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spring viraemia of carp. 19947941273
genetic variation in the humoral immune response in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) against aeromonas salmonicida a-layer.antibody responses to aeromonas salmonicida a-layer were analysed in family material of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), consisting of 791 fish belonging to 34 full-sib groups within 12 paternal half-sib groups. the fish were immunized twice and blood samples were collected three times. significant increase in antibody titre from first to second, and from second to third sampling, was observed. genetic variation in antibody titres was observed at the three samplings with estimated heritabilities r ...19947941312
aeromonas infection and intramural intestinal hemorrhage as a cause of small bowel obstruction. 19947942696
corneal ulcer caused by aeromonas species. 19947943138
aeromonas species in septicemia: laboratory characteristics and clinical observations.we retrospectively analyzed clinical and epidemiological data on and laboratory characteristics of 53 cases of aeromonas septicemia. only four aeromonas genomospecies (species defined by dna relatedness) were associated with the 53 cases, with aeromonas hydrophila (sensu stricto) predominating (47%). nearly 60% of all aeromonas isolates from blood fell into one of four somatic groups: serogroups o:11, o:16, o:18, and o:34. unlike aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis, septicemia did not peak in f ...19947948561
in-vitro activity of four new fluoroquinolones.the in-vitro activities of four new fluoroquinolones, e-4749, e-4874, e-4884 and e-4904, were compared with that of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against 1106 clinical isolates. against majority of enterobacteriaceae, general antibacterial activities of e-4749 (mic90s 0.06-1 mg/l), e-4874 (mic90s, 0.03-0.25 mg/l) and e-4884 (mic90s 0.01-0.5 mg/l) were comparable or slightly lower than those of ciproloxacin (mic90s 0.01-0.25 mg/l) and sparfloxacin (mic90s 0.01-1 mg/l). the activity of e-4904 (mi ...19947961215
isolation and characterization of a second exe operon required for extracellular protein secretion in aeromonas hydrophila.strain c5.84 is a tn5-751 insertion mutant of aeromonas hydrophila which is unable to secrete extracellular proteins, instead accumulating them in the periplasm (b. jiang and s.p. howard, j. bacteriol. 173:1241-1249, 1991). a 3.5-kb bglii fragment which complements this mutation was isolated from the chromosome of the parent strain. analysis of this fragment revealed an operon-like structure with two complete genes, exea and exeb, a functional promoter 5' to the exea gene, and a 13-bp inverted r ...19947961440
oral challenge with aeromonas in protein-malnourished mice.the lack of an animal model for aeromonas-associated diarrhoea has hindered progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of this potentially important enteric infection. protein-malnourished mice were challenged orally with aeromonas strains to determine if diminished levels of resistance would allow the induction of a diarrhoeal response. the 15 aeromonas spp. faecal isolates used for challenge included 7 a. caviae, 4 a. hydrophila, 1 a. sobria bv. sobria, and 1 a. sobria bv. veronii from pat ...19947963338
conditions for the production and detection of aeromonas enterotoxins. 19947885245
[distribution of alpha-n-acetylgalactosaminidases in marine and freshwater microorganisms].the distribution of the alpha-n-acetylgalactosidases producers among 856 marine bacteria isolated from sea water, sediments and associated with sponges, mollusks, echinoderms inhabited in different area of the pacific ocean and 423 baikalian microorganisms from fresh water and sponges have been studied. about 24% as marine as baikalian strains produced this enzyme. the most number of alpha-n-ac-galactosidase producers were found for marine bacteria genera aeromonas, alteromonas and vibrio (71% a ...19947898396
three beta-lactamases isolated from aeromonas salmonicida, including a carbapenemase not detectable by conventional methods.the beta-lactamases of seven strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes resistant to amoxicillin (mic > 1024 mg/l) and responsible for furunculosis in farmed atlantic salmon in scotland were examined to establish the mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance. separation of a cell-free extract on an isoelectric focusing gel stained with the chromogenic cephalosporin nitrocefin showed the presence of two beta-lactamases, one with a pi of 7.9 and the other with a pi of 6.0. hydrolysis assays o ...19947889949
septicaemia caused by aeromonas hydrophilia in a neonate. 19947868498
enterotoxigenicity, hemolytic activity and antibiotic resistance of aeromonas spp. isolated from freshwater prawn marketed in dhaka, bangladesh.aeromonas spp. were isolated from gills, swimmerets, eggs, stomachs and ventral muscles of freshwater prawns (macrobrachium malcolmsonii) available in the local fish market of dhaka, bangladesh. the density of aeromonas spp. on these different body parts of the prawn samples ranged from 1.1 +/- 0.2 x 10(4) to 1.5 +/- 0.16 x 10(7) cfu per gram. the viable counts of aeromonads, fecal coliforms (fc) and escherichia coli gradually increased in prawn samples when stored at 4 c. at -20 c, the viable c ...19947869955
detection of shigellae, enteroinvasive and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in patients returning from tropical countries.we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect shigellae, eiec and etec in stool specimens of diarrhoeic patients returning from tropical countries. as compared to culture (7.1% positive specimens), which recognizes only shigella strains, pcr performed on bacterial growth from directly inoculated macconkey agar plates and directed against virulence-associated genes present in both shigella and eiec was positive in 19.8% of the samples. we assumed that these additional positive result ...19947870070
incidence of motile aeromonas spp. in foods.a total of 80 food samples were purchased from local retail consumer shops and examined for the presence of motile aeromonas spp. of the food categories tested, poultry had the highest incidence, with 100% positive. this was followed by lamb samples, with 60% positive. raw milk and cheese samples had very low incidence (20%). no motile aeromonas spp. were found in pre-prepared salads. shellfish, fish, pork and beef samples had incidences of 40%. most of the strains isolated were aeromonas hydrop ...19947873101
an example of the stages in the development of a predictive mathematical model for microbial growth: the effects of nacl, ph and temperature on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the stages involved in developing a predictive model are illustrated using data describing the effects of temperature (3-20 degrees c), nacl concentration (0.5-4.5% w/v) and ph (4.6-7.0) on the aerobic growth of aeromonas hydrophila (cocktail of 6 strains). optical density measurements using micro-titre plates were used as an initial screen, to determine the appropriate sampling times for viable counts to be made and to determine the approximate boundaries for growth. growth curves were generate ...19947873337
phagocytic defence mechanism in sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax l.): an ultrastructural study.the ultrastructure of the phagocytic process in fish has not been established in spite of the significant morphofunctional differences detected in the fish immune system with respect to the basic immunological pattern in vertebrates. we report the ultrastructure of the bacterial phagocytic defence mechanism in sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax l.).19947879910
aeromonas caviae exhibits aggregative adherence to hep-2 cells. 19947880270
isolation and characterization of the prolyl aminopeptidase gene (pap) from aeromonas sobria: comparison with the bacillus coagulans enzyme.the aeromonas sobria pap gene encoding prolyl aminopeptidase (pap) was cloned. it consists of 425 codons and encodes a homotetrameric enzyme of 205 kda. the purified enzyme showed an almost absolute specificity for amino-terminal proline. proline and hydroxyproline residues from many peptide and amide substrates could be easily removed, while no activity was detected for substrates having other amino terminals. the enzyme was very similar to that from bacillus coagulans in many aspects, such as ...19947883756
case of aeromonas veronii (dna group 10) bacteremia.we describe the first case report of bacteremia due to aeromonas veronii biotype veronii. the infection occurred in a 77-year-old man suffering from multiple underlying conditions which included cancer of the sigmoid colon. because of the unusual biochemical phenotype of this group (ornithine decarboxylase positive), it was originally identified as vibrio cholerae.19947883912
pcr-based preparation of 23s rrna-targeted group-specific polynucleotide probes.dna coding for a variable region within domain iii of bacterial 23s rrna was used as the target for group-specific polynucleotide hybridization probes. the corresponding rdna was amplified in vitro by the pcr technique in combination with a pair of primers specific for flanking conserved target sites. the amplified fragments were cloned or used directly as probes. rna probes were generated by in vitro transcription of cloned or amplified rdna. the probes were labeled by incorporating modified nu ...19947524442
virulence factors in clinical and food isolates of aeromonas species.virulence factors were compared in 15 aeromonas spp. isolated from faeces of patients with aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis and in 81 strains isolated from food. strains from food did not show differences in the distribution of virulence factors when compared with strains isolated from faeces. however, 88.8% of aeromonas strains isolated from food were capable of producing possible virulence factors. characterization of 28 autoagglutinating (aa+) aeromonas spp. indicated that the human strai ...19947729770
a histological study of the pathological effect of lipopolysaccharide-free glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyl transferase (gcat) on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). 19947698454
development of antibiotic-resistant strains for the enumeration of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in stored foods.strains of aeromonas spp., salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, salmonella typhimurium, verotoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 (vtec) and yersinia enterocolitica resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid and a combination of both antibiotics were selected. when compared with the parent strains, most of the antibiotic-resistant strains had slightly slower growth rates at their optimum incubation temperature but the difference was reduced progressively when the temperature was lowered. some antibi ...19947703007
assessing glycosidic linkage flexibility: conformational analysis of the repeating trisaccharide unit of aeromonas salmonicida.a detailed conformational analysis was performed for the synthetic branched trisaccharide beta-d-mannac-(1-->4)-[alpha-d-glc-(1-->3)]-l-rha 1 which represents the repeating unit of the o-antigenic polysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida. the study was based on 26 experimental noe curves from 1d transient noe experiments, employing gaussian-shaped inversion pulses at 600 mhz. eight of the noe curves were interglycosidic and thus useful for an analysis of glycosidic linkage orientations. metropoli ...19947510557
phylogenetic analysis and assessment of the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas deduced from small-subunit rrna sequences.we sequenced nearly complete small-subunit rrnas of 54 reference strains belonging to the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas. we then performed a phylogenetic analysis by comparing the sequences which we obtained with all other known sequences for bacteria belonging to the gamma subgroup of the proteobacteria (thus providing a data base consisting of 70 sequences for the genera investigated), using methods such as neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony ...19947520733
genetic variation in the humoral immune response against vibrio salmonicida and in antibody titre against vibrio anguillarum and total igm in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).total igm level and antibody titre to vibrio anguillarum o-antigen after bath-vaccination, and specific antibody response to v. salmonicida o-antigen at three different samplings were analysed in family material of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), consisting of 791 fish belonging to 34 maternal full-sib groups within 12 paternal half-sib groups. the fish were immunized twice, and blood samples collected three times. after the third blood sampling, the fish were challenged with v. anguillarum. medi ...19947725631
relationship between resistance of salmonids to furunculosis and recovery of aeromonas salmonicida from external mucus.fish were sampled at the ed weed state fish hatchery (south hero, vermont, usa) in september 1992. aeromonas salmonicida was common, with concentrations as high as 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units per gram of mucus, and readily recovered from most mucus samples obtained from furunculosis-sensitive populations of brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (salvelinus namaycush), and atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the pathogen was the predominant microorganism and accounted for greater tha ...19947760494
in vitro activity of fk-037, a novel parenteral cephalosporin, against bacterial isolates from neutropenic cancer patients.the in vitro activity of fk-037, a novel parenteral cephalosporin, was compared to that of ceftazidime, aztreonam and piperacillin (agents often used in empiric regimens in cancer patients) against recent bacterial isolates from patients with cancer. fk-037 was either equal to or 2 to 16-fold more active than the comparative agents against members of the enterobacteriaceae. it was also active against acinetobacter spp., aeromonas spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other pseudomonas spp. xanthomon ...19947813504
dermatologic manifestations of infections in neutropenic patients.skin lesions may serve as the site of origin for disseminated infection in neutropenic patients or result as a secondary consequence of disseminated infection from another source. it is important to recognize the characteristic skin lesions associated with infections, such as those caused by clostridium spp, candida spp, and pseudomonas aeruginosa, so that appropriate therapy is initiated promptly. unfortunately, therapy for some of these infections, especially those caused by fungi, is unsatisf ...19947814839
identification of vibrio vulnificus by cellular fatty acid composition using the hewlett-packard 5898a microbial identification system: collaborative study.a gas chromatographic method using a capillary column for rapid identification of vibrio vulnificus was examined in a collaborative study. identifications were performed by analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles which were automatically searched against reference profiles stored in a computer-generated library. each of the 13 collaborators was sent 15 unknown isolates, which included 10 v. vulnificus isolates and 5 negative control isolates. each collaborator was furnished with a computer-gene ...19947819758
rapid identification of aeromonas species using 16s rdna targeted oligonucleotide primers: a molecular approach based on screening of environmental isolates.published 16s rdna sequencing data for aeromonas species were analysed and the validity of signature sequences derived from our investigations of these sequences was examined by sequencing the corresponding 16s rdna regions of 67 environmental isolates from sewage effluents and receiving waters around sydney and one clinical isolate, all previously classified as aeromonas species. species-specific probes for aer. hydrophila and aer. veronii were designed and tested in pcr assays and clearly disc ...19947822232
[in vitro antibacterial activity of fleroxacin (flrx) against clinical isolates from bacterial enteritis].antibacterial activity of fleroxacin (flrx), a new quinolone antimicrobial, against 36 strains of shigella app., 14 strains of salmonella spp., 11 strains of escherichia coli, 9 strains of vibrio spp. (including 2 strains of v. cholerae o1), 14 strains of campylobacter jejuni/coli, 3 strains of aeromonas spp. and 1 strain of plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from infectious enteritis patients in this study was determined. its activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin (cpfx), norfloxacin ( ...19947829909
[pili and colonization factors of vibrionaceae]. 19947830312
enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhoeal diseases.five types of escherichia coli are responsible for as much as 25% of all diarrheal diseases in developing countries. they tend to be transmitted via contaminated foods, particularly weaning foods, and water. they include enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroadherent, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic e. coli. shigella species are responsible for 10-15% of acute diarrheas in children less than 5 years old and the most common etiologic agents of childhood dysentery. shigellosis is common i ...19947835992
aeromonas, yersinia, and miscellaneous bacterial enteropathogens. 19947838604
presence of aeromonas hydrophila in slaughtered animals.the fate of aeromonas hydrophila after a bacteriaemia in four healthy pigs intravenously inoculated with 10(9) and 10(15) cells of the bacterium was investigated. in two pigs slaughtered 30 min after inoculation the bacteria were found in blood (8 x 10(2)/ml and 4.2 x 10(2)/ml), meat and fatty tissues (1-10/g), but not in liver, spleen and superficial inguinal lymph nodes. a. hydrophila was not found in blood, meat, fatty tissue, liver, spleen, kidneys and superficial inguinal lymph nodes of oth ...19947848784
comparative in vitro activity of fk-037, a new cephalosporin antibiotic.the in vitro activity of fk-037, a novel parenteral oxime-type cephalosporin, was compared with that of cefepime, cefpirome, ceftazidime, imipenem, and gentamicin against a total of 668 recent clinical isolates. minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by a standard agar dilution procedure, and all isolates were tested at two inocula (10(4) and 10(6) colony forming units). fk-037 inhibited 90% of isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella species, proteus mirabilis, p. vulgaris, morganell ...19947867295
an endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase from treponema denticola atcc 35405: evidence of hydrolysis of human bioactive peptides.an endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase (prolyl oligopeptidase [popase], ec 3.4.21.26) was purified to homogeneity from the triton x-100 extracts of cells of treponema denticola atcc 35405 (a human oral spirochete) by a procedure that comprised five successive fast protein liquid chromatography steps. the popase is a cell-associated 75- to 77-kda protein with an isoelectric point of ca. 6.5. the enzyme hydrolyzed (optimum ph 6.5) the pro-pna bond in carbobenzoxy-gly-pro-p-nitroanilide (z- ...19947523301
the cytolytic toxin aerolysin: from the soluble form to the transmembrane channel.aerolysin is a cytolytic toxin which forms channels in the plasma membranes of eucaryotic cells. the protein is secreted by aeromonas hydrophila as an inactive protoxin. its stability and water solubility are conferred by its ability to dimerize. maturation of the protein occurs through proteolytic removal of a c-terminal peptide outside the secreting cell. although the aerolysin which is so produced is still a dimer, it then has the ability to oligomerize. the oligomer is the active form of the ...19947512760
o-serogrouping and surface components of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas jandaei pathogenic for eels.the relationship between virulence, o-serogroup, and some cell-surface features (self-pelleting [sp] and precipitation after boiling [pab], profile of lipopolysaccharides [lpss] and outer membrane proteins [omps]) was investigated in strains of the pathogenic species aeromonas hydrophila and a. jandaei isolated from eels. virulent strains of a. hydrophila reacted mostly with o:19 antiserum, and those of a. jandaei reacted with o:4, o:11, o:15 and o:29 antisera (guinée and jansen system). regardi ...19947514147
[a simple and rapid confirmation method of the bacterial contamination using polymerase chain reaction].we studied the method for detection of bacterial contamination. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify the 888 base pair of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene fragment of various strains of bacterial species. the supernatant of bacterial suspension after treatment for 10 min at 100 degrees c was used for a template dna. a total of 151 strains of 16 genus of gram-negative rod and of one genus of gram-positive cocci were confirmed and were divided into five categories by comparing digestio ...19947517986
carbohydrate-reactive, pore-forming outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila.two outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila a6, isolated in a one-step affinity chromatography process based on carbohydrate reactivity, were found to be pore-forming molecules in artificial planar bilayer membranes. these carbohydrate-reactive outer membrane proteins (cromps; m(r)s, 40,000 and 43,000) were subjected to amino acid analysis. the amino acid profiles for these two outer membrane proteins were almost identical. a partial protein sequence of a 14-amino-acid fragment of the 40 ...19947520425
aeromonas salmonicida resistance to complement-mediated killing.the resistance of aeromonas salmonicida to complement-mediated killing was investigated by using different strains and their isogenic mutants that had been previously characterized for their surface components. we found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible a. salmonicida strains, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved. all of the a. salmonicida strains are able to activate complement, but the smooth strains (with or without ...19947525485
the c-terminal peptide produced upon proteolytic activation of the cytolytic toxin aerolysin is not involved in channel formation.the channel-forming toxin aerolysin is secreted by aeromonas hydrophila as a protoxin that can be activated by nicking with endoproteinase lys-c after lys-427 near the c terminus of the protein. the fate of the 43-amino acid peptide distal to the activation site was investigated. a cysteine was introduced into the c-terminal region by replacing ile-445, and another replaced gly-202, which is on the proximal side of the activation site. in a double mutant, the two new cysteines were close enough ...19947527031
picture story. from protoxin to pore. 19947544681
serum antibody responses of divers to waterborne pathogens.to assess the significance of exposure of divers to waterborne pathogens, specific immunoglobulin g serum antibody responses to pseudomonas and aeromonas isolates recovered from dive sites from the respiratory tracts of nine experienced divers and seven diving trainees working in the chesapeake bay area over a 6- to 18-month period were measured. a significant increase in the frequency of isolation of these organisms from respiratory surfaces both groups of divers after each dive was noted, with ...19947496942
structure of the aeromonas toxin proaerolysin in its water-soluble and membrane-channel states.aerolysin is chiefly responsible for the pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterium associated with diarrhoeal diseases and deep wound infections. like many other microbial toxins, the protein changes in a multistep process from a completely water-soluble form to produce a transmembrane channel that destroys sensitive cells by breaking their permeability barriers. here we describe the structure of proaerolysin determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.8 a resolution. the protoxin (m(r) 52 ...19947510043
starters in the processing of meat products.starter cultures applied in meat technology may contain moulds, yeasts and bacteria. moulds have been selected with the primary intension to exclude any potential of mycotoxin production. their sensory effects and the requirements of technology are also criteria for suitable starters. their genetic potential can now be modified by genetic engineering. yeasts are applied for sensory reasons mainly. the species in use are only fermentative and do not enhance nitrate reduction. bacterial components ...199422061458
incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in clinical specimens from hospitals in south-western nigeria.the pattern and frequency of bacterial isolates cultured from 687 clinical specimens from four university teaching hospitals in south western nigeria were determined. a total of 707 bacterial isolates were cultured from 18 different clinical sources giving an average of 1.03 bacteria per sample identified in this collection. of these, gram negative rods constituted 78.1% and the rest were staphylococci. the most common organism isolated in urine samples was e. coli (32.1%) whilst s. aureus (28.9 ...19957498026
non-enteritic aeromonas infections in hospitalized patients.aeromonas species were isolated from specimens other than faeces from 59 hospital inpatients over a 15 year period. of the isolates, 79.7% were regarded as clinically significant, with skin and soft tissues and blood cultures as the commonest sites of infection. of the isolates, 52.5% were hospital-acquired, and 55.9% of patients had serious underlying disease. community-acquired infections in previously healthy individuals accounted for only 13.6% of isolates. however unlike many other opportun ...19957499821
the interaction of trimethoprim and quinolones against gram-negative fish pathogens.the effect of combination of trimethoprim with other non-sulphonamide antibacterial agents, in particular oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid, was evaluated against gram-negative fish pathogens. the species included aeromonas salmonicida, yersinia ruckeri, some vibrio spp. and escherichia coli as a reference. the extent of synergy found by other workers with these substances against human gram-negative bacteria was not apparent here. some positive interaction between trimethoprim and oxolinic acid ...19957592108
rapd analysis of aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas hydrophila.the randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) technique was used to analyse the genetic differentiation of 13 strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and seven strains of aer. hydrophila. reproducible profiles of genomic dna fingerprints were generated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a single randomly designed primer. the rapd profiles of all the non-motile aeromonads, aer. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were identical. however, profiles of the motile aeromonads, aer. hydro ...19957592114
[in vitro antibacterial activity of balofloxacin (blfx) against isolates from patients with bacterial enteritis].in vitro antibacterial activity of balofloxacin (blfx), a newly developed fluoroquinoline, was compared with that of norfloxacin (nflx), ofloxacin (oflx) and ciplofloxacin (cpfx). bacterial strains used in this experiment were freshly isolated from patients with infectious enteritis just before blfx therapy. the isolates were 43 strains of vibrio cholerae o1, 1 strain of campylobacter sp., 4 strains of aeromonas spp., 3 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides, 1 strain of vibrio mimicus and 1 strain ...19957594800
a specific puld homolog is required for the secretion of paracrystalline surface array subunits in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an important pathogen of fish, and its high-virulence strains display a two-dimensional paracrystalline layer (s-layer) on their outermost surfaces. the nucleotide sequence of a 4.1-kb region located 700 bp upstream of the a. hydrophila tf7 s-layer protein gene (ahsa) has been determined. a sequence analysis of the region revealed the presence of three complete open reading frames ending in a gene encoding a 79.8-kda polypeptide that shows high homology to the puld family ...19957608063
cloning and primary structure of the chia gene from aeromonas caviae.the chia gene from aeromonas caviae encodes an extracellular chitinase, 865 amino acids long, that shows a high degree of similarity to chitinase a of serratia marcescens. expression in escherichia coli yielded an enzymatically active protein from which a leader sequence was removed, presumably during transport of the enzyme across the cell membrane.19957608101
pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin: the asp197-gly-asp-tyr-his-tyr-his-tyr202 containing loop is critical for plasma membrane binding.the cytotoxin from pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pore-forming toxin that binds specifically to water channel-related molecules of the erythrocyte membrane. here, we have defined a domain, asp197-gly-asp-tyr-his-tyr202 of the cytotoxin, to be essential for receptor binding. cytotoxin point mutants from the recombinant gene carrying substitutions in the domain were characterized in terms of inhibiting the binding of radioiodinated natural cytotoxin to rat erythrocyte and producing cytotoxic effects ...19957609787
aeromonas hydrophila myonecrosis accompanying mucormycosis five years after bone marrow transplantation.a 36-year-old man, five years after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia, was admitted with myonecrosis of the forearm after he had immersed his hand in sewage water several days prior to his admission. blood cultures and specimens taken from the necrotic tissue of the arm all grew aeromonas hydrophila. following extension of the infection, the patient underwent amputation of the arm but ultimately died of cerebral mucormycosis. the epidemiology of aeromonas infections is discussed an ...19957614968
yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) macrophages.previous studies have shown that head kidney macrophages isolated from glucan injected rainbow trout (oncorhychus mykiss) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) have increased ability to kill aeromonas salmonicida. the present work was aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of glucan on the respiratory burst and bactericidal potential of atlantic salmon head kidney macrophages. salmon macrophages were incubated for 1-7 days with various concentrations of yeast beta-glucan (macrogard) and test ...19957615137
aeromonas bacteremia: review of 59 episodes.fifty-nine episodes of bacteremia due to aeromonas species occurred within a 5-year period in one medical center in southern taiwan. underlying diseases in the 58 patients included hepatic cirrhosis (36%) and cancer (24%). patients with aeromonas bacteremia more often had underlying hepatic cirrhosis than did those with bacteremia due to other gram-negative bacilli. males (67%) outnumbered females. the cases appeared to cluster in the summer and fall months. thirty-two percent were polymicrobial ...19957620014
a conserved aeromonas salmonicida porin provides protective immunity to rainbow trout.a protein with an apparent m(r) of 28,000 was isolated from outer membrane preparations of aeromonas salmonicida a440. the protein was tested for the ability to form pores, using a planar lipid bilayer model membrane system. the protein appeared to be a monomer with a single-channel conductance in 1.0 m kcl of 1.96 ns and a cation/anion permeability ratio of 2.91 +/- 0.68. these data show that the porin channel is comparable in size to ompc and ompf of escherichia coli and is relatively nonselec ...19957622241
aeromonas infections and their treatment.with advances in the identification and molecular taxonomy of aeromonas spp., these organisms, which are widely distributed in the environment, are increasingly being recognised as human pathogens. clinical infections include gastroenteritis, skin and soft tissue infections and bacteraemia. antibiotic resistance poses a potential problem in the antimicrobial therapy of infections cased by aeromonas spp. while most strains are susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole and the ...19957628980
conserved amino acid residues in the primary structure of ribosomal protein s20 from selected gram-negative bacteria.partial dna sequences encoding ribosomal protein s20 have been determined for a number of gram-negative bacteria including three species of aeromonas, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and salmonella typhimurium and compared to the known sequence from escherichia coli. the derived amino acid sequence is well conserved, particularly in the c-terminal one-third of s20. in contrast, there is much less conservation of the nucleotide sequence or potential secondary structure in the correspond ...19957640306
bacterial succession within a biofilm in water supply lines of dental air-water syringes.biofilms have been implicated as reservoirs for bacterial contamination of water delivered by dental air-water syringes. a 6-month study was done of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in plastic water supply lines connected to dental air-water syringes. changes in biofilm flora were observed by both scanning electron microscopy and bacteriologic culture. by day 7, many rod- and spiral-shaped bacteria had colonized the ridged surface of the luminal wall of the tubing, as revealed by sca ...19957641146
distribution of aeromonas phenospecies and genospecies among strains isolated from water, foods or from human clinical samples.a total of 332 aeromonas spp. originating from drinking water (n = 75), fresh water (n = 57), chicken and ground beef (107), human faecal samples in association with travelling (n = 49), human faecal samples not associated with travelling (n = 38), and six strains from human blood cultures were studied by phenotypic methods and by using analysis of ribopatterns as a molecular method for the identification of the 13 known hybridization groups (hgs). also included were the reference strains of eac ...19957641837
surface phenotypic characteristics and virulence of spanish isolates of aeromonas salmonicida after passage through fish.eleven strains of aeromonas salmonicida were passaged twice by intraperitoneal injection through rainbow trout and reisolated from the kidney of moribund fish. the surface characteristics and virulence of the strains changed following passage through fish. none of the in vitro tests used could effectively predict the in vivo virulence.19957646039
evaluation of the suitability of bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol, (diba-c4(3)-), for the flow cytometric assessment of bacterial viability.the usefulness of oxonol (bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol) as a generally applicable indicator of bacterial viability was investigated using untreated and killed cultures of a variety of bacterial genera. killing methods involved either heat or bactericidal antibiotics. for all strains tested, the fluorescent dye showed significantly more intense staining of killed than untreated cells. the sensitivity of aeromonas salmonicida to gentamicin was assessed using oxonol. although t ...19957649437
a survey of enteropathogens among united states military personnel during operation bright star '94, in cairo, egypt.acute gastroenteritis is a potential cause of substantial morbidity in u.s. military personnel during deployment. this study was conducted to evaluate enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in a u.s. military population on deployment in cairo, egypt, during november 1993. enteric pathogens found to be associated with cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), 27% (22% heat-stable [st], 3% heat-labile [lt], and 2% st/lt producers); campylobacter spp., 3%; and salmone ...19957659237
media for aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides and pseudomonas spp. from food and environment.several media are proposed particularly for the detection of aeromonas spp. but also for plesiomonas shigelloides and pseudomonas spp. some are for general purposes and others specifically for the examination of clinical, environmental or food samples. all media are selective, due to antibiotics, bile salts, dyes and other selective agents, as well as differential, primarily based on the ability of the microorganisms to ferment/not ferment carbohydrates. as with all selective media, the recovery ...19957662518
[effectiveness of modified atmospheres against psychrotrophic pathogenic microorganisms in proteinaceous food].modified atmosphere packaging (map) of proteinaceous raw foods (meat, poultry and fish) extends their shelf-lives. it is well established that modified atmospheres (ma) inhibit the psychotropic aerobic gram-negative bacteria, the main spoilage microflora of proteinaceous raw foods stored under refrigeration. several researchers have warned about the possible growth of food poisoning microorganisms on them. considering the minimal growth temperatures of pathogens, this review only deals with aero ...19957546447
lactic acid inhibition of the growth of spoilage bacteria and cold tolerant pathogens on pork.the antibacterial effects of a 3% solution of lactic acid at 55 degrees c were assessed, by examining aerobic bacterial growth on artificially-inoculated pork fat and lean tissue. discs of fat or lean tissues, each of 10 cm2 surface area, were aseptically excised from pork longissimus dorsi muscle and inoculated with the cold tolerant pathogens listeria monocytogenes 4b scott a no. 3, yersinia enterocolitica 0:4,32 or aeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966, or with the wild type spoilage bacteria pseudo ...19957547145
buffering capacity and h+ membrane conductance of gram-negative bacteria.buffering capacity and membrane h+ conductance were examined in seven gram-negative species: aquaspirillum serpens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, alcaligenes faecalis, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus mirabilis and aeromonas hydrophila. all strains of enterobacteriaceae studied here showed a decrease in both parameters as the external ph increased, over the ph range studied. the other four species presented an increase in buffering capacity and membrane conductance to protons as the e ...19957557289
immunoregulatory activities of eicosanoids in the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).eicosanoids such as prostaglandins (pg), leukotrienes (lt) and lipoxins (lx) have been shown to be potent immunoregulatory molecules in mammals. to determine if they have similar roles in 'lower' animals, rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with either sheep erythrocytes or aeromonas salmonicida in the presence or absence of the stable analogue of pge2, 16,16-dimethyl-pge2, and the number of plaque-forming cells (pfc) or specific antibody levels determined. the higher dose of 16,1 ...19957558126
the leucine zipper of aeromonas salmonicida abca is required for the transcriptional activation of the p2 promoter of the surface-layer structural gene, vapa, in escherichia coli.the aeromonas salmonicida abca protein is involved in the synthesis of the o-polysaccharide side-chains on the lipopolysaccharide and is also capable of enhancing the expression of the structural gene for the a-layer, vapa, when cloned into escherichia coli. the p2 promoter of the vapa gene of a. salmonicida was cloned into a promoter probe vector and expression in e. coli was monitored. the expression of p2::lacz was shown to be increased when abca was provided in trans. abca contains an n-term ...19957494486
chronic diarrhea due to a single strain of aeromonas caviae.over a period of 17 months, aeromonas caviae was cultured 15 times as the sole enteropathogen from the feces of a man who had developed chronic diarrhea after traveling to turkey. determination of rrna gene restriction patterns confirmed that the seven isolates of aeromonas caviae studied were identical (hybridization group [hg]4). after therapy with ciprofloxacin for four weeks, the patient was culture negative for the original isolate, and six months later a novel strain of aeromonas media wit ...19957537217
amino-acid residues involved in biological functions of the cytolytic enterotoxin from aeromonas hydrophila.some amino acid (aa) residues within the cytolytic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila essential for biological activity were identified. act is a 52-kda polypeptide, possessing hemolytic, cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. by deletion analysis, generation of anti-peptide ab, and site-directed mutagenesis we showed that two regions in act (aa 245-274 and 361-405) were very important for biological functions. as shown by competitive inhibition assays, peptide 2 (aa 245-274) blocked cytot ...19957537706
the tetrasaccharide l-alpha-d-heptose1-->2-l-alpha-d-heptose1--> 3-l-alpha-d-heptose1-->(3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid) and phosphate in lipid a define the conserved epitope in haemophilus lipopolysaccharides recognized by a monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody, mahi 3 (immunoglobulin g2b), that is broadly reactive with haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharides (lpss) but nonreactive with all enterobacterial lpss tested was generated by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of balb/c mice immunized with azide-killed h. influenzae rm.7004. mahi 3 bound to all h. influenzae, all other human haemophilus spp., all bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis, and all aeromonas spp. tested but not to any neisseria o ...19957543887
proteolytic activity of aeromonas caviae.aeromonas strains produce a variety of virulence factors including proteases. studies on the kinetics of growth of aeromonas caviae nrrl b-966 and its proteases suggest that the proteolytic activities are produced throughout the growth phase, with peak level occurring at stationary phase. a. caviae synthesize both intracellular and extracellular proteases with the latter account for major portion of the total activity. optimum ph for the a. caviae proteolytic activity is at 7.0. a. caviae produc ...19957473065
recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus glycoprotein epitopes expressed in aeromonas salmonicida induce protective immunity in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).fragments of the glycoprotein genes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) were cloned into a bacterial broad-host-range expression vector under the control of the plac promoter. western blot (immunoblot) analysis with monoclonal antibodies specific to the glycoproteins demonstrated the inducible expression of the fusion proteins in escherichia coli. aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. it was conf ...19957486994
soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. the contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. as a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been develope ...19957487017
indications and complications of medicinal leech therapy. 19957490356
a novel integron-like element carrying the metallo-beta-lactamase gene blaimp.a plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase gene was cloned from a carbapenem-resistant serratia marcescens strain, ak9373. the metallo-beta-lactamase gene was identical to the blaimp, and it was located in the space between an integrase-like gene and an aac(6')-ib-like gene. the deduced amino acid sequence for the putative integrase gene showed considerable identity (60.9%) to that of the escherichia coli integrase reported. sequences similar to the gttrrry and an atypical 59-base element contain ...19957492116
the renal membrane dipeptidase (dehydropeptidase i) inhibitor, cilastatin, inhibits the bacterial metallo-beta-lactamase enzyme cpha.the aeromonas hydrophila ae036 chromosome contains a cpha gene encoding a metallo-beta-lactamase which is highly active against carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem. here we show that the cpha gene product shares inhibitory similarities with a mammalian zinc peptidase, membrane dipeptidase (mdp; dehydropeptidase i). both enzymes are able to hydrolyze imipenem and are inhibited by cilastatin. the active site similarities of these enzymes are not reflected in any significant primary sequence si ...19957492120
variability of peptidoglycan structural parameters in gram-negative bacteria.muropeptide composition of peptidoglycan from the gram-negative bacteria aeromonas sp., acinetobacter acetoaceticus, agrobacterium tumefaciens, enterobacter cloacae, proteus morganii, pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas putida, vibrio parahaemolyticus yersinia enterocolitica and escherichia coli, was analyzed by hplc. in all instances peptidoglycan was built up from the same subunits. a wide disparity in the relative abundance of muropeptides and all structural parameters was observed. the contr ...19957867925
the periplasmic endonuclease i of escherichia coli has amino-acid sequence homology to the extracellular dnases of vibrio cholerae and aeromonas hydrophila.the gene enda, encoding the periplasmic endonuclease i (endoi) of escherichia coli, was identified on a cloned chromosomal 1.5-kb hindiii fragment. the nucleotide sequence of the fragment revealed an open reading frame (orf) coding for a polypeptide of 235 amino acids (aa). the orf preceeded by a region with two possible promoter sites displays promoter activity when cloned into an expression vector. on the c-terminal side, two sequences with putative transcription termination function are prese ...19957867949
cloning, sequence and regulation of expression of the lexa gene of aeromonas hydrophila.the lexa gene of aeromonas hydrophila (ah) has been isolated by using a specific one-step cloning system. the ah lexa repressor is able to block escherichia coli (ec) sos gene expression and is likely to be cleaved by the activated reca protein of this bacterial species after dna damage. ah lexa would encode a protein of 207 amino acids (aa), which is 75% identical to the lexa repressor of ec. two ec-like sos boxes have been located upstream from ah lexa, the distance between them being 4 bp, wh ...19957867953
specificity of the protein secretory apparatus: secretion of the heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit pentamers by different species of gram- bacteria.the b-subunit pentamer(s) (etxbp) of escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) are secreted from vibrio cholerae via the general secretion pathway (gsp), but remain periplasmic in e. coli. in order to determine if other gram- bacteria were also able to secrete the extbp, the etxb gene, which encodes etxb was introduced into different bacteria. of the bacteria examined, most species of vibrio and aeromonas were able to secrete this protein through the outer membrane; other gram- genera, inclu ...19957828926
the primary structure of clostridium septicum alpha-toxin exhibits similarity with that of aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin.the gene for clostridium septicum alpha-toxin was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli from c. septicum bx96. the toxin was determined to be 443 amino acids in length, with a 31-residue signal peptide that was removed from the toxin during secretion. no extended hydrophobic regions were observed in the mature toxin sequence. expression of alpha-toxin in e. coli bl21 resulted in the production of atpro, which was identical to native toxin from c. septicum with respect to activity and activati ...19957806374
molecular characterization of an aeromonas salmonicida mutant with altered surface morphology and increased systemic virulence.the asoa gene of aeromonas salmonicida is located approximately 7 kb downstream of the a-layer structural gene, vapa. a 6 kb bamhi fragment containing asoa was cloned and marker-exchange mutagenesis using a kanamycin-resistance cassette was performed to generate an asoa mutation in the low-virulence strain a449l. when analysed by electron microscopy, the mutant a449l-mb exhibited an altered surface morphology. strands and blebs of membranous material were observed protruding from the disorganize ...19957752897
a pleiotropic secretion mutant of aeromonas hydrophila is unable to secrete heterologously expressed e. coli enterotoxin: implication for common mechanisms of protein secretion. 19957758745
a clinical isolate of aeromonas sobria with three chromosomally mediated inducible beta-lactamases: a cephalosporinase, a penicillinase and a third enzyme, displaying carbapenemase activity.hydrolytic profiles of aeromonas sobria 163a, non-induced and induced, and of a derepressed mutant 163a-m, indicate that this strain has inducible beta-lactamases with activities against cephalosporins, penicillins and carbapenems. three enzymes were identified and two of the beta-lactamase genes, amps, encoding a penicillinase and ceps, encoding a cephalosporinase, were cloned into escherichia coli, permitting analysis of the individual enzymes. isoelectric focusing (ief) analysis using inhibit ...19957759391
a lipase of aeromonas hydrophila showing nonhemolytic phospholipase c activity.extracellular lipase activity detected on tributyrin agar has been identified in a cosmid clone, jm3084, constructed from the chromosome of aeromonas hydrophila and vector phc79. this lipase, named apl-1, also exhibits nonhemolytic phospholipase c activity on lecithin and p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine. subcloning of the cosmid jmp3084 with partial sau3a1 digestion localized the lipase gene to a 3.4-kb dna fragment. southern blot analysis shows the gene apl-1 to exist in single copy on the a. hy ...19957767226
[fulminant myonecrosis and sepsis caused by aeromonas hydrophila].a case of fatal bilateral lower extremity myonecrosis in a nonimmunocompromized man with septicaemia caused by aeromonas hydrophila is described. immediate surgical revision combined with treatment with new cephalosporins should be considered in the treatment of severe soft tissue infections, especially when the patient is known to have a trauma with waterborne contamination or is immunocompromised.19957770986
endogenous mutagenesis by an insertion sequence element identifies aeromonas salmonicida abca as an atp-binding cassette transport protein required for biogenesis of smooth lipopolysaccharide.analysis of an aeromonas salmonicida a layer-deficient/o polysaccharide-deficient mutant carrying a tn5 insertion in the structural gene for a protein (vapa) showed that the abca gene immediately downstream of vapa had been interrupted by the endogenous insertion sequence element isas1. immunoelectron microscopy showed that o polysaccharides did not accumulate at the inner membrane-cytoplasm interface of this mutant. abca encodes an unusual protein; it carries both an amino-terminal atp-binding ...19957777581
[the cellular fatty acid composition of bacteria in the family vibrionaceae].vibrio cholerae strains, serovar o1, biovar eltor, subtype ogawa, isolated from different sources, v. cholerae classica and nag vibrios have identical cell fatty acid composition with the prevalence of hexadecenoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids. v. parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus fatty acid profiles, being identical, are similar to v. cholerae profile, differing from it mainly by a higher content of dodecanoic acid. the similarity of the fatty acid profiles of aeromonas sp. and vibr ...19957778361
fatty acid profiles of "pasteurella" piscicida: comparison with other fish pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.the fatty acid methyl ester (fame) profiles of "pasteurella" piscicida were determined by gas chromatography and subjected to numerical analysis in comparison with those obtained for vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and pasteurella species of clinical origin. the bacterial species studied shared important characteristics with respect to their fame content: in all of them the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 carbon atoms were the predominant fatty acids. however, distinguishin ...19957778977
the fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk.this study examined the ability of potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow and to survive during the manufacture and ripening of swiss hard and semihard cheese varieties made from raw milk. the results show that hard cheeses are hygienically safe; 1 wk after fabrication, the inoculated pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila. campylobacter jejuni, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella spp., staphylococcus aureus, and yersinia enterocolitica) could no longer be dete ...19957782504
purification and characterization of metallo-beta-lactamase from serratia marcescens.carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from serratia marcescens fhsm4055 was purified 926-fold by means of carboxylmethyl sephadex c-50, sephacryl s-200, and mono s column chromatography. the molecular weight was 30,000 by sds-page and the isoelectric point was 8.7. the enzyme activity was inhibited by edta, and restored by adding zinc (ii) or manganese (ii). it was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate and iodine as well as the heavy metals, hg (ii), fe (ii), fe (iii), and cu (ii). these results ...19957783675
cloning and study of the genetic organization of the exe gene cluster of aeromonas salmonicida.the aeromonas salmonicida (as) exe gene cluster, an additional member of the pul-related operon family required for general signal-sequence-dependent secretion of proteins from gram- bacteria, was cloned in the broad-host-range cosmid plafr3. twelve genes, exec-n, were identified by partial nucleotide (nt) sequence analyses (exee-n) or determination of the complete sequence (exec and exed). the organisation of the exec-n genes is similar to that of several other operons of this family. these gen ...19957789814
hypercalcemia associated with aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis.we describe a 4 year old girl with acute aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis who presented with a combination of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment. serum parathyroid hormone was not elevated. both milk-alkali syndrome and intoxication of vitamins a and d were ruled out. the hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment were improved by fluid infusion and intravenous administration of furosemide. gastro-enteritis also improved with oral administration of the an ...19957793254
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