[effectiveness of modified atmospheres against psychrotrophic pathogenic microorganisms in proteinaceous food].modified atmosphere packaging (map) of proteinaceous raw foods (meat, poultry and fish) extends their shelf-lives. it is well established that modified atmospheres (ma) inhibit the psychotropic aerobic gram-negative bacteria, the main spoilage microflora of proteinaceous raw foods stored under refrigeration. several researchers have warned about the possible growth of food poisoning microorganisms on them. considering the minimal growth temperatures of pathogens, this review only deals with aero ...19957546447
lactic acid inhibition of the growth of spoilage bacteria and cold tolerant pathogens on pork.the antibacterial effects of a 3% solution of lactic acid at 55 degrees c were assessed, by examining aerobic bacterial growth on artificially-inoculated pork fat and lean tissue. discs of fat or lean tissues, each of 10 cm2 surface area, were aseptically excised from pork longissimus dorsi muscle and inoculated with the cold tolerant pathogens listeria monocytogenes 4b scott a no. 3, yersinia enterocolitica 0:4,32 or aeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966, or with the wild type spoilage bacteria pseudo ...19957547145
buffering capacity and h+ membrane conductance of gram-negative bacteria.buffering capacity and membrane h+ conductance were examined in seven gram-negative species: aquaspirillum serpens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, alcaligenes faecalis, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, proteus mirabilis and aeromonas hydrophila. all strains of enterobacteriaceae studied here showed a decrease in both parameters as the external ph increased, over the ph range studied. the other four species presented an increase in buffering capacity and membrane conductance to protons as the e ...19957557289
immunoregulatory activities of eicosanoids in the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).eicosanoids such as prostaglandins (pg), leukotrienes (lt) and lipoxins (lx) have been shown to be potent immunoregulatory molecules in mammals. to determine if they have similar roles in 'lower' animals, rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with either sheep erythrocytes or aeromonas salmonicida in the presence or absence of the stable analogue of pge2, 16,16-dimethyl-pge2, and the number of plaque-forming cells (pfc) or specific antibody levels determined. the higher dose of 16,1 ...19957558126
motile aeromonas as agent of infections of the foot.motile aeromonas infections of the foot are caused mostly by post-traumatic incidence, occurring mostly during summer months. serious complications such as osteomyelitis and amputation can result if the infections go untreated or are inadequately treated. the role of each species of motile aeromonas in pathogenesis and response to antimicrobial agents is not well understood because of taxonomic uncertainty. as a group, motile aeromonas respond well to aminoglycosides, second-generation and third ...19957562462
[many problems in the diagnosis of colitis. 2 case reports]. 19957564651
electron microscopic examination of factors influencing the expression of filamentous surface structures on clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas veronii biotype sobria.strains of aeromonas veronii biotype sobria isolated from clinical and environmental sources were examined for their expression of surface structures under a variety of culture conditions. when grown on solid media at 37 degrees c, more than 95% of bacteria from the majority of strains isolated from human diarrheal feces and chicken carcasses were non-piliated or expressed only a few pili of long, flexible morphology per cell. strains isolated from water or other foods were much more likely to e ...19957565173
risk of diarrheal disease in ecuadorian day-care determine the risk for diarrheal disease (dd) in day-care centers (dcc) for children residing in a poor urban slum area of quito, ecuador, compared with that for children from the same environment but cared for in their own residential home (rh), a prospective age-, sex- and locale-controlled study of dd was conducted, including 115 children in dcc and 115 in rh, ages 12 to 42 months. the overall incidence of dd was 46/1000 child weeks. diarrhea was more common in dcc than in rh (relative ris ...19957567291
[occurrence of parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi in fish that are pathogenic to men and fish].parasitological examinations comprised above 20,000 fish which were searched for parasitic nematoda of anisakidae. it was evidenced that herring were infected with anisakid larvae in 8%, cod and flatfish in 4% and the eelpouts in as many as in 52%. the species that prevails in these fish were: anisakis simplex, contracaecum osculatum c, hysterothylacium auctum and pseudoterranova decipiens, respectively. in direction of the bacteria pathogenic to man 765 fish were examined; in 38% there were fou ...19957571631
interactions of biapenem with active-site serine and metallo-beta-lactamases.biapenem, formerly ljc 10,627 or l-627, a carbapenem antibiotic, was studied in its interactions with 12 beta-lactamases belonging to the four molecular classes proposed by r. p. ambler (philos. trans. r. soc. lond. biol. sci. 289:321-331, 1980). kinetic parameters were determined. biapenem was readily inactivated by metallo-beta-lactamases but behaved as a transient inhibitor of the active-site serine enzymes tested, although with different acylation efficiency values. class a and class d beta- ...19957574520
microflora and tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria in a gastropod, niotha clathrata.shellfish (niotha clathrata) were collected in both july and november from three locations in taiwan (pingtung, kaohsiung and chiai prefecture) and assayed for anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (ttx) and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. pingtung specimens showed higher toxicity than those from kaohsiung and chiai, and did not show much seasonal variation. at each site, the total aerobic bacterial counts in november samples were higher than in july. the predominant genera were vibrio, pseudo ...19957590540
the interaction of trimethoprim and quinolones against gram-negative fish pathogens.the effect of combination of trimethoprim with other non-sulphonamide antibacterial agents, in particular oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid, was evaluated against gram-negative fish pathogens. the species included aeromonas salmonicida, yersinia ruckeri, some vibrio spp. and escherichia coli as a reference. the extent of synergy found by other workers with these substances against human gram-negative bacteria was not apparent here. some positive interaction between trimethoprim and oxolinic acid ...19957592108
rapd analysis of aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas hydrophila.the randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) technique was used to analyse the genetic differentiation of 13 strains of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and seven strains of aer. hydrophila. reproducible profiles of genomic dna fingerprints were generated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a single randomly designed primer. the rapd profiles of all the non-motile aeromonads, aer. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were identical. however, profiles of the motile aeromonads, aer. hydro ...19957592114
[in vitro antibacterial activity of balofloxacin (blfx) against isolates from patients with bacterial enteritis].in vitro antibacterial activity of balofloxacin (blfx), a newly developed fluoroquinoline, was compared with that of norfloxacin (nflx), ofloxacin (oflx) and ciplofloxacin (cpfx). bacterial strains used in this experiment were freshly isolated from patients with infectious enteritis just before blfx therapy. the isolates were 43 strains of vibrio cholerae o1, 1 strain of campylobacter sp., 4 strains of aeromonas spp., 3 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides, 1 strain of vibrio mimicus and 1 strain ...19957594800
a specific puld homolog is required for the secretion of paracrystalline surface array subunits in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an important pathogen of fish, and its high-virulence strains display a two-dimensional paracrystalline layer (s-layer) on their outermost surfaces. the nucleotide sequence of a 4.1-kb region located 700 bp upstream of the a. hydrophila tf7 s-layer protein gene (ahsa) has been determined. a sequence analysis of the region revealed the presence of three complete open reading frames ending in a gene encoding a 79.8-kda polypeptide that shows high homology to the puld family ...19957608063
cloning and primary structure of the chia gene from aeromonas caviae.the chia gene from aeromonas caviae encodes an extracellular chitinase, 865 amino acids long, that shows a high degree of similarity to chitinase a of serratia marcescens. expression in escherichia coli yielded an enzymatically active protein from which a leader sequence was removed, presumably during transport of the enzyme across the cell membrane.19957608101
pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin: the asp197-gly-asp-tyr-his-tyr-his-tyr202 containing loop is critical for plasma membrane binding.the cytotoxin from pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pore-forming toxin that binds specifically to water channel-related molecules of the erythrocyte membrane. here, we have defined a domain, asp197-gly-asp-tyr-his-tyr202 of the cytotoxin, to be essential for receptor binding. cytotoxin point mutants from the recombinant gene carrying substitutions in the domain were characterized in terms of inhibiting the binding of radioiodinated natural cytotoxin to rat erythrocyte and producing cytotoxic effects ...19957609787
aeromonas hydrophila myonecrosis accompanying mucormycosis five years after bone marrow transplantation.a 36-year-old man, five years after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia, was admitted with myonecrosis of the forearm after he had immersed his hand in sewage water several days prior to his admission. blood cultures and specimens taken from the necrotic tissue of the arm all grew aeromonas hydrophila. following extension of the infection, the patient underwent amputation of the arm but ultimately died of cerebral mucormycosis. the epidemiology of aeromonas infections is discussed an ...19957614968
yeast beta-glucan stimulates respiratory burst activity of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) macrophages.previous studies have shown that head kidney macrophages isolated from glucan injected rainbow trout (oncorhychus mykiss) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) have increased ability to kill aeromonas salmonicida. the present work was aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of glucan on the respiratory burst and bactericidal potential of atlantic salmon head kidney macrophages. salmon macrophages were incubated for 1-7 days with various concentrations of yeast beta-glucan (macrogard) and test ...19957615137
aeromonas bacteremia: review of 59 episodes.fifty-nine episodes of bacteremia due to aeromonas species occurred within a 5-year period in one medical center in southern taiwan. underlying diseases in the 58 patients included hepatic cirrhosis (36%) and cancer (24%). patients with aeromonas bacteremia more often had underlying hepatic cirrhosis than did those with bacteremia due to other gram-negative bacilli. males (67%) outnumbered females. the cases appeared to cluster in the summer and fall months. thirty-two percent were polymicrobial ...19957620014
a conserved aeromonas salmonicida porin provides protective immunity to rainbow trout.a protein with an apparent m(r) of 28,000 was isolated from outer membrane preparations of aeromonas salmonicida a440. the protein was tested for the ability to form pores, using a planar lipid bilayer model membrane system. the protein appeared to be a monomer with a single-channel conductance in 1.0 m kcl of 1.96 ns and a cation/anion permeability ratio of 2.91 +/- 0.68. these data show that the porin channel is comparable in size to ompc and ompf of escherichia coli and is relatively nonselec ...19957622241
aeromonas infections and their treatment.with advances in the identification and molecular taxonomy of aeromonas spp., these organisms, which are widely distributed in the environment, are increasingly being recognised as human pathogens. clinical infections include gastroenteritis, skin and soft tissue infections and bacteraemia. antibiotic resistance poses a potential problem in the antimicrobial therapy of infections cased by aeromonas spp. while most strains are susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole and the ...19957628980
conserved amino acid residues in the primary structure of ribosomal protein s20 from selected gram-negative bacteria.partial dna sequences encoding ribosomal protein s20 have been determined for a number of gram-negative bacteria including three species of aeromonas, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and salmonella typhimurium and compared to the known sequence from escherichia coli. the derived amino acid sequence is well conserved, particularly in the c-terminal one-third of s20. in contrast, there is much less conservation of the nucleotide sequence or potential secondary structure in the correspond ...19957640306
bacterial succession within a biofilm in water supply lines of dental air-water syringes.biofilms have been implicated as reservoirs for bacterial contamination of water delivered by dental air-water syringes. a 6-month study was done of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in plastic water supply lines connected to dental air-water syringes. changes in biofilm flora were observed by both scanning electron microscopy and bacteriologic culture. by day 7, many rod- and spiral-shaped bacteria had colonized the ridged surface of the luminal wall of the tubing, as revealed by sca ...19957641146
distribution of aeromonas phenospecies and genospecies among strains isolated from water, foods or from human clinical samples.a total of 332 aeromonas spp. originating from drinking water (n = 75), fresh water (n = 57), chicken and ground beef (107), human faecal samples in association with travelling (n = 49), human faecal samples not associated with travelling (n = 38), and six strains from human blood cultures were studied by phenotypic methods and by using analysis of ribopatterns as a molecular method for the identification of the 13 known hybridization groups (hgs). also included were the reference strains of eac ...19957641837
surface phenotypic characteristics and virulence of spanish isolates of aeromonas salmonicida after passage through fish.eleven strains of aeromonas salmonicida were passaged twice by intraperitoneal injection through rainbow trout and reisolated from the kidney of moribund fish. the surface characteristics and virulence of the strains changed following passage through fish. none of the in vitro tests used could effectively predict the in vivo virulence.19957646039
evaluation of the suitability of bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol, (diba-c4(3)-), for the flow cytometric assessment of bacterial viability.the usefulness of oxonol (bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol) as a generally applicable indicator of bacterial viability was investigated using untreated and killed cultures of a variety of bacterial genera. killing methods involved either heat or bactericidal antibiotics. for all strains tested, the fluorescent dye showed significantly more intense staining of killed than untreated cells. the sensitivity of aeromonas salmonicida to gentamicin was assessed using oxonol. although t ...19957649437
a survey of enteropathogens among united states military personnel during operation bright star '94, in cairo, egypt.acute gastroenteritis is a potential cause of substantial morbidity in u.s. military personnel during deployment. this study was conducted to evaluate enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in a u.s. military population on deployment in cairo, egypt, during november 1993. enteric pathogens found to be associated with cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), 27% (22% heat-stable [st], 3% heat-labile [lt], and 2% st/lt producers); campylobacter spp., 3%; and salmone ...19957659237
media for aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides and pseudomonas spp. from food and environment.several media are proposed particularly for the detection of aeromonas spp. but also for plesiomonas shigelloides and pseudomonas spp. some are for general purposes and others specifically for the examination of clinical, environmental or food samples. all media are selective, due to antibiotics, bile salts, dyes and other selective agents, as well as differential, primarily based on the ability of the microorganisms to ferment/not ferment carbohydrates. as with all selective media, the recovery ...19957662518
phenotypic and molecular characteristics of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolated in southern and northern finland.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonid fish. furunculosis was first detected in finland in 1986 on fish farms located on the finnish coast of the bothnian bay. molecular methods, sds-page, ribotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and plasmid profile analysis as well as phenotypic characteristics (biochemical characteristics, maximum growth temperature, pigment and elastase production) were used both for typing the strains and to study t ...19957665387
cell-surface charge and cell-surface hydrophobicity of collagen-binding aeromonas and vibrio strains.partitioning in aqueous polymer two-phase systems of polyethylene glycol and dextran was used to detect and compare cell-surface charge and cell-surface hydrophobicity of aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, a. sobria, vibrio cholerae, and v. anguillarum strains. these strains have cell-surface components that bound either native or thermally denatured type i collagen (i.e., a mixture of the alpha1+alpha2 chains) and gelatin immobilized on latex beads. our goals were: (1) to compare the possible rel ...19957668930
acute gastroenteritis in three community-based nursing homes.acute gastroenteritis is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. a prospective assessment of acute diarrhea in three community-based long-stay homes is described.19957671026
aeromonads in acute diarrhoea and asymptomatic infections in nigerian children.stool samples of 616 asymptomatic and 296 diarrhoeic school children were compared for the recovery rate of aeromonas spp. on ampicillin (10 micrograms/ml) sheep blood agar. culture filtrates of isolates were tested for haemolysin production with 1% freshly washed rabbit erythrocytes. stools of 9 (3.0%) diarrhoeic children yielded five strains of a. hydrophila and four of a. veronii (two each of biotypes sobria and veronii), compared to 12 (1.9%) (p > 0.01) asymptomatic children who harbored sev ...19957672071
aeromonas septicaemia in hong kong species distribution and associated disease.during a 5-year study of 2211 patients with clinically significant positive blood cultures in hong kong. aeromonas spp. were isolated in 40 cases. among 26 episodes in which a single species was isolated. 17 (65.4%) were identified as aeromonas hydrophila. 8 (30.8%) as a. sobria and one (3.8%) as a. caviae. there were 14 episodes with a mixture of species. of these, nine (64.3%) were identified as a. hydrophila, two (14.3%) as a. sobria, and two (14.3%) as a. caviae. one (7.1%) was an infection ...19957673749
beta-lytic endopeptidases. 19957674960
cloning and genetic analysis of the vibrio vulnificus fur gene and construction of a fur mutant by in vivo marker exchange.vibrio vulnificus infections have been associated with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. iron may play a major role in the pathogenesis of v. vulnificus infections. many virulence genes, as well as genes involved in the transport of iron by bacteria, are regulated by iron, with increased expression under low-iron conditions. in escherichia coli and vibrio cholerae, transcriptional regulation by iron depends on the fur gene. we utilized southern hybridization under low- and high-string ...19937678593
molecular characterization of dna encoding 23s rrna and 16s-23s rrna intergenic spacer regions of aeromonas hydrophila.amplification of the gene encoding 23s rrna of aeromonas hydrophila by polymerase chain reaction, with primers complementary to conserved regions of 16s and the 3'-end of 23s rrna genes, resulted in a dna fragment of approximately 3 kb. this fragment was cloned in escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence determined. the region encoding 23s rrna shows high homology with the published sequences of 23s rrna from other members of the gamma division of proteobacteria. the sequence of the interge ...19937681020
relatedness of a periplasmic, broad-specificity rnase from aeromonas hydrophila to rnase i of escherichia coli and to a family of eukaryotic rnases.the isolation, sequencing, and characterization of a periplasmic rnase gene from aeromonas hydrophila ah1133 is described. following subcloning of the gene on a 2.7-kb psti fragment, its direction of transcription and approximate location were determined. analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the gene is 645 bp long, coding for 215 amino acid residues with a total molecular weight of 24,215. a typical leader sequence is present at the beginning of the corresponding protein. computer a ...19937685334
dimerization stabilizes the pore-forming toxin aerolysin in solution.aerolysin is a channel-forming protein secreted as a protoxin by aeromonas hydrophila. analytical centrifugation measurements showed that proaerolysin is a dimer in solution, and this was confirmed by chemical cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate. dissociation of proaerolysin with low concentrations of sds resulted in the loss of tertiary structure, assessed by near ultraviolet circular dichroism. this was accompanied by an increase in the protein's ability to bind the hydrophobic dye 1-anil ...19937688743
distribution of surface-exposed and non-accessible amino acid sequences among the two major structural domains of the s-layer protein of aeromonas salmonicida.the tetragonally arranged crystalline surface protein array (a-layer) of the fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida is a virulence factor. circular dichroism studies in the presence or absence of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate showed that the secondary structure of a-protein, and its 39,439 molecular weight amino-terminal trypsin-resistant peptide, were altered. in both cases alpha-helix was increased significantly at the expense of beta-structure when sds was added. western and dot immuno ...19937692070
kinetic analysis of extension of substrate specificity with xanthomonas maltophilia, aeromonas hydrophila, and bacillus cereus metallo-beta-lactamases.twenty beta-lactam molecules, including penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, carbapenems, and monobactams, were investigated as potential substrates for xanthomonas maltophilia ula-511, aeromonas hydrophila ae036, and bacillus cereus 5/b/6 metallo-beta-lactamases. a detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters examined confirmed these enzymes to be broad-spectrum beta-lactamases with different ranges of catalytic efficiency. cefoxitin and moxalactam, substrates for the beta-lactamases from x. mal ...19957695305
a histological study of the pathological effect of lipopolysaccharide-free glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyl transferase (gcat) on atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). 19947698454
identification and characterization of the insertion element is1070 from leuconostoc lactis nz6009.a novel insertion sequence, designated is1070, was identified on the lactose plasmid of leuconostoc lactis nz6009 by nucleotide sequence analysis. the 1027-bp sequence contains partially matched (24 of 28 bp) inverted repeats and has one long open reading frame. the deduced 305-amino-acid sequence demonstrated homology to transposases of is30 from escherichia coli, is4351 from bacteroides fragilis, is1086 from alcaligenes eutrophus, is1161 from streptococcus salivarius, isas2 from aeromonas salm ...19957698675
differences in production of several extracellular virulence factors in clinical and food aeromonas spp. strains.production of several extracellular virulence factors (lipase, protease and haemolysin) was compared in 15 aeromonas spp. isolated from faeces of patients with aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis and 81 strains isolated from food. strains from food did not show differences in production of these factors when compared with strains isolated from faeces. however, if strains were considered in relation to autoagglutination (aa) character, the aa+ differed from aa- strains in lipase and protease pro ...19957698952
development of antibiotic-resistant strains for the enumeration of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in stored foods.strains of aeromonas spp., salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, salmonella typhimurium, verotoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 (vtec) and yersinia enterocolitica resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid and a combination of both antibiotics were selected. when compared with the parent strains, most of the antibiotic-resistant strains had slightly slower growth rates at their optimum incubation temperature but the difference was reduced progressively when the temperature was lowered. some antibi ...19947703007
taxonomical and epidemiological investigations of aeromonas sp. 19957706533
homology between the seed cytolysin enterolobin and bacterial aerolysins.enterolobin, a 55-kda cytolytic, inflammatory, and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of the brazilian tree enterolobium contortisiliquum (leguminosae-mimosoideae) has been further purified and partially sequenced by using both manual and automated methods. a computational search of enterolobin partial amino acid sequence against the pir database revealed possible sequence similarities with aerolysins, cytolytic proteins from aeromonas species. an alignment of enterolobin partial sequence ...19947710657
comparison of seven selective media for the isolation of mesophilic aeromonas species in fish and selective agar media and two enrichment broths were evaluated for their suitability for the isolation of mesophilic aeromonas species from meat, fish, and shellfish samples. in a first trial, aeromonads were inoculated in fish and meat samples and reisolated using all selected media. for qualitative isolation, enrichment in alkaline peptone water (ph 8.7 +/- 0.1) at 28 degrees c and subsequent plating onto sheep blood agar supplemented with 30 mg/l ampicillin (asba 30) and bile salts-irgas ...19957710914
[myonecrosis caused by aeromonas]. 19957711127
ecopathology in aquaculture: risk factors in infectious disease outbreak.this paper describes a study of the risk factors associated with disease outbreaks in fish species of fish farms and rivers of north-east spain. we focused our work on the isolation of fish pathogens (bacteria, virus), the water quality (physicochemical and microbiological quality) and management characteristics. we have observed 2 important viral diseases, infectious pancreatic necrosis and spring viraemia of carp, and 2 important bacterial ones, furunculosis (aeromonas salmonicida) and bacteri ...19957711777
salmon farming: occupational health in a new rural industry.the medical hazards of salmon farming can be grouped into those related to marine safety, fish husbandry, fish-farm diving and disease treatments. the hostile water environment requires thermal protection and personal buoyancy aids as workers frequently fall in the water from boats or cages. feedstuffs may generate respirable dust and attract rats, creating a risk of leptospirosis. musculo-skeletal injuries are common from lifting nets. fish-farm diving has particular risks which can be minimize ...19957718825
genetic variation in the humoral immune response against vibrio salmonicida and in antibody titre against vibrio anguillarum and total igm in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).total igm level and antibody titre to vibrio anguillarum o-antigen after bath-vaccination, and specific antibody response to v. salmonicida o-antigen at three different samplings were analysed in family material of atlantic salmon (salmo salar), consisting of 791 fish belonging to 34 maternal full-sib groups within 12 paternal half-sib groups. the fish were immunized twice, and blood samples collected three times. after the third blood sampling, the fish were challenged with v. anguillarum. medi ...19947725631
distribution of cpha or related carbapenemase-encoding genes and production of carbapenemase activity in members of the genus aeromonas.the prevalence of the cpha gene or related carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated in 114 aeromonas strains belonging to the six species of major clinical interest. a species-related distribution of cpha-related sequences was observed. similar sequences were found in a. hydrophila, a. veronii bv. sobria, a. veronii bv. veronii, and a. jandaei, but not in a. caviae, a. trota, or a. schubertii. however, a single a. caviae strain (of 62 tested) was found carrying cpha-related sequences, sugge ...19957726495
dna relatedness among aeromonas allosaccharophila strains and dna hybridization groups of the genus aeromonas.the genomic relatedness among three aeromonas allosaccharophila strains, including the type strain, and other aeromonas type and reference strains that were assigned to dna hybridization groups was estimated by dna-dna hybridization (competition procedure using a membrane method). all a. allosaccharophila strains were highly related (70 to 100%) to strains 289t (= cect 4199t) and atcc 35942. type strains of other validated aeromonas species, reference strains of dna groups 8 and 11, and the aero ...19957727276
virulence factors in clinical and food isolates of aeromonas species.virulence factors were compared in 15 aeromonas spp. isolated from faeces of patients with aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis and in 81 strains isolated from food. strains from food did not show differences in the distribution of virulence factors when compared with strains isolated from faeces. however, 88.8% of aeromonas strains isolated from food were capable of producing possible virulence factors. characterization of 28 autoagglutinating (aa+) aeromonas spp. indicated that the human strai ...19947729770
vaccination in european salmonid aquaculture: a review of practices and prospects.disease control by vaccination is widely used in european salmonid aquaculture against vibriosis (vibrio anguillarum), cold-water vibriosis (vibrio salmonicida), yersiniosis or enteric redmouth disease (yersinia ruckeri) and furunculosis (aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida). the vaccines against the vibrio spp. and y. ruckeri have proven effective especially when administered by injection. furunculosis vaccines have been less successful and have relied on combination with potent adjuvants ...19957735870
the plasmid profiles of fish pathogenic isolates of aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum, and vibrio ordalii from the atlantic and pacific coasts of canada.the plasmid profiles of oxytetracycline- and streptomycin-resistant isolates of aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum, and vibrio ordalii were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. bacterial isolates were from disease outbreaks in fish on the atlantic and pacific coasts. resistant isolates were examined when grown in the presence and absence of antibiotic. alkaline lysis methods were used for plasmid isolation. vibrio spp. were predominantly plasmidless, except for a 47-kilobase (kb) plas ...19957736353
interaction between the autokinase epse and epsl in the cytoplasmic membrane is required for extracellular secretion in vibrio cholerae.vibrio cholerae secretes a number of proteins important for virulence, including cholera toxin. this process requires the products of the eps genes which have homologues in genera such as aeromonas, klebsiella and pseudomonas and are thought to form a membrane-associated multiprotein complex. here we show that the putative nucleotide-binding protein epse is associated with and stabilized by the cytoplasmic membrane via interaction with epsl. analysis of fusion proteins between epse and the homol ...19957737119
association of aeromonas spp. with travellers' diarrhoea in finland.the association of aeromonas spp. with travellers' diarrhoea was studied among 978 finnish tourists travelling to morocco in winter (n = 398) and autumn (n = 580) in 1989. fifty-five isolates from diarrhoeal patients with (n = 16) or without (n = 39) a recent travelling history in a developing country were also included. in morocco, aeromonas spp. were isolated from 8.7% of patients with diarrhoea and from 1.4% of non-diarrhoeal tourists (p < 0.001). aeromonas spp. were found as the sole pathoge ...19957739020
temperature-dependent protein and lipopolysaccharide expression in clinical aeromonas isolates.clinical isolates of aeromonas were grown at eight different temperatures from 10 degrees c to 40 degrees c. whole cell lysates were examined by sds-page and major temperature-dependent changes to both protein and lipopolysaccharide (lps) profiles were identified. cells grown at the higher temperatures (37 degrees c and 40 degrees c) produced abundantly a protein of c. 60 kda which was not detected at the lower temperatures. temperature-dependent expressions of other proteins were also noted but ...19957739022
molecular analysis of an a-protein secretion mutant of aeromonas salmonicida reveals a surface layer-specific protein secretion pathway.the aeromonas salmonicida tn5 mutant, a449-tm1, is unable to secrete the surface layer protein (a-protein) through the outer membrane. immunogold labeling of thin sections of a449-tm1, with polyclonal antisera against the a-protein, showed the accumulation of large quantities of a-protein in an enlarged periplasm. the majority of the labeled a-protein could be seen at the poles of the cells. the ability of a449-tm1 to secrete other extracellular proteins such as hemolysin and protease was not im ...19957739043
cellulitis owing to aeromonas hydrophilia: treatment with hyperbaric oxygen.aeromonas hydrophilia, a gram-negative facultative anaerobe, is a rare cause of cellulitis. we review the literature and report a case of aeromonas hydrophilia cellulitis which failed to respond to the conventional management of surgical debridement and antibiotics. hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used successfully to control the infection. as far as we are aware this is the first case in world literature of aeromonas hydrophilia cellulitis treated with hyperbaric oxygen.19957741686
the presence of capsular polysaccharide in mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila serotypes o:11 and o:34.mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila from serotypes o:11 and o:34 grown in a glucose-rich medium produce a capsule that can be seen under light and electron microscopy. the purified capsular polysaccharide has a composition qualitatively similar for strains o:11 and o:34, but quantitatively different. the capsular polysaccharides were immunogenic in rabbits, and did not cross-react with specific antibodies against either purified lipopolysaccharide from strains o:34 or o:11 or against the s-layer cha ...19957744240
diversity of aeromonas sp. in flemish drinking water production plants as determined by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of cellular fatty acid methyl esters (fames).gas-liquid chromatography of cellular fatty acid methyl esters (fames) was used to determine the phenotypic and genotypic diversity among 489 presumptive aeromonas strains isolated from five flemish drinking water production plants. fame profiles were compared with the predetermined library profiles of a representative database, aer48c, which contains the mean fame data of all 14 currently established hybridization groups (hgs) or genospecies within aeromonas. using aer48c, more than 93% (457 st ...19957744729
pcbs increase molecular-related activities (lysozyme, antibacterial, hemolysis, proteases) but inhibit macrophage-related functions (phagocytosis, wound healing) in earthworms.both humoral and cellular immunodefense responses of the earthworms, eisenia fetida andrei, eisenia hortensis, and lumbricus terrestris, have been compared after exposure to the pcb aroclor 1254. responses mediated by free factors, detected by in vitro assays for lysozyme, hemolysis, and proteases, were increased in both eisenia. antibacterial activity directed against pathogenic bacteria was increased in e.f. andrei. the resistance of l. terrestris against non-pathogenic bacteria was decreased, ...19957745278
studies on the bacterial flora of fish which are potential pathogens for human. isolation of various potential human pathogenic organisms from different parts of fish and their significance in initiating human diseases.freshwater fish of different categories, collected from market of dhaka city of bangladesh, were studied for the bacterial flora. potential human pathogens were isolated from about eighty-five percent of the fish studied. organisms isolated were aeromonas spp., (69.2%), vibrio spp., (42.3%), plesiomonas shigelloides (35.9%) and escherichia coli (16.7%). the high association of potential human pathogens among the freshwater fish suggest that if fish are handled improperly or if consumed undercook ...19947748144
studies on the bacterial flora of fish which are potential pathogens for human. virulence factors of potential human pathogen isolated.tests for various virulence factors, such as production of haemolysin on sheep blood agar plate, cytotoxin on hela cell line and enterotoxin in gm-1 elisa and suckling mouse assay model, were done among the various strains of aeromonas spp., vibrio spp., plesiomonas shigelloides and esch. coli isolated from fresh water fish samples. invasive properties of the isolates were also seen by using sereny test. haemolysin production was observed in 85.7% of aeromonas, all (100%) of vibrios, 13.3% of es ...19947748153
physical and functional s-layer reconstitution in aeromonas salmonicida.the various functions attributed to the s-layer of aeromonas salmonicida have been previously identified by their conspicuous absence in s-layer-defective mutants. as a different approach to establish the multifunctional nature of this s-layer, we established methods for reconstitution of the s-layer of a. salmonicida. then we investigated the functional competence of the reconstituted s-layer. s-layers were reconstituted in different systems: on inert membranes or immobilized lipopolysaccharide ...19957751277
molecular characterization of an aeromonas salmonicida mutant with altered surface morphology and increased systemic virulence.the asoa gene of aeromonas salmonicida is located approximately 7 kb downstream of the a-layer structural gene, vapa. a 6 kb bamhi fragment containing asoa was cloned and marker-exchange mutagenesis using a kanamycin-resistance cassette was performed to generate an asoa mutation in the low-virulence strain a449l. when analysed by electron microscopy, the mutant a449l-mb exhibited an altered surface morphology. strands and blebs of membranous material were observed protruding from the disorganize ...19957752897
a pleiotropic secretion mutant of aeromonas hydrophila is unable to secrete heterologously expressed e. coli enterotoxin: implication for common mechanisms of protein secretion. 19957758745
a clinical isolate of aeromonas sobria with three chromosomally mediated inducible beta-lactamases: a cephalosporinase, a penicillinase and a third enzyme, displaying carbapenemase activity.hydrolytic profiles of aeromonas sobria 163a, non-induced and induced, and of a derepressed mutant 163a-m, indicate that this strain has inducible beta-lactamases with activities against cephalosporins, penicillins and carbapenems. three enzymes were identified and two of the beta-lactamase genes, amps, encoding a penicillinase and ceps, encoding a cephalosporinase, were cloned into escherichia coli, permitting analysis of the individual enzymes. isoelectric focusing (ief) analysis using inhibit ...19957759391
relationship between resistance of salmonids to furunculosis and recovery of aeromonas salmonicida from external were sampled at the ed weed state fish hatchery (south hero, vermont, usa) in september 1992. aeromonas salmonicida was common, with concentrations as high as 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units per gram of mucus, and readily recovered from most mucus samples obtained from furunculosis-sensitive populations of brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (salvelinus namaycush), and atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the pathogen was the predominant microorganism and accounted for greater tha ...19947760494
production of authentic human proapolipoprotein a-i in escherichia coli: strategies for the removal of the amino-terminal methionine.several methods were compared with respect to the production of authentic, n-terminal methionine-free proapolipoprotein a-i in engineered escherichia coli bacteria. a first approach consisted of treating the purified methionylated recombinant protein with an amino-peptidase, purified from aeromonas proteolytica. a second series of strategies was based on the construction of proapo a-i encoding cassettes carrying built-in recognition sites suitable for specific in vitro cleavage of the products w ...19937763464
a lipase of aeromonas hydrophila showing nonhemolytic phospholipase c activity.extracellular lipase activity detected on tributyrin agar has been identified in a cosmid clone, jm3084, constructed from the chromosome of aeromonas hydrophila and vector phc79. this lipase, named apl-1, also exhibits nonhemolytic phospholipase c activity on lecithin and p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine. subcloning of the cosmid jmp3084 with partial sau3a1 digestion localized the lipase gene to a 3.4-kb dna fragment. southern blot analysis shows the gene apl-1 to exist in single copy on the a. hy ...19957767226
[fulminant myonecrosis and sepsis caused by aeromonas hydrophila].a case of fatal bilateral lower extremity myonecrosis in a nonimmunocompromized man with septicaemia caused by aeromonas hydrophila is described. immediate surgical revision combined with treatment with new cephalosporins should be considered in the treatment of severe soft tissue infections, especially when the patient is known to have a trauma with waterborne contamination or is immunocompromised.19957770986
endogenous mutagenesis by an insertion sequence element identifies aeromonas salmonicida abca as an atp-binding cassette transport protein required for biogenesis of smooth lipopolysaccharide.analysis of an aeromonas salmonicida a layer-deficient/o polysaccharide-deficient mutant carrying a tn5 insertion in the structural gene for a protein (vapa) showed that the abca gene immediately downstream of vapa had been interrupted by the endogenous insertion sequence element isas1. immunoelectron microscopy showed that o polysaccharides did not accumulate at the inner membrane-cytoplasm interface of this mutant. abca encodes an unusual protein; it carries both an amino-terminal atp-binding ...19957777581
[the cellular fatty acid composition of bacteria in the family vibrionaceae].vibrio cholerae strains, serovar o1, biovar eltor, subtype ogawa, isolated from different sources, v. cholerae classica and nag vibrios have identical cell fatty acid composition with the prevalence of hexadecenoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids. v. parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus fatty acid profiles, being identical, are similar to v. cholerae profile, differing from it mainly by a higher content of dodecanoic acid. the similarity of the fatty acid profiles of aeromonas sp. and vibr ...19957778361
fatty acid profiles of "pasteurella" piscicida: comparison with other fish pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.the fatty acid methyl ester (fame) profiles of "pasteurella" piscicida were determined by gas chromatography and subjected to numerical analysis in comparison with those obtained for vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and pasteurella species of clinical origin. the bacterial species studied shared important characteristics with respect to their fame content: in all of them the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 16 carbon atoms were the predominant fatty acids. however, distinguishin ...19957778977
the fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk.this study examined the ability of potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow and to survive during the manufacture and ripening of swiss hard and semihard cheese varieties made from raw milk. the results show that hard cheeses are hygienically safe; 1 wk after fabrication, the inoculated pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila. campylobacter jejuni, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella spp., staphylococcus aureus, and yersinia enterocolitica) could no longer be dete ...19957782504
purification and characterization of metallo-beta-lactamase from serratia marcescens.carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from serratia marcescens fhsm4055 was purified 926-fold by means of carboxylmethyl sephadex c-50, sephacryl s-200, and mono s column chromatography. the molecular weight was 30,000 by sds-page and the isoelectric point was 8.7. the enzyme activity was inhibited by edta, and restored by adding zinc (ii) or manganese (ii). it was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate and iodine as well as the heavy metals, hg (ii), fe (ii), fe (iii), and cu (ii). these results ...19957783675
cloning and study of the genetic organization of the exe gene cluster of aeromonas salmonicida.the aeromonas salmonicida (as) exe gene cluster, an additional member of the pul-related operon family required for general signal-sequence-dependent secretion of proteins from gram- bacteria, was cloned in the broad-host-range cosmid plafr3. twelve genes, exec-n, were identified by partial nucleotide (nt) sequence analyses (exee-n) or determination of the complete sequence (exec and exed). the organisation of the exec-n genes is similar to that of several other operons of this family. these gen ...19957789814
hypercalcemia associated with aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis.we describe a 4 year old girl with acute aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis who presented with a combination of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment. serum parathyroid hormone was not elevated. both milk-alkali syndrome and intoxication of vitamins a and d were ruled out. the hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment were improved by fluid infusion and intravenous administration of furosemide. gastro-enteritis also improved with oral administration of the an ...19957793254
effect of oxytetracycline-medicated feed on antibiotic resistance of gram-negative bacteria in catfish ponds.the effect of oxytetracycline-medicated feeds on antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria from fish intestines and water in catfish ponds was investigated. in experiments in the fall and spring, using ponds with no previous history of antibiotic usage, percentages of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in catfish intestines obtained from medicated ponds increased significantly after 10 days of treatment. in the fall, resistance of the intestinal and aquatic bacteria returned to pretreatment l ...19957793953
cell-surface properties of the food- and water-borne pathogen aeromonas hydrophila when stored in buffered saline solutions.aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous inhabitant of aquatic environments, commonly expresses several cell-surface properties that may contribute to virulence. since many aquatic microorganisms in hostile environments can withstand starvation conditions for long periods, we examined the effect of storage under nutrient-poor conditions on the expression of cell-surface properties of this pathogen. phenotypes studied were: (1) cell-surface hydrophobicity and charge, and (2) the ability to bind connect ...19957794103
[clinical bacteriology and empiric therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in the elderly at a national leprosarium].hospital-acquired pneumonia is one of the most important fatal respiratory diseases in the elderly. prompt and precise empiric therapy is essential for recovery. fourteen isolates from twelve elderly lepromatous leprosy patients (9 men, 3 women, mean age of 75.8 years) with hospital-acquired pneumonia were studied. subsequently, empiric therapy with gentamicin and beta-lactams for nosocomial pneumonia in the elderly was examined. fourteen types of bacteria isolated from expectorated sputum speci ...19947799554
[identification of gram negative, facultative anaerobic, oxidase positive bacilli].we identified 100 strains of gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacilli, facultative anaerobes, isolated from different human pathological products by conventional biochemical methods. from the total number of strains studied, 1 corresponded to genus vibrio, 66 to genus aeromonas, and 33 to genus plesiomonas. it is of the utmost importance to conduct surveillance studies of these microorganisms in order to investigate their circulation in cuba.19937800889
the primary structure of clostridium septicum alpha-toxin exhibits similarity with that of aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin.the gene for clostridium septicum alpha-toxin was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli from c. septicum bx96. the toxin was determined to be 443 amino acids in length, with a 31-residue signal peptide that was removed from the toxin during secretion. no extended hydrophobic regions were observed in the mature toxin sequence. expression of alpha-toxin in e. coli bl21 resulted in the production of atpro, which was identical to native toxin from c. septicum with respect to activity and activati ...19957806374
[relationship between bacteria decomposing organic substances and water pollution in river water].in order to clarify the relationship between water pollution and bacteria decomposing organic substances, 48 samples of river water were collected at twelve stations of the chikuma-sai river system. the bacteria decomposing organic substances were enumerated and identified by gm plates, which contained fewer organic substances than agar plates. sixteen biological-physicochemical examinations of the river water were also performed. the results were as follows: temperature and dissolved oxygen in ...19947807705
cloning and expression of a cloxacillin-hydrolyzing enzyme and a cephalosporinase from aeromonas sobria aer 14m in escherichia coli: requirement for an e. coli chromosomal mutation for efficient expression of the class d enzyme.two beta-lactamase genes, asba1 and asbb1, encoding asba1 and asbb1, respectively, have been cloned from aeromonas sobria aer 14m into escherichia coli. asba1 was expressed at low but detectable levels in all e. coli laboratory cloning strains tested. asbb1 was expressed well in the e. coli cloning strain dh5 alpha. however, no enzyme activity could be detected from the same clone when placed in e. coli mc1061. ampicillin-resistant mutants of e. coli mc1061 were obtained that expressed high leve ...19947811022
in vitro activity of fk-037, a novel parenteral cephalosporin, against bacterial isolates from neutropenic cancer patients.the in vitro activity of fk-037, a novel parenteral cephalosporin, was compared to that of ceftazidime, aztreonam and piperacillin (agents often used in empiric regimens in cancer patients) against recent bacterial isolates from patients with cancer. fk-037 was either equal to or 2 to 16-fold more active than the comparative agents against members of the enterobacteriaceae. it was also active against acinetobacter spp., aeromonas spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other pseudomonas spp. xanthomon ...19947813504
dermatologic manifestations of infections in neutropenic lesions may serve as the site of origin for disseminated infection in neutropenic patients or result as a secondary consequence of disseminated infection from another source. it is important to recognize the characteristic skin lesions associated with infections, such as those caused by clostridium spp, candida spp, and pseudomonas aeruginosa, so that appropriate therapy is initiated promptly. unfortunately, therapy for some of these infections, especially those caused by fungi, is unsatisf ...19947814839
identification of vibrio vulnificus by cellular fatty acid composition using the hewlett-packard 5898a microbial identification system: collaborative study.a gas chromatographic method using a capillary column for rapid identification of vibrio vulnificus was examined in a collaborative study. identifications were performed by analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles which were automatically searched against reference profiles stored in a computer-generated library. each of the 13 collaborators was sent 15 unknown isolates, which included 10 v. vulnificus isolates and 5 negative control isolates. each collaborator was furnished with a computer-gene ...19947819758
rapid identification of aeromonas species using 16s rdna targeted oligonucleotide primers: a molecular approach based on screening of environmental isolates.published 16s rdna sequencing data for aeromonas species were analysed and the validity of signature sequences derived from our investigations of these sequences was examined by sequencing the corresponding 16s rdna regions of 67 environmental isolates from sewage effluents and receiving waters around sydney and one clinical isolate, all previously classified as aeromonas species. species-specific probes for aer. hydrophila and aer. veronii were designed and tested in pcr assays and clearly disc ...19947822232
aeromonas hydrophila epiglottitis: a case report. 19937822999
specificity of the protein secretory apparatus: secretion of the heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit pentamers by different species of gram- bacteria.the b-subunit pentamer(s) (etxbp) of escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) are secreted from vibrio cholerae via the general secretion pathway (gsp), but remain periplasmic in e. coli. in order to determine if other gram- bacteria were also able to secrete the extbp, the etxb gene, which encodes etxb was introduced into different bacteria. of the bacteria examined, most species of vibrio and aeromonas were able to secrete this protein through the outer membrane; other gram- genera, inclu ...19957828926
[in vitro antibacterial activity of fleroxacin (flrx) against clinical isolates from bacterial enteritis].antibacterial activity of fleroxacin (flrx), a new quinolone antimicrobial, against 36 strains of shigella app., 14 strains of salmonella spp., 11 strains of escherichia coli, 9 strains of vibrio spp. (including 2 strains of v. cholerae o1), 14 strains of campylobacter jejuni/coli, 3 strains of aeromonas spp. and 1 strain of plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from infectious enteritis patients in this study was determined. its activity was compared with that of ciprofloxacin (cpfx), norfloxacin ( ...19947829909
[pili and colonization factors of vibrionaceae]. 19947830312
enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhoeal diseases.five types of escherichia coli are responsible for as much as 25% of all diarrheal diseases in developing countries. they tend to be transmitted via contaminated foods, particularly weaning foods, and water. they include enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroadherent, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic e. coli. shigella species are responsible for 10-15% of acute diarrheas in children less than 5 years old and the most common etiologic agents of childhood dysentery. shigellosis is common i ...19947835992
aeromonas, yersinia, and miscellaneous bacterial enteropathogens. 19947838604
gyra mutations in quinolone-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida.gyra mutations in quinolone-resistant isolates of aeromonas salmonicida have been detected by using pcr to amplify the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyra and subsequent cloning and sequencing of pcr products. comparison of nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of pcr products from quinolone-susceptible and -resistant bacteria revealed a serine 83-to-isoleucine substitution in the gyrase a protein of resistant isolates. one of the resistant isolates differed from the other by a ...19947840589
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