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the extracellular regions of psma and the transferrin receptor contain an aminopeptidase domain: implications for drug design.the aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase (amp), pseudomonas sp. (rs-16) carboxypeptidase g2 (cpg2), and streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase (sgap) are zinc dependent proteolytic enzymes with cocatalytic zinc ion centers and a conserved aminopeptidase fold. a blast search with the sequence of the solved amp structure indicated that a similar domain could be found in prostate-specific membrane antigen (psma) and the transferrin receptor (tfr). when the psma or tfr sequence was input into the thre ...199910595564
aeromonas abscess in an immunocompromised child.an 11-year-old immunocompromised child developed cellulitis and abscess due to aeromonas hydrophila at the site of bone marrow aspiration after swimming in a freshwater lake. the patient required treatment with intravenous antibiotics and surgical debridement to eradicate the infection. both common and unusual organisms may complicate infections at the sites of percutaneous procedures.199910598672
aeromonas-associated diarrhoea in bangladeshi children: clinical and epidemiological characteristics.we studied the clinical and epidemiological features associated with aeromonas diarrhoea by a hospital survey of 7,398 children under 5 years of age presenting with diarrhoea. the data were actually based upon two cohorts from this survey, the majority of the data being identified from 405 (5.5%) in whom aeromonas was the sole enteric pathogen. aeromonas caviae was the most prevalent species, accounting for 32% (129/405) of all isolates. eighty-three per cent of children with aeromonas-associate ...199910605516
size distribution of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in indoor air.the aim of this study was to determine the size distribution of bacteria and fungi occurring in the air of human dwellings. the concentration and size distribution of particulate aerosol, gram-positive mesophilic bacteria, gram-negative mesophilic bacteria and fungi were examined in 60 flats situated in the upper silesia conurbation, southern poland. the investigated flats comprised three quantitatively equal (20 flats each) groups: flats without additional emission sources of particulate aeroso ...199910607991
dimer dissociation of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin precedes receptor binding.the pore-forming toxin aerolysin is secreted by aeromonas hydrophila as an inactive precursor. based on chemical cross-linking and gel filtration, we show here that proaerolysin exists as a monomer at low concentrations but is dimeric above 0.1 mg/ml. at intermediate concentrations, monomers and dimers appeared to be in rapid equilibrium. all together our data indicate that, at low concentrations, the toxin is a monomer and that this species is competent for receptor binding. in contrast, a muta ...199910608828
recent developments in fish vaccinology.during the last 10 to 20 years vaccination has become established as an important method for prevention of infectious diseases in farmed fish, mainly salmonid species. so far, most commercial vaccines have been inactivated vaccines administered by injection or immersion. bacterial infections caused by gram-negative bacteria such as vibrio sp., aeromonas sp., and yersinia sp. have been effectively controlled by vaccination. with furunculosis, the success is attributed to the use of injectable vac ...199910614510
structure of in31, a blaimp-containing pseudomonas aeruginosa integron phyletically related to in5, which carries an unusual array of gene cassettes.the location and environment of the acquired blaimp gene, which encodes the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase, were investigated in a japanese pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (isolate 101/1477) that produced the enzyme. in this isolate, blaimp was carried on a 36-kb plasmid, and similar to the identical alleles found in serratia marcescens and klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, it was located on a mobile gene cassette inserted into an integron. the entire structure of this integron, nam ...199910103196
biochemical characterization of the pseudomonas aeruginosa 101/1477 metallo-beta-lactamase imp-1 produced by escherichia coli.the blaimp gene coding for the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase produced by a pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (isolate 101/1477) was overexpressed via a t7 expression system in escherichia coli bl21 (de3), and its product was purified to homogeneity with a final yield of 35 mg/liter of culture. the structural and functional properties of the enzyme purified from e. coli were identical to those of the enzyme produced by p. aeruginosa. the imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase exhibits a broad-spectrum ...199910103197
signature region within the 16s rdna sequences of aeromonas popoffii.to identify a group of eight aeromonas strains of our collection showing ribotyping patterns similar to those described for the species aeromonas popoffii, 16s rrna gene sequence analysis was performed. results were in agreement with the dna binding values, and allowed the identification of a 'signature region' differentiating the a. popoffii strains from all other members of the genus aeromonas.199910188252
unusual case of aeromonas sobria cellulitis associated with the use of leeches. 199910192721
evaluation of xylose-galactosidase medium, a new plate for the isolation of salmonella, shigella, yersinia and aeromonas species. 199910192724
effect of florfenicol on the immune response of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).florfenicol, a drug effective against several bacterial diseases of fish, was tested for possible immunomodulatory effects. the aim of the study was to follow the kinetics of the immune response after vaccination with simultaneous oral antibiotic treatment. the fish were immunised with a commercial oil-based divalent (furunculosis/vibriosis) vaccine and were simultaneously given oral antibiotic treatment. the specific immune response was monitored by analysing the levels of specific antibodies w ...199910206200
identification of aeromonas trota (hybridization group 13) by amplification of the aerolysin gene using polymerase chain reaction.aeromonas trota is recognized as an important enteropathogen, and its haemolysin (aerolysin) is purported to be one of the virulence factors. rapid detection and identification of a. trota is important for early and specific diagnosis of the infectious diseases that it causes. synthetic oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique to amplify a species-specific sequence of the aera gene, which encodes the aerolysin of a. trota. a dna fragment of 622 bp was ampl ...199910208799
[bacteriological studies of traveller's diarrhoea (6). analysis of enteropathogenic bacteria at kansai airport quarantine station from september 4th, 1994 through december 1996].during the period of investigation from sept. 4, 1994 to dec, 1996, a total of 11,446,534 overseas travellers were quarantined at kansai airport quarantine station, and 22,187 voluntarily reported of episodes suffering from diarrhoea. bacteriological examination of the stools a total of 9,299 individuals' was performed, and the following results were obtained. 1) various enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated from 33.3% of the stools examined. bacterial species isolated were as follows: plesiom ...199910213987
thermostable aminopeptidase from pyrococcus horikoshii.from the genome sequence data of the thermophilic archaeon pyrococcus horikoshii, an open reading frame was found which encodes a protein (332 amino acids) homologous with an endoglucanase from clostridium thermocellum (42% identity), deblocking aminopeptidase from pyrococcus furiosus (42% identity) and an aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (18% identity). this gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli, and the characteristics of the expressed protein were examined. although endo ...199910218575
changes in serum concentration of a serum amyloid p-like pentraxin in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., during infection and inflammation.a serum amyloid p-like pentraxin has been isolated from atlantic salmon. salmo salar l., based on its calcium dependent binding to agarose. the subunits of approximately 37 kda were all glycosylated and when covalently linked together formed a pentamer with disulphide bonds between all subunits. a specific rabbit antiserum raised against the pentameric form was used to follow changes in serum levels of the salmon pentraxin during infection with aeromonas salar and inflammation induced by escheri ...199910220069
the gene encoding a periplasmic deoxyribonuclease from aeromonas hydrophila.a gene encoding a deoxyribonuclease, dnsh, was cloned from aeromonas hydrophila jmp636. the predicted mature protein was very similar to the previously described extracellular dns from this organism and an n-terminal region corresponding to a large putative signal sequence was predicted for the jmp636 protein. inactivation of dnsii demonstrated that the dnsh protein was not present extracellularly in this strain. as dnsh degraded plasmid dna and was believed to have a periplasmic location, a dns ...199910220879
[rapidly fatal prognosis caused by aeromonas sobria septic shock in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome]. 199910222675
fish macrophages express a cyclo-oxygenase-2 homologue after activation.in mammals, the increased generation of prostaglandins (pg) during the onset of inflammatory responses and activation of immune cell types has been attributed to the induction of a novel cyclo-oxygenase (cox) isoform, termed cox-2, which is distinct from the well-characterized constitutive activity (cox-1). goldfish (carassius auratus) macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and leucocyte-derived macrophage-activating factor(s) showed a significant increase in the generation of the m ...199910229670
monitoring the conjugal transfer of plasmid rp4 in activated sludge and in situ identification of the transconjugants.a gfpmut3b-tagged derivative of broad host-range plasmid rp4 was used to monitor the conjugative transfer of the plasmid from a pseudomonas putida donor strain to indigenous bacteria in activated sludge. transfer frequencies were determined to be in the range of 4 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-5) transconjugants per recipient. in situ hybridisation with fluorescently labeled, rrna-targeted oligonucleotides was used to phylogenetically affiliate the bacteria that had received the plasmid.199910234817
distribution of two hemolytic toxin genes in clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas spp.: correlation with virulence in a suckling mouse model.previous studies have shown that two hemolytic toxins, hlya and aera, contribute to the virulence of aeromonas hydrophila. a survey was performed to gauge the distribution of hlya and aera genes in clinical and environmental aeromonas isolates. for a. hydrophila, a. veronii biotype sobria and a caviae, 96%, 12% and 35% of strains, respectively, were hlya positive, whereas, 78%, 97%, 41%, respectively, were aera positive. all virulent a. hydrophila isolates were hlya+ aera+. this genotype was mos ...199910234831
quorum sensing-dependent regulation and blockade of exoprotease production in aeromonas hydrophila.in aeromonas hydrophila, the ahyi gene encodes a protein responsible for the synthesis of the quorum sensing signal n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl). inactivation of the ahyi gene on the a. hydrophila chromosome abolishes c4-hsl production. the exoprotease activity of a. hydrophila consists of both serine protease and metalloprotease activities; in the ahyi-negative strain, both are substantially reduced but can be restored by the addition of exogenous c4-hsl. in contrast, mutation of th ...199910496895
functional characterization of type iv pili expressed on diarrhea-associated isolates of aeromonas species.our past work has shown that long, flexible type iv pili (single or in bundles) are the predominant pili expressed on fecal isolates of diarrhea-associated species of aeromonas (aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and a. caviae). they represent a family of type iv pili which we have designated bfp (for bundle-forming pili). reports from japan suggest that bfp are intestinal colonization factors. this study presents compelling evidence to support this conclusion. aeromonas bacteria and/or bfp purifie ...199910496928
synthesis and sar of thioester and thiol inhibitors of imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.potent thioester and thiol inhibitors of imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase have been synthesized employing a solid-phase mitsunobu reaction as the key step.199910498206
xynx, a possible exo-xylanase of aeromonas caviae me-1 that produces exclusively xylobiose and xylotetraose from xylan.a gene, xynx, encoding a novel xylanase, was cloned from aeromonas caviae me-1. this gene encoded an enzyme that was constituted of 334 amino acid residues (38,580 da) and was similar in sequence to family 10 (family f) beta-1,4 endo-xylanases. xynx produced only xylobiose and xylotetraose from birch wood xylan, and xylotriose, xylopentaose, and higher oligosaccharides were not detected in the tlc analysis. we designated it as x2/x4-forming xylanase. this enzyme does not have transglycosylation ...199910500996
identification and characterization of the aeromonas sobria hemolysin glycoprotein receptor on intestine 407 cells.aeromonas sobria hemolysin is important in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea caused by this enteropathogenic bacterium. by immunoprecipitation analysis using hemolysin and anti-hemolysin antibody, a 66 kda protein (p66) was identified as a receptor for a. sobria hemolysin on intestine 407 cells. treatment of p66 with n-glycosidase f reduced the apparent sized of p66 to 60 kda on sds-polyacrylamide gels. p66, released from intestine 407 cells following incubation with phosphatidylinositol-specific ph ...199910502462
carbapenem derivatives as potential inhibitors of various beta-lactamases, including class b metallo-beta-lactamases.a variety of 1beta-methylcarbapenem derivatives were screened to identify inhibitors of imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase, a class b beta-lactamase, in an automated microassay system using nitrocefin as a substrate. the structure-inhibitory-activity relationship study revealed that three types of 1beta-methylcarbapenems having benzothienylthio, dithiocarbamate, or pyrrolidinylthio moieties at the c-2 position showed good inhibitory activity. among the compounds screened, j-110,441, having a benzothie ...199910508031
case-control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in dhaka, bangladesh.the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh, is a major center for research into diarrheal diseases. the center treats more than 100,000 patients a year. to obtain useful information representative of all patients, a surveillance system in which a 4% systematic sample of all patients is studied in detail, including etiological agents of diarrhea, was installed in october 1979. the first paper on etiology for the surveillance patients was published in 1982, which identifi ...199910523534
behavior of listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas spp. on fresh-cut produce packaged under equilibrium-modified atmosphere.storage experiments were conducted to follow the behavior of pathogens on fresh-cut vegetables (trimmed brussels sprouts, grated carrots, shredded iceberg lettuce, and shredded chicory endives) packaged under an equilibrium-modified atmosphere (ema) (2 to 3% o2, 2 to 3% co2, and 94 to 96% n2) and stored at 7 degrees c. as a comparison, fresh-cut vegetables were also packaged in a perforated high-barrier film (air conditions) and stored at 7 degrees c. in a first step, the shelf life of the veget ...199910528715
flagellate predation on a bacterial model community: interplay of size-selective grazing, specific bacterial cell size, and bacterial community composition.the influence of grazing by the bacterivorous nanoflagellate ochromonas sp. strain ds on the taxonomic and morphological structures of a complex bacterial community was studied in one-stage chemostat experiments. a bacterial community, consisting of at least 30 different strains, was fed with a complex carbon source under conditions of low growth rate (0.5 day(-1) when nongrazed) and low substrate concentration (9 mg liter(-1)). before and after the introduction of the predator, the bacterial co ...199910543797
cell adhesion of plesiomonas shigelloides.plesiomonas shigelloides evidences an inconsistent behaviour in the int-407 cell adhesion test. isolates from clinical material evidence regular and pronounced cell adhesion which, however, is low compared with that of clinical aeromonas isolates. in some of the p. shigelloides strains isolated from clinical material, the cell adhesion is markedly more pronounced than in others. the p. shigelloides strains isolated from the natural habitat from both pond water, mud samples and water insects mani ...199910546328
[three cases of aeromonas hydrophila septicemia complicated with hepatic cirrhosis]. 199910548017
unusual food-borne pathogens. listeria monocytogenes, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and edwardsiella species.although these four groups of organisms are perceived as infrequent food-borne pathogens or of dubious significance, increasing epidemiologic data indicate that l. monocytogenes is an emerging cause of infections, particularly gastroenteritis. furthermore, if data are ever generated that prove that most fecal isolates of aeromonas are involved in bacterial diarrhea, then aeromonads will become recognized as important food-borne pathogens. for plesiomonas and edwardsiella, recognition of possible ...199910549426
polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida.two hundred and five isolates of atypical aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and countries were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting four genes. the chosen genes were those encoding the extracellular a-layer protein (ap), the serine protease (sprot), the glycerophospholipid:cholestrol acetyltransferase protein (gcat), and the 16s rrna (16s rdna). all the atypical a. salmonicida isolates could be assigned to 4 pcr groups. group 1 comprised 45 strains ...199910553293
phylogenetic positions of aeromonas encheleia, aeromonas popoffii, aeromonas dna hybridization group 11 and aeromonas group 501.the 16s rdna sequences of the recently described aeromonas encheleia and aeromonas popoffii, were determined and compared with data from all known aeromonas sp. diagnostic 16s rdna regions were also sequenced for some strains previously considered as an extension of a. encheleia and a strain of aeromonas group 501 (formerly enteric group 501). results indicated that a. encheleia and a. popoffii are phylogenetically separated species as originally described. a conclusion about hg11 taxonomic stat ...199910555319
carnobacterium inhibens sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of atlantic salmon (salmo salar).strain k1t, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), has the capacity to inhibit the growth of the fish pathogens vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas salmonicida. strain k1t is a motile gram-positive psychrophilic rod that lacks both catalase and oxidase, which does not grow on acetate containing media, but grows at ph 9 and in tsb with up to 6% sodium chloride content. strain k1t is facultatively anaerobic and tryptone as a sole source of nutrient promotes growth. ...199910555373
[aeromonas hydrophila septicemia with necrotizing myofascitis in a patient with hypoplastic leukemia].a 54-year-old male was admitted to kawasaki medical school hospital with the complaint of fever. his diagnosis of hypoplastic leukemia had been made one year ago. after the admission, cecal mass with pain and high fever were noted. four days later, he suddenly lost consciousness and died. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from blood cultures and also from the myofascitis specimen. autopsy specimen of the iliopsoas muscle showed necrotizing myofascitis. the specimen obtained from the cecum showed ...199910565125
slow-binding inhibition of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica by peptide thiols: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization.peptide-derived thiols of the general structure n-mercaptoacyl-leucyl-p-nitroanilide (1a-c) were synthesized and found to be potent, slow-binding inhibitors of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap). the overall potencies (k(i)) of these inhibitors against aap range from 2.5 to 57 nm exceeding that of the natural product bestatin and approaching that of amastatin. the corresponding alcohols (2a-b) are simple competitive inhibitors of much lower potencies (k(i) = 23 and 360 microm). ...199910569943
enterotoxins in aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis.aeromonas species produce an array of virulence factors, and the pathogenesis of aeromonas infections is therefore complex and multifactorial. aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis is especially a problem in young children. the potential involvement of enterotoxins in the pathogenesis of aeromonas infections is discussed.199910572317
occurrence of haemolytic & cytotoxic aeromonas species in domestic water supplies in chennai.a study on the occurrence of aeromonas species in the domestic water supplies in chennai showed that as much as 37.9 per cent of the water samples analyzed from various sources harbored aeromonas spp. majority of the isolates belonged to aeromonas sobria (13.7%), a. caviae (11.6%) and a. hydrophila (9.5%). among the 37 metropolitan water samples analyzed, 11 samples yielded aeromonas spp. inclusive of three isolates of a. hydrophila, four of a. sobria and two isolates each of a. caviae and a. ja ...199910573655
platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolites mediate tumor necrosis factor and eicosanoid kinetics and cardiopulmonary dysfunction during bacteremic shock.platelet-activating factor (paf) and eicosanoids are putative mediators of septic shock that are associated with release of tumor necrosis factor (tnf). the purpose of this investigation was to a) examine temporal patterns of tnf and arachidonic acid metabolite release in a porcine model of bacteremic shock and b) selectively block paf, thromboxane a2, prostacyclin, and leukotrienes to determine the relationships among these inflammatory response mediators and the alterations in cardiorespirator ...199910579269
genetic diversity of atypical aeromonas salmonicida studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) pattern analysis with xbai restriction enzyme was used to study the genetic heterogeneity of 88 atypical aeromonas salmonicida strains which were earlier or during this study characterized phenotypically, by ribotyping (clai/psti) and by plasmid profile analysis. the strains of certain'ribotypes were also analysed by digestion with spei. the strains represented different geographic locations: finland (72 strains), iceland (5 strains), norway (5 strains), s ...199910579451
the abca subclass of mammalian transporters.we describe here a subclass of mammalian abc transporters, the abca subfamily. this is a unique group that, in contrast to any other human abc transporters, lacks a structural counterpart in yeast. the structural hallmark of the abca subfamily is the presence of a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids thought to span the membrane within the putative regulatory (r) domain. as for today, four abca transporters have been fully characterised but 11 abca-encoding genes have been identified. abca-specifi ...199910581369
[case of infectious hepatic cyst caused by aeromonas caviae]. 199910581795
monoclonal antibodies against asap1, a major exotoxin of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, and their application in elisa.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) binding to a toxic extracellular metallo-proteinase of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, asap1, were produced. both reacted with common epitopes of the native enzyme and recognized this 20 kda antigen on western blots. one of these mabs had an inhibitory effect on the caseinase activity of the exotoxin. a mab-based elisa was set up and evaluated for serological detection of asap1 in bacterial culture filtrates. the exotoxin was identified serologically i ...199910583691
survival ability of cytotoxic strains of motile aeromonas spp. in different types of water.the ability of motile aeromonas spp. to survive in drinking water (mineral and tap water) and in sea water was experimentally tested. clinically isolated cytotoxic strains of a. hydrophila, a. caviae and a. sobria were selected for this study. after contamination of water samples, the survival of aeromonas strains was studied for at least three months using viable counts. the results obtained show that the survival of the aeromonas spp. varies considerably depending on species and water type. fo ...199910583745
a comparison of different culture media for the membrane filter quantification of aeromonas in water.a comparative assessment of culture media for the membrane filter enumeration of aeromonas spp. in water was performed, testing the effects of different incubation conditions (aerobic and anaerobic), temperatures (30 and 37 degrees c) and times (24 and 48 h). different water samples seeded with test suspensions of aeromonas spp., fecal material or raw sewage were examined. results indicate clearly that plates should be incubated aerobically at 30 degrees c for 24 h. if the bacterial contaminatio ...199910583754
pcr detection, characterization, and distribution of virulence genes in aeromonas spp.we found 73.1 to 96.9% similarity by aligning the cytolytic enterotoxin gene of aeromonas hydrophila ssu (ahcytoen; genbank accession no. m84709) against aerolysin genes of aeromonas spp., suggesting the possibility of selecting common primers. identities of 90 to 100% were found among the eight selected primers from those genes. amplicons obtained from aeromonas sp. reference strains by using specific primers for each gene or a cocktail of primers were 232 bp long. of hybridization group 4/5a/5 ...199910583979
hemolytic activity and siderophore production in different aeromonas species isolated from fish.the hemolytic activity and siderophore production of several strains of motile aeromonads were determined. the hemolytic activity of aeromonas caviae and aeromonas eucrenophila was enhanced after trypsinization of the samples. the enhancement of hemolysis was observed in strains that carried an aerolysin-like gene, detected by a pcr procedure. siderophore production was demonstrated in all but one strain of aeromonas jandaei. no apparent relationship was observed between the presence of plasmid ...199910584028
skip colonic ulceration in typhoid ileo-colitis.colonic skip lesions are typically described in crohn's colitis, but this phenomenon has been recognized in ulcerative colitis (skipped appendiceal involvement), behcet's colitis, cytomegaloviral colitis, and even in aeromonas hydrophilia and histoplasma capsulatum infection. however, skip lesions in typhoid ileo-colitis have not been reported in the english-language literature. we report herein a patient with skip ulcers due to typhoid fever.199910588187
bacterial resistance to ultrasonic waves under pressure at nonlethal (manosonication) and lethal (manothermosonication) temperatures.the decimal reduction times of streptococcus faecium, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enteritidis, and aeromonas hydrophila corresponding to heat treatment at 62 degrees c were 7.1, 0.34, 0.024, and 0.0096 min, and those corresponding to manosonication treatment (40 degrees c, 200 kpa, 117 microm) were 4.0, 1.5, 0.86, and 0.90 min, respectively. the manosonication decimal reduction times of the four species investigated decreased sixfold when the amplitude was increased from 62 to 150 microm ...19999872795
telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation.the telomerase reverse transcriptase component (tert) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. here, we identify the c-myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce tert gene expression. through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-myc (c-myc-er), we demonstrate that myc-induced activation of the ht ...199910022128
genetic characterization of a new type iv-a pilus gene cluster found in both classical and el tor biotypes of vibrio cholerae.the vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type iv-a pilus assembly operons. the region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilabcd and yace, based on the nomenclature of related genes from pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli k-12. this cluster is present in both classical and el tor biotypes, and the pila and pild genes are 100% conserved. the pila gene encodes a putative type iv p ...199910024587
destabilase complexes--natural liposome produced by medicinal leeches hirudo medicinalis.electrophoretic analysis of destabilase preparation demonstrates the presence of protein combinations with mw 12.3, 25 and 50 kd. fraction (mw 12.3 d) is a monomer of destabilase aggregation having properties of micellar proteins and represents a stable lipid-protein complex, where the role of lipid component is played by the stable analogue of prostacyclin (mw 391 d). the synthesis of a low molecular fraction of destabilase is fulfilled with bacteria--symbiont of leeches aeromonas hydrophila. w ...199910027095
resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin.paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the piga gene. the product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of pnh cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all gpi-anchored proteins. aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after b ...199910029605
the effect of diet on aerobic bacterial flora associated with intestine of arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.).in order to extend the knowledge on the possible effect of diet on the gastrointestinal microbial community of fish, arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.) were fed diets containing high (23.7%) and low (6.4%) levels of carbohydrate. the number of viable aerobic and facultative aerobic bacteria associated with the digestive tract were not influenced by dietary regimen. a wide range of bacterial species was isolated, and the predominant bacterial species of both rearing groups were identified as st ...199910030010
note: susceptibility to chlorine of aeromonas hydrophila strains.the susceptibility of five aeromonas hydrophila strains and one escherichia coli strain to chlorine was studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. of the aer. hydrophila strains, two were from untreated water, two from tap water (immediately downstream of a water treatment plant) and one from the dsm collection. the study included disinfectant concentration (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg l-1), ph (6, 7 and 8) and temperature (4, 21 and 32 degrees c) as controlled variables. the results indi ...199910030019
the degradation of sodium o,o-diethyl dithiophosphate by bacteria from metalworking fluids.the breakdown of sodium o,o-diethyl dithiophosphate (o,o-diethyl phosphorodithioate) by four bacterial strains (tentatively identified as strains of aeromonas, pseudomonas, flavobacterium and bacillus) isolated from contaminated metalworking fluids was shown to involve the successive formation of ethanol, aldehyde and orthophosphate. an acid phosphodiesterase was identified in cell-free extracts that was five- to sevenfold enhanced in specific activity in bacteria grown on o,o-diethyl dithiophos ...199910030034
expression and properties of an aerolysin--clostridium septicum alpha toxin hybrid protein.aerolysin is a bilobal channel-forming toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila. the alpha toxin produced by clostridium septicum is homologous to the large lobe of aerolysin. however, it does not contain a region corresponding to the small lobe of the aeromonas toxin, leading us to ask what the function of the small lobe is. we fused the small lobe of aerolysin to alpha toxin, producing a hybrid protein that should structurally resemble aerolysin. unlike aerolysin, the hybrid was not secreted whe ...199910048023
co-expression of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and (r)-enoyl-coa hydratase genes of aeromonas caviae establishes copolyester biosynthesis pathway in escherichia coli.polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes of aeromonas caviae were expressed in escherichia coli ls5218 (fadr atoc(con)), and the polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing ability of the recombinants was investigated. a ls5218 strain harboring only phacac (polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene) did not accumulate any polyhydroxyalkanoate from dodecanoate in spite of the existence of translated polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase protein, whereas co-expression phacac and phajac ((r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase gene) ...19999919653
purification and characterization of an aeromonas caviae metalloprotease that is related to the vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease.a zinc metalloprotease (ap34) from aeromonas caviae was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent gel filtration through sephadex g-100 and sephadex g-50 superfine. the molecular mass was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 34 kda. the protease showed maximum activity at ph 7.0 and was stable at 60 degrees c. ap34 was completely inactivated by edta and zincov. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of ap34 showed a high degree of homology with ...19999919673
prevalence and characteristics of aeromonas species isolated from processed channel catfish.from august 1994 to may 1995, 238 channel catfish fillets collected from three processing plants in the mississippi delta at four time periods were tested for the presence of aeromonas species. identification of aeromonas spp. was accomplished using an automated vitek bioassay system with gram-negative and nonfermenter cards. approximately 36.1% were positive for a. hydrophila, 35.7% for a. sobria, and 10.9% for a. caviae. all three aeromonas spp. were found in all three processing plants, and t ...19999921825
quantitative pcr for listeria monocytogenes with colorimetric detection.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was developed to detect and quantify listeria monocytogenes in food products. the bacterial dna was extracted from artificially contaminated food and co-amplified with a synthetic internal standard (is) using primers specific for the target gene coding for the invasive-associated protein (i.a.p.), a virulence factor of l. monocytogenes (i.a.p.) or is in the presence of fluorescein-dutp pcr products we ...19999921826
the cytotoxic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila is aerolysin. 19999925450
an in-vitro evaluation of the activity of chlorine against environmental and nosocomial isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.a chlorine preparation was tested against 34 strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a hospital water facility and patients with nosocomial infections in a french medical school hospital. in-vitro bactericidal activity was determined by a macro- and micromethod, using specific interfering substances over a range of dilutions and temperatures, after 1 and 5 minute exposure times. a 10(5)-fold reduction in the challenge inoculum was taken as the criterion of efficacy. results obtained by bot ...19999949964
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas jandaei, a. schubertii, a. trota, and a. veronii biotype veronii.fifty-six isolates of four aeromonas species, which have been documented as causative agents of human infections or isolated from human clinical specimens, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using a microscan walkaway conventional (overnight incubation) gram-negative panel. the four species tested and the number of isolates of each were as follows: aeromonas jandaei, 17; a. schubertii, 12; a. trota, 15; and a. veronii biotype veronii, 12. all isolates of a. trota were suscept ...19999986836
dna probes specific for aeromonas hydrophila (hg1).aeromonas hydrophila (hg1)-specific rapd-pcr fragments were investigated for their potential as dna probes. from 20 rapd-pcr fragment bands, it was found that two were specific to all isolates of aeromonas hydrophila (hg1) tested. cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of one of these bands showed that co-migration of similar sized amplicons had occurred and that this band (designated '7e') contained at least four fragments of different sequences. three of these individual amplicons had a ...199910063616
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome in an adult male with aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis. 199910069207
mortality of captive canadian toads from basidiobolus ranarum mycotic dermatitis.twenty-six adult free-ranging canadian toads (bufo hemiophrys) were collected from northeastern north dakota (usa) during the last week of august 1994 and placed in captivity. during late december and january 1995, 21 canadian toads died. clinical signs included increased time sitting in water bowls, darkened dorsal skin, constant arching of their backs, and hyperemia and sloughing of ventral epidermis. the condition progressively worsened until death occurred within 5 to 7 days after onset of c ...199910073347
identification and characterization of is2404 and is2606: two distinct repeated sequences for detection of mycobacterium ulcerans by pcr.molecular analysis of mycobacterium ulcerans has revealed two new insertion sequences (iss), is2404 and is2606. is2404 was identified by complete sequencing of a previously described repetitive dna segment from m. ulcerans. this element is 1,274 bp long, contains 12-bp inverted repeats and a single open reading frame (orf) potentially encoding a protein of 327 amino acids (aa), and apparently generates 7-bp direct repeats upon transposition. amino acid similarity was found between the putative t ...199910074520
[aeromonas septicemia]. 199910088391
peroxide-inducible catalase in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida protects against exogenous hydrogen peroxide and killing by activated rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss l., macrophages.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida expresses a single cytoplasmically located catalase which was found to be inducible by exposure to 20 microm hydrogen peroxide in mid-exponential phase resulting in a 4 fold increase in activity. subsequent exposure to 2 mm peroxide in late-exponential/early-stationary phase resulted in further induction of catalase activity which increased to 20 fold higher levels than those found in uninduced cultures. exponentially induced cultures were protected again ...199910089155
the type iv aeromonas pilus (tap) gene cluster is widely conserved in aeromonas species.nothing is known regarding the expression or function of the type iv aeromonas pilus (tap), which was recently identified following the cloning of a pilus biogenesis gene cluster (tapabcd). as a first step to determine the possible significance of tap for aeromonas virulence, the distribution of the tapa and tapd genes in hybridization group reference strains and clinical (n=42) and environmental (n=29) isolates was determined. homologues of tapa and tapd were present in all strains tested. hybr ...199910090854
catecholamine enhancement of aeromonas hydrophila growth.several species of bacteria have been shown to respond to the administration of norepinephrine and other catecholamines with increased growth (in culture) and virulence. in this study, we examined the effects of catecholamines on the growth of cultures of aeromonas hydrophila, a gram-negative bacillus found in brackish water. bacterial cultures were maintained in tryptic soy both, then washed free of medium and transferred to a bovine serum-supplemented minimal salts medium. treatment of a. hydr ...199910090855
small subunit rrna gene sequences of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and haemophilus piscium reveal pronounced similarities with a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) encoding genes from reference strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and haemophilus piscium were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into escherichia coli cells. almost the entire ssu rrna gene sequence (1505 nucleotides) from both organisms was determined. these dna sequences were compared with those previously described from a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, subsp. achromogenes and subsp. masoucida. this genetic analysis revea ...199910092980
appearance of imp-1 metallo-beta-lactamase in europe. 199910093989
copper exposure reduced the resistance of the catfish saccobranchus fossilis to aeromonas hydrophila infection. 199910094734
aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches.aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of the use of medicinal leeches. the authors performed an experiment designed to find a safe and practical way to sterilize the leech gut of pathogenic organisms. leeches were incubated for a 12-hour period in solutions of antibiotic effective against a. hydrophila. the incubations in the antibiotic solutions failed to eradicate pathogenic bacteria from the gut of the leeches. the authors examined cultures of bacteria isolated from th ...199910096618
aeromonas hydrophila isolated from cases of bovine seminal vesiculitis in south brazil. 199910098696
secretion of hemolysin of aeromonas sobria as protoxin and contribution of the propeptide region removed from the protoxin to the proteolytic stability of the toxin.the sequence at the amino terminus region of the hemolysin ofaeromonas sobria is homologous with that of aerolysin of a. hydrophila. however, there is no homology between the two toxins in the sequence at the carboxy terminal region. it has been shown that aerolysin is secreted into culture supernatant as a protoxin. this proaerolysin is activated by the proteolytic removal of a carboxy terminal peptide. however, the role of the carboxy terminal region, which is removed in the activation process ...199910100744
purification and characterization of cold-active l-glutamate dehydrogenase independent of nad(p) and oxygen.l-glutamate dehydrogenase (gldh) independent of nad(p) and oxygen was first obtained from the psychrotrophic bacterium aeromonas sp. l101, originally isolated from the organs of salmon (oncorhynchus keta). gldh was purified by a series of chromatography steps on deae-sepharose, superdex 200pg, q-sepharose, cm-sepharose, and phenyl-sepharose. the purified protein was determined to have a molecular mass of 110 kda and a pi of 5.7. maximum activity was obtained at 55 degrees c and ph 8.5. the activ ...199910101290
emergence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes in acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. 199910325396
important aspects of the colonization of central venous catheter.this study comprises five different kind of venous central catheters, 103 in total, made of polyurethane tecoflex, polyurethane vialon, ptfe and pvc, and the influence of their raw material on the microbial colonization. patients age and sex, besides their clinical conditions, were taken into account, and neither considered as a sample vicious, nor associated with colonization. when the tips of the catheters were asseptically inoculated in tryptic soy broth and tioglicolate, colonization was det ...199910326311
effects of chromium on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and host resistance to disease in a freshwater catfish, saccobranchus fossilis (bloch).the effects of subtoxic levels of cr on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, blood parameters, susceptibility to bacterial (aeromonas hydrophila) infection, and macrophage activity in the freshwater air-breathing asian catfish, saccobranchus fossilis, during a 28-day exposure were examined by a static bioassay test procedure. at 0.1, 1.0, and 3.2 mg / liter cr, dose-dependent cr accumulation in kidney, liver, and spleen was observed at the end of the experiment. chromium exposure caused a ...199910330315
rearing stable fly larvae (diptera: muscidae) on an egg yolk medium.the growth and survival of stomoxys calcitrans (l.) larvae on egg yolk medium inoculated with bacteria isolated from a colony of stable flies was evaluated. five species of bacteria--acinetobacter sp., aeromonas sp., empedobacter breve (holmes & owen), flavobacterium odoratum stutzer, and serratia marcescens bizio--were identified according to fatty acid profiles using a microbial identification system. larvae failed to develop on uninoculated plates, confirming that bacteria are required to com ...199910337112
presumed clostridial and aerobic bacterial infections of the cornea in two horses.microscopic examination of gram-stained tissue specimens collected from severe corneal ulcers in 2 horses revealed large gram-positive rods suggestive of clostridium spp. clostridium perfringens was isolated from specimens collected from horse 1; anaerobic organisms were not detected in specimens from horse 2. aerobic bacterial culture revealed aeromonas hydrophila and enterobacter cloacae in specimens collected from horses 1 and 2, respectively. an insect exoskeleton was presumed to be the unde ...199910340080
enumeration and confirmation of aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, and aeromonas sobria isolated from raw milk and other milk products in northern greece.a total of 138 raw cow's and 57 raw ewe's milk samples; 80 pasteurized cow's milk samples; 39 anthotyros cheese, 36 manouri cheese, and 23 feta cheese samples; and 15 rice pudding samples were examined for the presence and any countable population of aeromonas species. twenty-two (15.9%) of the 138 cow's milk samples analyzed were contaminated with a. hydrophila. in 13 of these samples, populations of 3.0x10(2) to 5.0x10(3) cfu/ml were counted in starch ampicillin agar (saa). eighteen cow's milk ...199910340665
[spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sepsis due to aeromonas hydrophila]. 199910349797
kinetic behavior of some polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria isolates in the presence of nitrate and oxygen.this paper studies the phosphate uptake by pure cultures of aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella oxytoca, agrobacterium tumefaciens, and aquaspirillum dispar in the presence of both nitrate and oxygen. it is shown that species were able to respire both electron acceptors for phosphate accumulation. a. tumefaciens and a. dispar accumulated overall phosphate both in oxic and anoxic culture conditions, whereas a. hydrophila and k. oxytoca eliminated overall phosphate only in oxic conditions. a. dispar ...199910355118
significance of cryptosporidium in acute diarrhoea in north-eastern india.in a hospital-based study, stool samples from 2095 patients of all ages were examined for different fungal, protozoal and bacterial enteropathogens over a period of 2 years (july 1994-june 1996). cryptosporidium was detected in 151 specimens (7.2%) and was the third commonest pathogen found. the highest prevalence of this organism was in the group aged 16-45 years and during the rainy months (july-oct.). diarrhoea caused by the protozoon was of mild to moderate severity and features of dysentery ...199910359300
evaluation of statens serum institut enteric medium for detection of enteric pathogens.the efficacy of the statens serum institut (ssi) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the ssi enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. all 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the ssi enteric medium. only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathogens. ...199910364603
lapstatin, a new aminopeptidase inhibitor produced by streptomyces rimosus, inhibits autogenous aminopeptidases.lapstatin, a low-molecular-weight aminopeptidase inhibitor, was purified to homogeneity from streptomyces rimosus culture filtrates. the purification procedure included extraction with methanol, followed by chromatography on dowex 50wx4, ag50wx4, and hplc rp c18 columns. by amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry, and nmr spectroscopy, the structure of lapstatin was shown to be 3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoylvaline. lapstatin inhibited the extracellular leucine aminopeptidases from streptomyc ...199910369895
intramolecular chaperone and inhibitor activities of a propeptide from a bacterial zinc aminopeptidase.an aminopeptidase from aeromonas caviae t-64 was translated as a preproprotein consisting of three domains; a signal peptide (19 amino acid residues), an n-terminal propeptide (101 residues) and a mature region (273 residues). we demonstrated that a proteinase, which was isolated from the culture filtrate of a. caviae t-64, activated the recombinant pro-aminopeptidase by removal of the majority of the propeptide. using l-leu-p-nitroanilide as a substrate, the processed aminopeptidase showed a la ...199910377241
identification of inadequately cleaned equipment used in a sheep carcass-breaking process.aeromonads deposited on pork during a carcass-breaking process were recovered on hydrophobic grid membrane filters placed on ampicillin-dextrin-ethanol agar. isolates from 85 honey-yellow colonies from filters on that medium were aeromonas hydrophila (95%) or vibrio sp. (5%). presumptive aeromonads, coliforms, and escherichia coli in swab samples from product passing through a sheep carcass-breaking process were enumerated by hydrophobic grid membrane filtration techniques with a detection level ...199910382653
viable heterotrophic bacteria in water and sediment in 'mar piccolo' of taranto (ionian sea, italy).samples of water and sediment were collected from october 1996 to september 1997 in 'mar piccolo' of taranto (ionian sea, italy). mar piccolo is a semi-enclosed basin subject to pollution and receives a considerable amount of sewage and industrial waste. qualitative and quantitative analyses of the composition of the microbial flora were conducted on samples from six stations. the highest bacterial densities, in water and in sediment samples, were found in summer and the lowest, in autumn. among ...199910389241
identification of a pathogen-binding lectin in salmon serum.a mannose-binding lectin was isolated from the blood serum of atlantic salmon (salmo salar). analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions revealed a multimeric structure composed of 17000 mr subunits. hexosamine analysis and glycosidase digestion showed that the lectin is not glycosylated and amino acid analysis revealed no unusual compositional features. using ruthenium red staining, the lectin was shown to bind ca2+ ions. n-te ...199910390051
enhancement of anti-aeromonas salmonicida activity in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) macrophages by a mannose-binding lectin.we investigated the effects of a calcium-dependent mannose-binding lectin isolated from the serum of atlantic salmon on aeromonas salmonicida viability and the anti-a. salmonicida activity of atlantic salmon macrophages. in the absence of other factors, binding of this lectin at concentrations of 0.8, 4.0 and 20.0 ng ml(-1) to virulent a. salmonicida failed to significantly reduce (p> 0.05) cell viability. however, binding of the lectin to a. salmonicida did result in significant (p < or = 0.05) ...199910390056
isolation and haemolytic activity of aeromonas species from domestic dogs and cats.rectal swabs from 120 domestic dogs and 15 domestic cats were examined for aeromonas species using alkaline peptone water (ph 8.6) as the enrichment medium and blood agar containing 15 mg/l ampicillin as the plating medium. aeromonads were isolated from 13 (10.8%) dogs and from 1 (6.7%) cat. of the 14 aeromonads isolated in the present study only 9 were available for speciation and testing in the haemolysin assay. of these 5 were a. sobria (including one from a cat), 2 were a. hydrophila and 2 w ...199910391504
pseudo-outbreak of aeromonas hydrophila isolates related to endoscopy.over a two-month period there was a sudden increase in aeromonas hydrophila isolated from colon i.e., biopsies from patients without related symptoms. strains were studied by biotyping (api 20 ne, biomerieux), antibiotyping, plasmid analysis, sds-page of whole cell proteins and toxicity for cell cultures. all strains gave identical results. in particular sds-page of whole cell proteins showed an identical electrophoretic pattern for all the strains, and so all were considered to be of the same c ...199910392337
structure elucidation of sch 20562, a glucosidic cyclic dehydropeptide lactone--the major component of w-10 antifungal antibiotic.a novel bacterium designated as aeromonas sp. w-10 produces the antibiotic w-10 complex which comprises of two major and several minor components. the two major components from this complex, sch 20562 (1) and sch 20561 (1a), are of biological interest in view of their potent antifungal activity. the chemical degradation studies utilized for the assignment of structure 1 for sch 20562 are described here. some of the noteworthy diversity of structural features in this glucosidic cyclic dehydronona ...199910395274
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