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rapid iodometric detection of aeromonas amylase and its diagnostic significance.twenty-five aeromonas hydrophila isolates from different sources (food, 13; clinical, 6 and environmental, 6) were studied for the mode of production of amylase and rapid iodometric detection of the enzyme in vitro. all twenty-five of the isolates produced the enzyme constitutively at 37 degrees c. amylase producing ability was not dependent on the source of isolation of aeromonas (f = 0.1069; p > 0.05). using iodometric technique, in a microtitration tray, the enzyme was fully demonstrated in 1 ...200111502374
microbiological quality of the bivalve pinctada imbricata commercialized in cumaná, venezuela.the habitual consumption of oysters in the city of cumaná, venezuela, is made in poor sanitary conditions, therefore a study was carried out to determine the sanitary quality of the product. for this, 120 samples of oyster pinctada imbricata were collected directly from: a) fishing boats (unhandled samples) and b) after being shucked by the salesman (handled samples). unhandled samples showed the following mpn/g: faecal coliforms < 3 - 2.2 x 10, aeromonas sp. < 3 - 1.1 x 10(3), staphylococcus au ...200111510429
new dna-dna hybridization and phenotypic data on the species aeromonas ichthiosmia and aeromonas allosaccharophila: a. ichthiosmia schubert et al. 1990 is a later synonym of a. veronii hickman-brenner et al. 1987.previously, a dna fingerprinting study based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis has revealed a possible genotypic resemblance of the species aeromonas ichthiosmia and aeromonas allosaccharophila to aeromonas veronii (huys et al., int. j. syst. bacteriol. 46, 572-580 [19961). currently, two genotypically indistinguishable biovars are known to exist in the latter species, namely a. veronii biovar sobria and a. veronii biovar veronii. in the current study, new dna-dna hybridi ...200111518320
identification and characterization of carnobacteria isolated from fish intestine.eleven bacterial strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of four fish species, atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.), arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.), atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) and wolffish (anarhichas lupus l.). all the strains were gram-positive rods, non-sporing, catalase and oxidase-negative, able to grow at ph 9.0 but not on acetate containing media (ph < or = 5.4), and were fermentative. they had a high content of oleic acid (18:1 n-9) in cellular lipid, and were found t ...200111518321
heat resistance and growth of salmonella enteritidis, listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila in whole liquid egg.salmonella enteritidis atcc,13067, listeria monocytogenes atcc,19116 and aeromonas hydrophila atcc,7965 strains were evaluated for growth and thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (lwe). each strain grew well in lwe at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees c, except s. enteritidis which grew weakly at 4 and 10 degrees c. maximum populations for each strain increased with increasing growth temperature. the thermal destruction of each strain was determined in six liquid products. the egg products ...200111518391
typing of aeromonas isolates from children with diarrhoea & water samples by randomly amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction & whole cell protein fingerprinting.aeromonas spp. are water-borne organisms, often associated with childhood diarrhoea. the present study was conducted to examine the epidemiological relationship among the aeromonas spp. isolated from water and children with acute diarrhoea in chennai.200111525157
induction of apoptosis in ht29 human intestinal epithelial cells by the cytotoxic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila.the cytotoxic enterotoxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila is considered to be the main virulence factor in gastrointestinal infections mediated by this pathogen. in this study, we examined the morphological and apoptotic effects of this toxin on ht29 cells, using light and electron microscopy in situ, as well as agarose gel electrophoresis of cell dna. cells treated with the cytotoxic enterotoxin became round and lost their polarity as well as their adhesion to each other and to the substrate. ...200111527222
a secreted aminopeptidase of pseudomonas aeruginosa. identification, primary structure, and relationship to other aminopeptidases.using leucine-p-nitroanilide (leu-pna) as a substrate, we demonstrated aminopeptidase activity in the culture filtrates of several pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. the aminopeptidase was partially purified by deae-cellulose chromatography and found to be heat stable. the apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 56 kda; hence, it was designated ap(56). heating (70 degrees c) of the partially purified aminopeptidase preparations led to the conversion of ap(56) to a approximately 28-k ...200111533066
regulation of the cytotoxic enterotoxin gene in aeromonas hydrophila: characterization of an iron uptake regulator.the cytotoxic enterotoxin act from a diarrheal isolate, ssu, of aeromonas hydrophila is aerolysin related and crucial to the pathogenesis of aeromonas infections. to elucidate the role of environmental signals which influence the expression of the cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act), a portion of the act gene, including the putative promoter region, was fused in frame to a truncated alkaline phosphatase gene (phoa) of escherichia coli. the act::phoa reporter gene was then introduced into the chromo ...200111553581
[aeromonas infections]. 200111555917
the channel-forming protein proaerolysin remains a dimer at low concentrations in solution.proaerolysin, the proform of the channel-forming protein aerolysin, is secreted as a dimer by aeromonas sp. the protein also exists as a dimer in the crystal, as well as in solution, at least at concentrations in the region of 500 microg/ml. recently it has been argued that proaerolysin becomes monomeric at concentrations below 100 microg/ml and that only the monomeric form of the protoxin can bind to cell surface receptors (fivaz, m., velluz, m.-c., and van der goot, f. g. (1999) j. biol. chem. ...200111016941
immune responses of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.) clones: i. non-specific responses.the importance of genetic variation in the non-specific immune responses of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.) clones was investigated. fully inbred clones (ic) of nile tilapia, produced using gynogenesis and sex reversal, and crosses between these lines (outbred clones) were used in this study. non-specific immune responses were compared between the ics, including serum lysozyme activity and phagocytosis, and significant differences were observed between the different groups. their natural ...200110980318
phylogeny of the major head and tail genes of the wide-ranging t4-type bacteriophages.we examined a number of bacteriophages with t4-type morphology that propagate in different genera of enterobacteria, aeromonas, burkholderia, and vibrio. most of these phages had a prolate icosahedral head, a contractile tail, and a genome size that was similar to that of t4. a few of them had more elongated heads and larger genomes. all these phages are phylogenetically related, since they each had sequences homologous to the capsid gene (gene 23), tail sheath gene (gene 18), and tail tube gene ...200111114936
role of flm locus in mesophilic aeromonas species adherence.the adherence mechanism of aeromonas caviae sch3n to hep-2 cells was initially investigated through four mini-tn5 mutants that showed a 10-fold decrease in adherence. these mutants lost motility, flagella, and their lipopolysaccharide (lps) o antigen (o-ag). three genes, flmb-neua-flmd, were found to be interrupted by the transposon insertions; additionally, two other genes, one lying upstream (flma) and one downstream (neub), were found to be clustered in the same operon. while the flma and flm ...200111119490
enteropathogenicity of plesiomonas shigelloides and aeromonas spp. in experimental mono- and coinfection with cryptosporidium parvum in the intestine of neonatal balb/c mice.enteropathogenicity of plesiomonas shigelloides, aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae and a. sobria was studied both in monoinfections and in coinfections with coccidium cryptosporidium parvum in neonatal balb/c mice. in monoinfection experiments, neonatal balb/c mice were orally infected with 7 x 10(7) or 7 x 10(8) cfu, respectively, of a strain of p. shigelloides or a strain of an aeromonas spp. in coinfection experiments, the neonatal mice were, in addition to being orally infected with one of the ...200111131040
crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of (r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase from aeromonas caviae involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.dimeric (r)-specific enoyl-coenzyme a (coa) hydratase from aeromonas caviae catalyzes the hydration of trans-2-enoyl-coas with carbon lengths of 4-6 to yield their corresponding (r)-3-hydroxyacyl-coas and is essential for polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) biosynthesis. the enzyme has been crystallized by vapour diffusion against a reservoir solution containing 20% polyethylene glycol 4000, 5% 2-propanol and 20 mm hepes ph 7.0 at 298 k. crystals belong to the monoclinic space group c2, with unit-cell pa ...200111134939
endocarditis due to rare and fastidious bacteria.the etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. however, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as lactobacillus spp., klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic corynebacterium, salmonella, gemella, campylobacter, aeromonas, yersinia, nocardia, pasteurella, listeria, or erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or ...200111148009
hatchery-level predictive values for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and aeromonas salmonicida in ontario, canada.the probability and uncertainty of correctly classifying the ipnv and aeromonas salmonicida status of fish-rearing and natural sites in ontario were estimated through monte carlo simulations. propagating several uncertain inputs showed the extent to which natural variability and our present lack of knowledge affect the probability of site misclassification. for the scenarios investigated, the site-level negative predictive values (snpvs) were high and fairly constant. the site-level positive pre ...200111154785
locomotion and feeding of acanthamoeba at the water-air interface of ponds.acanthamoeba trophozoites attach to and effect amoeboid locomotion at the water-air interface of ponds. their locomotory rate (approximately 0.8 microm s(-1)) and manner of independent movement at this interface is similar to that over solid substrata. adhesion forces developed between amoebae and the water-air interface are greater than gravity and thus amoebae are also transported passively without detachment. amoebae docked with the water-air interface remain and flourish here as they are sho ...200111164298
miniaturized tests for computer-assisted identification of motile aeromonas species with an improved probability matrix.to develop miniaturized tests for the phenotypic identification of motile aeromonas species using an improved probability matrix.200111168721
detection of vibrionaceae in mussels and in their seawater growing area.the seasonal trend and frequency of detection of vibrionaceae in seawater samples and in molluscs collected in the adriatic sea was measured.200111169043
intestinal secretory immunoglobulin a (siga) response to aeromonas exoproteins in patients with naturally acquired aeromonas diarrhea.the secretory immunoglobulin a (siga) response at the intestinal mucosa is one of the primary defense mechanisms protecting against enteric infections and may therefore be used as an indicator of bacterial enteropathogenicity. in order to understand the role played by aeromonas strains as gastrointestinal infectious agents, the siga response in fecal specimens obtained from patients with naturally acquired aeromonas diarrhea was examined. our results demonstrated a specific siga response which w ...200111172988
conserved anchoring mechanisms between crystalline cell surface s-layer proteins and secondary cell wall polymers in gram-positive bacteria? 200111173224
occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonas in three riverine freshwaters of marrakech, morocco.in order to evaluate the impact of pollution and sewage on the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonads in riverine freshwaters of marrakech, samples were collected from three rivers (oukaimeden, ourika, and tensift) upstream and downstream from the principal bordering villages. during a 2-year study, indicators of pollution increased dramatically in the downstream waters. bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) correlated with mesophilic aeromonads o ...200112805714
[in vitro evaluation of antibacterial substances produced by bacteria isolated from different marine organisms].bacteria from several groups of marine organisms were isolated and, using direct antibiograms, identified those that produce antibacterial substances, using a human pathogenic strain of staphylococcus aureus atcc6538 as revealing microorganism. bacteria which produce substances that inhibited s. aureus growth were identified through morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. out of 290 bacteria, 54 (18.6%) inhibited the growth of s. aureus, but only 27 survived for identification. bival ...200112189804
an expression release system for heterogeneous proteins in e.coli mediated by the kil gene.an expression release system for heterogeneous proteins in escherichia coli mediated by the colicin release gene(kil gene) was constructed. the system is based on the ability of the kil protein to release periplasmic proteins into the growth medium. beta-lactamase, an e.coli periplasmic protein, and prolyl endopeptidase (pep), a periplasmic protein of aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata were used as report proteins. commonly, these two proteins are seldom released into the growth medium. the resu ...200112040395
parasitic and bacterial contamination in collards using effluent from treated domestic wastewater in chiang mai, thailand.thailand often has inadequate water supply for agriculture during the dry season. the reuse of treated wastewater treatment plants could solve this problem. treatment of domestic wastewater of chiang mai municipality by the aerated lagoon system (al) releases more than 25,000 m3 of treated water everyday. the reuse of wastewater in agriculture is an efficient use of water, especially in tropical countries or in drought zones. the objective of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using ...200112041598
correlation of the suicide phenomenon in aeromonas species with virulence and enteropathogenicity.certain strains of mesophilic aeromonads like a. hydrophila, a. veronii biotype sobria and a. caviae when grown in broth containing 0.5% glucose, undergo growth inhibition concomitant with acetate accumulation. as these strains become nonviable after 24 h, this phenomenon is termed suicide. we investigated suicidal strains of aeromonas species as means of understanding animal virulence and enteropathogenicity. non suicidal strains of a. hydrophila showed and overall 88.8% lethality rate and non ...200112035354
role of bacteria in the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) of fishes.bacteriological examination of certain water bodies and fishes carrying eus was carried out. as a whole, 17 species of bacteria were isolated from the investigated water bodies and eus affected fishes. the species of bacteria isolated from fishes are common to those isolated from water. experimental infection trials conducted suggested that aeromonas hydrophila in association with pseudomonas fluorescens, may be playing the role of primary aetiological agent in producing eus in fishes.200112017259
differences in the microflora of scarified and unscarified seeds of karwinskia humboldtiana (rhamnaceae).seeds of karwinskia humboldtiana obtained from a 1997 collection in the locality of villa de gracía nuevo (león, mexico) were contaminated with spores of filamentous fungi, bacteria and yeasts. the concentration of microorganisms in unscarified seeds ranged from 3.0 x 10(3) to 7.5 x 10(3) cfu/g. predominant were bacterial isolates of the genera aeromonas sp., bacillus, and pseudomonas; from filamentous fungi were identified alternaria, aspergillus niger, cladosporium sp., fusarium sp., mucor sp. ...200111898346
microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating wastewater from a gelatin industry.the microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, used for treating wastewater from the gelatin industry, were studied by microbiological methods and phase-contrast and electron microscopy. microscopy examination of the sludge showed a complex mixture of various rod-shaped and coccoid bacterial pluslong filaments and verymobile curved rods. in addition free-living anaerobic ciliates and flagellates were also observed. the trophic group population observed in decreasing ord ...200111873883
direct detection of diarrheagenic aeromonas from faeces by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting aerolysin toxin gene.detection of diarrheagenic aeromonas specific aerolysin toxin (aer) gene by pcr based assay and isolation, identification of diarrhea causing aeromonas from faeces by culture methods were carried out in the division of active surveillance, national institute of cholera and enteric diseases (niced), kolkata, india for a period of 12 months. out of 602 faecal samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea admitted in infectious diseases (id) hospital, kolkata, 68 (11.29%) samples were found t ...200112004918
surface characters and extracellular toxins involved in the pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila.a small number of serotypically distinct strains of a. hydrophila obtained from diseased freshwater fish were examined for their pathogenic properties comprising of cell surface characteristics and extracellular toxins. test strains exhibited homogeneity in their cell surface characteristics despite being serologically heterogeneous. studies on extracellular biological activities revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in production of toxins, probably explaining their antigenic divers ...200111883514
isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing cr-tolerant facultative anaerobes from tannery effluent.several facultative anaerobes tolerant to high levels of chromate (>400 mg/ml) were isolated from tannery effluents. these isolates displayed varying degrees of cr(vi) reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at room temperature (24+/-2 degrees c). interestingly, eight isolates were efficient in reducing 70% cr(vi) anaerobically. this includes 5 isolates of genus aerococcus, two isolates of micrococcus and single isolate of genus aeromonas. these isolates were subjected to further charac ...200112483605
childhood gastroenteritis due to aeromonas hydrophila in ibadan, nigeria.this is a prospective study spanning a period of six months where stools of 400 diarrhoeic children and 100 non-diarrhoeic children aged 0-5 years were screened for aeromonas hydrophila and other enteric pathogens. out of the 400 diarrhoeic stools only three (0.75%) were positive for aeromonas hydrophila while none was positive in the control group. no other enteric pathogen was isolated from these positive samples, indicating that aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for their diarrhoea. continu ...200114510117
isolation and identification of aeromonas from patients with acute diarrhoea in kolkata, india.isolation of diarrhoea causing aeromonas was carried out in the division of active surveillance, national institute of cholera and enteric diseases (niced), kolkata for a period of 12 months from january 1999 to december 1999. out of 602 stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhoea admitted in infectious diseases (id) hospital, kolkata, 64 (10.6%) samples were identified positive for aeromonas as the pathogen. the different isolated and identified species from patients with acute d ...200117664830
expression of a gene encoding chitinase (pca 8 orf) from aeromonas sp. no. 10s-24 in escherichia coli and enzyme characterization.a gene encoding chitinase from aeromonas sp. no. 10s-24 was expressed using ptrc99a in escherichia coli jm 105 which yielded a 5-fold higher activity than when puc19 was used. three different truncated enzymes (sa-1, sa-2 and sa-3) were obtained after purification. their isoelectric points were 7.0, 6.9, and 6.7, respectively. the enzymes showed two optimum phs, 4.0 and 7.0, when incubated with ethylene glycol chitin as the substrate, and were stable over a wide ph range (3.0-9.0). the optimum t ...200116233047
cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of the beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase gene from aeromonas sp. no. 10s-24.the beta-glcnacase gene of aeromonas sp. no. 10s-24 was cloned and sequenced. the gene consisted of 2505 bp encoding 835 amino acid residues. the amino acid sequence of the gene shares sequence homology with beta-glcnacases of vibrio vulnificus (37.4%), serratia marcescens (36.4%), v. harveyi (36.4%), v. parahemolyticus (33.5%), alteromonas sp. strain o-7 (27.0%), and candida albicans (28.6%). the beta-glcnacase gene of aeromonas sp. no. 10s-24 was about 630-fold overexpressed in escherichia col ...200016232720
isolation and characterization of aeromonas sp. b-5 capable of decolorizing various dyes.aeromonas sp. b-5, which has the ability to decolorize azo dyes, was isolated from soil. aeromonas sp. b-5 completely decolorized 100 mg/l of bordeaux s by reductive cleavage of azo bonds under static conditions in 24 h. though the decolorization of bordeaux s by aeromonas sp. b-5 was suppressed under shaking, rapid decolorization was observed when the culture was changed to static conditions after cultivation with shaking. the indigoid dye, acid blue 74, was decolorized by aeromonas sp. b-5 und ...200016232913
[production, partial purification and characterization of methamidophos-degrading enzyme from methylotroph wb-1].after cultivation for 20 h in the inorganic salt medium with methamidophos as sole carbon and nitrogen source, methylotroph wb-1 could produce methamidophos-degrading enzyme in larger amounts. the enzyme was partially purified by sonication disruption, tween-20 extraction, heat treatment(9 min at 60 degrees c), deae-cellulose 32 and cm-cellulose32 chromatography with 22.8 times purification and 78.8% recovery. activity staining showed single violate band corresponding to that of protein staining ...200012548765
[purification and identification of siderophore from aeromonas hydrophila].siderophore of aeromonas hydrophila(ah) j-1 was purified from culture supernatant by polyamide column chromatography, eluted by double-distilled water, ethyl acetate precipitated, lyophilized, then the white powder was collected, and demonstrated by cas and arnow assay. the siderophore was phenolate, composed of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-dhb), lysine, glycine and tryptophan by hplc. being cultured iniron-deficient medium, the purified siderophore could stimulated the growth of ah n9a which ...200012548885
[gene cloning and expression of prolyl endopeptidase from aeromonas punctata].prolyl endopeptidase gene was cloned from aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata(st-78-3-3) using activity screening method and the 3.3 kb dna fragment containing pep gene was sequenced. dna sequence from 20-2092 bp was orf region coding 690 amino acids of prolyl endopeptidase. it was a new pep gene through gene search. the genetic engineered e. coli bl21/pgem-pep overexpressing recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase(appep) was constructed. cultured in yh medium, the expressed appep was ...200012548992
[diagnosis of pnh by detecting the resistance of rbcs to the hemolytic effect of hec toxin secreted by aeromonus hydrophila].to study the feasibility of diagnosing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) with hec toxin (secreted by aeromonus hydrophila) test.200011877028
high-efficiency expression of prolyl endopeptidase from aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata in escherichia coli.the open reading frame (orf) of prolyl endopeptidase gene from aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata (appep) was amplified by pcr in three parts. the amplified dna segments were ligated to form the complete appep gene, and then cloned into expression vectors pbl (temperature inducible) and pkkh (iptg inducible), respectively. after induction, the expression amounts of recombinant appep in bl21/pkkh-pep and bl21/pbl-pep were about 30% of the total bacterial proteins, and the enzyme activities were 1 ...200012098799
extended method for discrimination of aeromonas spp. by 16s rdna rflp analysis.a previously described molecular method, based on 16s rdna rflp analysis, for the identification of aeromonas spp. was unable to separate the species aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas bestiarum and the recently described aeromonas popoffii. in this study, the method has been extended with endonucleases aiwni and psti for the identification of these species. a molecular frame for the identification of all known aeromonas spp. is presented.200011155981
[isolation of listeria spp., aeromonas spp., and vibrio spp. from seafood products].forty-one strains of listeria, aeromonas and vibrio have been isolated in 71 samples of seafood, both raw and ready to eat and frozen. l. monocytogenes, detected by pcr also, is found in the smoked salmon only. aeromonas spp. and vibrio spp. are isolated in the raw products (shrimps and shellfish). no relationship is found between the presence of such microrganisms and the common indicator bacteria. finally, the health hazard related to strong contamination and the need to diversify the food saf ...200011140096
aeromonas hydrophila and its relation with drinking water indicators of microbiological quality in argentine.in argentine, water municipal supplies disinfection is carried out by chlorine. we have isolated aeromonas hydrophila from a chlorinated water supply in buenos aires that fulfilled argentinean microbiological quality standards. it is an aquatic organism that could produce cytotoxins and enterotoxins associated with acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in human and hemorrhagic septicaemia of fish, reptiles and amphibians. the isolated strain produced protein bands at isoelectric point in th ...200011145418
uptake and processing of biofilm and free-cell vaccines of aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carps and common carp following oral vaccination--antigen localization by a monoclonal antibody.uptake and processing of biofilm (bf) and free-cell (fc) vaccines of aeromonas hydrophila were studied in the indian major carps catla catla catla, and rohu labeo rohita and in the common carp cyprinus carpio following a single dose oral vaccination of 10(11) cfu g(-1) fish. fish were sampled at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h and at 2, 3, 5 and 10 d following vaccination and antigen localization was studied in the gut, kidney and spleen employing monoclonal antibody based immunofluorescence and immunope ...200011145450
toxicity of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite to bacterial pathogens of fish.the inhibitory effect of the nitric oxide (no) donor s-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (snap) and the no and o2- donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (sin-1) was tested in a cell-free assay. strains of the bacterial fish pathogens aeromonas salmonicida, renibacterium salmoninarum and yersinia ruckeri were exposed to different concentrations of the no donors for 24 h. the results showed that no possesses inhibitory properties, while peroxynitrite had no effect. however, when sin-1 was used i ...200011145451
aerobic intestinal flora of wild-caught african dwarf crocodiles osteolaemus tetraspis.intestinal contents were collected from wild-caught african dwarf crocodiles (osteolaemus tetraspis) in 1993 and 1995 which were slaughtered at urban markets in the congo republic. the samples were kept frozen and brought back to onderstepoort for aerobic culture. out of 29 specimens, 33 species of bacteria and 20 species of fungi were isolated. the bacteria included three isolates of salmonella and eight isolates of escherichia coli, most of the latter being rough strains. the flora of individu ...200011131121
bacteria associated with processed crawfish and potential toxin production by clostridium botulinum type e in vacuum-packaged and aerobically packaged crawfish tails.refrigerated vacuum-packaged storage has been shown to increase significantly the shelf life of fresh fish and seafood products, but the effect, if any, on the outgrowth and toxin production of clostridium botulinum type e on cooked crawfish is unknown. microflora associated with live crawfish reflect the microbial populations of the harvest water and sediments in which they are living. the presence or absence of specific pathogens in either vacuum-packaged or air-permeable bags of cooked crawfi ...200011131892
prevalence and molecular characterization of aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods in italy.a survey was carried out in italy to ascertain the prevalence of aeromonas spp. in ready-to-eat foods (vegetables, cheeses, meat products, and ice creams) and the level of molecular heterogeneity of the isolates found by macrorestriction analysis of genomic dna with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). in total, 46 (14.4%) of the 320 food samples examined were found positive for aeromonas spp. the highest percentages of isolation were discovered in vegetables, particularly lettuce (45.0%), e ...200011131903
infections in e-beta thalassemia.infection is a major complication and the leading cause of death in thalassemia, especially e-beta thalassemia. the spectrum of infections in e-beta thalassemia include mild and severe infections, therapy-related infections such as yersinia enterocolitica infection associated with desferrioxamine (dfo) therapy, and transfusion-transmitted disease, as well as unique infections such as with pythiosis. prospective studies in thailand indicate that patients with e-beta thalassemia had more frequent ...200011132234
norepinephrine as a growth stimulating factor in bacteria--mechanistic studies.catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine) enhance the growth of several species of gram-negative bacteria. since catechol rings are known siderophores in bacteria, the administration of catecholamines may enhance growth by improving iron uptake in growth-limiting media, serving as auxiliary siderophores. we have tested the iron content in bacterial growth media which are known to support rapid growth and "slow growth" media. additionally, we have examined the uptake of 3h-norepineph ...200011125844
vaccination influences growth of arctic charr.there is limited knowledge about the effects of oil-based vaccines on the growth of arctic charr salvelinus alpinus, in particular at different rearing temperatures. one-year-old arctic charr were immunized intraperitoneally at 2.9 degrees c with a metabolizable oil-adjuvanted, bivalent vaccine containing killed typical and atypical aeromonas salmonicida bacteria. after vaccination the non-vaccinated (controls) and vaccinated individually marked fish were held for 20 d at 10.0 degrees c and then ...200011129384
topically acquired bacterial zoonoses from fish: a review.the main pathogens acquired topically from fish (through spine puncture or open wounds) are aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda, erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, mycobacterium marinum, streptococcus iniae, vibrio vulnificus and vibrio damsela. s. iniae has recently emerged as a public health hazard associated with aquaculture, and m. marinum often infects home aquarium hobbyists. with the expansion of aquaculture and popularity of recreational fishing in australia, medical practitioners can ex ...200011130351
enhanced attachment of bradyrhizobium japonicum to soybean through reduced root colonization of internally seedborne microorganisms.internally seedborne microorganisms are those surviving common surface sterilization procedures. such microbes often colonize the radicle surface of a germinating soybean (glycine max) seed, introducing an undefined parameter into studies on attachment and infection by bradyrhizobium japonicum. bacterial isolates from surface-sterilized soybean seed, cv. williams 82 and cv. maverick, used in our studies, were identified as agrobacterium radiobacter, aeromonas sp., bacillus spp., chryseomonas lut ...200010932352
host cell invasion and intracellular residence by aeromonas salmonicida: role of the s-layer.virulent strains of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida, which have surface s-layers (s+), efficiently adhere to, enter, and survive within macrophages. here we report that s+ bacteria were 10- to 20-fold more adherent to non-phagocytic fish cell lines than s-layer-negative (s-) mutants. when reconstituted with exogenous s-layers, these s- mutants regained adherence. as well, latex beads coated with purified s-layers were more adherent to fish cell lines than uncoated beads, or beads coated ...200010932360
co-culture of aeromonas salmonicida and host cells in intraperitoneal implants is associated with enhanced bacterial survival.an experimental procedure that we named "in vivo co-culture technology" allowed us to study the interactions between aeromonas salmonicida and host cells, inside semipermeable chambers implanted in the peritoneal cavity of atlantic salmon. intraperitoneal implants containing bacteria and host cells, or bacteria and lysed cells, consistently yielded higher numbers of viable bacteria than implants containing bacteria only. electron microscopy confirmed that 30 min after chamber inoculation, numero ...200010932362
pulsed-field gel electrophoriesis analyis of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.a total of 133 strains of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida, isolated from a wide variety of sources, were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. sixteen profiles were demonstrated, with one profile being predominant in samples from all the countries and species of fish. our results suggest a clonal distribution of this subspecies, with a predominant clone being responsible for most of the outbreaks worldwide.200010981708
reduction of endogenous bacteria associated with catfish fillets using the grovac process.fresh catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets are known to be contaminated with a large number of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. the grovac method, a new patented (u.s. 5,543,163) process, was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the number of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms associated with food. this process involves using a processing solution containing ascorbic acid (aa) and sodium chloride (nacl), vacuum, and tumbling. a total of 51 bacterial isolates were isolated and identified f ...200010983798
microbial evaluation of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in university restaurants.the focus of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples including pork loin, chicken croquettes, long pork sausage, chicken breast, and meatballs from university restaurants. microbiological analyses of spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples resulted in aerobic plate counts from <1.00 to 2.90 and from <1.00 to 6.04 log10 cfu g(-1), respectively. total coliforms ranged from <3 to 43 most probable number (mpn) g(-1) and from <3 to > ...200010983805
microbial iron transport via a siderophore shuttle: a membrane ion transport paradigm.a mechanism of ion transport across membranes is reported. microbial transport of fe(3+) generally delivers iron, a growth-limiting nutrient, to cells via highly specific siderophore-mediated transport systems. in contrast, iron transport in the fresh water bacterium aeromonas hydrophila is found to occur by means of an indiscriminant siderophore transport system composed of a single multifunctional receptor. it is shown that (i) the siderophore and fe(3+) enter the bacterium together, (ii) a li ...200010995480
role and behaviour of the hydrophobic conditions in bacterial adhesion to incurrent siphon in a bivalve mollusc.surface hydrophobicity is a widely distributed characteristic among human bacterial pathogens playing an important role in microbes retention by the incurrent siphon of a marine bivalve. feeding retention experiments with the bivalve mesodesma donacium was done with hydrophobic strains alone (staphylococcus aureus, salmonella paratyphi, vibrio cholerae) or with mixed cultures using a hydrophilic strain (aeromonas hydrophila). results showed that hydrophobic bacteria are retained in greater numbe ...200010997493
epidemiological relationships between aeromonas strains isolated from symptomatic children and household environments as determined by ribotyping.ribotyping was used to study the epidemiology of aeromonas associated gastro-enteritis in young children. ribotyping patterns of 29 aeromonas strains (16 aeromonas caviae, 8 aeromonas hydrophila, 3 aeromonas eucrenophila, 1 aeromonas veronii, and 1 aeromonas encheleia) isolated from primary stool cultures of sick children were compared using the gelcompare software with patterns of 104 strains (39 aeromonas eucrenophila, 29 aeromonas caviae, 11 aeromonas encheleia, 10 aeromonas hydrophila, 6 aer ...200010997832
atypical chryseobacterium meningosepticum and meningitis and sepsis in newborns and the immunocompromised, taiwan.from 1996 to 1999, 17 culture-documented systemic infections due to novel, atypical strains of chryseobacterium meningosepticum occurred in two newborns and 15 immunocompromised patients in a medical center in taiwan. all clinical isolates, which were initially misidentified as aeromonas salmonicida by an automated bacterial identification system, were resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents. the isolates were characterized as atypical strains of c. meningosepticum by complete biochemical ...200010998378
aeromonas hydrophila infection secondary to an electrical burn. 200011008599
selective enrichment broth for the isolation of aeromonas sp. from chicken meat.six selective agents (ampicillin, novobiocin, cephalothin, bile salts, brilliant green and ethanol) were tested during the development of a selective enrichment broth for the isolation of aeromonas sp. from food. cephalothin at 10 mg/l was found to be the best selective agent owing to its greater selectivity and efficiency in recovering stressed and lower cell concentrations of aeromonas sp. higher concentrations (15-25 mg/l) of cephalothin were inhibitory to some strains of a. sobria. cephaloth ...200011014523
aeromonas hydrophila isolated from wild freshwater fish in croatia.aeromonas hydrophila was recovered from fish living in lake vrana on the croatian island of cres. the occurrence of the bacterium in the fish was assessed and related to gross signs of disease and findings at necropsy as a potential health hazard for fish. isolated bacteria were subjected to morphological, physiological, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests. a total of 26 a. hydrophila isolates were obtained. there was a clear seasonality, as no isolates were recovered in the summer m ...200011014606
production of heat-labile enterotoxin by strains of aeromonas veronii bv veronii.three isolates of aeromonas veronii bv veronii (2 environmental, one blood infection) were examined to see if they produce any enterotoxin and, if so, to determine its characteristics. two isolates caused fluid accumulation in the initial rabbit ileal loop tests. the other strain did so after a single passage through the rabbit ileal loop. all the isolates showed gradual enhancement of fluid secretion after each subsequent passage. inocula of 1 x 10(4) viable cells and 0.25 ml of culture filtrat ...200011014770
prevalence of enterotoxin genes in aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea, healthy controls, and the environment.aeromonads are causative agents of a number of human infections. even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear. in spite of a number of virulence factors produced by aeromonas species, their association with diarrhea has not been clearly linked. recently, we have characterized a heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), a heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and a cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) from a diarrhe ...200011015403
isolation and characterisation of a serum lectin from blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus (pallus).a novel lectin, designated bgl, has been purified from the serum of blue gourami, trichogaster trichopterus, with the use of (nh4)2so4 fractionation, affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. electrophoretic analyses and mass spectrometric study of purified bgl showed that the lectin is composed of two isoforms with native molecular masses estimated to be 65 and 66 kda, and two subunits of 32 and 34 kda on sds-page under non-reducing conditions. upon reduction with 20 mm dithiot ...200011016584
microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of coffea arabica in brazil.the magnitude and diversity of the microbial population associated with dry (natural) processing of coffee (coffea arabica) has been assessed during a 2-year period on 15 different farms in the sul de minas region of brazil. peptone water-washed samples were taken of maturing cherries on trees (cherries, raisins and dried cherries) and from ground fermentations. the microbial load varied from 3 x 10(4) to 2.2 x 10(9) cfu/cherry with a median value of 1.6 x 10(7) cfu/cherry. the microbial load in ...200011016614
the expression of proteinases and haemolysins by aeromonas hydrophila under modified atmospheres.the study estimated the proteolytic activity (against hide powder azure) and haemolytic activity (against horse erythrocytes) in cell-free filtrates (cff) from four strains of aeromonas hydrophila growing under a range of commercially relevant modified atmospheres (2% o2, 78% n2, 20% co2; 10% o2, 80% n2, 10% co2; 50% n2, 50% co2; 100% co2). the examined strains exhibited significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the extent and times of onset of expression of these enzymes under aer ...200011021573
identification of genes associated with copper tolerance in an adhesion-defective mutant of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria.tnphoa mutagenesis was used to identify adhesins of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria 3767, a strain isolated from a diarrhoeal stool specimen. six mutants, from a library of 154, exhibited significantly reduced levels of adhesion to hep-2 cells. primers to the terminal regions of tnphoa were used for inverse pcr and the product from one mutant was cloned into pbluescript and partial sequence data obtained. scanning genbank and embl data bases revealed dna sequence similarity to the copa gene of p ...200011024350
[cytoplasmic protein vaccine against bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia (aeromonosis) of fish].water-soluble proteins from aeromonas sobria, a causative agent of bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia of fishes, were separated into six fractions by gel chromatography on sephadex g-100. injections of fraction ii (67 kda) provided the highest protection of carps against the disease. injections of proteins contained in fraction ii caused stronger effects on certain biochemical parameters in the fish liver (fatty acids of phospholipids and cathepsin b and d activities) in comparison to infections o ...200011042886
[comparative study of various biochemical parameters in pathogenic and nonpathogenic aeromonas strains].we studied certain biochemical properties of virulent and avirulent strains of mobile aeromonads. the pathogenic strain featured a higher proportion of odd fatty acids in the lipids, increased protease activity, and a high concentration of 55 kda protein. we propose that these compounds be used as pathogenic markers of these microorganisms.200011042957
use of a chia probe for detection of chitinase genes in bacteria from the chesapeake bay(1).pcr primers specific for the chia gene were designed by alignment and selection of highly conserved regions of chia sequences from serratia marcescens, alteromonas sp., bacillus circulans and aeromonas caviae. these primers were used to amplify a 225 bp fragment of the chia gene from vibrio harveyi to produce a chia gene probe. the chia pcr primers and probe were used to detect the presence of the chia gene in an assemblage of 53 reference strains and gave consistent results. selected chia fragm ...200011053737
production and secretion of collagen-binding proteins from aeromonas veronii.collagen-binding protein (cnbp) synthesized by aeromonas veronii is located conserved within the subcellular fraction. the results of this study show that 98% of the total cnbp produced by aer. veronii is present in the extracellular medium, and that the remaining cnbp is distributed either on the cell surface, within the periplasm or anchored on the outer membrane. cnbp is specifically secreted from aer. veronii into the culture medium, because all the beta-lactamase activity was located in the ...200011054164
ingested blood contributes to the specificity of the symbiosis of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech.hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, usually carries in its digestive tract a pure culture of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria. such specificity is unusual for digestive tracts that are normally colonized by a complex microbial consortium. important questions for the symbiotic interaction and for the medical application after microvascular surgery are whether other bacteria can proliferate or at least persist in the digestive tract of h. medicinalis and what factors contribute to the reported sp ...200011055917
occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fish-pathogenic and environmental bacteria associated with four danish rainbow trout farms.surveillance of bacterial susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents was performed during a 1-year period in and around four freshwater fish farms situated along a stream in western denmark. besides assessing the levels of antibiotic resistance among the culturable fraction of microorganisms in fish, water, and sediment samples, two major fish pathogens (88 flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates and 134 yersinia ruckeri isolates) and 313 motile aeromonas isolates, representing a group of ubiquit ...200011055942
[purification and characterization of recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase].the study of down-stream techniques of recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase (appep) was presented here. high cell-density fermentation of e. coli bl21/pkkh-pep in nbs bioflo 3000 5 l fermentor was achieved, the final cell density was 22.5 g (dcw)/l after 14 h cultivation, the yield of appep expressed in soluble protein was 3.0 g per litter broth. after sonication, the supernatant of free cell extract was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, high performance q sepharose ff, ...200011059278
beta-lactamase epidemiology and the utility of established and novel beta-lactamase inhibitors.beta-lactamase inhibitor:beta-lactam combinations remain one of the most successful strategies for the treatment of bacterial infections. over the last 20 years the number and diversity of serine and metallo active site beta-lactamases has increased dramatically. this review highlights some of the new additions to the beta-lactamase arena and discusses how the commercially available beta-lactamase inhibitors are keeping pace with the changing epidemiology of beta-lactamases. in addition, we surv ...200011060675
virulence profiles and other biological characters in water isolated aeromonas hydrophila.thirty water isolates of a. hydrophila were tested for potential virulence profiles, antibiotic resistance and bacteriocin-like substances (bls) production. cytotoxic activity was present in all strains tested, 87% were hemolytic and 70% adhesive. lysine decarboxylase reactions (ldc) positivity was correlated with virulence factors: 100% versus cytotoxicity, 84% versus adherence, 76% versus hemolytic activity. the correlation was also present in the ldc-negative strains. hemolytic and cytotoxic ...200011061623
effect of sodium chloride and citric acid on growth and toxin production by a. caviae and a. sobria at moderate and low temperatures.the effect of sodium chloride and citric acid on hemolysin and caseinase production by aeromonas caviae and aeromonas sobria at 32 degrees c and 5 degrees c was investigated. at 32 degrees c, although both strains were tolerant to 3% nacl in tsb, the production of caseinase was decreased in the presence of 1-3% nacl, and the production of hemolysin was abolished by 2-3% nacl. citric acid (0.03%) was less effective than nacl in reducing hemolysin and caseinase production by both strains at 32 deg ...200011061632
aeromonas hydrophila amph and ceph beta-lactamases: derepressed expression in mutants of escherichia coli lacking creb.the class 1 cephalosporinase (ceph) and class 2d oxacillinase (amph) from an aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolate, strain t429125, have been cloned and sequenced. both enzymes are typical of their equivalents in other species of aeromonas both cloned beta-lactamase genes were expressed at a low level in a standard laboratory escherichia coli strain, but when cloned into a cre deletion e. coli mutant, they were expressed at significantly higher levels. specific disruption of the creb gene result ...200011062187
incidence and identification of mesophilic aeromonas spp. from retail foods.sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from <10(2) cfu g(-1) to >10(5) cfu g(-1). glc analysis of fames was used to identify a selection of presumptive aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. aeromon ...200011069637
the a-layer influences the susceptibility of aeromonas salmonicida to antibacterial peptides. 200011081441
cytotoxicity assessment of chlorinated bacteria in water using the rna synthesis inhibition method.chlorination of drinking water containing organic materials is known to generate toxic by-products. we suggested that such compounds may also be produced by interactions between chlorine and bacteria present in water. to confirm this hypothesis, a method based on rna synthesis inhibition of hela s3 human cells in the presence of toxic compounds was applied. this method is rapid and highly sensitive since the concentration of the samples is not required. furthermore, it was shown to be a suitable ...200011090960
production of serine protease of aeromonas sobria is controlled by the protein encoded by the gene lying adjacent to the 3' end of the protease gene.we cloned a protease gene of aeromonas sobria and determined its nucleotide sequence. the protease is composed of 624 amino acid residues and its calculated molecular weight is 66,737.7. the amino acid sequence showed the characteristic features of a bacterial serine protease. we expressed the protease gene in vibrio parahaemolyticus from which the synthesized protease is secreted into the culture medium as the mature form, and purified the mature protease by successive column chromatographies. ...200011092244
re: aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches. 200011092375
functional tn5393-like transposon in the r plasmid pras2 from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida isolated in norway.tn5393c containing stra-strb was identified as part of r plasmid pras2 from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. this is the first time an intact and active transposon in the tn5393 family has been reported in an ecological niche other than an agricultural habitat.200011097945
in vitro activity of gemifloxacin (sb-265805) compared with 14 other antimicrobials against intestinal pathogens.we studied the in vitro activity of gemifloxacin (sb-265805) and 14 comparator antimicrobials against 288 recent isolates of enteropathogenic bacteria (106 salmonella: spp., 32 hafnia alvei, 22 yersinia enterocolitica, 21 shigella: spp., 16 aeromonas: spp. and 91 campylobacter jejuni). gemifloxacin, the other fluoroquinolones and cefotaxime were very active against all microorganisms tested except for c. jejuni. seventy-seven per cent of isolates of c. jejuni were inhibited by erythromycin < or ...200011102426
surface dynamics of aerolysin on the plasma membrane of living cells.aerolysin secreted by the human pathogen aeromonas hydrophila belongs to a group of bacterial toxins that are hemolytic and form channels in biological membranes. the toxin is secreted as an inactive precursor proaerolysin that must be proteolytically processed at its c-terminus to become active. the toxin then polymerizes into a heptameric ring that is amphipathic and can insert into a lipid bilayer and form a pore. we have examined these various steps at the surface of target cells. the toxin ...200011111912
responses of giant freshwater prawn (macrobrachium rosenbergii) to challenge by two strains of aeromonas spp.the virulence of two aeromonas strains (a. veronii and a. caviae) isolated from the hepatopancreas of apparently healthy giant freshwater prawns (macrobrachium rosenbergii) was compared using a challenge by injections. for the a. veronii strain, challenge with 3.7 x 10(5) cells/g of body weight led to 100% mortality; for the a. caviae strain, 3.8 x 10(6) cells/g produced 100% mortality. the 50% lethal doses (ld50) were 2.0 x 10(3) cells/g for a. veronii and 51.2 x 10(3) cells/g for a. caviae. us ...200011112373
a putative heat-labile enterotoxin expressed by strains of aeromonas media.fifteen isolates of aeromonas media (seven from diarrhoeal stools, four from water and four from superficial skin ulcers of catfish) were examined for enterotoxin production. ten of these isolates (six diarrhoeal, one from water and three from fish) caused accumulation of fluid in the initial rabbit ileal loop (ril) tests. isolates from diarrhoeal stools and fish caused relatively more fluid accumulation than those from water. those strains that caused little or no fluid accumulation in the init ...200010933251
antimicrobial resistance of mesophilic aeromonas spp. isolated from two european rivers.the activity of 19 antibiotics and four antiseptics and/or disinfectants was studied against 138 non-redundant strains of aeromonas spp. (104 aeromonas caviae, 22 aeromonas sobria and 12 aeromonas hydrophila) isolated from two european rivers. antibiotic resistance frequencies were: nalidixic acid, 59%; tetracycline, 14%; fosfomycin, 8%; tobramycin and cotrimoxazole, 7%; cefotaxime, 4%; chloramphenicol, 2%; gentamicin, 1%. most of the nalidixic acid-resistant strains were susceptible to fluoroqu ...200010933657
[liver abscess accompanied by ttp and liddle's syndrome-like symptoms]. 200010934773
bath exposure of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.) yolk sac larvae to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps): absorption and distribution of the lps and effect on fish survival.radiolabelled bacterial lipopolysaccharide (3h-lps) obtained from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was added to the petri dishes containing yolk sac larvae of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.). the larvae were exposed either to 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 micrograms 3h-lps ml-1. the uptake was both dependent on the lps concentration and the time of exposure. after 5 days of exposure, each larva contained 1.8-7.4 ng 3h-lps dependent on the initial concentration. after 10 days ...200010938728
suppression of the humoral immune response of atlantic salmon, salmo salar l. by the 64 kda serine protease of aeromonas salmonicida.bacteria-free supernatants of broth cultures of aeromonas salmonicida inhibited the humoral immune response, but not the cell-mediated immune response, of atlantic salmon to bacteriophage ms2. the immunosuppressive factor was the 64 kda serine protease secreted by a. salmonicida. the suppressive activity was not due to degradation of epitopes of ms2, and although serine protease degraded the heavy chain of salmon igm in vitro there was no evidence for significant degradation in vivo. the princip ...200010938745
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