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cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of a cytolytic enterotoxin gene from aeromonas hydrophila.the structural gene and regulatory element for a cytolytic enterotoxin of a diarrheal isolate, ssu, of aeromonas hydrophila was cloned and its dna sequence was determined. a complementary, mixed synthetic oligonucleotide based on the first 10 nh2-terminal amino acid residues of the aeromonas cytolytic enterotoxin was used as a probe to screen a genomic library constructed in bacteriophage embl3. cell lysates of escherichia coli (lambda ch4), containing the cytolytic enterotoxin gene, lysed rabbi ...19938330262
[acute gastroenteritis from aeromonas sobria and pancreatitis: apropos of a case]. 19938332027
the antimicrobial activity and beta-lactamase stability of cefpirome, a new fourth-generation cephalosporin in comparison with other agents.the antimicrobial activity of cefpirome was compared with amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin and amikacin against 743 non-duplicate clinical isolates. mic50 and mic90 showed that the antibiotic was active against both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. cefpirome was highly active against most of the enterobacteriaceae, including indole-positive proteus spp., aeromonas spp. (mic < or = 1 mg/l) and salmonella spp. (mic < or = 0.5 mg/l). n ...19938335498
the effect of iron limitation on the growth of aeromonas salmonicida.the effects of the iron-chelating agents ethylenediamine dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (edda), 2,2'-dipyridyl (dipy) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8hq) on the growth of aeromonas salmonicida were examined. in these studies, edda caused a small decrease in growth, whereas dipy and 8hq reduced cell growth by 50 and 90%, respectively. the extracellular products contained a greater proportion of the major protease (70 kd) when cells were grown in the presence of the chelating agents. analysis of the outer me ...19938336555
[nosocomial aeromonas hydrophila pneumonia complicating toxic coma].a 24-year-old male homosexual drug addict was admitted in coma and circulatory failure after a 10 g overdose of acebutolol. the usual resuscitative measures were undertaken, together with administration of adrenaline and gastric lavage. six hours of external cardiac massage and pacing, and high catecholamine doses (36 mg.h-1 of adrenaline and 60 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1 of dobutamine) were required before the circulatory system became again spontaneously efficient. after this acute episode, the p ...19938338270
characterisation of strains of aeromonas spp. by phenotype and whole-cell protein fingerprint.sixty-eight isolates of aeromonas spp. were examined biochemically and their cell proteins were analysed by silver-stained sds-page. protein fingerprints did not correlate with phenotype. however, consideration of both phenotype and fingerprint showed clustering of epidemiologically related isolates. there was also evidence that similar strains could be found in infected people and water or other environmental samples.19938345505
use of tellurite for the selection of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157.potassium tellurite was assessed for the selection of verocytotoxigenic (vt+) escherichia coli o157. mics were higher for vt+ e. coli o157 than for other strains of e. coli and for aeromonas spp. macconkey medium containing sorbitol, tellurite and cefixime (tc-smac) permitted the growth of vt+ e. coli o157 and shigella sonnei but partially or completely inhibited the growth of 67% of other strains of e. coli and all or most strains of other sorbitol-non-fermenting species tested. of 391 rectal s ...19938345511
metallo-beta-lactamases--a new therapeutic challenge. 19938345513
heat and acid sensitivity of motile aeromonas: a comparison with other food-poisoning bacteria.the present study was undertaken to compare the heat and acid sensitivity of aeromonads with those of other food-poisoning bacteria. it became obvious that aeromonads were more sensitive to heat than escherichia coli o157:h7, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella typhimurium. aeromonads were killed in peptone water within 2 min at 55 degrees c, while the other bacteria survived heating at 55 degrees c for more than 15 min. aeromonas cells were also less resistant to heat in hamburger steaks. the ...19938347426
presence of listeria monocytogenes, motile aeromonads and yersinia enterocolitica in environmental samples taken from a supermarket delicatessen.environmental swab samples collected on three occasions from a supermarket delicatessen were examined for the presence of listeria monocytogenes, motile aeromonads and yersinia enterocolitica. strains of y. enterocolitica belonging to a pathogenic biotype were not recovered, but isolates of l. monocytogenes and motile aeromonads were found. contaminated surfaces and items that came into direct contact with ready-to-eat food included a slicing machine, a knife and parsley that was to be used as a ...19938347431
occurrence of aeromonas spp. in samples of ground meat and chicken.aeromonas spp. was commonly isolated from ground meat and chicken samples at the retail level. the dominant species in ground meat were a. hydrophila and a. caviae. in chicken, a. sobria was common while a. caviae was isolated infrequently. although a. hydrophila was isolated from 75% of ground meat samples and 62% of chicken samples, dl-lactate-positive a. hydrophila (genospecies 1) was isolated from only 25 or 37% or respective samples. sorbitol-positive a. hydrophila (genospecies 3) was commo ...19938347432
evidence from aeromonas for genetic crossing-over in ribosomal sequences. 19938347521
inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.the antibacterial effects of 209 pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. one-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (escherichia coli, shewanella putrefaciens, aeromonas sobria, pseudomonas fluorescens, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus), of which s. aureus and a. sobria were the most sensitive. the inhibitory action was most pronounce ...19938357253
host range and transfer efficiency of incompatibility group hi plasmids.hi plasmids are distinguished by their thermosensitive mode of conjugation (transfer efficiency is optimal at 22-30 degrees c) and their capacity to encode multiple antibiotic resistance. these traits have implicated hi plasmids as potential vectors in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and indigenous bacterial species in water and soil environments. we compared the transfer efficiency of hi plasmids with that of plasmids from 13 other incompatibility groups at 37, 24, a ...19938358670
aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.the virulent fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. after a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining ...19938359906
effects of the acetylcholinesterase toxin of aeromonas hydrophila on the central nervous system of fish.the purified acetylcholinesterase (acche) toxin, crude extracellular products (ecp) or viable virulent aeromonas hydrophila were injected intraperitoneally into rainbow trout in different sublethal and lethal doses. when fish showed signs of morbidity, brain tissue was excised and assayed for acetylcholinesterase activity. in all cases there was a large increase in acche activity (about 40-fold for purified acche-toxin). this was shown to be due to an accumulation of the fish's own acche and not ...19938366818
purification, gene cloning, amino acid sequence analysis, and expression of an extracellular lipase from an aeromonas hydrophila human isolate.a structural gene which codes for an extracellular lipase (ec 3.1.1.3) in aeromonas hydrophila h3, which was isolated from a female hospitalized patient, was cloned in escherichia coli by using pbr322 as a vector. lipase purified from both a. hydrophila culture supernatant and the periplasmic fluids of e. coli containing the lip determinant in the original clone (plasmid pla2) showed an m(r) of 67,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which agrees with the m(r) determ ...19938368830
effects of nutrients on exopolysaccharide production and surface properties of aeromonas salmonicida.extracellular polysaccharide (eps) and capsular polysaccharide (cps) production by aeromonas salmonicida a450 and the influence of the capsule on cell surface properties were studied. a. salmonicida did not produce cps or eps when glucose, phosphate, magnesium chloride, or trace mineral components were absent from the medium. the addition of yeast extract improved capsule production. neither eps nor cps formation depended on the c/n ratio, although it appeared to be influenced by the level of ca ...19938368833
prolyl endopeptidase from aeromonas hydrophila: cloning, sequencing, and expression of the enzyme gene, and characterization of the expressed enzyme.a strain of aeromonas hydrophila was found to show prolyl endopeptidase activity. the enzyme gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli jm83. a 12 kbp ecori fragment containing the enzyme gene was subcloned at the hincii site of puc19 to construct plasmid papep-3 with a 3.5 kbp insert. e. coli jm83 transformed with this plasmid showed about 100-fold higher activity than the parent aeromonas. analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the insert revealed that the mature enzyme-encoding sequenc ...19938370677
[relationship between water pollution and bacterial flora in river water].to clarify the relationship between water pollution and bacterial flora in rivers, 132 samples of river water were collected at eleven stations of the chikuma-sai river system from april 1985 to march 1986, and 29 biological-physicochemical examinations for indices of water pollution were done using these samples. species and genus of bacteria in 485 isolates from bacterial flora were identified. although variations of bacterial flora were seen among sampling stations and sampling seasons, most ...19938377255
effect of lactic acid fermentation on bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms in broiler processing waste.broiler processing offal (heads, viscera, and feet) was collected on 3 separate days from a commercial processing plant. each sample was separately ground, supplemented with sucrose (6% initial concentration), inoculated with actively growing lactic acid bacteria (10(6) cfu/g of offal) from a commercial silage culture, and fermented at 37 c. replicate samples were taken for standard microbiological analysis after 0, 48, and 120 h of fermentation. in fresh offal, heterotrophic plate count, total ...19938378224
failure of the vitek automicrobic system to detect beta-lactam resistance in aeromonas species.the ability of the vitek automicrobic system (ams; vitek, inc., hazelwood, mo) and disk-diffusion method to detect beta-lactam resistance was assessed with 25 strains from four species of aeromonas. a very major error was indicated when a strain was shown to be susceptible by the ams or disk-diffusion method but resistant by the agar dilution method. the rates for very major errors for disk diffusion and the ams were 0% and 43%, respectively. the beta-lactam agents and numbers of very major erro ...19938379542
isolation of carbohydrate-reactive outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila.outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila a6 were isolated by affinity chromatography on the basis of their reactivity with trisaccharide structures analogous to the terminal trisaccharide of the h antigen of the human abo(h) blood group system and were characterized by using antisera raised against the isolate. the outer membrane extract for affinity chromatography was prepared from pressure-disrupted outer membranes by differential centrifugation, followed by solubilization of outer memb ...19938380792
isolation and purification of aeromonas sobria cytotonic enterotoxin and beta-haemolysin.aeromonas sp., grown in tryptone soya broth supplemented with yeast extract, 0.6%, ph 7.5, and incubated with agitation at 100 oscillations/min for 15 h at 37 degrees c produced optimal amounts of beta-haemolysin and cytotonic enterotoxin. more prolonged incubation resulted in the loss of enterotoxic activity and anion exchange chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of a moiety capable of breaking down the toxin. anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography resulted in a single pea ...19938384263
activation of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes by muramyl dipeptide.immunoenhancing activity of synthetic muramyl dipeptide (mdp) was investigated in relation to the activation of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes and to nonspecific protection against challenge with the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. head kidney phagocytes collected from mdp-injected fish showed significant chemotactic activity against zymosan-activated normal rainbow trout serum, and phagocytic activities against both a. salmonicida and plastic beads. the mdp-activated phagoc ...19938388812
comparative activity of the new fluoroquinolone rufloxacin (mf 934) against clinical isolates of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.the antibacterial activity of the new fluoroquinolone rufloxacin (mf 934) was evaluated against 1095 clinical isolates and compared with that of other quinolones and various commonly used antibiotics. rufloxacin was highly effective against members of the enterobacteriaceae, inhibiting 98% of the isolates at a concentration of 1 mg/l. ninety-two percent of aeromonas hydrophila and 65% acinetobacter strains tested were inhibited by 1 mg/l of rufloxacin, whereas 98% of methicillin-susceptible and ...19938394816
microbial retention of mercury from waste streams in a laboratory column containing mera gene bacteria.the microorganisms used for the mercury retention experiments were natural isolates and genetically engineered bacteria. all mercury-resistant strains contained the mera gene. column experiments with these strains were carried out by immobilizing them on different support materials. to obtain kinetic data of the reductase activity for whole cells and the crude extract, batch experiments were carried out under different conditions.19938395193
[clinical and microbiologic characteristics of 282 pediatric patients with mesophilic aeromonas isolated from feces].the aim of the study was to assess the microbiological characteristics and the clinical aspects of pediatric patients (age < 14 years) with infectious diarrhea due to one of the species included among the mesophilic aeromonas group (ams) from january 1989 to december 1991.19938399474
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the maltose-inducible porin gene of aeromonas salmonicida.the gene for the aeromonas salmonicida maltose-inducible porin (maltoporin) was cloned into phagemid ptz18r in two restriction fragments, 0.6-kb psti/kpni and 1.7-kb sphi, of genomic dna and their nucleotide sequences were determined. open reading frames of 1329 and 1335 bp translated into sequences of 443 and 445 amino acids, with a 23 or 25 amino acid signal sequence and a 420 amino acid mature protein of molecular mass 46424 da. putative ribosome binding sites, agga and gggaa, occurred 9 bp u ...19938405961
numerical taxonomy of vibrio & allied organisms.forty four strains of vibrio, pasteurella, yersinia, aeromonas, escherichia, klebsiella and enterobacter were tested for 44 characters and the overall results scored by the procedure of numerical taxonomy. the strains were clustered by the weighted pair group method with the arithmatic averaging. the v. cholerae 01 and the non-01 v. cholerae being interlinked at a very high level (86% to 97.5%) within a single cluster were considered under the same species. v.cholerae having classic, e1 tor and ...19938406642
novel antigens expressed by aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.virulent and avirulent aeromonas salmonicida strains grown inside intraperitoneal implants in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined for unique antigen expression. western blots (immunoblots), performed with immune rabbit serum raised against in vivo-grown cells, revealed several unique antigens. with the exception of lipopolysaccharide (lps), these novel antigens were destroyed after proteinase k treatment. the majority of these antigens were not induced in vitro in response to eithe ...19938406855
isolation and analysis of eight exe genes and their involvement in extracellular protein secretion and outer membrane assembly in aeromonas hydrophila.the exee gene of aeromonas hydrophila has been shown to be required for the secretion of most if not all of the extracellular proteins produced by this bacterium. in addition, an exee::tn5-751 insertion mutant of a. hydrophila was found to be deficient in the amounts of a number of its major outer membrane proteins (b. jiang and s. p. howard, j. bacteriol. 173:1241-1249, 1991). the exee gene and the exef gene were previously isolated as part of a fragment which complemented this mutant. in this ...19938407845
haemagglutinating activity, serum sensitivity and enterotoxigenicity of aeromonas spp.of 97 isolates of aeromonas spp. that were examined for haemagglutination (ha) and enterotoxigenicity, 35 were from clinical and 62 from environmental sources; 66 of them were also screened for sensitivity to normal human serum (nhs). ha was caused by 44 isolates (45%); it was unrelated to the source of the strain, but it was caused by a higher proportion of the isolates of a. hydrophila than of a. sobria or a. caviae. of the haemagglutinating strains, 82% were enterotoxigenic, whereas most of t ...19938418293
gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis: a twenty-one-year experience.we reviewed our experience with gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis in neonates and infants from 1969 through 1989. ninety-eight patients were identified. their ages were from 1 day to 2 years with a median of 10 days. in 25 patients (26%), predisposing factors were identified, the most common of which were neural tube defects and urinary tract anomalies. the causative agents were escherichia coli (53%), klebsiella-enterobacter species (16%), citrobacter diversus (9%), salmonella species ...19938419603
phylogenetic relationships of marine bacteria, mainly members of the family vibrionaceae, determined on the basis of 16s rrna sequences.the phylogenetic relationships of 50 reference strains, mostly marine bacteria which require na+ for growth, were determined on the basis of 600 16s rrna nucleotides by using reverse transcriptase sequencing. strains belonging to 10 genera were included (four genera of the family vibrionaceae, the genus aeromonas of the family aeromonadaceae, and the genera alteromonas, marinomonas, shewanella, pseudomonas, and deleya). the sequences were aligned, the similarity values and evolutionary distance ...19938427811
evaluation of commercial presence-absence test kits for detection of total coliforms, escherichia coli, and other indicator bacteria.evaluations of several commercial presence-absence (p-a) test kits were performed over a 6-month period in 1990 by using the ontario ministry of the environment (moe) p-a test for comparison. the general principles of the multiple-tube fermentation technique formed the basis for conducting the product evaluations. each week, a surface water sample was diluted and inoculated into 25 99-ml dilution blanks for each of three dilutions. the inoculated dilution blanks from each dilution series were ra ...19938434907
a comparison of the amino acid sequence of the serine protease of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida with those of other subtilisin-type enzymes relative to their substrate-binding sites.the amino acid sequence of the so-called 70 kda (actually 64 kda) serine protease secreted by the gram-negative fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida has been determined. it shows a high degree of homology with the complete sequence of other bacterial serine proteases which, with molecular masses of approximately 30 kda, are less than half its size. this homology is particularly marked in regions adjacent to the catalytic triad asp32, his64 and ser221 of subtilisin bpn'. significant features of th ...19938436946
incidence of aeromonas species in diarrhoeic stool in university college hospital ibadan, nigeria.between february and july 1989, stool samples from 100 diarrhoeic patients were screened for aeromonas species. for isolation, alkaline peptone water was used for enrichment and xylose desoxycholate citrate agar as differential and selective medium. only one sample (1%) yielded aeromonas hydrophila having come from a 2-month old baby. no other enteric pathogens were isolated from the positive stool sample, a strong indication that a. hydrophila was responsible for the diarrhoea in the baby. of n ...19938440086
influence of growth temperature on the production of extracellular virulence factors and pathogenicity of environmental and human strains of aeromonas hydrophila.the biochemical properties, virulence for mice and trout, and the extracellular virulence factors at 28 degrees and 37 degrees c of 11 environmental and nine human strains of aeromonas hydrophila were compared. all the environmental isolates and four of the human group were virulent for trout at 3 x 10(7) cfu, but only human strains were able to cause death or lesions in mice by the intramuscular route. extracellular virulence factors such as haemolysins, cytotoxins and proteases were also inves ...19938444639
detection of aeromonas hydrophila in food with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a microtitration plate, antibody capture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o: 11 (highly virulent strains). the assay utilizes a detector antibody which shows no cross-reactions with aeromonas strains other than serotype o: 11 or non-aeromonas competing organisms. the detector antibody is mixed with the sample and incubated for 1 h, microcentrifuged and the supernatant fluid (unadsorbed antibody) titred in a microtitre plate coate ...19938444644
why did infection with aeromonas hydrophila occur when water contains so many other microorganisms? 19938448301
aeromonas hydrophila infections of skin and soft tissue: report of 11 cases and review.we report the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 11 cases of aeromonas hydrophila infection of skin and soft tissue, and we review the english-language literature on such infections. of our 11 patients, seven (64%) presented to the hospital between the months of may and september (inclusive). three patients (27%) had an underlying systemic illness, and two (18%) had nosocomially acquired infection. the nine patients with community-acquired infection had all experienced antecedent tr ...19938448321
a 70 kda aeromonas salmonicida serine protease - beta-galactosidase hybrid protein as an antigen and its protective effect on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) against a virulent a. salmonicida challenge. 19938449332
[the pattern of the sensitivity of aeromonas spp. that produce extraintestinal infections].we studied the sensibility to several antimicrobics of aeromonas strains isolated in extraintestinal infections during a period of five years, in order to establish which could be the best empirical therapy in these processes. twenty-two strains of a. hydrophila were evaluated, was isolated (8 from hemocultures, 6 from wound exudate, 2 from abscess aspirate, 2 from peritoneal fluid and 1 from urine, pleural fluid, bile and catheter). the identification was made using the gni card system (vitek s ...19938452974
[the amine-forming ability of aeromonas spp].motile aeromonas (a.) species are considered international more and more as potential food poisoning organisms. their ability to produce biogenic amines, products of metabolism, which in case can cause a disease, was only searched insufficiently till now. 50 strains of the species a.hydrophila, a.sobria, a.caviae and the non-motile species a.salmonicida were included in the tests for amine producing potency. qualitative investigations to the formation of histamine, tryptamine, and tyramine were ...19938456569
in vitro activity of cefdinir (fk 482, pd 134393, ci-983): a new orally active cephalosporin.cefdinir is a new orally active cephalosporin which is undergoing in vitro and in vivo evaluations. using the standard agar dilution method we compared the in vitro activity of this drug with other beta-lactam antibiotics against clinical isolates or enterobacteriaceae (625 strains), pseudomonas aeruginosa (68 strains), xanthomonas maltophilia (36 strains), acinetobacter (52 strains), aeromonas hydrophilia (47 strains), staphylococci (364 strains) and enterococci (50 strains). against most membe ...19938458243
high-affinity binding of the basement membrane protein collagen type iv to the crystalline virulence surface protein array of aeromonas salmonicida.the surface of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida is covered by a paracrystalline array (the a-layer) which is a virulence factor for the organism. quantification of the ability of a. salmonicida cells to bind collagen types i and iv in a 125i-radiolabelled liquid-phase assay showed that a-layer-positive cells bound high levels of collagen type iv, but significantly lower levels of collagen type i. collagen type iv binding was confirmed using non-radiolabelled enzyme-linked immunosorbent as ...19938459775
microbial flora of frozen tail meat from captive nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus).frozen tail meat samples from nine nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) were evaluated for microbial numbers and types. microbial analyses yielded a mean aerobic plate count (apc, 30 degrees c) of 4.86 log cfu/g, a mean coliform count (tc, 37 degrees c) of 3.77 log cfu/g and a mean faecal coliform count (fc, 44 degrees c) of 3.40 log cfu/g. salmonella was isolated from three samples, and beta-haemolytic streptococci from two samples. yersinia, aeromonas, staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cere ...19938466815
an overview of the kinetic parameters of class b beta-lactamases.the catalytic properties of three class b beta-lactamases (from pseudomonas maltophilia, aeromonas hydrophila and bacillus cereus) were studied and compared with those of the bacteroides fragilis enzyme. the a. hydrophila beta-lactamase exhibited a unique specificity profile and could be considered as a rather specific 'carbapenemase'. no relationships were found between sequence similarities and catalytic properties. the problem of the repartition of class b beta-lactamases into sub-classes is ...19938471035
adherence to hep-2 cells and enteropathogenic potential of aeromonas spp.aeromonas strains (total = 60) of clinical, water and food origin were tested for adherence to hep-2 cells. environmental strains were selected (except for a. caviae) to include primarily those expressing other virulence-associated properties. adhesion was markedly species-dependent (a. veronii biotype sobria, 15 of 26 [58%]. a caviae, 4 of 12 [33%] and a. hydrophila, 2 of 8 [11%]). a. veronii biotype sobria were adhesive, irrespective of source (62 and 54% for clinical and environmental strains ...19938472772
purification and characterization of a novel zinc-proteinase from cultures of aeromonas hydrophila.while searching for an enzyme capable of breaking epsilon-(gamma-glu)-lys isopeptide bonds cross-linking protein chains, we purified a metallo-proteinase which mimics the action of an isopeptidase on the gamma-chain dimers of cross-linked fibrin. the enzyme is present in the growth medium of the bacterium aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from the intestinal tract of the leech hirudo medicinalis. it is a 19-kda protein which specifically hydrolyzes the gly-ala peptide bond within the gly-gly-ala se ...19938473348
ctx genetic element encodes a site-specific recombination system and an intestinal colonization factor.in vibrio cholerae, the genes encoding cholera toxin (ctxab) are located on a segment of dna (termed the "core" region) that is flanked by two or more copies of a repeated sequence called rs1. together these dna units comprise the ctx genetic element. evidence presented here suggests that rs1 sequences encode a site-specific recombination system, which allows integration of a suicide plasmid carrying rs1 into an 18-base-pair sequence (attrs1) located on the chromosome of nontoxigenic v. cholerae ...19938475125
an aromatic-dependent mutant of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida is attenuated in fish and is effective as a live vaccine against the salmonid disease furunculosis.aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. the disease is responsible for severe economic losses in intensively cultured salmon and trout. bacterin vaccines provide inadequate protection against infection. we have constructed an aromatic-dependent mutant of a. salmonicida in order to investigate the possibility of an effective live-attenuated vaccine. the aroa gene of a. salmonicida was cloned in escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. ...19938478107
survival of nonculturable aeromonas salmonicida in lake water.the survival of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was investigated in sterile and untreated lake water. in sterile lake water (filtered and autoclaved), it was found that cells of a. salmonicida entered a nonculturable but viable condition. viability was determined by flow cytometry with the dye rhodamine 123, which is taken up and maintained within cells with a membrane potential. for survival studies in untreated lake water, a. salmonicida was marked with the xyle gene by using the plas ...19938481011
[efficacy of cefsulodin -irgasan-novobiocin agar media in the isolation of aeromonas mesophiles from feces]. 19938481436
[incidence, behavior and control of aeromonas hydrophila in meat and dairy products].this review deals with several aspects of aeromonas hydrophila and other motile aeromonas species associated with foodborne illness. although it is mainly dedicated to the factors affecting growth and survival of this species in foods of animal origin, information on other topics is also provided. this paper includes sections on: taxonomy, diseases caused by aeromonas, virulence factors, reservoirs and prevalence in foods and water, factors affecting growth and survival, isolation and identifica ...19938484917
identification of aeromonas schubertii and aeromonas jandaei by using a polymerase chain reaction-probe test.two oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction-protocol to amplify a region (approx. 850 bp) of the 16s rrna gene of aeromonas schubertii and aeromonas jandaei. hybridization of the polymerase chain reaction products to specific internal probes provided a highly specific method for the identification of these two species.19938486241
production and specificity of poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against shewanella putrefaciens.polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits and mice against shewanella putrefaciens. murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against the type strain (atcc 8071) as well as wild type strains isolated from fish products. the specificities of four polyclonal and 12 monoclonal antibodies were tested by dot-blotting, an indirect and a competitive elisa against 16 gram-negative strains; including six strains of s. putrefaciens and one strain of pseudomonas rubescens (nc 10695). all polyclonal ant ...19938486552
an epizootic of edwardsiella tarda in largemouth bass (micropterus salmoides).edwardsiella tarda, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, was isolated from dying largemouth bass (micropterus salmoides) during an epizootic in a eutrophic lake system, lochloosa lake, florida, usa. approximately 1,500 adult fish died over a 6-wk period during the late summer and early fall of 1991. a mixed population of aerobic bacteria (e. tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, and pseudomonas sp.) was isolated from deep cutaneous ulcers and intestines of moribund bass. however, e. tarda in pure culture ...19938487385
impact of the ring-billed gull (larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of recreational water.we evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. we measured fecal coliforms, salmonella spp., and aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water.19938489231
three-year prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in an urban patient population in germany.the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria over a three-year period was 3.1% in an urban population in germany. nontyphoidal salmonella spp. (1.8% prevalence) represented 59.3% of all positive isolates, followed by campylobacter spp., which constituted 22.1% of such isolates. clostridium difficile toxin was detected in 5.6% of samples submitted specifically for detection of cytotoxigenic c. difficile. the seasonal distribution showed an increase of salmonella, shigella and aeromonas/plesiomonas ...19938491518
an aeromonas salmonicida gene which influences a-protein expression in escherichia coli encodes a protein containing an atp-binding cassette and maps beside the surface array protein gene.a conserved aeromonas salmonicida gene (abca) affecting expression of the surface array protein gene (vapa) in escherichia coli was identified. the 924-bp gene starts 205 bp after vapa and codes for a protein with a deduced molecular weight (m(r)) of 34,015 containing an n-terminal p-loop and significant homology to the atp-binding cassette transport protein superfamily. abca was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) by using t7 polymerase expression ...19938491726
in vitro susceptibilities of tropical strains of aeromonas species from queensland, australia, to 22 antimicrobial agents.greater than 90% of 131 strains of aeromonas species were susceptible to the aminoglycosides, ureidopenicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, quinolones, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, and all were uniformly resistant to ampicillin. except for amoxicillin-clavulanate, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, there was good correlation between the results obtained by the agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques.19938494389
comparative antibacterial activity of the aminothiazolyl cephalosporin ru 29,246.a total of 1,007 clinical isolates from a tertiary care center were tested against ru 29,246, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, augmentin, oxacillin, piperacillin, gentamicin, amikacin and vancomycin. bacteria tested consisted of 479 strains of enterobacteriaceae, 64 pseudomonads, 18 xanthomonas, 42 other gram-negative bacilli, 56 enterococci and 348 isolates of staphylococci. ru 29,246 showed excellent in vitro activity inhibiting > 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, ...19938508687
spectrum of extraintestinal disease due to aeromonas species in tropical queensland, australia.during a 12-month period, the clinical spectrum of extraintestinal disease due to aeromonas species was determined for 56 patients in tropical queensland (australia). forty-six patients acquired their infection in the community, six patients were infected in the hospital, and four patients were colonized. demographic risk factors included male gender (67%) and aboriginal ethnic background (35%). the disease ranged from deep-seated infection (four cases) to soft-tissue infection of varying intens ...19938513068
extra-label drug use in aquaculture. 19938514576
diarrhea associated with aeromonas species in children in day care centers.outbreaks of diarrhea caused by enteropathogens have been reported in day care centers (dcc), but aeromonas species have not been implicated. this study evaluated 381 children involved in 51 outbreaks in four dcc to determine the association of aeromonas species with diarrhea and to characterize the isolates. the organism was identified in two outbreaks of diarrhea. in one, aeromonas species were isolated from 6 (24%) of 25 children and in the other from 5 (21%) of 24 children. seven other aerom ...19938515113
biochemical properties of a carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from enterobacter cloacae and cloning of the gene into escherichia coli.a clinical isolate of enterobacter cloacae, strain nor-1, exhibited resistance to imipenem and remained susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. clavulanic acid partially restored the susceptibility of the strain to imipenem. two beta-lactamases with isoelectric points (pi) of 6.9 and > 9.2 were detected in strain e. cloacae nor-1; the higher pi corresponded to ampc cephalosporinase. plasmid dna was not detected in e. cloacae nor-1 and imipenem resistance could not be transferred into es ...19938517720
bacteriological investigation of the occurrence and antibiotic sensitivities of the gut-flora of the potential southern african medicinal leech, asiaticobdella buntonensis (hirudinidae).the lack of availability of medicinal leeches is a major impediment to the widespread use of leech therapy for treatment of congested flaps and replants in southern africa. an investigation into the suitability of an alternative leech, the indigenous southern african leech, asiaticobdella buntonensis, was therefore started. the risk of hospital-acquired infection related to the use of leeches and the antibiotic sensitivities of bacteria isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of wild-caught le ...19938099096
the effect of bacteria infection on mean selected body temperature in the common agama, agama agama: a dose-response study.1. the fever response was studied in 43 common agamas using a self-pairing experiment in which animals received an intraperitoneal injection of sterile saline and an injection of one of six dosages of dead aeromonas sobria (1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(7), 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(10), and 1 x 10(11) total organisms). 2. the results demonstrated a significant increase in tb (1.6-3.1 degrees c) above the mean selected body temperature (msbt) of the saline injection animals over a bacteria infection rang ...19938101779
pili and the interaction of aeromonas species with human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells.the interaction of differentially piliated aeromonas strains expressing pili of two broadly different morphologic types (short, rigid (s/r) and/or long, wavy (l/w)) with human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (pmn) was investigated to determine whether host defense cells might exert a selective pressure on pili expression in vivo accounting for the different pili phenotypes of clinical and environmental strains. a majority of aeromonas veronii biotype sobria strains from water (6/6) and f ...19938104626
the public health significance of aeromonas spp. in foods.there is now evidence that some strains of aeromonas species are enteropathogens. such strains possess virulence properties, such as the ability to produce enterotoxins, cytotoxins, haemolysins and/or the ability to invade epithelial cells. strains with these properties are common contaminants of drinking water and a wide range of foods. contact or consumption of contaminated water, especially in summer, is a major risk factor in aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. aeromonas-contaminated foods ...19938110597
meningitis due to aeromonas species: case report and review.in recent years, aeromonas species has been reported to cause extraintestinal infections with a growing frequency. meningitis due to aeromonas species is, however, a rare entity. we report a case of aeromonas meningitis in a 54-year-old man with a history of chronic alcoholic liver disease who, after an episode of gastroenteritis, developed an acute clinical picture characteristic of meningitis with septic shock and ecthyma gangrenosum. aeromonas veronii (biogroup sobria) was isolated from cultu ...19938110931
wound infection due to aeromonas sobria. 19938110950
transfer of plasmid rp4 from escherichia coli k-12 to indigenous bacteria of seawater.transfer of plasmid rp4 from escherichia coli k-12 donor strain to bacteria isolated from seawater was shown to occur on filters and in sterile seawater incubated at 24 degrees c. ten of 12 seawater isolates tested were recipient active for rp4 when the plasmid transfers were assessed by filter matings. when matings were performed in sterile seawater, seven of the 12 isolates received rp4. in sterile seawater, the transfer of rp4 from e. coli to pseudomonads was more efficient than transfer betw ...19938111533
[etiology of bacterial gastroenteritis in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus].a comparative retrospective study was performed on the bacterial etiology of the diarrheal processes which affect a healthy cohort and those which affect hiv-positive patients. from 1988 to 1991, 10,230 coprocultures were obtained of which 27.3% were positive in the healthy cohort and 16.8% in the hiv-positive group. of the 43 cases in the latter, 24 (12.2%) were adults and 18 (33.9%) were pediatric patients. the primary enteropathogenic microorganism isolated in the hiv-positive group were 17 ( ...19938115695
[bone infections due to aeromonas hydrophila--apropos of 2 case reports].the authors report on two cases of bone infection due to aeromonas hydrophila: one case in a compound fracture and the other a late infection in an implant. they confirm the rapid onset of systemic infectious disease but not the magnitude of local manifestations. the use of modern antibiotics sensitive to aeromonas proved effective in lowering the risk of dramatic local evolution which has been described.19938116372
spread of the bacterial fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida after importation of infected goldfish, carassius auratus, into australia. 19938117214
[a comparison of brila-mug and lauryl sulfate-mug bouillon as detection media for total and fecal coliform bacteria in bathing waters in conformity with the economic community guideline 76/160 ewg].the spectrum of gram-negative rods occurring in surface waters is wide and depending on the season, i.e. the water temperature. the concentration of bacteria is higher in summer than in winter. however, the seasonal difference of the concentration of enterobacteriaceae is less than that of the aeromonas spec. and of the non-fermenters. the comparison of yields of total and faecal coliforms determined in samples of surface water by using the brilliant green bile lactose 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta- ...19938117394
cloning and nucleotide sequence of an extracellular alpha-amylase gene from aeromonas hydrophila mcc-1.a gene encoding the extracellular alpha-amylase of aeromonas hydrophila mcc-1 was cloned and expressed using its own promoter on the recombinant plasmid pca101. subcellular fractionation of escherichia coli ja221 carrying pca101 revealed that approximately 60% of the amylase activity was localized in the periplasmic space. the extracellular amylase was purified to homogeneity, identified as an alpha-type and its amino-terminal sequence was determined. nucleotide sequence analysis predicted a 443 ...19938126440
amoxicillin concentrations in the serum of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l) during furunculosis therapy.the effectiveness of the delivery of amoxicillin to atlantic salmon, undergoing chemotherapy in natural outbreaks of furunculosis in sea-cages, was investigated by measuring the concentration of the drug in serum samples. five groups of 50 sera from three outbreaks were collected two hours after oral treatment with doses of 80 or 120 mg/kg bodyweight. amoxicillin was detected in 82, 82, 92, 100 and 90 per cent of the sera in the five groups (limit of detection 0.16 microgram/ml). many sera conta ...19938128552
antigenicity of the aeromonas salmonicida maltose-inducible outer membrane porin (maltoporin) and a hybrid protein derived from it. 19938131922
[mobile species of the genus aeromonas: difficulties of identification and pathogenicity].sixty-two aeromonas strains (39 of clinical and 23 of environmental origin) were identified. the suicide phenomenon and autoagglutination were studied. identification is based on esculin hydrolysis; fermentation of arabinose salicin, sucrose and mannitol; gas production from glucose, indole and beta hemolysis; voges-proskauer and decarboxylation reactions; and finally resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms) and colistin (4 micrograms/ml). thirty-four per cent of a hydrophila, 33% a caviae, 28% ...19938214815
aeromonas hydrophila infection of a scalp laceration (with synergistic gas-gangrene). 19938216601
physical and chemical characterization of the oligomerization state of the aeromonas hydrophila lipase/acyltransferase.aeromonas glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyl transferase undergoes a conformational transition upon activation by treatment with trypsin. chemical cross-linking and sedimentation velocity analysis showed that the lipase dimerizes due to removal of a region near its c-terminus. the lipase monomer has a sedimentation coefficient s20.w = 2.83 s, whereas the dimer has s20.w = 3.65 +/- 0.22 s. hydrodynamic analysis using these sedimentation values and the masses determined by mass spectrometry indi ...19938224197
in vitro activity of ro 23-9424, a dual-acting cephalosporin-quinolone antimicrobial agent.in vitro activity of new dual-acting antibacterial ro 23-9429 was tested against 1294 bacterial isolates from patients in a major tertiary care referral hospital in saudi arabia. its activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, piperacillin, oxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, imipenem, and vancomycin. of the 621 members of enterobacteriaceae tested, every single isolate was inhibited by ro 23-9429 at minimum inhibitory c ...19938227462
aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a cotton-top tamarin (saguinus oedipus), and retrospective study of infections in seven primate species. 19938231095
an outbreak of enterotoxaemia in suckling camels.an outbreak of enterotoxaemia was observed for the first time in suckling camels in saudi arabia. the animals were weak, diarrhoeic and succumbed quickly to exertion. the main pathological findings were those of acute catarrhal enteritis and acute myocardial degeneration. clostridium perfringens was isolated from the enteric lesions; aeromonas hydrophila was also identified. the properties of both isolates were studied.19938237187
aeromonas enteropelogenes and aeromonas ichthiosmia are identical to aeromonas trota and aeromonas veronii, respectively, as revealed by small-subunit rrna sequence analysis.the 16s rrna gene sequences of the type strains of aeromonas enteropelogenes and aeromonas ichthiosmia were determined by polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing in order to clarify their interrelationships with other aeromonad species. on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, a. enteropelogenes and a. ichthiosmia were found to be identical to aeromonas trota and aeromonas veronii, respectively.19938240968
biological markers of macrophage activation: applications for fish phagocytes.the immune defence mechanisms of fish seem to be related and similarly competent to those of mammals. because of this, there is an increased interest in the immune responses of fish as models for higher vertebrates in immunological/immunotoxicological studies. macrophages (m phi), phagocytic cells of the mammalian and teleost immune system which reside in tissues, represent a quiescent population of cells. however, upon stimulation, alterations in the physiology of these resident m phi occur whi ...19938244466
typing of aeromonas spp. by numerical analysis of immunoblotted sds-page gels.one hundred and three isolates of aeromonas spp., collected from both environmental sources and patients, were examined by sds-page of whole cells followed by immunoblotting with polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against whole cells of a. sobria. all isolates were typable, yielding 15-20 well separated bands. reproducibility of the technique was good and discrimination excellent, yielding 30 types amongst 103 isolates. immunoblot type was not related to biochemical phenotype. attempts to correl ...19938246248
growth of listeria monocytogenes, aeromonas hydrophila and yersinia enterocolitica in pâté and a comparison with predictive models.a reference or type strain and a food derived-strain of the cold-tolerant pathogens listeria monocytogenes, aeromonas hydrophila and yersinia enterocolitica were individually inoculated into samples of commercial pâté and incubated at 4 and 10 degrees c. the organisms were periodically estimated by presumptive counts, then values for the lag and generation times were calculated. both strains of l. monocytogenes grew at both temperatures. the food strain of a. hydrophila grew only at 10 degrees c ...19938251302
[microbial enzymes and their inhibitors].several proteolytic enzymes and dehydrogenases of microbial origin were studied with special regard to structure-activity relationship. enzyme genes of zn-proteases, subtilisin and pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase from genus bacillus, prolyl endopeptidases from flavobacterium and aeromonas, and of protease ii from e. coli were cloned, sequenced and overproduced in e. coli, their active site structures being elucidated by chemical modification as well as by site-directed mutagenesis. homology analysis ...19938254479
psychrotrophic bacteria in sausage.a total of 50 samples of frozen fresh beef sausage were collected from grocery stores at beni suef city. these samples were examined for enumeration, isolation and identification of psychrotrophic bacteria. all samples contained psychrotrophic bacteria in variable numbers. the mean counts of psychrotrophic bacteria, psychrotrophic enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas, aeromonas, brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were 2 x 10(5) +/- 10(3), 6 x 10(3) +/- 4 x 10(2), 10(3) +/- 2 x 10(2), ...19938259192
adherence of haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas.twelve haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating isolates of aeromonas spp., comprising 6 each of clinical and environmental origin, were examined for their ability to adhere to rabbit intestinal epithelium, for inhibition of adhesion with sugars, and for delineation of the portion of intestine, jejunum, or ileum that is most susceptible to adhesion. although the environmental isolates of aeromonas haemagglutinated human erythrocytes that were inhibited by d-mannose and/or l-fucose, the majori ...19938263304
characterization of mesophilic aeromonas from clinical specimens by computerized analysis of sds-page protein profiles and by enzymatic activity.mesophilic aeromonas (aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas caviae) have recently been considered important aetiological agents of human diseases, mainly gastrointestinal infections. although several findings have pointed out the significance of this group of microorganisms as enteric pathogens and suggested the presence of virulence factors, epidemiological and clinical studies are limited by the difficulty of correctly identifying mesophilic aeromonas at the species level. sds-page ...19938264423
oligonucleotide probe determination of tetracycline-resistant bacteria isolated from catfish ponds.oligonucleotide probes for class a, b and c tetracycline resistance determinants were synthesized and tested individually and in combination for hybridization with gram-negative isolates previously characterized by restriction fragment dna probes. similar hybridization patterns were observed with either probe type. gram-negative catfish pond bacteria were characterized by these oligonucleotide probes. the most common bacteria were plesiomonas shigelloides (47.7%), aeromonas hydrophila (28.8%) an ...19938264667
the spectrum of aeromonas-associated diarrhea in tropical queensland, australia.during a twelve-month period (1 july 91-30 june 92), feces from 912 persons from the townsville region in the dry tropics of queensland, australia were evaluated by culture and 45 (4.9%) immunocompetent patients were found to be carrying aeromonas in their stools. all patients were index cases and no secondary cases from household or close contact of index cases were identified. eight patients (9.3%) were from palm island, an aboriginal community, and 37 (4.5%) were from the essentially caucasia ...19938266241
distribution of mesophilic aeromonas species in raw and ready-to-eat fish and meat products in switzerland.a total of 829 poultry, meat, shellfish and fish products commonly consumed in switzerland were qualitatively and quantitatively examined for the presence of mesophilic aeromonas spp. overall, aeromonads occurred in 24.1% of the samples. raw food products were frequently contaminated (e.g. 94.1% in minced meat), with colony counts up to 6.0 x 10(6)/g. some ready-to-eat products had a relatively high percentage of positive samples as well, such as cooked ham in slices (38.2%), mortadella (12.9%), ...19938268055
short-term treatment of traveler's diarrhea with norfloxacin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during two seasons.clinical efficacy of norfloxacin for treatment of traveler's diarrhea in 106 finnish tourists vacationing in morocco was evaluated during two different seasons. when the criteria for diagnosis of traveler's diarrhea were fulfilled, norfloxacin (400 mg) or a placebo was given orally, twice daily for 3 days. all symptoms and signs subsided sooner in the norfloxacin group. the clearest difference was observed in the duration of diarrhea: 1.2 days in the norfloxacin group vs. 3.3 days in the placebo ...19938268363
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