TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
lateral flagella of aeromonas species are essential for epithelial cell adherence and biofilm formation.mesophilic aeromonas strains express a single polar flagellum in all culture conditions and produce lateral flagella on solid media. such hyperflagellated cells demonstrate increased adherence. nine lateral flagella genes, lafa-u for aeromonas hydrophila, and four aeromonas caviae genes, lafa1, lafa2, lafb and fliu, were isolated. mutant characterization, nucleotide and n-terminal sequencing demonstrated that the a. hydrophila and a. caviae lateral flagellins were almost identical, but were dist ...200211985716
evaluation of immune functions of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss)--how can environmental influences be detected?in fish, the first line of defense against infectious microorganisms is based on a broad range of nonspecific humoral and cellular immune mechanisms ("innate immunity") which without prior specific activation can act in forming a more static barrier (fish shellfish immunol. 10 (2000) 243; dev. comp. immunol. 25 (2001) 827). this natural resistance is normally effective enough to protect fish from infectious diseases until specific immune responses are being induced (fig. 1; dev. comp. immunol. 2 ...200211988361
immuno-capture pcr for detection of aeromonas this report, we describe the use of universal primer pcr (uppcr) for the detection of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) genes from aeromonas hydrophila captured by anti-a. hydrophila antibody coupled to a microplate. the approach combining immuno-capture with uppcr provides a quick, sensitive, and reproducible way for the detection of bacterial cells.200211869801
molecular and culture-based analyses of prokaryotic communities from an agricultural soil and the burrows and casts of the earthworm lumbricus rubellus.the microbial populations in no-till agricultural soil and casts of the earthworm lumbricus rubellus were examined by culturing and molecular methods. clone libraries of the 16s rrna genes were prepared from dna isolated directly from the soil and earthworm casts. although no single phylum dominated the soil library of 95 clones, the largest numbers of clones were from acidobacteria (14%), cytophagales (13%), chloroflexi (8%), and gamma-proteobacteria (8%). while the cast clone library of 102 cl ...200211872477
hydrolysis of thionopeptides by the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica: insight into substrate binding.a series of l-leucine aniline analogues were synthesized that contained either a carbonyl or thiocarbonyl as a part of the amide bond. additionally, the para-position on the phenyl ring of several substrates was altered with various electron-withdrawing or donating groups. the kinetic constants k(m) and k(cat) were determined for the hydrolysis of each of these compounds in the presence of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) containing either zn(ii) or cd(ii). the dizinc(ii) for ...200211888288
characterization of an adp-ribosyltransferase toxin (aext) from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. adp-ribosylating toxin named aeromonas salmonicida exoenzyme t (aext) in a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, was characterized. gene aext, encoding toxin aext, was cloned and characterized by sequence analysis. aext shows significant sequence similarity to the exos and exot exotoxins of pseudomonas aeruginosa and to the yope cytotoxin of different yersinia species. the aext gene was detected in all of the 12 a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strai ...200211889090
[a case of severe septicemia due to aeromonas hydrophila].septicemia by aeromonas hydrophila (a. hydrophila) developed in a 69-year-old female with a history of uncompensated liver cirrhosis. she was admitted to our hospital, complaining of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and pain as well as swelling of the left lower extremity. seven hours later, skin of the left extremity developed bullae and became discolored. although she was treated with infusion of antibiotics plus dopamine, continuous hemodiafiltration, glucose-insulin therapy and mechanical ventilat ...200211889792
aeromonas jandaei cellulitis and bacteremia in a man with diabetes. 200211893376
role of various enterotoxins in aeromonas hydrophila-induced gastroenteritis: generation of enterotoxin gene-deficient mutants and evaluation of their enterotoxic activity.three enterotoxins from the aeromonas hydrophila diarrheal isolate ssu have been molecularly characterized in our laboratory. one of these enterotoxins is cytotoxic in nature, whereas the other two are cytotonic enterotoxins, one of them heat labile and the other heat stable. earlier, by developing an isogenic mutant, we demonstrated the role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in causing systemic infection in mice. in the present study, we evaluated the role of these three enterotoxins in evoking diarrh ...200211895956
temperature dependent activation of leucocyte populations of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, after intraperitoneal immunisation with aeromonas salmonicida.the temperature dependence of in vivo activation of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss, leucocyte populations after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of fish with a t-cell independent antigen aeromonas salmonicida (strain mt423) was investigated using a proliferation assay and flow cytometric analysis with mab specific for trout leucocyte surface markers. in trout kept at 15-17 degrees c a prominent activation of blood and spleen leucocytes was found. also, drastic changes of the percentage of the ...200211866129
engineering of ralstonia eutropha for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from fructose and solid-state properties of the copolymer.recombinant ralstonia eutropha capable of producing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) copolymer [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] from fructose was engineered by introduction of genes for crotonyl-coa reductase (ccr) from streptomyces cinnamonensis (ccrsc) and for pha synthase and (r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase from aeromonas caviae (phac-jac). in this recombinant strain, c6-acyl-coa intermediates were provided via beta-ketothiolase-mediated elongation of butyryl-coa, which was generated from croto ...200212005535
occurrence of staphylococcus and enteropathogens in soft cheese commercialized in the city of rio de janeiro, investigate the presence of staphylococcus aureus, enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), aeromonas spp. and yersinia spp. in soft cheese commercialized in rio de janeiro, brazil.200212010558
screening of soil bacteria for production of biocleaner.soil bacteria were studied for the production of biodegradable cleaning agents. among 86 bacterial strains resistant to liquid paraffin, 58 showed hemolytic activity. these strains were cultured, and the supernatant of culture broths was evaluated for cleaning activity against a dirty porcelain tile. potent activity was exhibited in 18 strains. the lowest value of surface tension was obtained from bacillus sp. nkb03 suggesting the presence of a biosurfactant. aeromonas sp. nkb26c and bacillus ce ...200212018259
acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases and their genetic support.carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases of several ambler molecular classes have been reported as the source of acquired beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in gram negative bacteria. the metallo-enzymes of ambler class b are the most prevalent enzymes in this case. these clavulanic-acid resistant enzymes have a large spectrum of hydrolysis including penicillins, cephalosporins (third and fourth generations), carbapenems but not monobactams. they are responsible for acquired resistance in several g ...200212022255
starvation survival and viable but nonculturable states in aeromonas hydrophila.the behavior of aeromonas hydrophila stored at 4 degrees c and 25 degrees c in nutrient-poor filtered sterilized distilled water was investigated. at 4 degrees c, the a. hydrophila population declined below the detection level (0.1 cell ml(-1)) after 7 weeks, whereas the number of cells with intact membrane as determined by the live/dead method decreased only by 1 log unit. although, this response is reminiscent of the so-called vbnc state, the cells could not be resuscitated by an upshift to 25 ...200212023732
first documented case of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria infection in northern europe.the first scandinavian case of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria infection, an episode of peritonitis in a patient suffering from a cirrhotic liver and an earlier unrecognized appendiceal cancer, is described.200212030401
detection and identification of bacterial pathogens of fish in kidney tissue using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp) analysis of 16s rrna genes.we report the application of a nucleic acid-based assay that enables direct detection and identification of bacterial pathogens in fish kidney tissue without the need for bacterial culture. the technique, known as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-rflp), employs the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a primer pair that targets 2 highly conserved regions of the gene that encodes for the 16s small subunit of the bacterial ribosome. each primer is 5' labeled with a different f ...200212033704
the immune responses of common carp, cyprinus carpio l., injected with carp interleukin-1beta gene.the function of the common carp, cyprinus carpio l., interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) gene was studied by dna injection. to investigate the immune responses to il-1beta, a plasmid construct of cytomegalovirus (cmv)-driven carp il-1beta was injected into the epaxial muscle of carp. il-1beta protein expressed in serum on 1, 3, and 5 days after plasmid injection was quantified by elisa and immunohistochemistry. il1-beta gene injection increased proliferation of the lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin (ph ...200212034023
two independent, light-sensing two-component systems in a filamentous cyanobacterium.two orfs, cpha and cphb, encoding proteins cpha and cphb with strong similarities to plant phytochromes and to the cyanobacterial phytochrome cph1 of synechocystis sp. pcc 6803 have been identified in the filamentous cyanobacterium calothrix sp. pcc7601. while cpha carries a cysteine within a highly conserved amino-acid sequence motif, to which the chromophore phytochromobilin is covalently bound in plant phytochromes, in cphb this position is changed into a leucine. both orfs are followed by rc ...200212047374
a 45-kda acetylcholinesterase protoxin of aeromonas hydrophila: purification and immunogenicity in fish.a rabbit antiserum to the 15-kda acetylcholinesterase toxin neutralised the lethal effect of the 15-kda toxin of aeromonas hydrophila when injected into trout. however, immunisation of fish with the 15-kda toxoid failed to induce an antibody response, and a higher molecular mass form of this toxin was purified from the extracellular products with the aim of inducing an immune response in fish. the optimal conditions for production of extracellular products by a. hydrophila strain b32 were studie ...200212052546
aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis subsp. nov., isolated from children with diarrhoea in bangladesh, and extended description of aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila (chester 1901) stanier 1943 (approved lists 1980).a group of 10 aeromonas hydrophila-like strains referred to as group bd-2, which mainly comprised haemolytic and cytotoxic isolates from diarrhoeal children in bangladesh, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (faflp) and eric-pcr fingerprinting, microplate dna-dna hybridization and extensive phenotypic characterization. comparison of faflp and eric-pcr genotypic profiles indicated that the group bd-2 isolates constituted a sep ...200212054229
nosocomial infections with aeromonas hydrophila from leeches.the manner in which leeches are maintained before they are used for therapy has not been studied as a factor contributing to nosocomial infections. a 5-year retrospective survey of aeromonas hydrophila nosocomial infections at a hospital in marseille, france, revealed infections in 5 (4.1%) of an estimated 122 patients treated with leeches in the hand surgery unit and 2 (2.4%) of an estimated 85 patients treated with leeches in other hospital units. the retrospective survey showed that the hand ...200212060892
rotavirus and enteric pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in manipal, south india.the etiology of rotavirus in acute diarrhoeal illness in children 0-5 years of age, admitted to the pediatric wards of kasturba medical college hospital, manipal was studied over a period of 5 years. rotavirus in the faeces detected by latex agglutination test accounted for 19.56% of the diarrhoea with maximum incidence (65%) in the 7-12 months of age group. bacterial aetiological agents continued to play a significant role (69.6%) in diarrhoeal diseases. enteroaggregative e. coli was common in ...200212061671
phenotypic study by numerical taxonomy of strains belonging to the genus aeromonas.this study was undertaken to cluster and identify a large collection of aeromonas strains.200212067377
novel plasmid-encoded class c beta-lactamase (mox-2) in klebsiella pneumoniae from greece.klebsiella pneumoniae kol, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from greece. this strain harbored a new pi 9.1 plasmid-mediated ampc beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named mox-2. sequencing of bla(mox-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of cmy-8, mox-1, cmy-1, and the ampc beta-lactamase of aeromonas sobria, respectivel ...200212069985
comparative studies on aeromonas strains isolated from lakes balaton (hungary) and fertó/neusiedlersee (hungary).ecological and comparative taxonomic investigations were carried out on 49 aeromonas strains isolated from water samples of two moderately alkaline lakes of hungary, lake balaton and lake fertó/neusiedlersee together with 3 authentic strains of aeromonas hydrophila. five phena were created at greater than 92% similarity value using the upgma method with the jaccard coefficient. strains isolated from lake balaton were determined as a. hydrophila, while strains originated from lake fertó were iden ...200212073824
numbers and types of microorganisms in vacuum-packed cold-smoked freshwater fish at the retail level.fifty-four packages (each one belonging to a different lot) of vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon (30) and trout (24) produced by six spanish smokehouses were obtained at retail level after 3 weeks storage at 2+/-1 degrees c. sensorial, chemical, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics were examined. overall, ph, a(w), salt content in water phase, aerobic plate counts at 30 and 25 degrees c. levels of enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (lab), fungi and presumptive aeromonads and ...200212076034
pcr-based assays for the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. i. evaluation of three pcr primer sets for detection and an effort to develop a rapid diagnostic test for the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida, the performance of 2 polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primer sets (ap and paas) targeting the fish pathogen a. salmonicida and 1 pcr primer set (miy) targeting a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were evaluated. initially, the pcr assays were used to screen purified dna extracted from 308 a. salmonicida isolates. the ap and paas pcr tests were demonstrated to be 100% specific for the species a. salmonicida ...200212078981
pcr-based assays for the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. ii. further evaluation and validation of three pcr primer sets with infected fish.two aeromonas salmonicida-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tests and 1 a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida-specific pcr test were used to screen salmonid populations that were either overtly or covertly infected with a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. it was demonstrated that these pcr assays could be used to replace the biochemical testing currently employed to confirm the identity of a. salmonicida isolates cultured from infected fish. the ap and paas pcr assays were also capable of dire ...200212078982
early cell signaling by the cytotoxic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila in macrophages.a cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila is an important virulence factor with hemolytic, cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. in this report, we demonstrated act rapidly mobilized calcium from intracellular stores and evoked influx of calcium from the extracellular milieu in macrophages. a direct role of calcium in act-induced prostaglandin (e.g. pge(2)) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf alpha) production was demonstrated in macrophages using a cell-permeable calcium chelator b ...200212079405
characterization of carnobacterium divergens strain 6251 isolated from intestine of arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.).an atypical strain of carnobacterium divergens, strain 6251, was isolated from the small intestine of arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus l.), fed high dietary carbohydrate. this strain showed marked growth inhibitory effects in vitro against the fish pathogens aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (furunculosis), vibrio anguillarum (vibriosis) and vibrio viscocus (winter ulcer). the strain is a non-motile gram-positive psychrotrophic rod that lacks both catalase and oxidase, grows at ph 9.1 (ct ...200212086178
activation of soil respiration and shift of the microbial population balance in soil as a response to lavandula stoechas essential oil.lavandula stoechas, a native plant of greece, is rich in essential oil and fenchone is its major constituent. we examined the effect of the essential oil and its main constituents on soil metabolism and microbial growth. addition of the essential oil or fenchone to soil samples induced a remarkable increase in soil respiration. this was accompanied by an increase in the soil bacterial population of three orders of magnitude. this sizable population was not qualitatively similar to that of the co ...200212035924
foodborne pathogenic bacteria in prepackaged fresh retail portions of farmed rainbow trout and salmon stored at 3 degrees c.twelve lots of fresh unskinned fillets of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and 10 lots of fresh sliced salmon (salmo salar) prepacked in trays wrapped with an oxygen-permeable film were obtained immediately after packing from two supermarkets having in-plant facilities for packaging wet fish. during storage at 3 degrees c, listeria innocua was detected in eight lots of trout fillets after 4 days storage. l. monocytogenes was recovered from a single lot also contaminated with l. innocua. initi ...200212038570
antibiotic resistance of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from marketed fish and prawn of south india.a total of 319 strains of aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from 536 fish and 278 prawns for a 2-year period. all the strains were tested for resistance to 15 antibiotics and 100% of the strains was resistant to methicillin and rifampicin followed by bacitracin and novobiocin (99%). only 3% of the strains exhibited resistance against chloramphenicol. the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) indexing of a. hydrophila strains showed that all of them originated from high-risk sources.200212038573
synthesis of a novel class of polyhydroxyalkanoates in arabidopsis peroxisomes, and their use in monitoring short-chain-length intermediates of beta-oxidation.the poly[(r)-3-hydroxyalkanoate] (pha) synthase gene (phac(ac)) of aeromonas caviae fa440 was modified by adding a peroxisome targeting signal encoding the last 10 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal of spinach glycolate oxidase. the modified gene was introduced into arabidopsis thaliana plants by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the transgenic arabidopsis plant expressed the introduced gene and its protein, and it accumulated pha in its tissues. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analy ...200212040103
bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in central and eastern european countries.studies of indoor bioaerosols conducted in central and eastern european countries, as a result of the scarcity of funding, mostly do not attain the level presented by similar studies in northern america and western europe. for socio-economic reasons, most of the intense studies on indoor bioaerosols in central and eastern european countries were carried out in industrial facilities and have contributed significantly to occupational health science. in contrast, until recently, insufficient of stu ...200212088392
technical-scale production of cyanophycin with recombinant strains of escherichia the use of escherichia coli dh1 harboring cpha from synechocystis sp. strain pcc6803, large-scale production of cyanophycin at 30- and 500-liter culture volumes was established. transcription of cpha was controlled by the thermosensitive ci857 repressor, which enabled induction of cpha by a simple temperature shift in the culture fluid. maximum cyanophycin cell content of up to 24% (wt/wt) of cellular dry matter was obtained by induction in the early exponential growth phase and cultivation o ...200212089018
an analysis of human pathogens found in horse/mule manure along the john muir trail in kings canyon and sequoia and yosemite national determine the prevalence of microorganisms that are potentially pathogenic for humans in horse/mule manure along the john muir trail (jmt).200212092962
aeromonas hydrophila wound infection in elective surgery.patients with diabetes mellitus are subject to wound infection with unusual pathogens. a patient who had colonic surgery developed aeromonas hydrophila wound infection, which mainly results from contamination by water or soil.200212096577
the role of the fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex from pseudomonas oleovorans in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis: molecular characterization of the fadba operon from p. oleovorans and of the enoyl-coa hydratase genes phaj from p. oleovorans and pseudomonas order to investigate the role of the putative epimerase function of the beta-oxidation multienzyme complex (fadba) in the provision of (r)-3-hydroxyacyl-coa thioesters for medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha(mcl)) biosynthesis, the fadba(po) operon of pseudomonas oleovorans was cloned and characterized. the fadba(po) operon and a class-ii pha synthase gene of pseudomonas aeruginosa were heterologously co-expressed in escherichia coli to determine whether the putative epimerase funct ...200212115060
diverse bacteria are pathogens of caenorhabditis elegans.practically and ethically attractive as model systems, invertebrate organisms are increasingly recognized as relevant for the study of bacterial pathogenesis. we show here that the nematode caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to a surprisingly broad range of bacteria and may constitute a useful model for the study of both pathogens and symbionts.200212117988
characterization of a novel plasmid-mediated cephalosporinase (cmy-9) and its genetic environment in an escherichia coli clinical escherichia coli strain, hkym68, which showed resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins was isolated from a sputum specimen in japan. the high-level resistance of the strain to ceftazidime, cefpirome, and moxalactam was carried by a self-transferable plasmid. the beta-lactamase gene responsible for the resistance was cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence of this gene product, cmy-9, had a single amino acid substitution (e85d), the residue reported to be part of the recogniti ...200212121914
influence of diet on the occurrence of some bacteria in the intestinal flora of wild and pet birds.enterobacteriaceae, e. coli in particular, do not belong to the intestinal flora of granivorous pet birds. this is indicated by the fact that the feces of only 9% of healthy budgerigars and 17% of finches tested were positive for enterobacteria. stressful situations such as overcrowding in small cages coincident with increased noise and low light levels can enhance the colonization of the gut with e. coli. on the other hand it seems nearly impossible to colonize the intestine of budgerigars with ...200212125172
optimisation of one-tube pcr-elisa to detect femtogram amounts of genomic dna.a simple, high-throughput, low-cost polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (pcr-elisa) protocol that detects the presence of 4 fg of dna from four bacterial fish pathogens yersinia ruckeri, tenacibaculum maritimum (formerly flexibacter maritimus), lactococcus garvieae and aeromonas salmonicida was developed. dna amplification was undertaken in a biphasic system with free and bound pcr that are achieved in the one nucleolink tube. solid-phase amplicons were detected using bio ...200212133608
clinical presentation of microbial keratitis with daily wear frequent-replacement hydrogel lenses: a case series.microbial keratitis (mk) is a serious complication associated with contact lens wear. in this case series we report three clinical presentations of mk associated with daily-wear monthly-replacement soft contact lenses. all of these patients were using vifilcon a (55% water content, ionic, u.s. food and drug administration [fda] group iv) monthly-replacement soft contact lenses. a gram-stained smear of the corneal scrapings of two patients showed numerous gram-negative cocci bacilli, and tissue c ...200212144239
the occurrence of cytotoxic aeromonas hydrophila strains in italian mineral and thermal waters.bacteria of the genus aeromonas are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including mineral drinking and thermal waters. motile species are related to different diseases, mostly gastrointestinal disorders. criteria for aeromonas pathogenicity in humans and animals are still unclear and neither is the relationship between production virulence and pathogenicity factors. in the present study, strains of aeromonas hydrophila, from 61 samples of bottled mineral waters and 23 thermal italian sources hav ...200212146524
rapid detection of six types of bacterial pathogens in marine waters by multiplex pcr.a rapid multiplex pcr (m-pcr) method that allows the simultaneous detection, in a single tube, of six commonly encountered waterborne pathogens is developed. the target genes used were: the aerolysin (aero) gene of aeromonas hydrophila, the invasion plasmid antigen h (ipah) gene of shigella flexneri, the attachment invasion locus (ail) gene of yersinia enterocolitca, the invasion plasmid antigen b (ipab) gene of salmonella typhimurium, the enterotoxin extracellular secretion protein (epsm) gene ...200212146868
bacterial flora from the gut of the wild and cultured banana prawn, penaeus merguiensis.there is growing awareness of the influence of the bacterial composition of the gut on the health and growth of the host. this study compared the bacterial flora from the digestive system of the wild and cultured prawn, penaeus merguiensis.200212147069
the role of the n-terminal propeptide of the pro-aminopeptidase processing protease: refolding, processing, and enzyme processing protease (pa protease) is an extracellular zinc metalloprotease produced by aeromonas caviae t-64 and it is classified as m04.016 according to the merops database. the precursor of pa protease consists of four regions; a signal peptide, an n-terminal propeptide, a c-terminal propeptide, and the mature pa protease. the in vitro refolding of the intermediate pro-pa protease containing the c-terminal propeptide (mc) was investigated in the presence and absence of the n ...200212147230
evaluation of a new etest for detecting metallo-beta-lactamases in routine clinical testing.several etest (ab biodisk, solna, sweden) gradient formats were developed for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases based on the reduction of imipenem (ip) or ceftazidime (tz) mics in the presence of edta or 2-mercaptopropionic acid (mpa). the etest metallo-beta-lactamase (etest mbl) strips consisted of a double-sided seven-dilution range of ip or tz (4 to 256 microg/ml) and ip or tz (1 to 64 microg/ml) overlaid with a constant concentration of edta or mpa. the prototype strips were evaluated on ...200212149325
a global non-conjugative tet c plasmid, pras3, from aeromonas salmonicida.two 11.8 kb non-conjugative, but mobilizable r plasmids designated pras3.1 and pras3.2 were isolated from aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida and atypical a. salmonicida, respectively. differences between the plasmids were of minor extent and they are considered as being variants of the same plasmid, pras3. the genes repa, repb, moba, mobc, mobd, and mobe were organized similar to corresponding genes in the small, mobilizable plasmid ptf-fc2 isolated from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ...200212151232
endotoxins associated with cyanobacteria and their removal during drinking water treatment.the aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin concentrations in cyanobacterial water blooms and strains, and to assess the removal of endotoxins during drinking water treatment. endotoxin concentrations were measured from 151 hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial water blooms by using limulus amebocyte lysate (lal) assay, and the results were compared to bacterial data. endotoxin activities ranged from 20 to 3.8 x 10(4) endotoxin units (eu) per ml. endotoxicity of the samples ...200212153030
physicochemical and biological properties of an extracellular serine protease of aeromonas sobria.previously, we cloned a protease gene of aeromonas sobria, determined its nucleotide sequence and established a method of purifying its product. in this study, we examined the properties of the purified protease. the protease was temperature-labile and had an optimal ph of 7.5. metallo-protease inhibitors and a cysteine protease inhibitor did not block the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. the treatment with reagents to modify sulfhydryl group did not reduce the activity. but, serine protease ...200212153115
leech therapy for patients with surgically unsalvageable venous obstruction after revascularized free tissue assess the efficacy and associated complications of a leech therapy protocol used for patients with a head and neck free tissue transfer in whom flap viability is threatened because of surgically unsalvageable venous obstruction.200212162779
in vivo evolution of the aeromonas punctata polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase: isolation and characterization of modified pha synthases with enhanced vivo random mutagenesis of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene from aeromonas punctata was performed employing the mutator strain escherichia coli xl1-red. about 200,000 mutants were screened on nile red-containing medium and five mutants with enhanced fluorescence were selected. four of these mutants exhibited enhanced in vivo and in vitro pha synthase activity. mutant m1, which carried the single mutation f518i, showed a five-fold increase in specific pha synthase activity, whereas ...200212172613
virulence markers in aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biovar sobria isolates from freshwater fish and from a diarrhoea evaluate the public health significance of representative strains of two aeromonas spp., mainly from freshwater fish, on the basis of production of virulence-associated factors and presence of the haemolytic genes aera and hlya.200212174039
biochemical identification and numerical taxonomy of aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental and clinical samples in study the phenotypic characteristics of aeromonas spp. from environmental and clinical samples in spain and to cluster these strains by numerical taxonomy.200212174040
the 1.20 a resolution crystal structure of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica complexed with tris: a tale of buffer inhibition.the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) is a bridged bimetallic enzyme that removes the n-terminal amino acid from a peptide chain. to fully understand the metal roles in the reaction pathway of aap we have solved the 1.20 a resolution crystal structure of native aap (pdb id = 1lok). the high-quality electron density maps showed a single tris molecule chelated to the active site zn(2+), alternate side chain conformations for some side chains, a sodium ion that mediates a crystal con ...200212176384
assessment of genetic variability and relatedness among atypical aeromonas salmonicida from marine fishes, using aflp-fingerprinting.atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida are the causal agent of atypical furunculosis or ulcer disease in various fish species, including spotted wolffish anarhichas minor, which is a promising species in the norwegian fish-farming industry. isolates of atypical a. salmonicida comprise a very heterogenous group showing large variety in biochemical, molecular and virulence characteristics. the genetic variability among atypical isolates from wolffish was characterised using amplified fragment l ...200212180702
survival of an aeromonas hydrophila in an artificial mineral water microcosm.the survival capacity of an aeromonas hydrophila strain (named sb14) isolated from mineral water was investigated in an artificial mineral water microcosm. the bacterial count of this microorganism was compared with two strains of other species from aquatic environments (pseudomonas fluorescens ssd and pseudomonas putida ssc) and a bacterium indicative of faecal pollution (escherichia coli atcc 25922). among the strains, all added to sterile pyrex glass flasks (1 l) to yield a final bacterial co ...200212188142
bacterial enteric pathogens in children with acute dysentery in thailand: increasing importance of quinolone-resistant campylobacter.current data on pathogen prevalence and drug resistance patterns are important for treatment and vaccine-development strategies. an etiologic study of acute bacterial dysentery was conducted in children up to 12 years of age in 2 major hospitals in and around bangkok. stool samples or rectal swabs and clinical data were collected. standard microbiological methods were used to detect salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, vibrio, aeromonas and plesiomonas. pathogenic e. coli (etec, eiec, stec) was ...200212757222
study of the effect of the midgut bacterial flora of culex quinquefasciatus on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to japanese encephalitis virus.culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected from the field and microbial flora was isolated from their midgut. isolates belonging to 13 different genera were obtained. four most abundant isolates viz. pseudomonas sp., acinetobacterjunii, staphylococcus epidermis and aeromonas culicicola were used to study their effect on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to japanese encephalitis virus (jev). incorporation of individual isolates in the mosquito bloodmeal resulted in an increased susceptibilit ...200212693864
bacteraemia in high-risk this study, we noticed a high incidence of bacteraemia in high-risk patients especially due to nonfermenter gram negative bacilli (nfgnb) and coagulase negative staphylococci (cons). bacteraemia caused by some rare bacteria such as moraxella spp., aeromonas spp., flavobacterium meningosepticum was also noted during the study. antibiotic resistance pattern showed that many isolates were multi drug resistant (mdr). this can be attributed to nosocomial-infection, which may occur due to more and ...200212645165
[presence and meaning of aeromonas in drinkable water]many species of aeromonas are thought to be the cause of diarrhoeal syndromes, bactaeremia and eye infections. recent studies have shown that the presence of aeromonas in drinkable water is not associated with that of feacal indicators. the authors have tested 62 samples of drinkable water from various wells, as well as 14 samples of two mineral waters collected in eastern sicily from 1996 to 1999. aeromonas were found in 14 (18%) out of 76 samples. also, biochemical detection of the strains sho ...200212616271
dna-dna reassociation and phenotypic data indicate synonymy between aeromonas enteropelogenes schubert et al. 1990 and aeromonas trota carnahan et al. 1991.mainly on the basis of phylogenetic and genotypic evidence, it has been suggested previously that the species aeromonas enteropelogenes schubert et al. 1990 is identical to the species aeromonas trota carnahan et al. 1991. probably because the description of a. enteropelogenes preceded the proposal of a. trota by only a few months, dna-dna hybridizations were never performed between representative strains of these two taxa. in the present study, new dna-dna hybridizations between the type strain ...200212508855
[a colorimetric method of hec toxin hemolysis test for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria].the purpose of the study is to establish a colorimetric method of hec toxin hemolysis test for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh). rbcs from normal persons and patients with pnh and non-pnh anemia were treated with hec toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila j-1 strain and the absorbance at 630 nm was measured to quantitate the extent of hemolysis. the results demonstrated that the rbcs from pnh patients showed resistance to the toxin hemolysis, which was in accord with the pe ...200212513727
antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines of amphibian populations are a source of great concern. several pathogens that can infect the skin have been implicated in the declines. the pathogen most frequently associated with recent die-offs is a chytrid fungus, batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. a second fungus, basidiobolus ranarum, was isolated from declining populations of wyoming toads. a third pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila, is an opportunistic bacterium found in healthy frogs, but capable of inducing disease. among the ...200211687264
immunity induced shortly after dna vaccination of rainbow trout against rhabdoviruses protects against heterologous virus but not against bacterial was recently reported that dna vaccination of rainbow trout fingerlings against viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) induced protection within 8 days after intramuscular injection of plasmid dna. in order to analyse the specificity of this early immunity, fish were vaccinated with plasmid dna encoding the vhsv or the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) glycoprotein genes and later challenged with homologous or heterologous pathogens. challenge experiments revealed that immun ...200211696382
lateral flagella and swarming motility in aeromonas species.swarming motility, a flagellum-dependent behavior that allows bacteria to move over solid surfaces, has been implicated in biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. in this study, light and electron microscopic analyses and genetic and functional investigations have shown that at least 50% of aeromonas isolates from the species most commonly associated with diarrheal illness produce lateral flagella which mediate swarming motility. aeromonas lateral flagella were optimally produced when bacteri ...200211751834
dissimilatory fe(iii) and mn(iv) reduction by shewanella putrefaciens requires fere, a homolog of the pule (gspe) type ii protein secretion gene.shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 respires anaerobically on a wide range of compounds as the sole terminal electron acceptor, including ferric iron [fe(iii)] and manganese oxide [mn(iv)]. previous studies demonstrated that a 23.3-kb s. putrefaciens wild-type dna fragment conferred metal reduction capability to a set of respiratory mutants with impaired fe(iii) and mn(iv) reduction activities (t. dichristina and e. delong, j. bacteriol. 176:1468-1474, 1994). in the present study, the smallest co ...200211741854
type ii topoisomerase quinolone resistance-determining regions of aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, and a. sobria complexes and mutations associated with quinolone resistance.most aeromonas strains isolated from two european rivers were previously found to be resistant to nalidixic acid. in order to elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, 20 strains of aeromonas caviae (n = 10), a. hydrophila (n = 5), and a. sobria (n = 5) complexes, including 3 reference strains and 17 environmental isolates, were investigated. fragments of the gyra, gyrb, parc, and pare genes encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining regions (qrdrs) were amplified by pcr and sequenced. ...200211796341
identification and characterization of pathogenic aeromonas veronii biovar sobria associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome in fish in bangladesh.sparse information is available on the virulence factors of aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish, from the environment, and from humans. in the present study, 52 aeromonas isolates obtained from epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) lesions in fish, from the aquatic environment, and from children with diarrhea in bangladesh were identified by biochemical phenotyping (i.e., pheneplate [php] typing) and dna fingerprinting and then characterized with respect to certain putative virulence fac ...200211823203
genomic heterogeneity of environmental and clinical aeromonads.thirty-three isolates of aeromonas from environmental sources and clinical samples were tested and the results, obtained using the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) technique, were compared with those obtained by biochemical typing. on the basis of their biochemical characteristics 31 strains was assigned to one of the recognised groups or species within the aeromonas genus and 2 strains to the species vibrio fluvialis. these latter were nevertheless found to belong to the aeromonas genus ...200211837387
distribution of virulence genes in aeromonas spp. isolated from sardinian waters and from patients with characterize 46 isolates of different aeromonas spp. strains (26 aeromonas hydrophila, 13 aeromonas sobria and 7 aeromonas salmonicida) isolated from coastal water and clinical sources in sardinia, italy.200211849349
the cloning and characterization of a second alpha-amylase of a. hydrophila jmp636.the aim of this study was to identify, clone and characterize the second amylase of aeromonas hydrophila jmp636, amyb, and to compare it to amya.200211849357
structure of peptidase t from salmonella typhimurium.the structure of peptidase t, or tripeptidase, was determined by multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (mad) methodology and refined to 2.4 a resolution. peptidase t comprises two domains; a catalytic domain with an active site containing two metal ions, and a smaller domain formed through a long insertion into the catalytic domain. the two metal ions, presumably zinc, are separated by 3.3 a, and are coordinated by five carboxylate and histidine ligands. the molecular surface of the active si ...200211856302
the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica can function as an esterase.the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) can catalyze the hydrolysis of l-leucine ethyl ester ( l-leu-oet) with a rate of 96 +/- 5 s-1 and a km of 700 microm. the observed turnover number for l-leu-oet hydrolysis by aap is similar to that observed for peptide hydrolysis, which is 67 +/- 5 s-1. the k(cat) values for the hydrolysis of l-leu-oet and l-leucine- p-nitroanilide ( l- pna) catalyzed by aap were determined at different ph values under saturating substrate concentrations. cons ...200211862549
bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products, as well as control measures.the importance of eschericha coli o157, listeria monocytogenes and salmonella typhimurium dt104 as meat-borne pathogens is well established. pathogenic bacteria such as aeromonas spp., arcobacter spp., psychrotrophic bacillus cereus, campylobacter spp., clostridium botulinum and non-invasive listeria monocytogenes can be regarded as rookies, but not yet firmly associated with today's production of red meat and meat products. the development of pcr and other dna-based techniques will shed new lig ...200222061614
diseases, prophylaxis and treatment of the atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus: a review.after substantial investments in research, the atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus is now being cultivated commercially in norway, iceland, scotland and canada. as with other domesticated species, disease problems have been experienced. this review summarizes the current state of knowledge of diseases of the atlantic halibut, and their diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. in economic terms, the most important losses have been suffered at the larval and juvenile stages. the most important ...200111843141
virulence factors of clinical isolates of aeromonas caviae.the mechanism of pathogenicity of 13 aeromonas caviae strains isolated from fecal specimens of children with diarrhea was examined. isolates possessed several virulence agents. six of 13 isolates produced cholera-like toxin, all strains exhibited adhesive ability and secreted catecholate siderophores. six isolates were able to grow in heat-inactivated serum. production of hemolysins was not detected. the isolates had relatively high values of ld50 in a mouse model, which suggests that there is n ...200111830944
microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. six plants are allocated along the nile river at cairo segment and the two others on ismailia canal. in this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees c, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes ...200111798415
detection of aeromonas caviae in the common housefly musca domestica by culture and polymerase chain reaction.aeromonas caviae has been implicated in diarrhoeal disease of livestock and humans. the potential role of houseflies in the epidemiology of this pathogen was investigated by examining the prevalence of a. caviae in houseflies collected from two south carolina farms and one restaurant. isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with aeromonas-specific pcr using novel primers (apw-pcr). all isolates cultured from houseflies were identified a ...200111811891
characterization of 13 kda granule-associated protein in aeromonas caviae and biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates with altered molar composition by recombinant bacteria.analysis of native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] inclusions from aeromonas caviae fa440 revealed that orf1 (a 348-bp gene located immediately upstream of phac(ac)) encodes a 13-kda granule-associated protein, which was referred to as phap(ac). several recombinant strains of a. caviae were constructed and conducted to analyze their pha-producing abilities. a transconjugant of fa440 harboring additional copies of phapcj(ac) genes accumulated p(3hb-co-3hhx) copolyes ...200111749166
production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by metabolically engineered escherichia coli strains.recombinant escherichia coli strains harboring a plasmid containing a novel artificial polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) operon consisting of the aeromonas pha biosynthesis related genes and ralstonia eutropha reductase gene were developed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] from dodecanoic acid. by applying stepwise reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration (doc) during the fermentation, the final dry cell weight, pha concentration, and pha content of 7 ...200111749180
circulating pig-a mutant t lymphocytes in healthy adults and patients with bone marrow failure syndromes.paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) is a clonal hematological disorder with acquired pig-a gene mutations and absent surface expression of proteins utilizing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchors. pnh often follows aplastic anemia, suggesting pig-a mutant cells have relative dominance over normal hematopoietic cells. somatic pig-a mutations could arise after aplasia, or healthy persons could have rare pig-a mutant cells that expand under selection pressure.200111750098
bacterial flora of hirudo medicinalis and their antibiotic sensitivities in the middle black sea region, turkey.the rate of infectious complications of leech therapy is almost 20% because hirudo medicinalis has endosymbiotic bacteria. the aim of this study was to determine the bacterial flora of h. medicinalis and their antibiotic sensitivities in a region in turkey. sixteen adult leeches were collected in middle black sea region, turkey. they were rubbed onto blood agar plates directly under ether anesthesia to obtain surface cultures. they were then killed to obtain mouth and gut cultures. culture swabs ...200111756807
effect of dietary beta-1,3 glucan on immune responses and disease resistance of healthy and aflatoxin b1-induced immunocompromised rohu (labeo rohita hamilton).the immunostimulant beta-1,3 glucan was fed at 0.1% in feed for 7 days to healthy and aflatoxin b1 (afb1)-induced immunocompromised fish, labeo rohita (one of the major tropical carp species), in a 60 day trial. the effects of afb1, glucan and their interactions on non-specific and specific immunity levels and disease resistance of fish were studied. a single intraperitoneal injection of afb1 at 1.25 mg kg(-1) body weight) caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in non-specific immunity as mea ...200111759039
class 1 integrons mediate antibiotic resistance in the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida worldwide.the presence of class 1 integrons was investigated in 38 sulfonamide-resistant strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, atypical a. salmonicida and escherichia coli conjugants with r plasmids originating from a. salmonicida. the strains originated from finland, france, japan, norway, scotland, switzerland, and the united states. additional resistance determinants in strains with class 1 integrons were also determined. of 21 strains containing a class 1 integron, 19 had a single gene ...200111759088
the occurrence of enteric pathogens and aeromonas species in organic vegetables.a range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of salmonella, campylobacter, escherichia coli, e. coli o 157. listeria and aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in northern ireland. the study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and aeromonas ...200111759753
isolation and identification of motile aeromonas species from this study a total of 140 broiler carcasses and carcass parts purchased at different supermarkets in ankara including 50 whole carcass, 30 wing, 30 leg and 30 breast samples were analysed for the presence of motile aeromonas species. according to analysis findings, motile aeromonas spp. were isolated from 116 (82.9%) of total 140 samples. the distribution of the isolates were 94%, 86.6%, 80%, 63.3% in broiler carcass, wing, leg and breast samples, respectively. aeromonas hydrophila was isolat ...200111765602
[clinical characterization of blaimp positive gram-negative rods isolated cases].we detected the metallo-beta-lactamase gene blaimp positive strains of the gram-negative rods (gnr) isolated in oita medical university hospital between 1993 and 1999 and studied the clinical characteristics of patients infected or colonized with blaimp positive gnr. 25 strains (20 pseudomonas aeruginosa and 5 serratia marcescens) were detected and most of them were isolated from urinary samples after 1997. in the studies of antimicrobial susceptibility, some strains had sensitivity to aztreonum ...200111766377
effect of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on microbial growth and sensorial qualities of fresh-cut produce.the application of high oxygen atmospheres (hoa) (i.e. > 70% o2) for packaging ready-to-eat vegetables was evaluated as an alternative technique for low o2 equilibrium modified atmosphere (ema) packaging (3% o2-5% co2-balance n2) for respiring products. comparative experiments between both techniques were performed in-vitro and in-vivo. typical spoilage causing microorganisms (pseudomonas fluorescens, candida lambica), the moulds botrytis cinerea, aspergillus flavus and the opportunistic psychro ...200111789938
identification of thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria and fungi in esfahan (iran) municipal solid waste compost.the thermophilic and mesophilic microbiota in compost produced from esfahan municipal solid waste were examined at different stages of composting process from day zero to 28 days and was conducted in four different seasons. some of the mesophilic bacteria observed in initial stages of composting process were gram negative escherichia, klebsiella, aeromonas and alcaligenes, and gram positive enterococcus and bacillus species. after 20 days of the composting process lower species diversity of meso ...200111699859
occurrence of two superoxide dismutases in aeromonas hydrophila: molecular cloning and differential expression of the soda and sodb genes.aeromonas spp., considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens, belong to the family vibrionaceae. among the criteria currently used for their classification is the presence of a single fesod (iron-containing superoxide dismutase), which distinguishes them from enterobacteriacea. in this paper the cloning of the soda and sodb genes encoding two different sods in aeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966 is reported. the sodb gene encoded an fesod (196 amino acids, 21.5 kda), was constitutively expressed an ...200111700360
bacterial interactions with contact lenses; effects of lens material, lens wear and microbial lens wear is a successful form of vision correction. however, adverse responses can occur during wear. many of these adverse responses are produced as a consequence of bacterial colonization of the lens. the present study demonstrated that during asymptomatic contact lens wear lenses are colonized by low levels of bacteria with gram-positive bacteria, such as coagulase negative staphylococci, predominating. gram-negative bacteria are frequently the causative agents of adverse responses d ...200111700795
[surveillance of various enteropathogenic bacteria from diarrheal cases during 1989-1999 in kobe city].incidence of various enteropathogenic bacteria was examined from diarrheal faecal samples that were collected from the patients of kobe city general hospital and some station hospitals (23,862), and from overseas travelers (2,855) over a period of decade (1989-1999) in kobe. a total of 1,580 strains were isolated from domestic and 331 strains from overseas travelers. the results are as follows. 1) thirteen kinds of enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated from domestic diarrheal cases (6.6%). sal ...200111712364
incidence, distribution, and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants and integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes among motile aeromonads from a fish farming environment.a collection of 313 motile aeromonads isolated at danish rainbow trout farms was analyzed to identify some of the genes involved in high levels of antimicrobial resistance found in a previous field trial (a. s. schmidt, m. s. bruun, i. dalsgaard, k. pedersen, and j. l. larsen, appl. environ. microbiol. 66:4908-4915, 2000), the predominant resistance phenotype (37%) being a combined oxytetracycline (otc) and sulphadiazine/trimethoprim resistance. combined sulphonamide/trimethoprim resistance (135 ...200111722922
behavior of aeromonas hydrophila in bottled mineral waters.the growth and survival of aeromonas hydrophila in three types of natural mineral waters were investigated. mineral waters with different levels of mineral content (low, medium, and high) were experimentally contaminated with a. hydrophila, stored at different temperatures (10 degrees c and 20 degrees c), and analyzed at intervals over a 60-day period. water samples that were not experimentally contaminated were investigated for indigenous a. hydrophila. the results confirmed that a. hydrophila ...200111726170
industrial scale production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate).large scale production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] by aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 was examined in a 20,000 l fermentor. cells were first grown using glucose as a carbon source, and polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) biosynthesis was triggered by the addition of lauric acid under conditions of limited nitrogen or phosphorus. when cells first grown in a medium containing 50 g glucose l(-1) were further cultivated after the addition of 50 g lauric acid l(-1) under phosph ...200111693933
epidemiology, clinical course and impact on hospitalization costs of acute diarrhea among hospitalized children in athens, greece.the aim of this study was to describe the etiology, morbidity and hospitalization costs associated with acute diarrhea among hospitalized children in greece. during 1999, 294 hospitalized children (median age 1 y) with acute diarrhea were prospectively studied. bacterial and viral enteropathogens were detected in 100 (34%) and 37 (12.5%) patients, respectively; 17 (6%) patients had mixed infections. isolated agents included salmonella spp. (43 patients; 15%), rotavirus (32; 11%), campylobacter s ...200111669226
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