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acute arthritis caused by aeromonas hydrophola: clinical and therapeutic aspects.two cases of aeromonas hydrophila arthritis are reported and a third case present in the literature is reviewed. all three cases occurred in patients with myelogenous leukemia; the knee joint was involved in 2 patients and the metacarpal-phalangeal joint in the third. in the 2 patients presented here, synovial fluid antibiotic levels were measured and were adequate; but a hydrophila was repeatedly cultured from the knee joints, a fact suggesting that other factors, such as normal functioning leu ...19761062992
nalidixic acid as a selective agent for the isolation of enterobacteria from river water.enterobacteria are more resistant to nalidixic acid than the majority of other gram-negative organisms isolated from river water, so allowing their selection on macconkey agar containing nalidixic aicd. selection is further improved by anaerobic incubation which, with nalidixic acid, virtually eliminates oxidase-postivie strains such as pseudomonas or aeromonas.19761068190
bacterial flora of the hemolymph of the blue crab, callinectes sapidus: numerical taxonomy.bacteria isolated from the hemolymph of normal blue crabs were found to be predominantly vibrio sp., pseudomonas sp., acinetobacter sp., bacillus sp., flavobacterium sp., and coliforms. vibrio parahaemolyticus, a cosmopolitan facultative pathogen widely implicated in outbreaks of gastroenteritis related to the consumption of improperly processed seafood, was present in crabs collected between the months of may to november and was identified in up to 21% of the hemolymphs sampled.19751090258
[testing of various aeromonas strains isolated from corps using the resistance test]. 19751091447
enteropathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas shigelloides.aeromonas hydrophila was enteropathogenic in ligated ileal loops of rabbits, causing a fluid accumulation of 1-0 - 2-0 ml per cm of gut length. gut reaction could be produced with an inoculum as low as 10-4 viable bacteria. there was no difference in the nature of the positive reactions given by strains isolated from diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal children and adults and from water. plesiomonas shigelloides, on the other hand, did nt cause a significant gut reaction. a. hydrophila multiplied in t ...19751092866
[swarming phenomenon of an aeromonas spec (author's transl)].a genuine swarming phenomenon, such as has previously been known to occur in proteus, bacillus and clostridium species only, was observed in an aeromonas species. fig. 1 shows the terraced swarming zones of the aeromonas species on nutrient agar. the swarming rate, expressed as the growth of the swarming zone per time unit, was measured to be 70-120 mum/min on blood agar at 30 degrees c. the swarming could be inhibited by incubation at 37 degrees c (table 2), by low saline concentrations (table ...19751101579
[utilization of lin (lysine-indole-motility) medium for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria].a multiple-test medium for the routine laboratory identification of enteropathogenic bacteria is described. the medium has the following formula: bacto-peptone (difco) 5 g; yeast extract (difco) 3 g; casein tryptic digest peptone (merek) 15 g; glucose 1 g; l-lysine-monohydrochloride (merck, no. 5700) 5 g; nacl 5 g; bromcresol purple 0.016 g; agar 2 g; distilled water 1000 ml; final ph 6.6. the medium is dispensed in amounts of 5 ml into tubes of 14 x 85 mm and autoclaved at 120 degrees c for 10 ...19751101584
microbial conversion of anthracycline antibiotics. 19751102512
reduced nitrofuran sensitivity conferred by r factors. 19751104937
rapid identification of gram-negative rods using a three-tube method combined with a dichotomic key.a three-tube method combined with a dichotomic key is presented which will identify virtually all enterobacteriaceae as well as a number of other frequently encountered gram-negative rods at a genus or species level within 20 hours following the primary isolation. the method is shown to be reliable and simple, saving processing time and material.19751106114
the rapid serological diagnosis of fish furunculosis caused by "smooth" and "rough" strains of aeromonas salmonicida. 19751113076
fever and survival.the significance of fever in response to a bacterial infection has been investigated using the lizard dipsosaurus dorsalis as an animal model. these lizards develop a fever of about 2 degrees c after injection with the bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. to determine whether this elevation in body temperature increases the resistance of the host to this infection, as measured by survival, lizards were infected with the live bacteria and placed in a neutral (38 degrees c), low (34 degrees or 36 degre ...19751114347
a cluster analysis of some bacteria in the water column of green lake, washington.mass inoculation and computer clustering techniques were used in an abbreviated procedure to group similar bacteria isolated from four depths in the water column of green lake, washington. four groups of bacteria were differentiable and were catagorized as orange-yellow flavobacterium-cytophaga, yellow flavobacterium-cytophaga, vibrio-aeromonas-, and pseudomonas-like. some of the groups were most prevalent in certain sample depths in the water column.19751116047
tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in the enterobacteriaceae: some physical properties of the enzymes.several physical properties of the first four enzymatic activities of the tryptophan pathway were examined using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. five different patterns were noted. differences in the anthranilate synthetase (as) and phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase (prt) defined these patterns. in all the organisms studied phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase and indoleglycerol phosphate synthetase co-eluted from both diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and g-200 and thus probably ...19751116988
facultative anaerobic bacteria in the digestive tract of chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) maintained in fresh water under defined culture conditions.the bacterial flora in the digestive tract of chum salmon growing in fresh water under defined and controlled culture conditions was examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. the predominant species present in the digestive tract were identified as aeromonas, with aeromonas hydrophila being the most common isolate. these aeromonads were not isolated from the diet. other bacterial species commonly isolated included bacillus, enterobacter, nonpigmented pseudomonads, micrococcus, and acinetob ...19751147605
isolation of aeromonas sp. atcc 29063, a phenol-producing organism, from fresh haddock.attempts to isolate phenol-producing organisms from stale haddock fillets failed. several such isolates, however, were readily obtained from fresh haddock and were designated aeromonas sp. phenol was produced from l-tyrosine by these isolates.19751147610
aeromonas proteolytica--a halophilic aeromonad?aeromonas proteolytica, a halophilic bacterium originally isolated from the intestine of a marine isopod, was compared with 93 strains of aeromonas hydrophila and representative strains of five similar genera in a computer and serological analysis. aeromonas proteolytica was peritrichate and non-reactive with six a. hydrohila antisera, and possessed a percentage guanine + cytosine ratio (49.5) outside the range for other aeromonads (55-62%). moreover, in the computer analysis it shared a lower l ...19751148936
[the relation of aerogenic to anaerogenic aeromonads of the "hydrophila-punctata-group" in river water depending on the load of waste (author's transl)].the analysis of the relation of the aerogenic and anaerogenic aeromonas-species of the "hydrophila-punctata-group" in moving waters of a varying load of waste demonstrates that in the sewage water the anaerogenic subspecies a.hydrophila subsp. anaerogenes and a.punctata subsp. caviae predominate over the aerogenic species a.hydrophila and a.punctata with an average of 78%. polysaprobic rivers and brooks show a similar relation. to the contrary, the aerogenic aeromonads-mainly a.hydrophila-domina ...19751154921
the occurrence of twitching motility among gram-negative bacteria.almost 1000 strains representing well above 50 different species or groups of gram-negative bacteria were examined for twitching motility. this kind of motility was mainly found in strictly aerobic cocci and rods (viz. acinetobacter calcoaceticus, moraxella spp., neisseria gonorrhoeae, n. meningitidis, pseudomonas spp., phenon 3 of thornley that is closely related to acinetobacter, and marine, yellow-pigmented rods), but also in the facultative eikenella corrodens and in anaerobic strains presum ...19751155115
effects of chemotherapeutics on bacterial ecology in the water of ponds and the intestinal tracts of cultured fish, ayu (plecoglossus altivelis).drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli conferred with r factors were isolated with high frequencies from the intestinal tracts of ayu (plecoglossus altivelis) cultured in ponds, in which chemotherapeutics had often been used, and with relatively low frequencies from ayu which received no administration of chemotherapeutics. drug-resistant bacteria were also isolated at low frequencies from the intestinal tracts of wild ayu in rivers, as well as from the water of ayu-culturing ponds and some of the ...19751160204
characterization of three aeromonas and nine pseudomonas species by extracellular enzymes and haemolysins.strains from type culture collections and clinical isolates belonging to the aeromonas and pseudomonas genera were identified with conventional tests. production of extra-cellular enzymes and haemolysins were detected by simple plate agar methods. the following enzymes were found to be of special value for a rapid and simple classification of certain species in both genera: potease (casein and gelatin agar), lecithinase (lecithin agar), and deoxyribonuclease (dna agar). elastase, staphylolytic e ...19751170482
detection of aeromonas salmonicida antigen in diseased fish tissue. 19751171156
letter: human infection with aeromonas species: varied clinical manifestations. 19751180435
s-2,3-dicarboxy-aziridine, a new metabolite from a streptomyces. 19751184472
competitive ability of amylolytic bacteria in activated sludge.shifts were induced into the microbial community of activated sludge by the pulse addition of soluble starch. the subsequent changes of amylolytic and proteolytic microbial populations were recorded. four amylolytic strains were isolated and characterized with regard to carrying capacity, specific surface and growth kinetics. the competitive ability of these strains was studied by means of two-member competition experiments. these experiments were analysed according to the lotka-volterra model a ...19751190951
fish furunculosis caused by aeromonas salmonicida var. achromogenes.an epizootic of sub-acute furunculosis caused by an acromogenic variety of aeromonas salmonicida is described. bacteriologic, serologic and virulence characteristics of the isolate are presented.19751195489
a preliminary investigation of the effects of salinity on the bacterial flora of the tay estuary.two features of the effects of salinity on the bacterial flora of the tay estuary are considered. first the effect of salinity on the size and species composition of the resident microflora at various sites within the estuary. the second part is concerned with data obtained from laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of subjecting marine and freshwater bacteria, isolated from the tay, to salt stress.19751208501
studies on the so-called nag vibrios. 19751213771
[nutrition and taxonomy of "enterobacteriaceae" and related bacteria. iii. nutritional characters and differentiation of the taxonomic groups (author's transl)].a batch of 186 strains belonging to the families enterobacteriaceae or vibrionaceae has been studied by determination, for each strain, of the "versatility" towards 146 organic substrates tested as sole source of carbon and energy. this study allowed to work out a classification of these strains into the 32 classes which have been previously described. in the present paper the nutritional characters of these classes are reported. on the basis of these characters, the 32 classes may be regrouped ...19751217784
[incompatibility grouping of r factor detected from aeromonas hydrophila and a. salmonicida]. 19751240266
[demonstration of specific antibodies in sera of patients with infections caused by aeromonas hydrophila (author's transl)].according to the formation of specific antibodies against aeromonas hydrophilia in patients with infections caused by this microorganism the sera of two patients of different clinical picture were investigated. among the antibodies there could be demonstrated the antihaemolysins against the haemolysin of the monolgous strain, agglutinins against the o-antigen and praecipitins against soluble antigens. the special problems of the technics are described. the results are discussed and interpreted.19751240712
meningitis due to aeromonas hydrophila.a case of meningitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila is reported. the infection complicated an otherwise successful frontotemporal craniotomy. survey of the literature revealed that human infections due to this organism are relatively uncommon, and its causal relationship in meningitis has not been previously reported. a. hydrophila is known to cause bacteremia in patients under treatment with immunosuppresive agents. we report meningitis with bacteremia, caused by this organism, in an immunologi ...19761254706
blood changes in brook trout induced by infection with aeromonas salmonicida.furunculosis was induced in brook trout, salvelinus fontinalis, by experimental inoculation with aeromonas salmonicida. total protein, hemoglobin, sialic acid, fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, inorganic-phosphorus, acid-soluble phosphorus, and lipid-phosphorus decreased in the blood of the infected fish while amino acids, urea, total creatinine, ammonia, and glucose increased. pyruvic acid, lactic acid, and ascorbic acid values showed no significant change.19761255917
a septicaemic disease of east african snakes associated with enterobacteriaceae.a bacterial epizootic disease of snakes at a snake farm in kenya is described. the condition shows characteristic clinical signs and post mortem lesions and is characterized by a bacteraemia and septicaemia. the mortality rate is high and newly captured snakes die within a few weeks. attempted control of the disease is discussed briefly and attention is drawn to the significance of such a condition in a commercial enterprise.19761265824
[study of the flagellins of microorganisms of the virbio and aeromonas genera]. 19761266454
enterotoxin, haemolysin and cytotoxic protein in aeromonas hydrophila from human infections.three different toxins were detected in culture supernatants from 11 strains of aeromonas hydrophila. the haemolysin and the cytotoxic factor(s) interferred in the three test systems for enterotoxin, but they could be neutralized by heating at 56 degrees c or by specific antihaemolysin.19761274594
bacterioplankton community structure and dynamics after large-scale release of nonindigenous bacteria as revealed by low-molecular-weight-rna analysis.a set of freshwater mesocosms (1.7 m3 each) was inoculated with large amounts of escherichia coli, pseudomonas putida, and their culture medium to substantially disturb the natural microbial community. to monitor microbial community dynamics, low-molecular-weight rna (5s rrna and trna) obtained directly from bacterioplankton was analyzed by using high-resolution electrophoresis. the introduced bacteria showed no significant effect on the community structure of the natural bacterial assemblage an ...19921280060
immunostimulants added to injected aeromonas salmonicida bacterin enhance the defense mechanisms and protection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).immunostimulants were given to rainbow trout for assaying effects on modulating non-specific defense mechanisms, specific immune response, and protection levels against pathogen challenge with aeromonas salmonicida. three drugs, levamisole (an approved veterinary drug in the usa), a quaternary ammonium compound (qac), and a short-chain polypeptide (isk) were found to affect the non-specific defense mechanism activities, which were measured by changes in circulatory neutrophil and phagocytic acti ...19921280879
purification of aeromonas hydrophila major outer-membrane proteins: n-terminal sequence analysis and channel-forming properties.four outer-membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila were purified and their n-terminal sequences and channel-forming properties were determined. three could be matched with proteins from other species. one was a maltoporin, as its level increased when cells were grown in maltose-containing media, and the channel it formed was blocked by maltose. another was like ompf and ompc of escherichia coli, except that its channel fluctuated much more rapidly. the third protein, which was produced in low- ...19921283000
[the typing of environmental strains of aeromonas spp]. 19921284582
[the aerobic bacterial flora of songbird nests].in the area around ober- and unterschleissheim, a medium term decrease in the singing bird population appears to be happening. therefore, material from nesting-boxes (used for nesting or sleeping) was examined for bacterial contamination. mainly gram positive bacteria were isolated which were considered to belong to the normal flora. the occurrence of streptomyces spp. is described in the nesting material of passeres probably for the first time. enterobacteriaceae represent only a fraction of th ...19921289040
[the danger of infection in inhalation rooms].there are alarming reports about high counts of legionella and pseudomonas in the aerosol of inhalation-rooms. we therefore investigated 14 institutions (6 kurhauses, 5 hospitals and 3 sanatoria for children) in schleswig-holstein, each of them at least five-fold. for that purpose the inhalant (seawater as a rule) was investigated for the total bacterial number and the number of legionella. cfu/m3 air were determined at the aerosol outlet and a qualitative search for legionella was done in the p ...19921290566
gastroenteritis outbreak at an industrial camp--british columbia. 19921291017
[an outbreak of food poisoning suspected due to aeromonas and characteristics of the isolated strains].on june 7, 1990, food poisoning with main symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea occurred in inuyama city, aichi prefecture. from results of bacteriological examination, three kinds of mesophilic aeromonas spp. were detected from patients, leftover foods, well water, and cookers, one of which was a. hydrophila which was shown to produce haemolysin thought to be the cause of the food poisoning. on the other hand, a. sobria and a. caviae isolated from various materials did not produce haemolysin. ...19921292745
[leg cellulitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila. medical treatment].a case of cellulitis of the leg caused by aeromonas hydrophila in a cirrhotic patient is reported. the starting point of the infection could not be determined with certainty, but a direct local inoculation during foot-baths was suspected. because of clinical signs suggestive of erysipelas, the disease was initially treated without success with penicillin g, which raises questions concerning the choice of the initial antibiotic therapy for cellulitis of the leg in immunocompromised patients, pend ...19921296475
novel structural patterns in divalent cation-depleted surface layers of aeromonas salmonicida.the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida possesses a regular surface layer (or a-layer) which is an important virulence determinant. the a-protein, a single bilobed protein organized in a p4 lattice of m4c4 arrangement with two morphological domains, comprises this layer. the role of divalent cations in the a-layer structure was studied to better understand a-protein subunit interactions affecting structural flexibility and function. divalent cation bridges were found to be involved in the integr ...19921296752
production of chitinase by enterotoxigenic aeromonas species isolated from clinical and environmental sources.thirty-six isolates of aeromonas, 13 from children and 23 from the environment were tested for production of chitinase in culture supernatants. thirty-four isolates of the three species (91% clinical and 96% environmental) produced constitutive chitinase. the environmental isolates elaborated significantly more (p < 0.005) of the enzyme than those from the children. four of the environmental isolates also produced inducible chitinase. all isolates of aeromonas were enterotoxic, however, the isol ...19921296938
biochemical characteristics and enterotoxicity of aeromonas species isolated from man and environment.a total of 147 isolates of aeromonas spp., of which 54 were isolated from children and adults with diarrhoea, 44 from variety of water sources and 49 from environmental sources, were tested for enterotoxin production and its correlation with biochemical characters. lysine was decarboxylated by 38% of a. hydrophila, 35% of a. sobria and 20% of a. caviae. majority strains were unable to utilise citrate as the sole source of carbon except one of a. hydrophila, 8 of a. sobria and 6 of a. caviae. bet ...19921296942
[a strain of aeromonas veronii isolated from a patient suspected of cholera].investigations were carried on a strain isolated from patient hospitalized in poland. the patient returned from odessa, a region with cholera epidemic. the strain was suspected to be vibrio cholerae, but it did not agglutinate in v. cholerae 01 serum. the aim of this study was establishment of taxonomical classification of this strain, in order to demonstrate whether it is a representative of the non-cholera vibrio group (not agglutinating) or another representative of the family vibrionaceae. t ...19921297030
hemolytic properties of some aeromonas strains.considering the possible correlation between hemolytic and enterotoxigenic properties of aeromonas strains mentioned in the literature, in the present work we studied the practical value of the hemolysis tests in the diagnosis of aeromonas strains by using comparatively the hemolysis tube tests (with goat and sheep erythrocytes suspensions) as well as the technique on blood agar in aerobic conditions. there were studied comparatively 230 aeromonas strains (different species: a. hydrophila, a. so ...19921297462
[purification and characterization of hec toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila].an extracellular toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila from cultured crucian carp with septicemia was detected. the toxin was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, deae-cellulose chromatography and sephadex g-100 gel filtration. the factor was a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 52.5kd determined by sds-page. the heat-stable toxin possesses hemolytic, enterotoxic and cytolytic activities. the hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was 3.81 x 10(3) hu/mg, cd50 for vero cell w ...19921299032
nucleotide sequences and characterization of haemolysin genes from aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria.extracellular haemolysin is thought to be one of the important virulence factors in aeromonas infection. two extracellular haemolysin genes (ahh3 and ahh4) from aeromonas hydrophila strain 28sa, one (ahh5) from a. hydrophila strain ah-1 and one (asa1) from aeromonas sobria strain 33 were cloned into cosmid and plasmid vector dna in escherichia coli. the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames of ahh3 and ahh4 are both 1476 basepairs (bp), whereas ahh5 and asa1 are 1455 and 1467 bp in len ...19921302284
incidence of aeromonas isolated from diarrhoeal children and study of some virulence factors in the isolates.stool samples from 305 children with diarrhoea and equal number of age and sex matched non-diarrhoeal control children, less than 5 years of age, were examined during the period from sept 1988 to april 1989. aeromonas spp. were isolated from 37 (12.1%) diarrhoeal and 05 (1.6%) control cases. out of 37 diarrhoeal isolates 13 (35.1%) were a. hydrophila, 19 (51.1%) a. sobria and 05 (13.5%) a. caviae. all the isolated strains were tested for haem agglutination property and haemolysin production. sev ...19921303082
antimicrobial resistance of 100 serial gram-negative isolates in two intensive care units.to determine antimicrobial resistance pattern among gram-negative bacteria isolated from suspected sources of infections in patients hospitalized in two intensive care units (icus) at siriraj hospital from september 1991 to december 1991, minimal inhibitory concentrations of one-hundred consecutive gram-negative isolates for various antimicrobials were performed using the microbroth dilution method. of all gram-negative bacterial isolates, 25 per cent were pseudomonas aeruginosa, 22 per cent aci ...19921308536
characterization of lactoferrin binding by aeromonas hydrophila.various lactoferrin preparations (iron-saturated and iron-depleted human milk lactoferrins and bovine milk and colostrum lactoferrins) were bound by aeromonas hydrophila. binding was (i) reversible (65% of bound lactoferrin was displaced by unlabeled lactoferrin), (ii) specific (lactoferrin but not other iron-containing glycoproteins such as ferritin, transferrin, hemoglobin, and myoglobin inhibited binding), and (iii) significantly reduced by pepsin and neuraminidase treatment of the bacteria. ...19921311545
outbreaks of human enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41 in houston day care centers.human enteric adenovirus (ead) types 40 and 41 cause diarrhea in young children, but little is known about their association with outbreaks of diarrhea in the child care setting. this study evaluated ead as a cause of outbreaks of diarrhea among infants and toddlers in day care centers.19921313095
mechanism of action of a cytotonic enterotoxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila.in this study, we describe the mechanism of action of a cytotonic enterotoxin produced by two isolates of aeromonas hydrophila. isolates ssu and ah65 are of different origin and both are capable of producing either a cytotoxic enterotoxin or aerolysin. a cytotonic enterotoxin produced by diarrheal isolate ssu, which was purified and characterized in our laboratory, elevated intracellular camp and pge2 levels in cultured chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells. likewise, enterotoxic activity expressed ...19921315703
in vitro activity of lomefloxacin and other antimicrobials against bacterial enteritis pathogens.lomefloxacin is a new, difluoroquinolone. in this study, the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin against clinical isolates of a variety of bacterial species associated with acute diarrheal disease was determined and compared with that of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. bacterial isolates were obtained from different geographical areas, including western europe and the united kingdom, southern europe, africa, the middle east ...19921319301
[appendicitis: microbial interactions and new pathogens].the authors present an exhaustive review on microbial agents of appendicitis by means of literature and personal research data. thus, a detailed analysis is made on common autochthonous agents and their pathogenetic interactions and on less common exogenous bacterial, viral, mycotic, protozoan and helminthic agents with emphasis to the role of yersinia enterocolitica. in fact this bacterium seems responsible for 3% to 8% of cases in accordance with literature and personal research data (more det ...19921323137
inhibition of lipopolysaccharide synthesis in agrobacterium tumefaciens and aeromonas salmonicida.lipopolysaccharide (lps) synthesis was inhibited, new lipid a metabolites accumulated, and growth ceased, when the plant pathogen agrobacterium tumefaciens and the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida were treated with an antibacterial agent which specifically inhibits ctp:cmp-3-deoxy-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase (cmp-kdo synthase). the new lipid a metabolites were purified by chromatography on deae-cellulose and chemically analysed. metabolites isolated from both bacterial species con ...19921324975
roles of structural domains in the morphology and surface anchoring of the tetragonal paracrystalline array of aeromonas hydrophila. biochemical characterization of the major structural domain.the tetragonally arranged s-layer of aeromonas hydrophila contains two morphological domains. the mature s-layer protein of a. hydrophila has a subunit molecular weight of 52,000, and has been reported to contain two structural domains. here a mutant has been isolated which produces an s-layer of subunit molecular weight 38,650 as determined by sedimentation analysis. this truncated s-protein was exported via the periplasm to the cell surface, but could not self-assemble into a tetragonal array ...19921333533
molecular and genetic characterization of cytochrome oxidase-negative aeromonas salmonicida isolated from coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch).cytochrome oxidase variants of the bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida, were characterized for genetic and molecular homology with cytochrome oxidase-positive isolates that typically induce furunculosis in salmonids. protein and lipopolysaccharide moieties of the cytochrome oxidase-negative variants were similar to their typical counterparts, based on sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. pathogenicity of aberrant isolates to brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) wa ...19921335520
glucose repression of pigment production in atypical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida responsible for goldfish ulcer disease.the effect of glucose and other carbohydrates on the pigmentation of three atypical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida indicated that the addition of d-glucose at a concentration of 0.1% (w/v) or more, inhibited pigment production and caused a reduction in the size of colonies. the addition of camp reversed the inhibitory effects of d-glucose on pigment production.19921336808
susceptibility of recent clinical isolates to temafloxacin (a-63004) and other antimicrobial agents.in vitro susceptibility of 1008 strains of recent clinical isolates was determined against the new aryl fluoroquinolone temafloxacin (t-167, a-63004) ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin, oxacillin and vancomycin. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of temafloxacin in micrograms/ml required for > or = 90% isolates were 0.13-0.5 for enterobacter, 0.03-0.25 for escherichia coli, 0.12-0.5 for klebsiella, 0.5-1.0 for ...19921338041
studies on the infundibular cysts of the uterine tube in camel (camelus dromedarius).two hundred eighteen genital tracts of slaughtered female camels were collected and examined. infundibular cysts were observed in 35 tracts (16%); these were either unilateral (22 cases) or bilateral (13 cases) all containing fluids of different consistencies. the morphological and histological structures of the cysts were recorded. the bacteriological investigation and physicochemical analysis of cyst contents were carried out. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from 68.5% of cases. rectal palpa ...19921339989
non-culturable aeromonas salmonicida in lake water.the survival of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was investigated in lake water. during a 21-day study a. salmonicida became non-culturable in sterile lake water held at 10 degrees c. the incubation of replicate samples between 5 degrees c and 25 degrees c produced similar results. the recovery of colony-forming units of a. salmonicida from different lake water systems indicated that they survived longer in water that was naturally enriched (eutrophic) or enriched with tryptone soya brot ...19921342635
characterization of aeromonas sobria tap13 pili: a possible new colonization factor.pili of aeromonas sobria tap13 were purified and characterized. the molecular mass of the pilin was estimated to be about 23 kda by sds-page. the tap13 pili were immunologically different from a. sobria ae1 pili and a. hydrophila ae6 w pili as previously reported, nevertheless all three had indistinguishable morphology and shared a high degree of homology in their n-terminal amino acid sequences. strain tap13 and its purified pili did not agglutinate human, rabbit or sheep erythrocytes. however, ...19921357078
cloning and characterization of fxp, the flexible pilin gene of aeromonas hydrophila.the flexible pilus of aeromonas hydrophila is a morphologically and biochemically unique organelle which binds eukaryotic cell surfaces and whose expression is induced by specific physiochemical conditions. fxp, the structural gene coding for the flexible pilus subunit, was localized on a 7.6kb plasmid of a. hydrophila strain ah26. a putative shine-dalgarno sequence and -10 and -35 regions were identified, a signal peptide sequence delineated, and the coding sequence compared with other bacteria ...19921360140
purification and characterization of aeromonas sobria ae24 pili: a possible new colonization factor.pili of aeromonas sobria ae24 were purified and characterized. the molecular mass of the pilin was estimated to be about 19 kda by sds-page. the ae24 pili were electrophoretically distinguishable from previously reported aeromonas hydrophila ae6 w pili and a. sobria ae1 pili, although all three had indistinguishable morphology and shared a high degree of homology in the n-terminal amino acid sequences. strain ae24 and its purified pili adhered to rabbit intestine and agglutinated human and rabbi ...19921363704
isolation and characterization of a cryptic plasmid from mesophilic aeromonads: potential as a cloning vector.a 2.6 kb covalently closed circular plasmid has been isolated from clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas sobria and a. hydrophila. the possibility that the plasmid carries genetic determinants that mediate resistance to a variety of anti-microbial agents has been eliminated. the plasmid is stable at approximately 20-25 copies per chromosome equivalent which, together with its relatively small size and the presence of unique restriction sites, makes it a good candidate for development ...19911366999
action pattern of aeromonas hydrophila chitinase on partially n-acetylated chitosan.oligosaccharides from the digestion of 34% n-acetylated chitosan by aeromonas hydrophila chitinase were separated by cm-sephadex c-25 column chromatography. sugar compositions and the sequences of main oligosaccharides were identified through their n-acetylation, their cleavage with exo-glycosidases, and their degradation with nitrous acid. hetero-chitooligosaccharides such as glcn.glcnac, glcn.glcnac.glcnac, glcnac.glcn.glcnac, and glcnac.glcn.glcnac.glcnac, together with glcnac and (glcnac)2, ...19901368549
a general method to generate dna probes for microorganisms.we present a method that permits the rapid generation of dna probes for eubacteria. in the procedure the variable regions for the 16s rrna genes are amplified using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology and primers based on the conserved regions of these genes. following sequencing of the variable regions, a choice is possible for a probe specific for that organism. no knowledge of the molecular biology of the microorganism is required prior to the application of this approach. the generali ...19901369980
antigenic diversity of the s-layer proteins from pathogenic strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria.the antigenic relatedness of paracrystalline surface array proteins with subunit molecular weights of approximately 52,000 from isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria belonging to a single heat-stable serogroup was examined. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting with two different polyclonal antisera against surface exposed and non-surface-exposed epitopes of the s-layer protein from a. hydrophila tf7 showed that the s-layer proteins of the mesophili ...19921370287
immune responses to aeromonas hydrophila in cat fish (heteropneustis fossilis) exposed to cadmium and hexachlorocyclohexane. 19921371421
aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov., a new mesophilic member of the genus aeromonas.phenotypic and genetic studies were performed on some atypical aeromonas strains of uncertain taxonomic position. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed that these strains represent a hitherto unknown genetic line within the genus aeromonas, for which the name aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov. is proposed. the type strain is cect 4199.19921378035
crossing three membranes. channel formation by aerolysin.aerolysin is a channel-forming toxin responsible for the pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila. it crosses the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria in separate steps and is released as a 52-kda inactive protoxin which is activated by proteolytic removal of approximately 40 amino acids from the c terminus. the toxin binds to the erythrocyte transmembrane protein glycophorin and oligomerizes before inserting into the membrane, producing a voltage gated, anion selective channel about 1 nm in d ...19921379197
rrna gene restriction patterns as taxonomic tools for the genus aeromonas.in the genus aeromonas there are at least 13 dna hybridization groups, which are difficult to differentiate biochemically. we investigated the usefulness of rrna gene restriction patterns for characterization and identification of the various groups. genomic dna was digested with restriction endonuclease smai, transferred to a nylon membrane, and hybridized with biotinylated plasmid pkk3535 containing the rrnb operon of escherichia coli. the smai bands at 0.8 to 4 kb but not those at positions c ...19921380286
phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera aeromonas and plesiomonas as determined by 16s ribosomal dna sequencing: lack of congruence with results of dna-dna hybridizations.the phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera aeromonas and plesiomonas were investigated by using small-subunit ribosomal dna (rdna) sequencing. members of the genus aeromonas formed a distinct line within the gamma subclass of the proteobacteria. plesiomonas shigelloides also clustered within the confines of the gamma subclass of the proteobacteria but exhibited a closer association with members of the family enterobacteriaceae than with members of the family aeromonadaceae. spe ...19921380289
immunochemical analysis and possible biological role of an aeromonas hydrophila surface array protein in septicaemia.the biochemical, immunological, and biological properties of an s layer purified from an aeromonas hydrophila strain (ah-342) involved in a case of bacteraemia were investigated. the s layer selectively removed from the cell surface was composed of a single acidic (pi 4.56) protein subunit (surface array protein, sap) with a molecular mass of approximately 52 kda. amino acid analysis of this 52 kda protein indicated a molecule composed of 498 amino acids with 46% hydrophobic residues. no cystein ...19921382113
spectroscopic study of the activation and oligomerization of the channel-forming toxin aerolysin: identification of the site of proteolytic activation.the channel-forming protein aerolysin is secreted as a protoxin which can be activated by proteolytic removal of a c-terminal peptide. the activation and subsequent oligomerization of aerolysin were studied using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. mass spectrometric determination of the molecular weights of proaerolysin and aerolysin permitted identification of the sites at which the protoxin is processed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. the results of far- and near-uv circular dichroism measure ...19921382579
characterization of an o-antigen bacteriophage from aeromonas hydrophila.a unique bacteriophage of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o:34 was isolated, purified, and characterized. the bacterial surface receptor was shown to be the o-antigen polysaccharide component of lipopolysaccharide specific to serotype o:34, which was chemically characterized. the high molecular weight lipopolysaccharide fraction (a fraction enriched in o antigen) was fully able to inactivate bacteriophage pm1. phage-resistant mutants of a. hydrophila o:34 were isolated and found to be specifically ...19921382822
the channel-forming toxin aerolysin.aeromonas sp. secrete a precursor of the cytolytic protein aerolysin into the culture medium, where it is activated by proteolytic removal of a c-terminal fragment. activation can be achieved by a variety of mammalian proteases as well as by proteases released by the bacteria itself. activated toxin binds with high affinity to the transmembrane protein glycophorin on the surface of eucaryotic cells. binding is followed by oligomerization and the formation of transmembrane channels, leading to ce ...19921384593
structural features of the pore formed by staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin inferred from chemical modification and primary structure analysis.staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin makes cells and model membranes permeable to ions and uncharged molecules by opening oligomeric pores of uniform size. its primary sequence reveals peculiar features which give some hints on the structure of the pore. a flexible region separating the toxin into two halves, several amphiphilic beta-strands and two amphiphilic alpha-helices long enough to span the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer are predicted. in analogy to bacterial porins, we propose that ...19921384596
[aeromonas hydrophila infection in a case of open fracture]. 19921386446
comparative study of virulence and virulence factors of aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water and sediments of a river.seventy-four strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from water and sediments of the river porma (león, n.w. spain) were characterized biochemically and biologically. fifty-seven strains (77.02%) were virulent for rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) by intramuscular challenge but showed differing degree of pathogenicity which could not be associated with the source. a lack of correlation between caseinase, haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the strains and their isolation source was also observ ...19921388613
novel heme-binding component in the serum of the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus).the serum of the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) was examined for heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins. electrophoretic mobility retardation assays failed to detect a hemoglobin-binding material similar to mammalian haptoglobin; however, a heme-binding component (not previously described) was identified in catfish serum. the heme-binding component was purified by gel filtration chromatography; electrophoretic analyses suggested it to be composed of two polypeptide subunits of molecular ma ...19921392473
structure of the core oligosaccharide in the lipopolysaccharide isolated from aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.the core oligosaccharide isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida has been investigated by methylation analysis, nmr spectroscopy (13c and 1h), oxidation with periodate and chromium trioxide, and smith degradation. the following structure is proposed: [formula: see text]19921394331
bacterial contamination of food and household stored drinking water in a farmworker community in zimbabwe.food and water samples, collected from the homes of farmworkers with children less than five years old, were cultured for escherichia coli (which was used as an indicator of faecal contamination) and bacterial enteric pathogens. sixteen percent of the food samples and 41 pc of the household stored water samples had e.coli. ten percent of the foods had high e.coli counts greater than 10(4) counts per ml or g of food. most of the foods were stored for more than 12 hours. bacterial enteric pathogen ...19921394394
effect of growth temperature on outer membrane components and virulence of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34.growth of aeromonas hydrophila strains from serotype o:34 at 20 and 37 degrees c in tryptic soy broth resulted in changes in the lipids, lipopolysaccharide (lps), and virulence of the strains tested. cells grown at 20 degrees c contained, relative to those cultured at 37 degrees c, increased levels of the phospholipid fatty acids hexadecanoate and octadecanoate and reduced levels of the corresponding saturated fatty acids. furthermore, the lipid a fatty acids also showed thermoadaptation. in add ...19921398945
s-layer-mediated association of aeromonas salmonicida with murine macrophages.the interaction of aeromonas salmonicida with the murine macrophage (m phi) cell line p388d1 was used as a convenient model to study the involvement of the bacterial crystalline surface array (or a-layer) in the association with m phi s. a-layer-positive (a+) cells readily associated with m phi s in phosphate-buffered saline, whereas a- mutants were unable to do so, even when the bacterium-m phi interaction was forced by centrifugation. m phi s selectively interacted with a+ cells when challenge ...19921398947
interaction of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida with rainbow trout macrophages.a procedure was developed to culture rainbow trout macrophages (m phi) on supported glass coverslips. using this method and a variety of well-characterized aeromonas salmonicida strains with normal or altered cell surfaces, we investigated the role of this unusual bacterial surface in the bacterium-m phi interaction. an intact crystalline protein array, the a-layer, mediated adherence of a. salmonicida cells to m phi even in the absence of opsonins. in contrast, unopsonized cells of an a-layer-n ...19921398975
incidence of toxigenic vibrios in foods available in taiwan.a total of 1088 vibrios and related species were isolated from seafood and aquacultured foods available in taiwan. they were identified as vibrio alginolyticus, v. cholerae, v. fluvialis i, v. fluvialis ii, v. parahaemolyticus, v. mimicus, aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, a. sobria and other species. incidence of these vibrio and aeromonas species in these foods was high. vibrio parahaemolyticus was frequently found in seawater and in foods of freshwater origin. the vibrio isolates were examined ...19921399913
specific detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.development of a routine detection assay for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaa gene of c. coli vc167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by pcr. the primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of c. coli and 47 strains of c. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of campylobacter fetus, campylobacter lari, campylobacter upsaliensis, cam ...19921400961
[o serogroup and virulence factors of motile aeromonas].a total of 182 isolates of motile aeromonas from patients with diarrhea and environmental sources was investigated for hemolytic activity to rabbit erythrocyte and cytotoxicity to hela 229 cell. furthermore, the relation between o serogroup and virulence factors, which were lethal to mouse and autoagglutination, were investigated. there were many strains possessing both the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities in a. hydrophila from overseas traveller's diarrhea, suggesting that these activities we ...19921402072
[studies on motile-aeromonas infection 3). phage typing of motile aeromonas isolated from patients with diarrhea].phage types were determined for 102 strains of motile aeromonas isolated from patients with diarrhea at four metropolitan hospitals in tokyo. the following results were obtained. 1) of the 102 strains examined, 52 (51.0%) were divided into 28 phage types. this rate was considerably higher, compared to our previous results, namely, 21.7% for strains isolated from natural environments and 25% for those isolated from meats. by bacterial species, phage types could be determined for 33 (52.4%) of 63 ...19921402096
production of haemolysis and its correlation with enterotoxicity in aeromonas spp.a total of 147 clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas that included 14 a. hydrophila, 60 a. sobria and 73 a. caviae strains was tested for haemolysin production and its correlation with enterotoxicity; 108 isolates produced beta-haemolysis. for a. hydrophila and a. sobria, titres of haemolysin were 16-128 hu/ml and for a. caviae, 16-64 hu/ml. in the ileal loop test, 82 (55.8%) strains of aeromonas spp. produced enterotoxin. of the beta-haemolytic strains, 72.7% of a. hydrophila, 58.6% ...19921404325
musculoskeletal and soft tissue aeromonas infection: an environmental disease.during a 4-year period from november 1985 to november 1989, aeromonas was isolated from wounds and soft tissues with clinical evidence of infection in 28 patients at our institution. of the 28 patients, 23 (82%) had sustained an acute open or penetrating injury, more than half of which (13 of the 23) were water-related trauma. one patient had aeromonas osteomyelitis. five patients had no history of trauma, and three of these five had an underlying chronic disease. treatment included débridement ...19921405767
extraintestinal aeromonas infections--looking for mr. sandbar. 19921405778
characterization of a vibrio cholerae virulence factor homologous to the family of tonb-dependent proteins.irga is an iron-regulated virulence factor for infection in an animal model with classical vibrio cholerae strain 0395. we detected gene sequences hybridizing to irga at high stringency in clinical isolates in addition to 0395, including another classical strain of v. cholerae, three v. cholerae strains of the el tor biotype, three non-o1 isolates of v. cholerae, and individual isolates of vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, and vibrio alginolyticus. no hybridization to irga was seen with ...19921406279
[bacteria of the genus aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].bacteria of genus aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. they are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. the greatest attention is paid by the researchers to aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. that is w ...19921406386
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