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the pore-forming toxin proaerolysin is activated by furin.aerolysin is secreted as an inactive dimeric precursor by the bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. proteolytic cleavage within a mobile loop near the c terminus of the protoxin is required for oligomerization and channel formation. this loop contains the sequence kvrrar432, which should be recognized by mammalian proprotein convertases such as furin, pace4, and pc5/6a. here we show that these three proteases cleave proaerolysin after arg-432 in vitro, yielding active toxin. we also investigated the p ...19989830006
detection and isolation of novel rhizopine-catabolizing bacteria from the environmentmicrobial rhizopine-catabolizing (moc) activity was detected in serial dilutions of soil and rhizosphere washes. the activity observed generally ranged between 10(6) and 10(7) catabolic units per g, and the numbers of nonspecific culture-forming units were found to be approximately 10 times higher. a diverse set of 37 isolates was obtained by enrichment on scyllo-inosamine-containing media. however, none of the bacteria that were isolated were found to contain dna sequences homologous to the kno ...19989835587
necrotizing soft tissue infection in heart transplantation recipients: two case reports. 19989838477
effect of "acidic oxidative potential water" on microbial contamination harvesting porcine pancreas for islet xenotransplantation. 19989838512
escherichia coli in patients with acute gastroenteritis in lagos, nigeria.over a period of 12 months, a total of 852 stool samples from patients (both children and adults) with acute diarrhoeal diseases attending some public and government recognised health institutions in lagos metropolis were screened for diarrhoeagenic bacterial agents. one hundred and eighty two bacterial isolates were found out of which 83 (45.6%) were escherichia coli, 38 (20.9%) shigella spp, 31 (17%) salmonella spp, 16 (8.8%) klebsiella spp, eight (4.4%) aeromonas spp, while there were only si ...199810493052
expression and export of pseudomonas putida ntu-8 creatinase by escherichia coli using the chitinase signal sequence of aeromonas hydrophila.the gene for the creatinase from pseudomonas putida ntu-8 was sequenced and revealed an open reading frame (orf) of 1209 base pairs encoding a polypeptide of 403 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (m(r)) of 45,691. the deduced amino acid sequence is very similar to that of the creatinase of pseudomonas putida and flavobacterium sp. an overproduction system for the chitinase signal peptide--creatinase hybrid gene was constructed by using the pqe-51 expression vector in e. coli jm109. ...199810230521
leech-borne serratia marcescens infection following complex hand injury.leeches are commonly used in the postoperative course of plastic surgical operations where there is venous congestion in a pedicled or free flap. they provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. it is known that leeches can carry aeromonas hydrophila infection, and a second or third generation cephalosporin antibiotic has traditionally been given as prophylaxis against infection. we report a new observation that leeches can carry serratia marcescens ...199810209471
prevalence, in-vitro secretory activity, and cytotoxicity of aeromonas species associated with childhood gastroenteritis in chennai (madras), india.an investigation on the prevalence of aeromonas in gastrointestinal illnesses of pediatric inpatients 1 month to 3 years of age was conducted from february 1997 through january 1998 in madras. sixteen aeromonas spp. were isolated from 11 male and five female children among the 341 pediatric inpatients suffering from acute diarrhoea. a. caviae, which was isolated from nine cases, was found to be the most predominant isolate, followed by a. veronii biovar sobria, isolated from six cases, and a. hy ...199810211427
abdominal ascites in electric eels (electrophorus electricus) associated with hepatic hemosiderosis and elevated water ph.six electric eels (electrophorus electricus) from various centers that house aquatic organisms presented clinically with abdominal distension following prolonged exposure to elevated environmental ph. postmortem examination revealed marked ascites. culture of the abdominal fluid from three of the eels yielded either aeromonas hydrophila or citrobacter freundii, which were most likely secondary invaders. histopathology showed marked iron accumulation in both hepatocytes and hepatic macrophage agg ...199810065849
experimental pathogenicity of aeromonas spp. for the zebra mussel, dreissena polymorphaexperiments were conducted to determine whether species of aeromonas were pathogenic to the zebra mussel dreissena polymorpha. a. jandaei, a. veronii, and a. media, identified with biolog, were originally isolated from dead zebra mussels. when inoculated into living mussels, these bacteria resulted in the mortality of the bivalves. two additional species, a. salmonicida salmonicida (atcc 33678) and a. hydrophila (atcc 7966), were also demonstrated to be pathogenic to the mussels. in addition to ...19989405741
movement of a loop in domain 3 of aerolysin is required for channel formation.aerolysin is a channel-forming toxin that must oligomerize in order to become insertion-competent. modeling based on the crystal structure of the proaerolysin dimer and electron microscopic images of the oligomer indicated that a loop in domain 3 must move away from the beta-sheet that forms the main body of the protein before oligomerization can proceed. in order to determine if movement actually occurs, strategically located amino acids in the loop and in the sheet were replaced with cysteines ...19989425098
a pore-forming toxin interacts with a gpi-anchored protein and causes vacuolation of the endoplasmic reticulum.in this paper, we have investigated the effects of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin, produced by aeromonas hydrophila, on mammalian cells. our data indicate that the protoxin binds to an 80-kd glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored protein on bhk cells, and that the bound toxin is associated with specialized plasma membrane domains, described as detergent-insoluble microdomains, or cholesterol-glycolipid "rafts." we show that the protoxin is then processed to its mature form by host cell p ...19989456314
expression and characterization of (r)-specific enoyl coenzyme a hydratase involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis by aeromonas caviae.complementation analysis of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha)-negative mutant of aeromonas caviae proved that orf3 in the pha locus (a 402-bp gene located downstream of the pha synthase gene) participates in pha biosynthesis on alkanoic acids, and the orf3 gene is here referred to as phaj(ac). escherichia coli bl21(de3) carrying phaj(ac). under the control of the t7 promoter overexpressed enoyl coenzyme a (enoyl-coa) hydratase, which was purified by one-step anion-exchange chromatography. the n-termi ...19989457873
gene cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and purification and characterization of the low-specificity l-threonine aldolase from pseudomonas sp. strain ncimb 10558.a low-specificity l-threonine aldolase (l-ta) gene from pseudomonas sp. strain ncimb 10558 was cloned and sequenced. the gene contains an open reading frame consisting of 1,041 nucleotides corresponding to 346 amino acid residues. the gene was overexpressed in escherichia coli cells, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. the enzyme, requiring pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme, is strictly l specific at the alpha position, whereas it cannot distinguish between threo and er ...19989464392
reduction of diverse electron acceptors by aeromonas hydrophilaaeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966 grew anaerobically on glycerol with nitrate, fumarate, fe(iii), co(iii), or se(vi) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, but did not ferment glycerol. final cell yields were directly proportional to the amount of terminal electron acceptor provided. twenty-four estuarine mesophilic aeromonads were isolated; all reduced nitrate, fe(iii), or co(iii), and five strains reduced se(vi). dissimilatory fe(iii) reduction by a. hydrophila may involve cytochromes. differenc ...19989477259
inactivation of two haemolytic toxin genes in aeromonas hydrophila attenuates virulence in a suckling mouse model.the contribution of two unrelated aeromonas hydrophila beta-haemolytic toxins to virulence was assessed in a suckling mouse model. the first haemolysin gene, isolated from an a. hydrophila a6 cosmid bank, encoded a potential gene product of 621 amino acids and a predicted molecular size of 69.0 kda. the inferred amino acid sequence showed 89% identity to the ahh1 haemolysin of a. hydrophila atcc 7966, and 51% identity to the hlya haemolysin of vibrio cholerae ei tor strain o17. the second haemol ...19989493366
internalization of aeromonas hydrophila by fish epithelial cells can be inhibited with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that is pathogenic in fish, causing motile aeromonad septicaemia. it can enter (invade) fish cells, and survive as an intracellular parasite. the host-pathogen interaction and signal transduction pathway were studied by screening signal transduction inhibitors using carp epithelial cells and a virulent strain of the bacterium, ppd134/91. genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, postponed internalization of a. hydrophila into host cells, suggesting ...19989493367
antibiotic resistance of bacterial litter isolates.use of antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses as growth-promoting feed additives for animal production is widespread in the u.s. and throughout the world. previous studies by our research group concluded that size fractionation of poultry (broiler) litter followed by storage facilitated reutilization of litter as a soil amendment or bedding supplement. however, litter microbial contamination, including antibiotic-resistant populations, and accumulation of metals and other elements may limit litter ...19989495488
virulence factors in aeromonas spp and their association with gastrointestinal disease.culture filtrates of eight aeromonas strains isolated from the feces of 487 subjects (292 diarrhoeic patients and 195 asymptomatic subjects) were tested for toxin production in cho and mccoy cells, and adhesion and invasive ability in caco-2 cells. among these isolates, three aeromonas sobria and one aeromonas caviae strains possessed virulence-associated properties. toxin production was the most common of the three virulence properties. two a. caviae were associated, in the absence of other dia ...19989497926
indwelling device-related and recurrent infections due to aeromonas species.from october 1995 to february 1997, 13 isolates of aeromonas species were recovered from four patients treated at national taiwan university hospital (taipei). one of the patients, a diabetic, had simultaneous aeromonas veronii biotype veronii bacteremia and a. veronii biotype sobria urinary tract infection. seven weeks after the episode, the patient had necrotizing fasciitis due to a. veronii biotype veronii. the other three patients all had underlying hepatobiliary malignancies complicated by ...19989524839
nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the metallo-beta-lactamase, imis, from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.the aeromonas veronii bv. sobria metallo-beta-lactamase gene, imis, was cloned. the imis open reading frame extends for 762 bp and encodes a protein of 254 amino acids with a secreted modified protein of 227 amino acids and a predicted pi of 8.1. to confirm the predicted sequence, purified imis was digested and the resulting peptides were identified, yielding an identical sequence for imis, with 98% identity to cpha. both possessed the putative active-site sequence asn-tyr-his-thr-asp at positio ...19989527802
detection of psychotrophic aeromonads in drinking water.in the context of evaluating their pathogenic relevance, culture on solid media is the only approach presently suitable for culture of psychotrophic aeromonads from drinking water. in this respect, a check must be effected to ensure that the culture medium cannot engender selective culture losses for individual species. for this reason, media to which e.g. ampicillin has been added are unsuitable.19989531729
food borne microbial pathogens of cultured aquatic species.this article provides a broad overview of microbial pathogens associated with marine and fresh water aquatic animals, including vibrio species, escherichia coli, streptococcus iniae, salmonella species, and edwardsiella tarda. historically, cultured fish were not considered important vectors of human pathogens. this situation is changing, partly due to increasing animal densities as a consequence of a rapidly growing industry and partly due to increasing awareness by health care providers of pat ...19989532670
activity of bacterial phosphomonoesterases in batch culture.the phosphomonoesterases catalyse the hydrolysis of primary esters of phosphoric acid which help the bacteria to survive in phosphate stressed environment. ninety-five bacterial isolates were obtained from domestic sewage and industrial effluents of gelatine and soap factories at jabalpur on a medium enriched with phosphate and were screened for phosphatase production. the phosphatase producers were tentatively identified as escherichia coli, vibrio vulnificus, aeromonas hydrophila, staphylococc ...19989536656
identification of lactococcus garvieae by pcr.lactococcus garvieae junior synonym enterococcus seriolicida) is an emerging zoonotic agent isolated from economically important fish (rainbow trout and yellowtail), from cattle, and from humans. clindamycin susceptibility is the only phenotypic test which can differentiate l. garvieae from lactococcus lactis, another emerging agent in humans. a pcr assay for the identification of l. garvieae was developed and resulted in an amplified fragment of 1,100 bp in size. the pcr assay was shown to be s ...19989542921
misidentification of unusual aeromonas species as members of the genus vibrio: a continuing problem.two unusual cases of aeromonas infection are described, one associated with bacteremia (aeromonas schubertii) and another in which the organism was recovered from an infected gall bladder (aeromonas veronii biotype veronii). these strains were initially identified as vibrio damsela and vibrio cholerae by the vitek and api 20e systems, respectively. use of appropriate screening tests and familiarity with the newer aeromonas species could prevent initial misidentifications and potential public hea ...19989542946
evaluation of the role of carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees c.the microflora on spoiled cold-smoked salmon often consists of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (lab) and gram-negative bacteria. to elucidate the role of the different groups, a storage trial was carried out in which nisin and co2 were used for the selective inhibition of the two bacterial groups. the shelf-life of vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon, recorded by sensory evaluation, was four weeks at 5 degrees c and the microflora was composed of lab (10(6)-10(7) cfu/g) with an associate gram-neg ...19989553794
a further review of the microbiological quality of bottled water sold in canada: 1992-1997 survey results. 19989553800
study of the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during storage at 8 degrees c.microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in cold-smoked salmon were studied during 5 weeks of vacuum storage at 8 degrees c. the aerobic 20 degrees c viable count reached its maximum level after 6 days (3 x 10(6) cfu g-1) however, the shelf-life of the product was estimated to be 2 or 3 weeks by the panellists, confirming that there is no correlation between those two factors. acid, pungent, sour and rancid odours and flavours and pasty texture were the main spoilage characteristics. trimet ...19989562883
analysis of the interaction of aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila and a. sobria with mucins.aeromonas species are known to be involved in human gastrointestinal diseases. these organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract. aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, and a. sobria have been demonstrated microscopically to adhere to animal cell lines that express mucous receptors, but quantitative studies of adherence to mucosal components such as mucin have not been published to date. purified bovine submaxillary gland, hog gastric mucin, and fish skin mucin were used as a model to study mucin-bi ...19989566493
molecular characterization of the aeromonas hydrophila aroa gene and potential use of an auxotrophic aroa mutant as a live attenuated vaccine.the aroa gene of aeromonas hydrophila so2/2, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase, was cloned by complementation of the aroa mutation in escherichia coli k-12 strain ab2829, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. the nucleotide sequence of the a. hydrophila aroa gene encoded a protein of 440 amino acids which showed a high degree of homology to other bacterial aroa proteins. to obtain an effective attenuated live vaccine against a. hydrophila infections in fish, the aroa gen ...19989573055
defined deletion mutants demonstrate that the major secreted toxins are not essential for the virulence of aeromonas salmonicida.the importance of the two major extracellular enzymes of aeromonas salmonicida, glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a serine protease (aspa), to the pathology and mortality of salmonid fish with furunculosis had been indicated in toxicity studies. in this study, the genes encoding gcat (sata) and aspa (aspa) have been cloned and mutagenized by marker replacement of internal deletions, and the constructs have been used for the creation of isogenic sata and aspa mutants of ...19989573081
phenotypic identification of aeromonas genomospecies from clinical and environmental sources.a collection of 983 aeromonas isolates from environmental and clinical sources have been identified to the genomospecies level. a phenotypic method identified 93% of the strains. the use of citrate and the production of acid from sorbitol enabled the members of the aeromonas hydrophila complex to be separated. the most common genomospecies from intestinal sources were aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas caviae. the former, together with a. hydrophila, was the most frequently isolated ...19989575026
infected stingray injury. 19989576395
characterization and sequence of the chryseobacterium (flavobacterium) meningosepticum carbapenemase: a new molecular class b beta-lactamase showing a broad substrate profile.the metallo-beta-lactamase produced by chryseobacterium (formerly flavobacterium) meningosepticum, which is the flavobacterial species of greatest clinical relevance, was purified and characterized. the enzyme, named blab, contains a polypeptide with an apparent mr of 26000, and has a pi of 8.5. it hydrolyses penicillins, cephalosporins (including cefoxitin), carbapenems and 6-beta-iodopenicillanate, a mechanism-based inactivator of active-site serine beta-lactamases. the enzyme was inhibited by ...19989576862
fructose and mannose metabolism in aeromonas hydrophila: identification of transport systems and catabolic pathways.aeromonas hydrophila was examined for fructose and mannose transport systems. a. hydrophila was shown to possess a phosphoenolpyruvate (pep): fructose phosphotransferase system (fructose-pts) and a mannose-specific pts, both induced by fructose and mannose. the mannose-pts of a. hydrophila exhibited cross-reactivity with escherichia coli mannose-pts proteins. the fructose-pts proteins exhibited cross-reactivities with e. coli and xanthomonas campestris fructose-pts proteins. in a. hydrophila gro ...19989579084
efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from plant oils by alcaligenes eutrophus and its recombinant strain.the ability of alcaligenes eutrophus to grow and produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) on plant oils was evaluated. when olive oil, corn oil, or palm oil was fed as a sole carbon source, the wild-type strain of a. eutrophus grew well and accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer up to approximately 80% (w/w) of the cell dry weight during its stationary growth phase. in addition, a recombinant strain of a. eutrophus phb-4 (a pha-negative mutant), harboring a pha synthase gene from aeromonas c ...19989581296
[selective screening of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli depending on hemolysis on beutin's washed sheep blood agar plates].recently, beutin et al have studied hemolysin production in a large number of serologically diverse verotoxin (vt) producing escherichia coli (vtec) strains and found a close association between hemolysin production and vt production. this study was to examine whether hemolysin production on sheep blood agar can be used as an epidemiological marker for microbiological screening of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec). in comparison of hemolysis on washed blood agar plates prepared in our la ...19989585695
interactions of bacteria with contact lenses: the effect of soluble protein and carbohydrate on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.during contact lens wear, components in the tear film adsorb to the contact lens surface to form a protein-rich coating. in this study, we investigated the importance of these components in bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.19989586751
aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) from the baltic sea: a case study.aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in a grey seal (halichoerus grypus) from the swedish part of the baltic sea is reported. the pathogen was isolated from both lung and spleen specimens. all of the a. hydrophila isolates produced haemolysin and vero active cytotoxin. the aerolysin gene was found in all tested isolates as evidenced by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. also, all isolates tested showed identical patterns of biochemical and antibiotic resistance. as aeromonas spp. commonl ...19989597306
bacterial density and survey of cultivable heterotrophs in the surface water of a freshwater marsh habitat of anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae (diptera: culicidae).we examined surface water samples collected in september and october 1994 from a freshwater marsh habitat containing larval anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes. bacterial densities in direct microscopic counts ranged from 9.7 x 10(5) to 1.3 x 10(7) cells/ml. densities of cultivable bacteria on trypticase soy agar medium ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 x 10(5) cells/ml. the majority of 888 isolates were gram-positive rods (41%) followed by gram-negative rods (28%). analysis of the cellular fatty acid pro ...19989599327
immunostimulatory effects of dimerized lysozyme (klp-602) on the nonspecific defense mechanisms and protection against furunculosis in salmonids.utilization of natural immunostimulants in fish culture offers a wide range of attractive methods for inducing and building protection against diseases. lysozyme is an enzyme with bacteriolytic properties and is ubiquitous in its distribution among living organisms. this enzyme has antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. in nature, lysozyme is found as a monomer. lysozyme dimer is significantly less toxic than its monomer, and its high biological activity has been ascertained ...19989613448
characterization of a 14 kda plant-related serine protease inhibitor and regulation of cytotoxic activity in earthworm coelomic fluid.we have purified and characterized the serine protease inhibitor activity contained in the coelomic fluid of the earthworms, eisenia. serine protease inhibitor activity was stable between ph3 and 9.5, not flocculable by ph 3.0 and resistant to 100 degrees c for 15 min. or to 4 degrees c for 24 h. ten microl of coelomic fluid was sufficient to inhibit in vitro the protease activity of 0.12 microgram of trypsin. injection of living bacteria into earthworms resulted in increased serine protease act ...19989617579
diverse and related 16s rrna-encoding dna sequences in prostate tissues of men with chronic prostatitis.treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is often empirical because clinical culture methods fail to detect prostate-associated pathogens in >90% of patients. previously, we tested a variety of specific-microorganism pcrs and began a dna sequence study after we found that 77% of prostatitis patients were pcr positive for prokaryotic rrna-encoding dna sequences (rdnas) despite negative cultures using optimal techniques. in the present study, 36 rdna clones from 23 rdna-positi ...19989620394
incidence of non-01 vibrio cholerae and aeromonas spp. in fresh water in araraquara, brazil.the occurrence of aeromonas spp., vibrio cholerae, and plesiomonas shigelloides in fresh water from various sources in araraquara, state of são paulo, brazil was determined. samples from ten distinct irrigation systems used in vegetable cultivation, from five distinct streams, from two reservoirs, from one artificial lake, and from three distinct springs were analyzed. all isolates were serotyped and tested for hemolysin, cytotoxin, heat-stable (st) and heat-labile (lt) enterotoxins production; ...19989625786
purification and characterization of an arylamine n-acetyltransferase from the bacteria aeromonas hydrophilia.n-acetyltransferase from aeromonas hydrophilia was purified by ultrafiltration, deae-sephacel, gel filtration chromatography on sephadex g-100, and deae-5pw on high performance liquid chromatography, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis (sds-page) on a 12.% (wt/vol) slab gel. the enzyme had a molecular mass 44.9 kda. the purified enzyme was thermostable at 37 degrees c for 1 h with a half-life 28 min at 37 degrees c, and displayed optimum activity at 37 degrees ...19989625795
aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection as a complication of snake bite: report of three cases.aeromonas hydrophila soft-tissue infection has been associated with fish and reptile bites. there have bee three recent cases from brazil of abscesses complicating snake bites in which a. hydrophila was isolated from the purulent exudates. one of the snakes responsible for the bites was a specimen of bothrops moojeni, and the others were most probably also lance-headed vipers. these snakes have a local necrotizing, myotoxic, oedema-inducing venom that must have favoured the multiplication in the ...19989625918
men 10700, a new penem antibiotic: in-vitro activity and its correlation with beta-lactamase stability, pbp affinity and diffusion through the bacterial cell wall.the in-vitro activity of men 10700, a novel penem, was compared with that of imipenem, ritipenem, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and amikacin against 1088 strains taken from 21 genera, including gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. mic data showed that men 10700 was very active against staphylococci and streptococci (mic90 < or = 0.5 mg/l) and against most members of the enterobacteriaceae (mic90 < or = 2 mg/l), with reduced activity only against providencia stua ...19989630405
the effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas fluorescens.basil essential oils, including basil sweet linalool (bsl) and basil methyl chavicol (bmc), were screened for antimicrobial activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds using an agar well diffusion method. both essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against most of the micro-organisms examined except clostridium sporogenes, flavimonas oryzihabitans, and three species of pseudomonas. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of bmc against aeromon ...19989633630
colonization of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) larvae.polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to v. pelagius and/or aer. caviae. the results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of v. pelagius and aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. populations of ae ...19989633637
the isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milks.in this research, totally 200 raw milk samples in different areas of ankara were collected from various dairy plant. the isolated psychotrophic bacteria from the raw milk samples are the species of pseudomonas spp., acinetobacter spp., alcaligenes and aeromonas. isolation of pseudomonas and other gram(-) psychrotrophic bacteria types are determined as p. aeruginosa 11 (5.5%), p. putida 11 (5.5%), p. fluorescens biotype i 10 (5.0%), p. fluorescens biotype ii 4 (2.0%), p. fluorescens biotype iii 6 ...19989637013
sialic acid-binding lectin with antibacterial activity from the horse mussel: further characterization and immunolocalization.a heterogeneous sialic acid-binding lectin with affinity for bacterial lps was isolated and partially characterized from hemolymph of the horse mussel modiolus modiolus.(1) using two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized ph gradients, the lectin revealed three subunits with different molecular weight and isoelectric points (pi); mr14 (pi approximately 5.1 and approximately 5.5), 17.5 (pi approximately 5.5) and 20 (pi approximately 4.9) kda. the affinity purified lectin existed in its nati ...19989639084
macromolecular assembly and secretion across the bacterial cell envelope: type ii protein secretion systems.a decade ago, pugsley and colleagues reported the existence of a large region of klebsiella dna, distinct from the klebsiella gene encoding pullulanase, which was necessary for secretion of this enzyme to the cell surface in escherichia coli (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b). the pul genes it contained proved to be the tip of an iceberg. the sequences reported before 1992 (d'enfert et al., 1987a,b; d'enfert & pugsley, 1989; pugsley & reyss, 1990; reyss & pugsley, 1990) included only one gene (puld) tha ...19989641973
aeromonas hydrophila adenylyl cyclase 2: a new class of adenylyl cyclases with thermophilic properties and sequence similarities to proteins from hyperthermophilic archaebacteria.complementation of an escherichia coli cya mutant with a genomic library from aeromonas hydrophila allowed isolation of clones containing two different cya genes. whereas one of these genes (cyaa) coded for an adenylyl cyclase (ac1) belonging to the previously described class i adenylyl cyclases (acs), the second one (cyab) coded for a protein (ac2) that did not match any previously characterized protein when compared to protein sequence databases. in particular, it did not align with any of mem ...19989642185
the effect of suspending solution supplemented with marine cations on the oxidation of biolog gn microplate substrates by vibrionaceae bacteria.bacteria belonging to the family vibrionaceae were suspended using saline and a solution prepared from a marine-cations supplement. the effect of this on the profile of oxidized substrates obtained when using biolog gn microplates was investigated. thirty-nine species belonging to the genera aeromonas, listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio were studied. of the strains studied, species of listonella, photobacterium, and vibrio could be expected to benefit from a marine-cations supplement that co ...19989643966
antimicrobial activity in the skin of the channel catfish ictalurus punctatus: characterization of broad-spectrum histone-like antimicrobial proteins.three antibacterial proteins were isolated from acid extracts of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) skin by cation exchange chromatography and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. the molecular masses of the proteins were 15.5, 15.5 and 30 kd as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. mass spectrometry, amino acid composition and amino acid sequence data suggest that the most abundant protein is closely related to histone h2b. the h2b-like protein was inhibitory to ...19989645227
effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on some immune responses of blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus (pallus).the immunotoxicological effects of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on blue gourami were studied. some immune responses ranging from non-specific to specific were investigated. these include tissue lysozyme activity, kidney lymphocyte proliferation and plasma agglutinating antibody titre against bacteria. after 2 weeks of chronic exposure, 0.09 mg/l of hg2+ alone induced a significant increase of kidney lysozyme activity of 4196.3 +/- 1171.0 u/g, but it decreased to 1577.4 +/- 902.4 u/g whe ...19989646523
[ocular infection caused by aeromonas spp.: considerations on its treatment and importance of resistance to antimicrobial agents]. 19989646574
aeromonas as a cause of segmental colitis. 19989647047
molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from aeromonas trota.aeromonas trota ak2, which was derived from atcc 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-tn5km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain ak253. southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb noti fragment of the genomic dna of strain ak253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-tn5km1. the 8.7-kb noti dna fragment was cloned into the vector pgem5zf(-) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, ...19989647817
generation and preliminary characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed to glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) native epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida.four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed to native glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) epitopes of aeromonas salmonicida were isolated using an esterase capture assay. the molecular mass of this mab-defined antigen was estimated to be 26 kda in sds-page. three different epitope specificities of these mabs were demonstrated. it was shown that all 4 mabs recognize gcat in culture filtrates of the strain mt004 excluding the simultaneous trapping of other components. none of the ...19989653461
aerolysin induces g-protein activation and ca2+ release from intracellular stores in human granulocytes.aerolysin is a pore-forming toxin that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila infections. in this study, we have analyzed the effect of aerolysin on human granulocytes (hl-60 cells). proaerolysin could bind to these cells, was processed into active aerolysin, and led to membrane depolarization, indicating that granulocytes are potential targets for this toxin. fura-2 measurements were used to analyze the effect of aerolysin on cytosolic [ca2+] homeostasis. as expected for a ...19989660770
clonal identification of aeromonas hydrophila strains using randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.the suitability of arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction (rapd) as a typing technique was evaluated by comparing it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to characterize aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from a cluster of hospital-acquired infections. five isolates from patients and 10 isolates from the water supply were compared to 10 epidemiologically unrelated strains isolated from patients and rivers. two methods were used to prepare dna and two primers (ap3 and ap5) were sel ...19989663524
etiological study of diarrheal patients in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic.the etiological agents of diarrhea in vientiane, lao people's democratic republic (lao pdr), were studied in the period from october 1996 to august 1997. a total of 880 patients with diarrhea visiting medical facilities were examined for shigella, salmonella, diarrheagenic escherichia coli, vibrio, aeromonas, campylobacter, and rotavirus. shigella spp., heat-stable enterotoxin (st)-producing e. coli, and serogroup-based enteropathogenic e. coli were found to be the main organisms causing diarrhe ...19989665990
role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in aeromonas-mediated infections: development of transposon and isogenic mutants.transposon and marker exchange mutagenesis were used to evaluate the role of aeromonas cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and deep wound infections. the transposon mutants were generated by random insertion of tn5-751 in the chromosomal dna of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. some of the transposon mutants had dramatically reduced hemolytic and cytotoxic activities, and such mutants exhibited reduced virulence in mice compared to wild-type aerom ...19989673226
activation of the complement classical pathway (c1q binding) by mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila outer membrane protein.the mechanism of killing of aeromonas hydrophila serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway has been studied. the bacterial cell surface component that binds c1q more efficiently was identified as a major outer membrane protein of 39 kda, presumably the porin ii described by d. jeanteur, n. gletsu, f. pattus, and j. t. buckley (mol. microbiol. 6:3355-3363, 1992), of these microorganisms. we have demonstrated that the purified form of porin ii binds c1q and act ...19989673268
bactericidal effect of chlorine on motile aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies and influence of temperature on disinfection efficacy.the susceptibility of toxigenic aeromonas spp. to free chlorine in drinking water supplies, and the influence of environmental temperature on the bactericidal activity of the oxidant, were evaluated. the results showed inactivation curves characterized by an initial phase of rapid reduction of viable cells followed by a slow inactivation of bacteria. the effect of the chlorine compound was markedly influenced by water temperature. at a summer water temperature (20 degrees c), the efficacy of the ...19989674163
false-positive coliform reaction mediated by aeromonas in the colilert defined substrate technology system.the colilert defined substrate technology system allows specific, one-step detection of both coliforms and escherichia coli while claiming to suppress the influence of non-coliform heterotrophs. the colilert assay was examined in order to determine whether organisms from the genus aeromonas could interfere and cause production of a false-positive coliform result as aquatic aeromonas are known to constitute a fraction of the heterotrophic population found in drinking water. results obtained clear ...19989674164
co-migration of rapd-pcr amplicons from aeromonas hydrophila.random amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) uses arbitrary primers and low stringency annealing conditions to amplify anonymous dna fragments which are then depicted in agarose gels. rapd-pcr fingerprints have been used for typing and differentiation of bacteria and, increasingly, for the study of genetic relationships between strains and species of microorganisms, plants and animals. the analysis of such fingerprints is based upon the assumption that co-migration of am ...19989675848
siderophore production by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. lack of strain specificity.siderophore production, presence of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and siderophore specificity was determined among 17 isolates of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida obtained from spain and scotland. all grew in the presence of ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (edda) and siderophore production was detected using chrome azurol s (cas) agar, confirming the presence of a high-affinity siderophore iron-uptake mechanism. the arnow test confirmed that all isolates produced ...19989684314
molecular cloning of a bombinin gene from bombina orientalis: detection of nf-kappab and nf-il6 binding sites in its promoter.the sequence of a gene from bombina orientalis was determined which codes for antibacterial peptides. the gene comprises two exons separated by a large intron. exon 1 codes for the signal peptide, while exon 2 contains the genetic information for two identical bombinins and one bombinin h. the promoter region of the bombinin gene contains putative recognition sites for nuclear factors, such as nfkappab and nf-il6. in vivo experiments on b. orientalis have shown that a short contact with bacteria ...19989684858
possible virulence factors of aeromonas spp. from food and water.thirty-one isolates of aeromonas spp. from food and water in norway were classified and tested for possible virulence factors including cytotoxins (tissue cultures, pcr), enterotoxins (pcr) and invasion ability (caco-2 cells). five different species were recorded, a. caviae (9/31), a. hydrophila (15/31), a. schubertii (3/31), a. trota (3/31) and a. veronii biovar veronii (1/31). one of the a. hydrophila strains was probably responsible for a small outbreak of food poisoning caused by ingestion o ...19989685002
the maximum growth temperature and human pathogenicity of psychrotrophic aeromonads.determination of the maximum growth temperature of aeromonas strains isolated from clinical material and endowed with pronounced propensity for adhesion to intestinal cells has demonstrated that all strains still grow at 39 degrees c, with this holding true for the majority of strains also at 40 degrees c. since aeromonas isolated obtained from water evidence to a large extent a markedly lower maximum growth temperature, the 39 degrees c growth criterion is a characteristic of aeromonas strains ...19989686448
aeromonas hydrophila in burn patients.burn wound infection with aeromonas hydrophila appears to be very uncommon. this study reports on nine cases of a. hydrophila in burn patients treated over a 21 month period at the new somerset hospital burn unit. the average age of the patients was 31 years (range 24-60 years) and the average tbsa was 33% (range 16-51%). all patients had positive wound cultures for a. hydrophila, obtained on admission or shortly thereafter. one patient also had a positive blood culture. two patients with small ...19989688201
computer-assisted structural analysis of oligo- and polysaccharides: an extension of casper to multibranched structures.the casper program which is used for determination of the structure of oligo- and polysaccharides has been extended. it can now handle a reduced number of experimental signals from an nmr spectrum in the comparison to the simulated spectra of structures that it generates, an improvement which is of practical importance since all signals in nmr spectra cannot always be identified. furthermore, the program has been enhanced to simulate nmr spectra of multibranched oligo- and polysaccharides. the n ...19989691437
[bacteriological and virological studies on the cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis in tama, tokyo (1991-1996)].between may 1991 and december 1996, bacteriological and virological investigations on the fecal samples from patient of infantile diarrhea (155 cases), or infectious gastroenteritis (1,409 cases) diagnosed with 9 medical institutions in tama of tokyo were carried out. of 1,564 samples, 722 (46.2%) were enteropathogen positive cases, and mixed infection was also observed in about 15% of the positive cases. among 13 different kinds of enteropathogens identified, the most prevalent one was pathogen ...19989695470
occurrence and significance of atypical aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.bacterial strains of aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical a. salmonicida. the atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. consequently, the present taxonomy of the species a. salmonicida is rather am ...19989696626
growth of atlantic salmon salmo salar after intraperitoneal administration of vaccines containing adjuvants.growth of atlantic salmon after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of adjuvanted vaccines was studied using groups of individually tagged fish held together in one tank or pen under commercial farming conditions. parallel experiments were initiated at 2 freshwater sites and 1 marine site. trivalent (vibriosis, cold water vibriosis and furunculosis) vaccines containing oil or beta-1, 3 glucan as adjuvants were used for immunisation of pre-smolts, whereas identical formulations containing furun ...19989696628
recurrent spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhosis: a case report.spontaneous bacterial empyema occurs in about 0.4% of cirrhotic patients, but recurrent attack has rarely been reported. herein we report a case of repeat episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema. the patient presented with fever, shortness of breath and three episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema (accompanied by septic shock in two episodes) within six months. chest roentgenography showed massive right-side pleural effusion. thoracentesis yielded pleural effusion containing a neutrophil co ...19989699395
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis presenting as meningitis and necrotizing fasciitis in a man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.aeromonas hydrophila is rarely reported as a causative organism of meningitis in humans. a 39-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted with a 2-day history of fever, chills, and confusion. laboratory data revealed leukocytosis with granulocytosis, marked impairment of renal and liver function, and an elevated serum ammonia level. a. hydrophila was isolated from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. skin and soft-tissue lesions, consisting of bullae and necrotizing fasciitis ...19989700248
incidence & enteropathogenicity of aeromonas spp in children suffering from acute diarrhoea in chennai.a total of 200 stool samples from children below 10 yr suffering from diarrhoea were screened for enteric pathogens with special interest on aeromonas. aeromonas spp were isolated from 6.5 per cent of the patients, comprising 4 per cent a. hydrophila, 2 per cent a. sobria and 0.5 per cent a. caviae. among the 13 isolates obtained, 10 isolates produced enterotoxin in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and 11 produced cytotoxin in hep 2 cells. many of the aeromonas isolates exhibited resistance to common ...19989701892
motile aeromonads in the feces and carcasses of broiler chickens in turkey.motile aeromonas spp. were surveyed in chicken feces, carcasses, scalding water, and chilling water during slaughtering in a commercial processing plant in turkey. fecal and carcass samples of 351 chickens from 15 different flocks were examined by selective isolation techniques. all of the 15 flocks were positive for motile aeromonads. motile aeromonads were detected in 14.8%, 90.5%, and 100% of fecal, carcass, and chilling water samples, respectively, while scalding water samples were negative ...19989708264
inhibition of listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila by plant extracts in refrigerated cooked beef.refrigerated ready-to-eat foods are becoming increasingly popular but are often vulnerable to contamination and subsequent growth by psychrotrophic foodborne pathogens. consequently, there is a need for additional methods to assure the safety of these foods. beef slices prepared from roasted whole sirloin tips were used in the study. nine plant extracts were evaluated for ability to inhibit the growth of two psychrotrophic pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila and listeria monocytogenes) in refrigerat ...19989708301
growth of inoculated psychrotrophic pathogens on refrigerated fillets of aquacultured rainbow trout and channel catfish.aquacultured rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets were inoculated with the psychrotrophic pathogens listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila: cell populations were monitored during refrigerated storage at 2 to 4 degrees c. fillets of both species were placed individually in sterile plastic bags and inoculated with cell suspensions (10(4.7) cfu/100 g of fish) of either a. hydrophila or l monocytogenes or of both a. hydrophila and l. monocyto ...19989708302
survival of aeromonas hydrophila in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicum esculentum mill) stored at different temperatures and treated with chlorine.this study examines the survival of two aeromonas hydrophila strains (a. hydrophila atcc 7965 [strain a] and a. hydrophila isolated from food [strain b] on the surface and core tissue of fresh tomatoes stored at different temperatures and the efficacy of chlorine treatment on their survival. counts of a. hydrophila on the surface of tomatoes stored at 25 and 35 degrees c were significantly higher between days 1 and 4 for both strains as compared to results obtained at 6 degrees c. core tissue co ...19989709203
recovery of foodborne microorganisms from potentially lethal radiation damage.a two-stage recovery protocol was examined for microorganisms following gamma irradiation in phosphate buffer at 0 degrees c. in the first stage, survivors were recovered on basal yeast extract agar and held at various temperatures suboptimal for their growth for 20 h (resuscitation protocol). in the second stage the survivors were incubated for an additional 24 h, but in this case at their optimum temperature for growth. controls consisted of survivors which were not subjected to the resuscitat ...19989709232
bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a south african poultry abattoir.bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. the neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also ...19989709252
evolving concepts regarding the genus aeromonas: an expanding panorama of species, disease presentations, and unanswered questions.it has been almost 10 years since a major review on the association of aeromonas with human disease has been published. during that period the number of valid species in the genus has grown to 14, with a new family (aeromonadaceae) established to house this genus. despite this explosion in the number of new genomospecies, only five (aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, a. veronii, a. jandaei, and a. schubertii) are currently recognized as human pathogens. new syndromes attributed to this genus inclu ...19989709884
septic arthritis due to aeromonas veronii biotype sobria. 19989709899
metallo-beta-lactamases: a class apart.metallo-beta-lactamases have recently become more prominent among the beta-lactam-hydrolyzing enzymes. two major functional groups of enzymes have been identified, with little structural similarity among the groups. one group is a set of enzymes with broad substrate specificities capable of hydrolyzing most beta-lactams except monobactams. a second group is composed of the "true" carbapenemases, enzymes that exhibit poor hydrolysis of penicillins and cephalosporins. this latter group has been fo ...19989710671
identification of atypical aeromonas salmonicida: inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods.the atypical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. the primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemical identification of atypical aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. five laboratories examined 25 isolates of aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographica ...19989717284
antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic freshwater cyanobacteria--a comparative study of bacterial bioassays.aqueous and methanol extracts from five selected cyanobacteria were examined for antibacterial properties in six different bacterial bioassays. all five cyanobacteria revealed antibacterial properties. methanol extracts made from tychonema bourrellyi, aphanizomenon flos-aquae and cylindrospermopsis raciborskii showed the most pronounced inhibitory effects, aqueous extracts made from microcystis aeruginosa and t. bourrellyi possessed evident antibacterial properties. the bacterial bioassays were ...19989717298
rrna-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of bacterial community structure in river water.an improved in situ hybridization technique, hnpp-fish, using 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid 2'-phenylanilide phosphate (hnpp) and fast red tr was applied to analyse the community structure of planktonic bacteria in river water. oligonucleotide probes specific for the domain bacteria (eub338) and five bacterial groups [flavobacterium-cytophaga; burkholderia-pseudomonas (rrna iii)-authentic alcaligenes; vibrio-aeromonas; pseudomonas (rrna i): the genus acinetobacter] were used to investigate the bact ...19989720029
physical map of the chromosome of aeromonas salmonicida and genomic comparisons between aeromonas strains.i-ceul and pmel physical maps of the aeromonas salmonicida a449 chromosome were constructed using pfge. the circular chromosome of a. salmonicida a449 was estimated to be 4658 +/- 30 kb. the approximate location of several genes, including those encoding proteins implicated in virulence, were identified. the map showed that the known virulence-factor-encoding genes were not clustered. the i-ceul genomic digestion fingerprints of several typical and atypical strains of a. salmonicida were compare ...19989720035
incidence of mesophilic aeromonas within a public drinking water supply in north-east scotland.the motile mesophilic aeromonas are ubiquitous to a wide variety of aquatic environments including drinking water distribution systems. concern over the presence of mesophilic aeromonas in public drinking water supplies has been expressed in recent years as it has been regarded as a pathogenic organism of importance in gastroenteritis. a major drinking water distribution system in north-east scotland was monitored over a 12 month period to determine the prevalence of mesophilic aeromonas. these ...19989721643
identification of aeromonas strains of different origin to the genomic species level.a total of 71 aeromonas strains was identified with established genomic species by dna-dna hybridization. the strains were isolated from diarrhoeal stools, dead and live fish, drinking, lake, river and sea water, municipal sewage and aluminium rolling emulsion. the strains were allocated to seven hybridization groups (hgs) but the majority belonged to hg 4 (42%), hg 8/10 (30%) and hg 3 (18%). all strains were examined by 136 phenotypic tests. useful phenotypic characters for separation of aeromo ...19989721647
bacterial isolates from california sea lions (zalophus californianus), harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central california coast, 1994-1995.in 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 california sea lions (zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the california coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were escherichia coli, streptococcus viridans, listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp., and enterococcus spp. this is the first report of l. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. the common i ...19989732032
characterization of atypical aeromonas salmonicida by different methods.fifty two isolates of atypical aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies. generally, there was incongruence between the molecular (pcr, rapd and ribotyping) and phenotypic methods in terms of cluster membership. by pcr, 6 groups were described of which group 1 encompassed 12 iso ...19989741110
the prevalence of vibrio spp. in drinking water and environmental samples in vellore south india.the prevalence of vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls during july and august 1996 in vellore, india was determined. drinking water samples were collected on single occasions from 12 sites in different geographic areas of the town where cholera had been reported. samples of water, plankton and sediment were collected from fixed sites at three lakes on three occasions separated by at least 3 days during the course of the study. samples from open sewers were taken from two ...19989747757
prolyl endopeptidase from sphingomonas capsulata: isolation and characterization of the enzyme and nucleotide sequence of the gene.prolyl endopeptidase (prolyl oligopeptidase, ec 3.4.21.26) was purified from sphingomonas capsulata ifo 12533, and its gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the recombinant enzyme was markedly inhibited by diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and hardly affected by sh reagents or metal chelators, similar to the native enzyme purified from s. capsulata. nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2169 bp, coding for a protein of 723 amino acids with a predicted molecula ...19989750174
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