processes.pathogenic species of aeromonas produce a range of virulence factors, including aerolysin, cytotonic enterotoxins, and serine protease, to cause acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans and animals. recognizing that not all aeromonas strains are pathogenic, in this study, we proposed to evaluate aeromonas removal effectiveness based on the presence of virulence gene-containing aeromonas as a proper means to assess microbial risk of aeromonas. we developed and applied real-time pcr as ...201120632090
quorum sensing in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase asai on bacterial virulence.the gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida possesses the luxir-type quorum sensing (qs) system, termed asair. in this study the role of qs in a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. five wild-type asa strains induced the n-acyl-homoserinelactone (ahl) monitor bacteria. hplc-hr-ms analysis identified only one type of ahl, n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl). a knock out mutant of asai, constructed by allelic exchange, did n ...201120708354
chemical and structural characterization of hydroxamate siderophore produced by marine vibrio harveyi.in the present study, 22 different bacteria were isolated from open ocean water from the gulf of mannar, india. of the 22 isolates, 4 were identified as vibrio spp. (vm1, vm2, vm3 and vm4) and found to produce siderophores (iron-binding chelators) under iron-limited conditions. different media were found to have an influence on siderophore production. maximum siderophore production was observed with vm1 isolate in mm9 salts medium at 48 h of incubation. the isolate was confirmed as vibrio harvey ...201120602146
enhanced chloroplast transgene expression in a nuclear mutant of chlamydomonas.chloroplast transformation in microalgae offers great promise for the production of proteins of pharmaceutical interest or for the development of novel biofuels. for many applications, high level expression of transgenes is desirable. we have transformed the chloroplast of chlamydomonas reinhardtii with two genes, acrv and vapa, which encode antigens from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. the promoters and 5' untranslated regions of four chloroplast genes were compared for their ability t ...201120809927
an ancient molecule with novel function: alanine aminotransferase as a lipopolysaccharide binding protein with bacteriocidal activity.alanine aminotransaminase (alt) has been identified from bacteria to plants to animals including humans. the increase in serum alt is regarded as an index for clinical diagnosis of liver function in humans. however, alt elevation is also reported in non-liver injury conditions and in apparently healthy people, suggesting it may play a fundamental role physiologically. herein we isolated an alt homolog, amphialt, from branchiostoma japonicus, an intermediatary species from invertebrates to verteb ...201120816894
exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.this study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (mfcs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. phylogenetic tree analysis on 16s rrna gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized mfcs were gamma-proteobacteria aeromonas punctata niu-p9, pseudomonas plecoglossicida niu-y3, pseudomonas koreensis niu-x8, acinetobacter junii niu-y8, stenotropho ...201120859654
zebrafish mast cells possess an fcɛri-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.we previously identified a zebrafish mast cell (mc) lineage and now aim to determine if these cells function analogously in innate and adaptive immunity like their mammalian counterparts. intraperitoneal (ip) injection of compound 48/80 or live aeromonas salmonicida resulted in significant mc degranulation evident histologically and by increased plasma tryptase compared with saline-injected controls (p=0.0006, 0.005, respectively). pre-treatment with ketotifen abrogated these responses (p=0.0004 ...201120849876
molecular characterization and functional analysis of myd88 in chinese soft-shelled turtle trionyx sinensis.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is one of the key adaptor proteins to signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in this study, the myd88 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) (tmyd88) was identified, representing the fist example from reptile species. the tmyd88 has a 894-bp orf and encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acids including a typical death domain (dd) at the n-terminus and a conservative toll/il-1r (tir) domain at the ...201120850547
identification and pathogenicity of aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia oreochromis niloticus.thirty-six strains, numbered from py01 to py36, were isolated from six moribund oreochromis niloticus. the biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of aeromonas sobria on the basis of api 20e and biolog gn system. furthermore, gyrb sequence of strain py36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with a. sobria in genbank. antibiotic-resistance of strain py36 was assessed by the kirby-bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was suscept ...201120853167
type vi secretion regulation: crosstalk and intracellular communication.pathogens use type vi secretion systems (t6sss) to transport proteins into the environment or host cells in response to external stimuli. t6sss are tightly regulated together with other virulence determinants such as type iii secretion systems, quorum sensing (qs), and flagella synthesis. five pathogens (salmonella enterica, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio cholerae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) are examined for crosstalk proteins (global regulators) that connect t6sss to other vi ...201120971679
detection of autoinducer (ai-2)-like activity in food samples.the contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. however, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. the autoinducer ai-2 is thought to be a universal signa ...201121031305
aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas hydrophila as part of a polymicrobial infection following a traumatic fall into freshwater.amikacin is a first-line treatment for aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. there are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas spp. we report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins.201121209173
application of ultrasound in vaccination against goldfish ulcer disease: a pilot study.antigenicity and immunogenicity of aeromonas salmonicida soluble a-layer protein (ap) and formalin-killed bacterin were assessed in goldfish (carassius auratus l.) by applying ultrasound-immersion (usi) and injection (inj) routes. no adjuvant was used in usi while ifa was used in inj. the usi treated fish did not produce detectable acquired antibodies; however, this group stimulated by ap proved to be best protected against challenge infection with a homologous virulent strain of a. salmonicida. ...201121211585
fulminant fatal bacteremic pneumonia due to aeromonas hydrophila in a non-immunocompromised woman.a 75-year-old woman became ill suddenly with pneumonia two weeks after operation for colon cancer. despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit she died six hours after admission and 12 hours after her first symptom. autopsy showed necrotizing pneumonia. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lung at autopsy. in patients who develop a fulminant disease of pneumonia, particularly those who have underlying medical conditions, aeromon ...201121212576
bacterial diseases of crabs: a review.bacterial diseases of crabs are manifested as bacteremias caused by organisms such as vibrio, aeromonas, and a rhodobacteriales-like organism or tissue and organ tropic organisms such as chitinoclastic bacteria, rickettsia intracellular organisms, chlamydia-like organism, and spiroplasma. this paper provides general information about bacterial diseases of both marine and freshwater crabs. some bacteria pathogens such as vibrio cholerae and vibrio vulnificus occur commonly in blue crab haemolymph ...201121215353
diversity and characterization of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria associated with non-native species, white-leg shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), and native species, black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), intensively cultured in thailand.this study aimed at surveying prevalence of oxytetracycline (otc)-resistant bacteria in the white-leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, intensively cultured in thailand. we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial isolates, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of otc, the occurrence of major otc-resistant genes and multiple-antibiotic resistance in the isolates.201121219554
detection of three virulence genes alt, ahp and aera in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with actual virulence to zebrafish.to evaluate the frequency of the aerolysin (aera), cytotoxic enterotoxin (alt) and serine protease (ahp) genes in aeromonas hydrophila isolates from different sources, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in zebrafish.201121219556
salmonella typhimurium st213 is associated with two types of inca/c plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.salmonella typhimurium st213 was first detected in the mexican typhimurium population in 2001. it is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blacmy-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. the objective of the current study was to examine the association between the st213 genotype and blacmy-2 plasmids.201121223599
structural insights into quinolone antibiotic resistance mediated by pentapeptide repeat proteins: conserved surface loops direct the activity of a qnr protein from a gram-negative bacterium.quinolones inhibit bacterial type ii dna topoisomerases (e.g. dna gyrase) and are among the most important antibiotics in current use. however, their efficacy is now being threatened by various plasmid-mediated resistance determinants. of these, the pentapeptide repeat-containing (prp) qnr proteins are believed to act as dna mimics and are particularly prevalent in gram-negative bacteria. predicted qnr-like proteins are also present in numerous environmental bacteria. here, we demonstrate that o ...201121227918
comparison of aeromonas salmonicida resistant and susceptible salmon families: a high immune response is beneficial for the survival against aeromonas salmonicida challenge.selective breeding has been employed to improve resistance to infectious diseases in aquaculture and it is of importance to investigate the expression profiles of immune genes together with complement activity of atlantic salmon with different genetic background in response to pathogens, in particular against aeromonas salmonicida. this study examined acute phase products, and several central t cell cytokines and a transcription factor in different tissues, namely head kidney, spleen and liver, ...201121232605
surface display of aeromonas hydrophila gapdh in attenuated vibrio anguillarum to develop a noval multivalent vector vaccine.displaying foreign antigens on the surface of attenuated or avirulent bacteria is an important strategy to develop live multivalent vector vaccines. in our previous work, several efficient surface display systems have been established based on outer membrane anchoring elements, which could successfully display heterologous proteins in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. in this work, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila lsa34 was fused to seven dis ...201121246232
a fatal case of necrotizing aeromonas schubertii fasciitis after penetrating injury. 201121247722
development of immunity in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) to aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic.the development and duration of immune protection against aeromonas hydrophila infections with garlic as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss was studied. rainbow trout fingerlings of 14 g average weight were fed with 0 g (=control), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days. physiological factors, biochemical, immunological, haematological parameters and electrolyte indices were evaluated after a further 14, 21 and 28 days before challenge with aeromonas hydroph ...201121255652
quorum sensing and c-di-gmp-dependent alterations in gene transcripts and virulence-associated phenotypes in a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila.recently, we demonstrated that the luxs-based quorum sensing (qs) system (ai-2) negatively regulated the virulence of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, while the ahyri-based (ai-1) n-acyl-homoserine lactone system was a positive regulator of bacterial virulence. thus, these qs systems had opposing effects on modulating biofilm formation and bacterial motility in vitro models and in vivo virulence in a speticemic mouse model of infection. in this study, we linked these two qs syste ...201121256953
detection of aaca-aphd, qaced1, mara, flor, and teta genes from multidrug-resistant bacteria: comparative analysis of real-time multiplex pcr assays using evagreen(®) and sybr(®) green i dyes.we have developed multiplex real-time pcr assays that utilize dna-intercalating dyes, sybr green i (sg) and evagreen (eg), with two primer sets (set 1=qaced1, teta and aaca-aphd; set 2=teta, mara, and flor) to simultaneously amplify the qaced1, teta, aaca-aphd, mara, and flor genes. validity of the multiplex pcr assays was confirmed by testing 83 bacterial isolates, including staphylococcus aureus (28 isolates), enterococcus spp. (17 isolates), salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (8 isolates ...201121256956
aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (pd)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in pd-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. these rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms ha ...201121269597
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.the safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16s-23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions (its) and the gyrase subunit b gene (gyrb) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne ...201121276629
molecular cloning and characterization of foxp3 in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).foxp3 is a t cell-specific transcription factor and plays a key role in the development of treg cells and in the immune regulatory process during inflammation. here we report cloning and characterization of the full-length cdna of atlantic salmon foxp3, which possesses a forkhead domain, a zinc finger domain and a leucine-zipper domain as its counterpart in mammals. foxp3 is highly expressed in thymus. furthermore, regulated expression was observed in head kidney cells in response to ß-glucan an ...201121276855
formation of new polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer in burkholderia sp.burkholderia sp. synthase has been shown to polymerize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb), 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenoic acid monomers. this study was carried out to evaluate the ability of burkholderia sp. usm (jcm 15050) and its transformant harboring the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene of aeromonas caviae to incorporate the newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) monomer. various culture parameters such as concentrations of nutrient rich medium, fructose and 4-methylval ...201121279348
amino-benzosuberone: a novel warhead for selective inhibition of human aminopeptidase-n/cd13.this paper describes the design and synthesis of compounds belonging to a novel class of highly selective mammalian cd13 inhibitors. racemic homologues of 3-amino-2-tetralone 1 were synthesised and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit the membrane-bound, zinc-dependent aminopeptidase-n/cd13 (ec 3.4.11.2). some of these novel non-peptidic compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme, with k(i) values in the low micromolar range in spite of their minimal size ...201121292493
the centromere site of the segregation cassette of broad-host-range plasmid ra3 is located at the border of the maintenance and conjugative transfer modules.ra3 is a low-copy-number, broad-host-range (bhr) conjugative plasmid of the incu incompatibility group isolated originally from aeromonas spp. a 4.9-kb fragment of ra3 is sufficient to stabilize an otherwise unstable replicon in escherichia coli. this fragment specifies the kora-incc-korb-orf11 operon coding for an active partition system related to the central control operon of incp-1 plasmids and found also in bhr environmental plasmids recently classified as the proma group. all four genes in ...201121296952
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201121298713
does domestication process affect stress response in juvenile eurasian perch perca fluviatilis?the objective was to evaluate the impact of domestication process on the physiological stress response of cultured eurasian perch confronted to a chronic stress situation. briefly, f1 and f4 juveniles were submitted to chronic confinement and investigated on days 5, 15 and 30. capture and 15min-anesthesia were imposed on fish to assess the effect of preceding confinement on acute stress response. on day 30, the fish were finally challenged with aeromonas hydrophila and sampled after 5 and 10 day ...201121300167
immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from alcaligenes faecalis fy-3 to crucian carp.a strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from weihe river in shaanxi province (108°03'e 34°14'n), which was identified as alcaligenes faecalis by 16s rrna analysis. a compound m showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. the structure of the compound m was elucidated using ft-ir, ei-ms, 1h nmr and 13c nmr spectra and identified as cyclo-(l-pro-gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product ...201121332568
a udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p galnac-1-p transferase (wecp) representing a new subgroup of the enzyme family.the aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 wecp represents a new class of udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p hexnac-1-p transferases. these enzymes use a membrane-associated polyprenol phosphate acceptor (undecaprenyl phosphate [und-p]) and a cytoplasmic udp-d-n-acetylhexosamine sugar nucleotide as the donor substrate. until now, all the weca enzymes tested were able to transfer udp-glcnac to the und-p. in this study, we present in vitro and in vivo proofs that a. hydrophila ah-3 wecp transfers galnac to und-p and is u ...201121335454
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in the black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli hilgendorf, in korea.cultured black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, suffered mass mortalities during winter 2008 and spring 2009 in korea, showing clinical signs of ulcer lesions and haemorrhages over their body surface. the aetiological agent was identified as aeromonas salmonicida (strains rfas-1, -2 and -3), which is a non-pigmented, slow-growing bacterium. phenotypes of rfas strains showed variation, while 16s rrna, gyrb, rpod, dnaj and reca gene sequences of all the strains were affiliated to a. salmonicida. in p ...201121166824
inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.the present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when a. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (nacl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of asp is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of a. sobria (asp) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. in this study, the effect of salt in ...201121175775
colorimetric detection of pcr product with dnazymes induced by 5'-nuclease activity of dna polymerases. 201121161971
development of an aeromonas hydrophila  infection model using the protozoan tetrahymena thermophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a motile bacterium present in numerous freshwater habitats worldwide and is frequently the cause of infections in fish and numerous terrestrial vertebrates including humans. because a. hydrophila is also a component of the normal intestinal flora of healthy fish, virulence mechanisms are not well understood. considering that fish models used for the examination of a. hydrophila genes associated with virulence have not been well defined, we established an infection model u ...201121204941
leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila. 201121339408
evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological w ...201121344093
[development of rapid detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification].loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method of gene amplification with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. the method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. in the present study, according to the conservative regions of non-structural protein gene ns1, a set of four specific primers were designed, ...201021344755
[biological properties of opportunistic bacteria in aquatic ecosystems].the paper gives the results of studying the enzymatic activity of bacteria in the microbial community of the lena river in the central part of yakutia (the town of yakutsk and its adjoining areas). the study properties were found in 31.8% of the bacteria. aeromonas had the highest enzymatic activity. high (22.0%) dnaase production rates were noted in enterobactericeae.201021341499
melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, pacifastacus leniusculus, by aeromonas hydrophila ah-3.aeromonas hydrophila is the most common aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. pathogenesis of aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (lps), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. several mutant strains of a. hydrophila ah-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, pacifastacus leni ...201021206752
aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.members of the genus aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. this review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. antimicrobial resistance and therap ...201021163298
potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp.this study reports the effect of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diet on cyprinus carpio (52 +/- 2 g, n = 250) inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 106 cfu ml(-1)). on day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the basal diet (iu) or with diets supplemented with triherbal extract (h), sporolac (s) or lactobacillus (l). a fifth group of non-infected fish fed with the basal diet was used as a control. haematology and immunolo ...201021166313
microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant pseudomonas putida.polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthesis genes phapcj(ac) cloned from aeromonas caviae were transformed into pseudomonas putida ktoy06δc, a mutant of p. putida kt2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant p. putida ktoy06δc (phapcj(a.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length pha block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (phb) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3hhp) as another block. the novel block polymer was st ...201021181145
genome sequence of the emerging pathogen aeromonas caviae.aeromonas caviae is a gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. here we present the first genome sequence of an a. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.201021183677
clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of gram-negative bacterial spinal epidural abscess in adults.gram-negative (g(-)) bacterial spinal epidural abscess (sea) in adults is uncommon. of the 42 adult patients with bacterial sea admitted to the chang gung memorial hospital - kaohsiung, between 2003 and 2007, 12 with g(-) sea were included in this study. of these 12 patients, seven were men and five were women; their ages ranged between 17 years and 81 years (median=72.5 years, mean=62.5 years). the patients were admitted at different stages of symptom onset (four were in the acute stage and fou ...201021185728
effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. there is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. but problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clo ...201021186711
[comparasion of two methods for recovery of aeromonas spp. in feces from agar cin (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)]. 201021191564
influence of alginic acid and fucoidan on the immune responses of head kidney leukocytes in cod.the present study investigated the immunomodulatory activities of alginic acid and fucoidan, both derived from brown seaweeds, on selected cellular immune responses and antibacterial activity of head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod, gadus morhua. primary cultures of hk leukocytes were incubated with either 10 or 100 μg ml(-1) of the substances and the effects on respiratory burst, cellular proliferation, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and cellular myeloperoxidase were measured at 3- and 24 ...201021191809
mortality of centrarchid fishes in the potomac drainage: survey results and overview of potential contributing factors.skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the south branch of the potomac river in 2002. since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the shenandoah and monocacy rivers. despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens aer ...201021192549
differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.the proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima) were evaluated. additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. for this purpose, a total of 144 pseudomonas spp. and 127 aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and cal ...201021339162
biofilm formation by aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. reference strain atcc 7966 and biofilm strains tub19, tub20, and tub21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). attachment strength (s(r)) of these strains to the vegetable surface wa ...201021034267
bacteremia caused by aeromonas hydrophila complex in the caribbean islands of martinique and guadeloupe.aeromonas species are gram-negative bacilli of the water environment whose survival appears facilitated by warm climates. there have been no reports on aeromonas hydrophila complex (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, a. veronii) in the caribbean to date. our aim was to describe clinical and bacteriological features in patients presenting with such bacteremia in martinique and guadeloupe. during a 14-year period, we retrospectively identified 37 patients. the mean age was 55 years and in 89% of cases unde ...201021036850
differential regulation of caspase-1 activation via nlrp3/nlrc4 inflammasomes mediated by aerolysin and type iii secretion system during aeromonas veronii infection.aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that cause serious infectious disease in humans. such bacteria have been shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages, yet the host responses triggered by macrophage death are largely unknown. in this study, we demonstrate that the infection of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with aeromonas veronii biotype sobria triggers activation of caspase-1 with the ensuing release of il-1β and pyroptosis. caspase-1 activation in response to a. veronii in ...201021037094
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