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characterization of a 14 kda plant-related serine protease inhibitor and regulation of cytotoxic activity in earthworm coelomic fluid.we have purified and characterized the serine protease inhibitor activity contained in the coelomic fluid of the earthworms, eisenia. serine protease inhibitor activity was stable between ph3 and 9.5, not flocculable by ph 3.0 and resistant to 100 degrees c for 15 min. or to 4 degrees c for 24 h. ten microl of coelomic fluid was sufficient to inhibit in vitro the protease activity of 0.12 microgram of trypsin. injection of living bacteria into earthworms resulted in increased serine protease act ...19989617579
diverse and related 16s rrna-encoding dna sequences in prostate tissues of men with chronic prostatitis.treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is often empirical because clinical culture methods fail to detect prostate-associated pathogens in >90% of patients. previously, we tested a variety of specific-microorganism pcrs and began a dna sequence study after we found that 77% of prostatitis patients were pcr positive for prokaryotic rrna-encoding dna sequences (rdnas) despite negative cultures using optimal techniques. in the present study, 36 rdna clones from 23 rdna-positi ...19989620394
incidence of non-01 vibrio cholerae and aeromonas spp. in fresh water in araraquara, brazil.the occurrence of aeromonas spp., vibrio cholerae, and plesiomonas shigelloides in fresh water from various sources in araraquara, state of são paulo, brazil was determined. samples from ten distinct irrigation systems used in vegetable cultivation, from five distinct streams, from two reservoirs, from one artificial lake, and from three distinct springs were analyzed. all isolates were serotyped and tested for hemolysin, cytotoxin, heat-stable (st) and heat-labile (lt) enterotoxins production; ...19989625786
purification and characterization of an arylamine n-acetyltransferase from the bacteria aeromonas hydrophilia.n-acetyltransferase from aeromonas hydrophilia was purified by ultrafiltration, deae-sephacel, gel filtration chromatography on sephadex g-100, and deae-5pw on high performance liquid chromatography, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (sds-page) on a 12.% (wt/vol) slab gel. the enzyme had a molecular mass 44.9 kda. the purified enzyme was thermostable at 37 degrees c for 1 h with a half-life 28 min at 37 degrees c, and displayed optimum activity at 37 degrees ...19989625795
aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection as a complication of snake bite: report of three cases.aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection has been associated with fish and reptile bites. there have bee three recent cases from brazil of abscesses complicating snake bites in which a. hydrophila was isolated from the purulent exudates. one of the snakes responsible for the bites was a specimen of bothrops moojeni, and the others were most probably also lance-headed vipers. these snakes have a local necrotizing, myotoxic, oedema-inducing venom that must have favoured the multiplication in the ...19989625918
men 10700, a new penem antibiotic: in-vitro activity and its correlation with beta-lactamase stability, pbp affinity and diffusion through the bacterial cell wall.the in-vitro activity of men 10700, a novel penem, was compared with that of imipenem, ritipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and amikacin against 1088 strains taken from 21 genera, including gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. mic data showed that men 10700 was very active against staphylococci and streptococci (mic90 < or = 0.5 mg/l) and against most members of the enterobacteriaceae (mic90 < or = 2 mg/l), with reduced activity only against providencia stua ...19989630405
the effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas fluorescens.basil essential oils, including basil sweet linalool (bsl) and basil methyl chavicol (bmc), were screened for antimicrobial activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds using an agar well diffusion method. both essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against most of the micro-organisms examined except clostridium sporogenes, flavimonas oryzihabitans, and three species of pseudomonas. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of bmc against aeromon ...19989633630
colonization of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) larvae.polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to v. pelagius and/or aer. caviae. the results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of v. pelagius and aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. populations of ae ...19989633637
occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in drinking water undergoing softening treatment.a study was carried out on the presence of gram-negative bacteria in the municipal waters of bologna (italy) undergoing softening using domestic ion exchangers with an automatic disinfection mechanism. the softening process was seen to cause a 15 fold increase in 22 degrees c and 36 degrees c heterotrophic plate counts. there was a 30 fold increase in gram-negative bacteria and their number correlated directly with temperature and inversely with active residual chlorine. organic matter had no ef ...19979636986
the isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milks.in this research, totally 200 raw milk samples in different areas of ankara were collected from various dairy plant. the isolated psychotrophic bacteria from the raw milk samples are the species of pseudomonas spp., acinetobacter spp., alcaligenes and aeromonas. isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria types are determined as p. aeruginosa 11 (5.5%), p. putida 11 (5.5%), p. fluorescens biotype i 10 (5.0%), p. fluorescens biotype ii 4 (2.0%), p. fluorescens biotype iii 6 ...19989637013
sialic acid-binding lectin with antibacterial activity from the horse mussel: further characterization and immunolocalization.a heterogeneous sialic acid-binding lectin with affinity for bacterial lps was isolated and partially characterized from hemolymph of the horse mussel modiolus modiolus.(1) using two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized ph gradients, the lectin revealed three subunits with different molecular weight and isoelectric points (pi); mr14 (pi approximately 5.1 and approximately 5.5), 17.5 (pi approximately 5.5) and 20 (pi approximately 4.9) kda. the affinity purified lectin existed in its nati ...19989639084
macromolecular assembly and secretion across the bacterial cell envelope: type ii protein secretion systems.a decade ago, pugsley and colleagues reported the existence of a large region of klebsiella dna, distinct from the klebsiella gene encoding pullulanase, which was necessary for secretion of this enzyme to the cell surface in escherichia coli (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b). the pul genes it contained proved to be the tip of an iceberg. the sequences reported before 1992 (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b; d'enfert & pugsley, 1989; pugsley & reyss, 1990; reyss & pugsley, 1990) included only one gene (puld) tha ...19989641973
aeromonas hydrophila adenylyl cyclase 2: a new class of adenylyl cyclases with thermophilic properties and sequence similarities to proteins from hyperthermophilic archaebacteria.complementation of an escherichia coli cya mutant with a genomic library from aeromonas hydrophila allowed isolation of clones containing two different cya genes. whereas one of these genes (cyaa) coded for an adenylyl cyclase (ac1) belonging to the previously described class i adenylyl cyclases (acs), the second one (cyab) coded for a protein (ac2) that did not match any previously characterized protein when compared to protein sequence databases. in particular, it did not align with any of mem ...19989642185
the effect of suspending solution supplemented with marine cations on the oxidation of biolog gn microplate substrates by vibrionaceae bacteria.bacteria belonging to the family vibrionaceae were suspended using saline and a solution prepared from a marine-cations supplement. the effect of this on the profile of oxidized substrates obtained when using biolog gn microplates was investigated. thirty-nine species belonging to the genera aeromonas, listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio were studied. of the strains studied, species of listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio could be expected to benefit from a marine-cations supplement that co ...19989643966
antimicrobial activity in the skin of the channel catfish ictalurus punctatus: characterization of broad-spectrum histone-like antimicrobial proteins.three antibacterial proteins were isolated from acid extracts of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) skin by cation exchange chromatography and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. the molecular masses of the proteins were 15.5, 15.5 and 30 kd as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. mass spectrometry, amino acid composition and amino acid sequence data suggest that the most abundant protein is closely related to histone h2b. the h2b-like protein was inhibitory to ...19989645227
effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on some immune responses of blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus (pallus).the immunotoxicological effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on blue gourami were studied. some immune responses ranging from non-specific to specific were investigated. these include tissue lysozyme activity, kidney lymphocyte proliferation and plasma agglutinating antibody titre against bacteria. after 2 weeks of chronic exposure, 0.09 mg/l of hg2+ alone induced a significant increase of kidney lysozyme activity of 4196.3 +/- 1171.0 u/g, but it decreased to 1577.4 +/- 902.4 u/g whe ...19989646523
[ocular infection caused by aeromonas spp.: considerations on its treatment and importance of resistance to antimicrobial agents]. 19989646574
aeromonas as a cause of segmental colitis. 19989647047
molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from aeromonas trota.aeromonas trota ak2, which was derived from atcc 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-tn5km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain ak253. southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb noti fragment of the genomic dna of strain ak253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-tn5km1. the 8.7-kb noti dna fragment was cloned into the vector pgem5zf(-) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, ...19989647817
generation and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed to glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) native epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida.four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed to native glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida were isolated using an esterase capture assay. the molecular mass of this mab-defined antigen was estimated to be 26 kda in sds-page. three different epitope specificities of these mabs were demonstrated. it was shown that all 4 mabs recognize gcat in culture filtrates of the strain mt004 excluding the simultaneous trapping of other components. none of the ...19989653461
aerolysin induces g-protein activation and ca2+ release from intracellular stores in human granulocytes.aerolysin is a pore-forming toxin that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila infections. in this study, we have analyzed the effect of aerolysin on human granulocytes (hl-60 cells). proaerolysin could bind to these cells, was processed into active aerolysin, and led to membrane depolarization, indicating that granulocytes are potential targets for this toxin. fura-2 measurements were used to analyze the effect of aerolysin on cytosolic [ca2+] homeostasis. as expected for a ...19989660770
enteric bacterial pathogens in stools of residents of urban and rural regions in nigeria: a comparison of patients with and without diarrhoea and controls without diarrhoea.a total of 2,400 stool samples comprising 1,200 from patients with diarrhoea (600 each from urban and rural area) and 1,200 similarly divided controls were obtained from school children and clinic attendants of government and private clinics around three designated study centres of edo, lagos and cross river states, nigeria. these were screened for the prevalence of bacteria that could cause diarrhoea. diarrhoea cases in urban areas had a high prevalence rate for campylobacter spp. (28%), follow ...19979661320
clonal identification of aeromonas hydrophila strains using randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.the suitability of arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction (rapd) as a typing technique was evaluated by comparing it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to characterize aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from a cluster of hospital-acquired infections. five isolates from patients and 10 isolates from the water supply were compared to 10 epidemiologically unrelated strains isolated from patients and rivers. two methods were used to prepare dna and two primers (ap3 and ap5) were sel ...19989663524
etiological study of diarrheal patients in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic.the etiological agents of diarrhea in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr), were studied in the period from october 1996 to august 1997. a total of 880 patients with diarrhea visiting medical facilities were examined for shigella, salmonella, diarrheagenic escherichia coli, vibrio, aeromonas, campylobacter, and rotavirus. shigella spp., heat-stable enterotoxin (st)-producing e. coli, and serogroup-based enteropathogenic e. coli were found to be the main organisms causing diarrhe ...19989665990
role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in aeromonas-mediated infections: development of transposon and isogenic mutants.transposon and marker exchange mutagenesis were used to evaluate the role of aeromonas cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and deep wound infections. the transposon mutants were generated by random insertion of tn5-751 in the chromosomal dna of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. some of the transposon mutants had dramatically reduced hemolytic and cytotoxic activities, and such mutants exhibited reduced virulence in mice compared to wild-type aerom ...19989673226
activation of the complement classical pathway (c1q binding) by mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein.the mechanism of killing of aeromonas hydrophila serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway has been studied. the bacterial cell surface component that binds c1q more efficiently was identified as a major outer membrane protein of 39 kda, presumably the porin ii described by d. jeanteur, n. gletsu, f. pattus, and j. t. buckley (mol. microbiol. 6:3355-3363, 1992), of these microorganisms. we have demonstrated that the purified form of porin ii binds c1q and act ...19989673268
bactericidal effect of chlorine on motile aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies and influence of temperature on disinfection efficacy.the susceptibility of toxigenic aeromonas spp. to free chlorine in drinking water supplies, and the influence of environmental temperature on the bactericidal activity of the oxidant, were evaluated. the results showed inactivation curves characterized by an initial phase of rapid reduction of viable cells followed by a slow inactivation of bacteria. the effect of the chlorine compound was markedly influenced by water temperature. at a summer water temperature (20 degrees c), the efficacy of the ...19989674163
false-positive coliform reaction mediated by aeromonas in the colilert defined substrate technology system.the colilert defined substrate technology system allows specific, one-step detection of both coliforms and escherichia coli while claiming to suppress the influence of non-coliform heterotrophs. the colilert assay was examined in order to determine whether organisms from the genus aeromonas could interfere and cause production of a false-positive coliform result as aquatic aeromonas are known to constitute a fraction of the heterotrophic population found in drinking water. results obtained clear ...19989674164
co-migration of rapd-pcr amplicons from aeromonas hydrophila.random amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) uses arbitrary primers and low stringency annealing conditions to amplify anonymous dna fragments which are then depicted in agarose gels. rapd-pcr fingerprints have been used for typing and differentiation of bacteria and, increasingly, for the study of genetic relationships between strains and species of microorganisms, plants and animals. the analysis of such fingerprints is based upon the assumption that co-migration of am ...19989675848
siderophore production by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. lack of strain specificity.siderophore production, presence of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and siderophore specificity was determined among 17 isolates of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida obtained from spain and scotland. all grew in the presence of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (edda) and siderophore production was detected using chrome azurol s (cas) agar, confirming the presence of a high-affinity siderophore iron-uptake mechanism. the arnow test confirmed that all isolates produced ...19989684314
molecular cloning of a bombinin gene from bombina orientalis: detection of nf-kappab and nf-il6 binding sites in its promoter.the sequence of a gene from bombina orientalis was determined which codes for antibacterial peptides. the gene comprises two exons separated by a large intron. exon 1 codes for the signal peptide, while exon 2 contains the genetic information for two identical bombinins and one bombinin h. the promoter region of the bombinin gene contains putative recognition sites for nuclear factors, such as nfkappab and nf-il6. in vivo experiments on b. orientalis have shown that a short contact with bacteria ...19989684858
possible virulence factors of aeromonas spp. from food and water.thirty-one isolates of aeromonas spp. from food and water in norway were classified and tested for possible virulence factors including cytotoxins (tissue cultures, pcr), enterotoxins (pcr) and invasion ability (caco-2 cells). five different species were recorded, a. caviae (9/31), a. hydrophila (15/31), a. schubertii (3/31), a. trota (3/31) and a. veronii biovar veronii (1/31). one of the a. hydrophila strains was probably responsible for a small outbreak of food poisoning caused by ingestion o ...19989685002
[application of pyrazinamidase activity for the identification of aeromonas species].70 aeromonas strains isolated from patients with acute diarrheal disease were classified into species by using the camp factor test and the pyrazinamidase activity. it is stressed the high percent of coincidence between both tests, which are easy to make at the clinical microbiology laboratories.19979685960
[comparative study of 4 methods for identifying species of the genus aeromonas].it is given an explanation of the results obtained with the following methods: aerokey ii, aerokey ii + abbot's scheme, api 20 ne, and the biolog system. the study was conducted with 38 strains of aeromonas isolated from children under 5 with acute diarrheal disease (add). the aerokey ii + abbot's scheme proved to be the best identification method.19979685968
the maximum growth temperature and human pathogenicity of psychrotrophic aeromonads.determination of the maximum growth temperature of aeromonas strains isolated from clinical material and endowed with pronounced propensity for adhesion to intestinal cells has demonstrated that all strains still grow at 39 degrees c, with this holding true for the majority of strains also at 40 degrees c. since aeromonas isolated obtained from water evidence to a large extent a markedly lower maximum growth temperature, the 39 degrees c growth criterion is a characteristic of aeromonas strains ...19989686448
aeromonas hydrophila in burn patients.burn wound infection with aeromonas hydrophila appears to be very uncommon. this study reports on nine cases of a. hydrophila in burn patients treated over a 21 month period at the new somerset hospital burn unit. the average age of the patients was 31 years (range 24-60 years) and the average tbsa was 33% (range 16-51%). all patients had positive wound cultures for a. hydrophila, obtained on admission or shortly thereafter. one patient also had a positive blood culture. two patients with small ...19989688201
computer-assisted structural analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides: an extension of casper to multibranched structures.the casper program which is used for determination of the structure of oligo- and polysaccharides has been extended. it can now handle a reduced number of experimental signals from an nmr spectrum in the comparison to the simulated spectra of structures that it generates, an improvement which is of practical importance since all signals in nmr spectra cannot always be identified. furthermore, the program has been enhanced to simulate nmr spectra of multibranched oligo- and polysaccharides. the n ...19989691437
[bacteriological and virological studies on the cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis in tama, tokyo (1991-1996)].between may 1991 and december 1996, bacteriological and virological investigations on the fecal samples from patient of infantile diarrhea (155 cases), or infectious gastroenteritis (1,409 cases) diagnosed with 9 medical institutions in tama of tokyo were carried out. of 1,564 samples, 722 (46.2%) were enteropathogen positive cases, and mixed infection was also observed in about 15% of the positive cases. among 13 different kinds of enteropathogens identified, the most prevalent one was pathogen ...19989695470
occurrence and significance of atypical aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.bacterial strains of aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical a. salmonicida. the atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. consequently, the present taxonomy of the species a. salmonicida is rather am ...19989696626
growth of atlantic salmon salmo salar after intraperitoneal administration of vaccines containing adjuvants.growth of atlantic salmon after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of adjuvanted vaccines was studied using groups of individually tagged fish held together in one tank or pen under commercial farming conditions. parallel experiments were initiated at 2 freshwater sites and 1 marine site. trivalent (vibriosis, cold water vibriosis and furunculosis) vaccines containing oil or beta-1, 3 glucan as adjuvants were used for immunisation of pre-smolts, whereas identical formulations containing furun ...19989696628
recurrent spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhosis: a case report.spontaneous bacterial empyema occurs in about 0.4% of cirrhotic patients, but recurrent attack has rarely been reported. herein we report a case of repeat episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema. the patient presented with fever, shortness of breath and three episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema (accompanied by septic shock in two episodes) within six months. chest roentgenography showed massive right-side pleural effusion. thoracentesis yielded pleural effusion containing a neutrophil co ...19989699395
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis presenting as meningitis and necrotizing fasciitis in a man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.aeromonas hydrophila is rarely reported as a causative organism of meningitis in humans. a 39-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted with a 2-day history of fever, chills, and confusion. laboratory data revealed leukocytosis with granulocytosis, marked impairment of renal and liver function, and an elevated serum ammonia level. a. hydrophila was isolated from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. skin and soft-tissue lesions, consisting of bullae and necrotizing fasciitis ...19989700248
[aeromonas spp. and plesiomonas shigelloides in bivalves, mud, and water from the gulf of nicoya, costa rica].bivalves, mud, and surface water were collected at three different sites of the gulf of nicoya, costa rica, in search of aeromonas spp. and plesiomonas shigelloides. for their isolation, these bacteria were enriched in alkaline peptone water and streaked on macconkey agar and on brilliant green bile inositol agar. this was followed by the biochemical tests necessary for their identification. thirty-five strains of a. hydrophila, 58 of a. caviae, 43 of a. sobria, and 7 of p. shigelloides were iso ...19899700365
incidence & enteropathogenicity of aeromonas spp in children suffering from acute diarrhoea in chennai.a total of 200 stool samples from children below 10 yr suffering from diarrhoea were screened for enteric pathogens with special interest on aeromonas. aeromonas spp were isolated from 6.5 per cent of the patients, comprising 4 per cent a. hydrophila, 2 per cent a. sobria and 0.5 per cent a. caviae. among the 13 isolates obtained, 10 isolates produced enterotoxin in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and 11 produced cytotoxin in hep 2 cells. many of the aeromonas isolates exhibited resistance to common ...19989701892
motile aeromonads in the feces and carcasses of broiler chickens in turkey.motile aeromonas spp. were surveyed in chicken feces, carcasses, scalding water, and chilling water during slaughtering in a commercial processing plant in turkey. fecal and carcass samples of 351 chickens from 15 different flocks were examined by selective isolation techniques. all of the 15 flocks were positive for motile aeromonads. motile aeromonads were detected in 14.8%, 90.5%, and 100% of fecal, carcass, and chilling water samples, respectively, while scalding water samples were negative ...19989708264
inhibition of listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila by plant extracts in refrigerated cooked beef.refrigerated ready-to-eat foods are becoming increasingly popular but are often vulnerable to contamination and subsequent growth by psychrotrophic foodborne pathogens. consequently, there is a need for additional methods to assure the safety of these foods. beef slices prepared from roasted whole sirloin tips were used in the study. nine plant extracts were evaluated for ability to inhibit the growth of two psychrotrophic pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila and listeria monocytogenes) in refrigerat ...19989708301
growth of inoculated psychrotrophic pathogens on refrigerated fillets of aquacultured rainbow trout and channel catfish.aquacultured rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets were inoculated with the psychrotrophic pathogens listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila: cell populations were monitored during refrigerated storage at 2 to 4 degrees c. fillets of both species were placed individually in sterile plastic bags and inoculated with cell suspensions (10(4.7) cfu/100 g of fish) of either a. hydrophila or l monocytogenes or of both a. hydrophila and l. monocyto ...19989708302
survival of aeromonas hydrophila in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicum esculentum mill) stored at different temperatures and treated with chlorine.this study examines the survival of two aeromonas hydrophila strains (a. hydrophila atcc 7965 [strain a] and a. hydrophila isolated from food [strain b] on the surface and core tissue of fresh tomatoes stored at different temperatures and the efficacy of chlorine treatment on their survival. counts of a. hydrophila on the surface of tomatoes stored at 25 and 35 degrees c were significantly higher between days 1 and 4 for both strains as compared to results obtained at 6 degrees c. core tissue co ...19989709203
recovery of foodborne microorganisms from potentially lethal radiation damage.a two-stage recovery protocol was examined for microorganisms following gamma irradiation in phosphate buffer at 0 degrees c. in the first stage, survivors were recovered on basal yeast extract agar and held at various temperatures suboptimal for their growth for 20 h (resuscitation protocol). in the second stage the survivors were incubated for an additional 24 h, but in this case at their optimum temperature for growth. controls consisted of survivors which were not subjected to the resuscitat ...19989709232
bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a south african poultry abattoir.bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. the neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also ...19989709252
evolving concepts regarding the genus aeromonas: an expanding panorama of species, disease presentations, and unanswered questions.it has been almost 10 years since a major review on the association of aeromonas with human disease has been published. during that period the number of valid species in the genus has grown to 14, with a new family (aeromonadaceae) established to house this genus. despite this explosion in the number of new genomospecies, only five (aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, a. veronii, a. jandaei, and a. schubertii) are currently recognized as human pathogens. new syndromes attributed to this genus inclu ...19989709884
septic arthritis due to aeromonas veronii biotype sobria. 19989709899
metallo-beta-lactamases: a class apart.metallo-beta-lactamases have recently become more prominent among the beta-lactam-hydrolyzing enzymes. two major functional groups of enzymes have been identified, with little structural similarity among the groups. one group is a set of enzymes with broad substrate specificities capable of hydrolyzing most beta-lactams except monobactams. a second group is composed of the "true" carbapenemases, enzymes that exhibit poor hydrolysis of penicillins and cephalosporins. this latter group has been fo ...19989710671
identification of atypical aeromonas salmonicida: inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods.the atypical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. the primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemical identification of atypical aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. five laboratories examined 25 isolates of aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographica ...19989717284
antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic freshwater cyanobacteria--a comparative study of bacterial bioassays.aqueous and methanol extracts from five selected cyanobacteria were examined for antibacterial properties in six different bacterial bioassays. all five cyanobacteria revealed antibacterial properties. methanol extracts made from tychonema bourrellyi, aphanizomenon flos-aquae and cylindrospermopsis raciborskii showed the most pronounced inhibitory effects, aqueous extracts made from microcystis aeruginosa and t. bourrellyi possessed evident antibacterial properties. the bacterial bioassays were ...19989717298
rrna-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of bacterial community structure in river water.an improved in situ hybridization technique, hnpp-fish, using 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid 2'-phenylanilide phosphate (hnpp) and fast red tr was applied to analyse the community structure of planktonic bacteria in river water. oligonucleotide probes specific for the domain bacteria (eub338) and five bacterial groups [flavobacterium-cytophaga; burkholderia-pseudomonas (rrna iii)-authentic alcaligenes; vibrio-aeromonas; pseudomonas (rrna i): the genus acinetobacter] were used to investigate the bact ...19989720029
physical map of the chromosome of aeromonas salmonicida and genomic comparisons between aeromonas strains.i-ceul and pmel physical maps of the aeromonas salmonicida a449 chromosome were constructed using pfge. the circular chromosome of a. salmonicida a449 was estimated to be 4658 +/- 30 kb. the approximate location of several genes, including those encoding proteins implicated in virulence, were identified. the map showed that the known virulence-factor-encoding genes were not clustered. the i-ceul genomic digestion fingerprints of several typical and atypical strains of a. salmonicida were compare ...19989720035
incidence of mesophilic aeromonas within a public drinking water supply in north-east scotland.the motile mesophilic aeromonas are ubiquitous to a wide variety of aquatic environments including drinking water distribution systems. concern over the presence of mesophilic aeromonas in public drinking water supplies has been expressed in recent years as it has been regarded as a pathogenic organism of importance in gastroenteritis. a major drinking water distribution system in north-east scotland was monitored over a 12 month period to determine the prevalence of mesophilic aeromonas. these ...19989721643
identification of aeromonas strains of different origin to the genomic species level.a total of 71 aeromonas strains was identified with established genomic species by dna-dna hybridization. the strains were isolated from diarrhoeal stools, dead and live fish, drinking, lake, river and sea water, municipal sewage and aluminium rolling emulsion. the strains were allocated to seven hybridization groups (hgs) but the majority belonged to hg 4 (42%), hg 8/10 (30%) and hg 3 (18%). all strains were examined by 136 phenotypic tests. useful phenotypic characters for separation of aeromo ...19989721647
bacterial isolates from california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central california coast, 1994-1995.in 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the california coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were escherichia coli, streptococcus viridans, listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp., and enterococcus spp. this is the first report of l. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. the common i ...19989732032
characterization of atypical aeromonas salmonicida by different methods.fifty two isolates of atypical aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies. generally, there was incongruence between the molecular (pcr, rapd and ribotyping) and phenotypic methods in terms of cluster membership. by pcr, 6 groups were described of which group 1 encompassed 12 iso ...19989741110
light-emitting aeromonas and plesiomonas generated by transconjugating luxab from escherichia coli.the transposon derivative has been placed on a transposition suicide vector to yield pdb30 in escherichia coli wa803. a simple method, using a tn5 derivative tn5-lux, has been successfully devised for the introduction and stable expression of the bioluminescence property in pseudomonas sp., agrobacterium sp., and rhizobium sp. in this study, there was also successful mating between escherichia coli wa803(pdb30) and strains of acromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas shigelloides. these bacteria emit ...19949747350
the prevalence of vibrio spp. in drinking water and environmental samples in vellore south india.the prevalence of vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls during july and august 1996 in vellore, india was determined. drinking water samples were collected on single occasions from 12 sites in different geographic areas of the town where cholera had been reported. samples of water, plankton and sediment were collected from fixed sites at three lakes on three occasions separated by at least 3 days during the course of the study. samples from open sewers were taken from two ...19989747757
prolyl endopeptidase from sphingomonas capsulata: isolation and characterization of the enzyme and nucleotide sequence of the gene.prolyl endopeptidase (prolyl oligopeptidase, ec 3.4.21.26) was purified from sphingomonas capsulata ifo 12533, and its gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the recombinant enzyme was markedly inhibited by diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and hardly affected by sh reagents or metal chelators, similar to the native enzyme purified from s. capsulata. nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2169 bp, coding for a protein of 723 amino acids with a predicted molecula ...19989750174
occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of mesophilic aeromonas in estuarine waters of the italian coast of the adriatic sea.a total of 208 strains of aeromonas were isolated by monthly sampling from two estuaries (one provided with, and the other devoid of a waste-water treatment system) on the italian coast of the adriatic sea between september 1994 and august 1995. biotyping at the species level allowed the identification of 96 strains (46%) as aer. caviae, 46 (22%) as aer. sobria, 33 (16%) as aer. hydrophila and 25 (12%) as aer. veronii. eight strains (4%) were regarded as unnamed aeromonads. aeromonas caviae was ...19989750281
the occurrence of aeromonas species in drinking water supplies of an area of the dolomite mountains, italy.a study was made of the occurrence of aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies in a mountain area in northeast italy (the dolomites). on account of its location, the water in question is exposed to a low level of pollution and systematic chemical disinfection is not necessary. out of 7395 water samples analysed over a 3 year period, 1623 (21 x 95%) were found to be positive for aeromonas, with levels ranging from 1 to 240 cfu 100 ml-1; 72 x 4% of the strains were identified as aer. hydrophila, ...19989750299
fishtank water as a source of a rare case of aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia. 19989754216
molecular properties and activity of a carboxyl-terminal truncated form of xylanase 3 from aeromonas caviae w-61.aeromonas caviae w-61 produces five species of xylanases, xylanases 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 [nguyen, v.d. et al., biosci. biotechnol. biochem., 56, 1708-1712 (1993) and appl. environ. microbiol., 57, 445-449 (1991)]. while preserving a purified xylanase 3 preparation from a. caviae in solution at 4 degrees c, the xylanase 3 was found to be proteolyzed to give a truncated form with a smaller molecular mass than that of the intact one. it appears likely that the truncated form of xylanase 3 was produced ...19989757562
distribution and life strategies of two bacterial populations in a eutrophic lakemonoclonal antibodies and epifluorescence microscopy were used to determine the depth distribution of two indigenous bacterial populations in the stratified lake plusssee and characterize their life strategies. populations of comamonas acidovorans px54 showed a depth distribution with maximum abundances in the oxic epilimnion, whereas aeromonas hydrophila pu7718 showed a depth distribution with maximum abundances in the anoxic thermocline layer (metalimnion), i. e., in the water layer with the h ...19989758799
x-ray structure of the znii beta-lactamase from bacteroides fragilis in an orthorhombic crystal form.beta-lactamases are extracellular or periplasmic bacterial enzymes which confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. on the basis of their catalytic mechanisms, they can be divided into two major groups: active-site serine enzymes (classes a, c and d) and the znii enzymes (class b). the first crystal structure of a class b enzyme, the metallo-beta-lactamase from bacillus cereus, has been solved at 2.5 a resolution [carfi, pares, duée, galleni, duez, frère & dideberg (1995). embo j. 14, 4914-49 ...19989761816
the role of the capsular polysaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila serogroup o:34 in the adherence to and invasion of fish cell lines.the ability of aeromonas hydrophila serogroup o:34 strains grown under different conditions (capsulated and non-capsulated) to adhere to and invade two fish cell lines was compared. the level of adherence was slightly higher when the strains were grown under conditions promoting capsule formation than when the same strains were grown under conditions which did not promote capsule formation. however, the most significant difference among the wild-type strains grown under conditions promoting caps ...19979765847
antibacterial effects of n-sulfonated and n-sulfobenzoyl chitosan and application to oyster preservation.the antibacterial effects of sulfonated and sulfobenzoyl chitosans were evaluated and compared with that of 69% deacetylated chitosan (dd69 chitosan). minimal inhibitory concentrations of sulfonated chitosan (sc1, 0.63% sulfur content) against shigella dysenteriae, aeromonas hydrophila, salmonella typhimurium, and bacillus cereus were found to be lower than those of dd69 chitosan. a high sulfur content in sulfonated chitosan adversely influenced its antibacterial effect. sulfobenzoyl chitosan (s ...19989766062
mesophilic aeromonas strains from different serogroups: the influence of growth temperature and osmolarity on lipopolysaccharide and virulence.growth of mesophilic aeromonas sp. strains from serogroups o:13, o:33 and o:44 at different temperatures and osmolarity resulted in changes in the lipopolysaccharide (lps) and virulence of the strains tested, as we had previously reported for strains from serogroup o:34. the effect of osmolarity could be observed when the cells grew at 37 degrees c but not at 20 degrees c. purified lps from cells cultivated at 20 degrees c (high or low osmolarity) or at 37 degrees c at high osmolarity was smooth ...19989766240
an exeab complex in the type ii secretion pathway of aeromonas hydrophila: effect of atp-binding cassette mutations on complex formation and function.the energy-dependent secretion of aerolysin by aeromonas hydrophila requires the exea and exeb proteins. an 85 kda complex containing the two proteins was identified in wild-type cells but not in cells producing either protein alone. radiolabelling followed by cross-linking, immunoprecipitation and then reduction of the cross-links confirmed the presence of the two proteins in the same complex. the complex could also be extracted intact from cell membranes with non-ionic detergents. a g229d subs ...19989767591
[camp factor for the differentiation among aeromonas species].the camp factor technique, described by natale figura as a presumptive method for the differentiation of the species hydrophila, sobria and caviae, was applied to 80 aeromonas strains isolated from children under 5 years with acute diarrheic disease. the typical phenomenon was seen in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis conditions in 10 strains, which were classified as aeromonas hydrophila. in aerobiosis conditions/alone, it was observed in 20 strains, which were identified as aeromonas sobria. it was ...19929768204
[aeromonas hydrophila pneumonia associated with a traffic accident. report of a case].the case of a patient who was driving a car after getting drunk is presented. his car turned over and he fell into an irrigation canal, and, as a result, he suffered from an incomplete drowning syndrome. he was admitted in the intensive care unit with acute inflammatory pneumonia and a strain of aeromonas hydrophila was isolated in blood. the patient's evolution was favorable. it is the first report on a case like this in our country.19969768270
the acute phase response in the sudan plated lizard, gerrhosaurus major.the sudan plated lizard (gerrhosaurus major), previously reported to be an afebrile species, was utilized in a series of experiments to test for various aspects of the acute phase response. treatment of individuals with the antibiotic baytril resulted in a slight (0.5 degree c) but significant reduction in mean selected body temperature (msbt), while treatment with saline did not lower msbt. nonantibiotic treatment individuals had depressed plasma iron levels (86.6 +/- 22.4 micrograms fe 100 ml- ...19989773512
inducible beta-lactam resistance in aeromonas hydrophila: therapeutic challenge for antimicrobial therapy.despite the abundant amount of knowledge about inducible chromosomally mediated beta-lactamases among aeromonas species, extended-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant a. hydrophila strains selected in clinical practice were rarely reported. in the present study, two strains of a. hydrophila, a136 and a139, with markedly different susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins were isolated from blood and the tip segment of an arterial catheter of a burn patient. another strain (a136m) was select ...19989774563
haemorrhagic septicaemia by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in a black-tip reef shark (carcharhinus melanopterus).one black-tip reef shark (carcharhinus melanopterus) was found dead without previous signs of disease. major lesions consisted in cutaneous erythema, mainly at the base of the fins, focal to diffuse inflammatory lesions in gills and intestinal wall, and discrete haemorrhages in the same organs, liver and kidneys. microcolonies of gram-negative rods were observed in the lamina propia of gills, underneath the intestinal mucosa and randomly distributed in the renal and hepatic parenchymas. also, em ...19989780832
bacteriophage pm2 nomenclature revision. 19989787669
plasma proteins of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) isolated by binding to lipopolysaccharide from aeromonas salmonicida.in an attempt to find plasma proteins that might be involved in the constitutive resistance of rainbow trout to furunculosis, a disease caused by aeromonas salmonicida (as), we purified serum and plasma proteins based on their calcium- and carbohydrate-dependent affinity for a. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide (lps) coupled to an epoxy-activated synthetic matrix (toyopearl af epoxy 650m). a multimeric family of high molecular weight (96 to 200-kda) lps-binding proteins exhibiting both calcium and ...19989787816
experimental infections of rana esculenta with aeromonas hydrophila: a molecular mechanism for the control of the normal flora.frogs can be useful models for studying the mechanisms that may regulate their natural microbial flora. their skin glands produce a secretion containing 20-30 different peptides, some antimicrobial some neurotrophic. as they often live in soil or silt that is rich in microbes, they can be expected to be able to prevent or eliminate infections in very short periods of time. the bacterium aeromonas hydrophila is widely distributed in nature and is considered as part of the natural flora of frogs a ...19989790305
endochitinase is transported to the extracellular milieu by the eps-encoded general secretory pathway of vibrio cholerae.the chia gene of vibrio cholerae encodes a polypeptide which degrades chitin, a homopolymer of n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) found in cell walls of fungi and in the integuments of insects and crustaceans. chia has a coding capacity corresponding to a polypeptide of 846 amino acids having a predicted molecular mass of 88.7 kda. a 52-bp region with promoter activity was found immediately upstream of the chia open reading frame. insertional inactivation of the chromosomal copy of the gene confirmed ...19989791107
secretion and properties of the large and small lobes of the channel-forming toxin aerolysin.aerolysin is a dimeric protein secreted by aeromonas spp. that binds to glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptors on target cells and becomes insertion competent by oligomerizing. the protein comprises two lobes joined by a short arm. the large lobe is thought to be responsible for channel formation, whereas the small lobe is believed to stabilize the dimer, and it may also contain the receptor binding site. we cloned and expressed the dna for both lobes of the toxin separately and togethe ...19989791179
occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in an aviation fuel handling system and its relationship with fuel fouling.clean, dry and contaminant-free fuel is necessary for safe and economical aircraft operation. microbial growth in aviation fuel handling systems can alter the quality of the product. this paper reports the occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in a handling system of jet a-1 aviation turbine fuel. a total of 350 samples were collected during 1990-1996. the aerobic microorganisms in fuel samples were mainly fungi, 85% of samples containing < or = 100 cfu/l (range 0 (< 1 cfu/l) to 2000 cf ...19989793139
molecular characterization of plasmid-mediated oxytetracycline resistance in aeromonas salmonicida.using broth conjugation, we found that 19 of 29 (66%) oxytetracycline (ot)-resistant isolates of aeromonas salmonicida transferred the ot resistance phenotype to escherichia coli. the ot resistance phenotype was encoded by high-molecular-weight r-plasmids that were capable of transferring ot resistance to both environmental and clinical isolates of aeromonas spp. the molecular basis for antibiotic resistance in ot-resistant isolates of a. salmonicida was determined. the ot resistance determinant ...19989797265
adhesion of aeromonas hydrophila to water distribution system pipes after different contact times.scanning electron microscopy observation was used to investigate the ability of aeromonas hydrophila to attach to various water distribution pipe surfaces, such as stainless steel, copper, and polybutylene, after different contact times at ambient and storage temperatures. surface energy value of each surface was estimated by contact angle measurements using water, alpha-bromonaphthalene, and dimethyl sulfoxide. our results indicated that aeromonas cells could easily attach to all surface types ...19989798149
susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive foodborne pathogens to acid anionic sanitizers.acid anionic sanitizers for treatment of fruits and vegetables were prepared using ingredients generally recognized as safe by the u.s. food and drug administration or anionic surfactants and organic acid food additives. they met the regulatory definition as sanitizers by showing bactericidal efficacy of 99.999% in 30 s against staphylococcus aureus atcc 6538 and escherichia coli atcc 11229. these sanitizers showed a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-neg ...19989798163
detección de escherichia coli toxigénica (lt) mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa [the detection of toxigenic escherichia coli (lt) by the polymerase chain reaction].in this paper it is described the detection enteroxigenic escherichia coli lt (+). this method is based on the amplification of a dna fragment of 400 pairs of bases by polymerase chain reaction (prc). the oligonucleotides were designed by the authors and the characteristic patterns were observed when the samples were submitted to an electrophoresis in an agarose gel at 2%. the pcr had positive results with the strains of escherichia coli 0:149 k; 88 (lt+) collection and with 20 strains isolated ...19969805043
[phenotype markers in strains of aeromonas isolated in cuba from children with an acute diarrheic disease].twenty-seven cases of aeromonas isolated from 300 five-years children with acute diarrheal disease (eda) were studied, with the aim for demonstrating the occurrence of some phenotypical markers associated with enteropathogenicity; among them were lysine decarboxylation, acetil methyl carbinol production, enterotoxigenicity, cytotoxicity and hemolysis. the percentage of analysed strains had two or more of the investigated markers, and 13 (48.1%) lysed the rabbit erythrocytes with titres higher th ...19959805080
pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the red pacu (colossoma brachypomum) following different routes of administration.oxytetracycline (otc) pharmacokinetics were studied in the red pacu (colossoma brachypomum) following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. otc plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance-liquid-chromatography (hplc). a non-compartmental model was used to describe plasma drug disposition after otc administration. following i.m. administration, the elimination half-life (t1/2) was 62.65 +/- 1.25 h and the bioavailability was 49. ...19989811436
population dynamics of aeromonas spp. in an urban river watershed.density of aeromonas spp. at one site in the buffalo river and at four sites on its upstream tributaries was followed from june 1992-june 1993. membrane filtration counts of aeromonas during the summer ranged between 18 and 4000 ml-1, which were one to two logs higher than faecal coliform and faecal streptococci densities. aeromonas spp. in the buffalo river, and faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, and the heterotrophic plate count throughout the watershed, increased by approximately one log ...19989812384
[new species of aeromonas isolated in cuba].one hundred and fifty-five strains of aeromonas isolated in the stools of children under 5 years presenting with acute diarrheal disease were studied. using the aerokey ii system for the identification of species, 47 strains were identified as aeromonas caviae, 58 as aeromonas hydrophila, 23 as aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, 14 as aeromonas trota, 9 as aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, 2 as aeromonas jandaei and 2 as aeromonas shubertii, emphasis is placed on the advantages of this method whic ...19959813480
sensitivity pattern and beta-lactamase production in clinical isolates of aeromonas strains.of the 43 aeromonas spp. isolated from various clinical samples 94% isolates were beta-lactamase producers. the isolates were tested for sensitivity by disc diffusion method which is commonly used in pakistan. mic was determined by using epsilometer test (e-test) method. more than 80% isolates were sensitive to cephalosporins and quinolones. however, resistance to commonly used antibiotics was very high, 94% isolates were resistant to ampicillin which corresponds to the betalactamase production. ...19989813984
[sanitary and microbiological assessment of marketable fish of the volga-caspian sea region].opportunistic microbes, such as aeromonads, enterobacteria, and pseudomonads, which are responsible for spoiling fish during its storage and processing and capable to initiate pathological processes of fishes are common in the volga-caspian sea region. investigations demonstrated that it is necessary to develop new procedures for processing fish products, to carry out studies on regulation of microbiological criteria for assessing fish quality. this makes it necessary to make a bacteriological c ...19989816781
[factors of persistence and (or) pathogenicity in vibrios and aeromonads belonging to different ecotopes].factors of persistence and/or pathogenicity in vibrio parahaemolyticus and aeromonas hydrophila (hemolytic, lipase, lecithin, dnaase, rnaase, antilysozyme, "anti-interferon", anticomplementary activities and capacity for absorbing congo red) were studied. the study revealed the interspecific and subpopulation (hospital and extraorganismal parts of the population) differences in the activity of the manifestation of these factors. strong dependence of the whole complex of persistence and pathogeni ...19989825495
[database on nucleotide sequences used as primers of microorganisms].the data base (db) "primers of microorganisms" for the accumulation and systematization of information on oligonucleotide sequences, used as primers in polymerase chain reaction, has been created. this db includes data on primers for the laboratory diagnostics of 20 bacterial genera (aerococcus, aeromonas, bartonella, borrelia, burkholderia, chlamydia, clostridium, corynebacterium, escherichia, francisella, helicobacter, legionella, listeria, mycobacterium, mycoplasma, salmonella, shigella, stap ...19989825498
brucella abortus transits through the autophagic pathway and replicates in the endoplasmic reticulum of nonprofessional phagocytes.brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen that replicates within a membrane-bounded compartment. in this study, we have examined the intracellular pathway of the virulent b. abortus strain 2308 (s2308) and the attenuated strain 19 (s19) in hela cells. at 10 min after inoculation, both bacterial strains are transiently detected in phagosomes characterized by the presence of early endosomal markers such as the early endosomal antigen 1. at approximately 1 h postinoculation, bacteria are locate ...19989826346
the pore-forming toxin proaerolysin is activated by furin.aerolysin is secreted as an inactive dimeric precursor by the bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. proteolytic cleavage within a mobile loop near the c terminus of the protoxin is required for oligomerization and channel formation. this loop contains the sequence kvrrar432, which should be recognized by mammalian proprotein convertases such as furin, pace4, and pc5/6a. here we show that these three proteases cleave proaerolysin after arg-432 in vitro, yielding active toxin. we also investigated the p ...19989830006
detection and isolation of novel rhizopine-catabolizing bacteria from the environmentmicrobial rhizopine-catabolizing (moc) activity was detected in serial dilutions of soil and rhizosphere washes. the activity observed generally ranged between 10(6) and 10(7) catabolic units per g, and the numbers of nonspecific culture-forming units were found to be approximately 10 times higher. a diverse set of 37 isolates was obtained by enrichment on scyllo-inosamine-containing media. however, none of the bacteria that were isolated were found to contain dna sequences homologous to the kno ...19989835587
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