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cloning, expression, and cell surface localization of paenibacillus sp. strain w-61 xylanase 5, a multidomain xylanase.we have shown that a xylan-degrading bacterium, w-61, excretes multiple xylanases, including xylanase 5 with a molecular mass of 140 kda. here, we emend the previously used classification of the bacterium (i.e., aeromonas caviae w-61) to paenibacillus sp. strain w-61 on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16s rrna gene, and we clone and express the xyn5 gene encoding xylanase 5 (xyn5) in escherichia coli and study the subcellular localization of xyn5. xyn5 encodes 1,326 amino acid residu ...200314660338
reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay.a novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2h-tetrazolium (mts) was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (pms) as an electron coupling reagent. this activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ecf), eisenia fetida andrei (oligochaeta, lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three gram-negative st ...200314660872
evaluation of two miniaturized systems, microscan w/a and bbl crystal e/nf, for identification of clinical isolates of aeromonas spp.fifty-two clinical strains and 22 type and reference aeromonas strains, previously genetically characterized by 16s rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, were identified in parallel with the microscan walk/away and bbl crystal enteric/nonfermenter systems. the former identified only 14.8% of the isolates correctly, and the latter identified only 20.3% correctly, which indicates that neither of these systems is useful for this purpose.200314662969
[fermentative production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 (ptg01)].copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) (phbhhx), a new type of biodegradable material, are receiving considerable attentions recently. the material properties are strongly related to the 3hhx fraction of phbhhx. as the 3hhx fraction increase, crystallinity and melting point of phbhhx decrease, flexibility and tractility increase. phbhhx of different 3hhx fraction can meet different demands of commercial application and research. aeromonas are the best st ...200315971584
aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of aeromonas species in human pathology. these species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. this last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, ...200316008142
influence of ph, salt concentration and temperature on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the influence of environmental factors on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila was investigated four isolates (ah 37, ah 79, ah 86 and ah 100) were exposed to various environmental factors such as ph, salt concentration and temperature in laboratory condition. all the four isolates showed more or less similar growth at ph 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 at 30 degrees c and 5 degrees c. at ph 5.0, 6.0 and 10.0, the log number of cells was found to be lesser than that of ph 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 at both 30 degrees c an ...200315248649
aeromonas: an emerging pathogen associated with extraintestinal infection in cuba.an 87 years-old female with a history of heart disease who has been presenting dysnea and fever for 2 months was evaluated. a sputum bacteriological study proved positive for aeromonas hydrophila in the context of an existing lung cancer. the study was negative for acid fast bacilli.200315849928
antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens isolated from a new regional hospital in southern taiwan.antimicrobial resistance has become a major health problem in taiwan. while some trends in antimicrobial resistance are universal, others appear to be unique for specific regions.200315008323
bacterial stimulation upregulates the surface expression of the stress protein gp96 on b cells in the frog xenopus.the presence of the soluble intracellular heat shock protein gp96 (an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein) at the surface of certain cell types is an intriguing phenomenon whose physiological significance has been unclear. we have shown that the active surface expression of gp96 by some immune cells is found throughout the vertebrate phylum including the agnatha, the only vertebrate taxon whose members (lamprey, hagfish) lack an adaptive immune system. to determine whether gp96 surface expres ...200314984060
16s to 23s rdna spacer fragment length polymorphism of aeromonas sp.we analyzed polymorphism of the pcr-amplified 16s-23s rdna spacer of aeromonas species. a total of 69 isolates representing 18 dna hybridization groups were used in this study. the analysis of pcr products of 16s-23s rdna spacers revealed patterns consisting of two to eight dna fragments. the fragment sizes ranged from 730 to 1050 bp. dna patterns revealed a considerable genetic diversity between species and within a species. when a procedure to eliminate heteroduplex formation was performed, th ...200315095921
laminarin enhanced immunological disorders of septicimeric albino rats infected with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of man that gives rise to both intestinal and extraintestinal infection. this study examined the effect of one the immunostimulants; fungal cell-wall beta-1, 3-d-glucan (laminarin) on the immune response to aeromonas hydrophila in albino rats. intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 1% laminarin (15 mg/100 g b.wt) stimulated humoral immunity. on the ninth day, after application of laminarin in vivo, a statistically higher value of tota ...200315719611
diversity of activated sludge bacteria receiving the 3-chloroaniline-degradative plasmid pc1gfp.plasmid pc1 of delftia acidovorans ca28, encoding the oxidative deamination of 3-chloroaniline (3-ca), was tagged with a mini-tn5 transposon containing the gfp gene. the labelled plasmid, designated pc1gfp, was subsequently transferred to pseudomonas putida uwc3 and the plasmid transfer from this donor to the bacterial community in activated sludge was studied. mating experiments were performed on both luria-bertani agar plates and directly in liquid activated sludge. green fluorescent colonies ...200319719576
bacteria associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs in a natural environment (ría de vigo, galicia, northwestern spain).abstract the present study was undertaken to describe the epiflora of the eggs of an important fishing species collected in a coastal zone. microflora associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs collected in the ría de vigo was examined from january to june 2000. the count was carried out in three different ways: a total direct count by epifluorescence, a heterotrophic bacteria count on marine agar (ma) and a total vibrio count on thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose (tcbs). it was observed th ...200319719614
vibrionaceae from cases of acute diarrhoea and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern - a five year prospective study.over a five year period, stool samples were screened for vibrionaceae from cases of acute diarrhoea, to study their isolation rate and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. all the isolates were identified by standard laboratory techniques. a total of 323 species belonging to vibrionaceae were isolated from 4492 stool samples tested over five year period (1996-2000), giving a positivity rate of 7.2%. maximum isolation was during the months of may to august (62.5%). out of 323 isolates, vibrio ...200317643020
biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in chennai.the objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity.200317643034
[synthesis of copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate by aeromonas hydrophila wq and its molecular basis].aeromonas hydrophila wq isolated from lake water was found to be able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (hhx) (phbhhx). lauric acid was found to be the most suitable carbon source for cell growth and phbhhx accumulation. the bacteria accumulated 49% phbhhx containing 6% hhx in terms of cell dry weight when grown on lauric acid for 72 h. 42% phbhhx consisting of 14% hhx was obtained with 5 g/l glucose and 10 g/l lauric ...200316276907
[invasion of aeromonas hydrophila in cells involving signal transduction and cytoskeleton].invasion of aeromonas hydrophila strain ah j-1 isolated from diseased fish to cultured hep-2cells monolayer was evaluated by the recovery of gentamincin-resistant (gm') bacteria from triton x-100 cell lysates. the invasive efficiency (ie) could reach to 0.2% at 37 degrees c. in addition, potential signal transduction pathways that precede bacterial internalization were studied by using signal transduction inhibitors. bacterial internalization of ah j-1 involved microfilaments and protein tyrosin ...200316276909
[effects of aeromonas hydrophila biofilm on the drug resistance].aeromonas hydrophila (ah) biofilm (bf) model in vitro was established and antibiotic effects of 11 antimicrobials on bf and free-cell(fc) bacteria were tested. after the ah j-1 on the surfaces of the silicon pieces was incubated for 7 days in tsb, the intact bf was formed by detection of agno3 solution staining. the fc bacteria were resistant to penicillin but susceptible to enrofloxacin and fulgram. their minimum bactericidal concentrations (mbcs) were 256 microg/ml, 0.03 microg/ml and 0.25 mic ...200316276926
the processing of high-molecular-weight xylanase (xyne, 110 kda) from aeromonas caviae me-1 to 60-kda xylanase (xyne60) in escherichia coli and purification and characterization of xyne60.a xylanase gene (xyne) encoding xyne (110 kda) was cloned from a lambda phage genomic library of aeromonas caviae me-1 which is a multiple-xylanase-producing bacterium. upon nucleotide sequence analysis, we found that xyne comprises 2823 by and encodes a protein of 941 amino acid residues (104,153 da), which was similar to endo-beta-1,4-xylanases which are categorized to glycosyl hydrolase family 10. an escherichia coli transformant that harbored pxed30 carrying xyne produced 110-, 84-, 72-, and ...200316233373
a cytoplasmic xylanase (xynx) of aeromonas caviae me-1 is released from the cytoplasm to the periplasm by osmotic downshock.aeromonas caviae me-1 is a multiple xylanase-producing gram-negative bacterium which was isolated from the gut contents of a wild silkworm, samia cynthia pryeri. one of the xylanases produced by a. caviae me-1, xynx (38 kda, family 10 xylanase), hydrolyzes xylan to xylobiose and xylotetraose as final degradation products. generally, xylanases are extracellular or cell surface enzymes. however, xynx is not exported to the extracellular fluid by a. caviae me-1 and an escherichia coli transformant ...200316233445
processing of xyne (110-kda) of aeromonas caviae me-1 to 72-kda xylanase in escherichia coli transformant.an extracellular 72-kda xylanase from an escherichia coli transformant that harbored pxed30 carrying xyne of aeromonas caviae me-1 was purified by extraction following sds-page to electrophoretic homogeneity. the analysis of n-terminal 10 amino acid residues (gly-ala-arg-ala-gln-ala-ala-ala-asp-val) revealed a 72-kda product derived by the cleavage of gly26-gly27 at the n-terminal region of 110 kda xyne. the 72-kda xylanase from a. caviae me-1 was found to have the same sequence as that of the n ...200316233547
effects of electron transport inhibitors on iron reduction in aeromonas hydrophila strain kb1.the aim of this study was to determine the influence of respiratory chain inhibitors upon iron (iii) reduction in aeromonas hydrophila strain kb1. optimal conditions of the reduction process were established by determining the amount of biomass, optimal ph, temperature and substrate concentration. the obtained results allowed us to determine hill equation coefficients (k(m)=1.45+/-0.18 mm; v(max)=83.40+/-2.70 microm/min, and h=0.7+/-0.03). the value of h points to michaelis-like kinetics of the ...200316887699
virulence factors of a. caviae strains isolated from acute diarrheic disease in cuba.fifty aeromonas caviae strains from intestinal infection in different cuban provinces were identified by the aerokey ii method and virulence factors were investigated. the strains did not produce haemolysins but other exoenzymes such as proteases, lipases, and dnases; additionally, all isolates adhered to the hep-2 cell line by the carrello method and this did not correlate with other virulence factors presence which demonstrates that the haemolysin phenotypic expression is not necessary for the ...200217061509
aeromonas species isolated from cases of acute gastroenteritis.a total of 67 aeromonas strains were isolated as the sole bacterial pathogen from 1485 patients with acute gastroenteritis. a. hydrophila (64.2%) was the predominant isolate followed by a. sobria (28.4%) and a.caviae (7.4%). majority of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, nalidixic acid but were resistant to ampicillin. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of resistant strains of aeromonas to ampicillin ranged from 80-1280 microg/ml.200217657045
isolation and identification of aeromonas from patients with acute diarrhoea in kolkata, india. 200217657081
bacterial enteropathogens isolated in childhood diarrhoea in kuala lumpur--the changing trend.a retrospective review of all stool samples obtained from children aged < 16 years with diarrhoea from university of malaya medical centre (ummc), kuala lumpur, from 1978 to 1997 was undertaken to ascertain the pattern of bacterial pathogens causing diarrhoea in children in an urban area in malaysia. of 26444 stool samples processed, 2989 (11%) were positive. the five most common bacterial pathogens isolated were non-typhoidal salmonella (57%), enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (14%), shigella spp ...200214569714
production of transgenic medaka with increased resistance to bacterial pathogens.cecropins, first identified in silk moth (hyalophora cecropia), are a group of antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. in this study we investigated whether (1) this group of antimicrobial peptides could exhibit bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens and (2) expression of cecropin transgenes in transgenic medaka (oryzias latipas) could result in increasing resistance of the transgenic fish to infection by fish bacterial pathoge ...200214961264
[study of antibiotic influence on adherence capacity of gram positive and gram negative bacteria to the cellular substrate].bacterial adherence to the cellular substrate (skin and mucosa) represents a precondition of infectious pathology. it was demonstrated that bacteria which adhere and form biofilms on catheters and other inert materials used in medicine are resistant to the therapeutic antibiotic concentrations being protected by the biofilm mathrix and generating severe and hard to treat infections. there are only few studies on the influence of antibiotics on the bacterial adhesins synthesis and bacterial adher ...200215085601
distribution of aeromonas hydrophila serogroups in different clinical samples and the development of polyclonal antibodies for rapid identification of the genus aeromonas by direct agglutination.we characterized a collection of 256 aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from blood, discharge and stool for their serogroup designation. of these, 2.3% were untypable and 15.2% were rough strains. among the typable strains, about 50% comprised serogroups o:11, o:16, o:18, o:34 and o:83. to develop rapid differentiation of aeromonas from other oxidase-positive bacteria, antisera against aeromonas were produced to establish a direct, genus-specific, agglutination test. it was found that among 1 ...200212597362
microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases.many classes of pathogens excreted in feces are able to initiate waterborne infections. there are bacterial pathogens, including enteric and aquatic bacteria, enteric viruses, and enteric protozoa, which are strongly resistant in the water environment and to most disinfectants. the infection dose of viral and protozoan agents is lower than bacteria, in the range of one to ten infectious units or oocysts. waterborne outbreaks of bacterial origin (particularly typhoid fever) in the developing coun ...200212546197
temperature effect on the immune defense functions of arctic charr salvelinus alpinus.the arctic charr salvelinus alpinus is an endangered fish species in finland, and thus farming is carried out mainly for stocking purposes. farmed charr are susceptible to infection with atypical aeromonas salmonicida (aas). losses of valuable brood stock will severely reduce the genetic diversity of stocked charr. no commercial vaccines are available to prevent aas infection, and vaccines against furunculosis (caused by typical a. salmonicida, tas) do not protect the charr against aas infection ...200212517005
isolation and characterization of aeromonas species from an eutrophic tropical estuary.isolation and characterization of aeromonas species were undertaken in the ebrié lagoon (abidjan, côte d'ivoire) over a one year period. overall 63% of 501 water samples were identified as positive for aeromonas spp. a. sobria, a. hydrophila and a. caviae represent respectively 49.20%, 20.63% and 30.15% of the positive samples. thirty nine of the positive samples were recovered from surface water samples; while 24 bottom water samples were positive for aeromonas. aeromonas species are most frequ ...200212523537
resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria.microbial resistance to antimicrobial agents continues to be a major problem. the frequent use and misuse of disinfectants based on quaternary ammonium compounds (qacs) in food-processing industries have imposed a selective pressure and may contribute to the emergence of disinfectant-resistant microorganisms. a total number of 1,325 gram-negative isolates (escherichia coli, other coliforms vibrio spp., and aeromonas spp.) and 500 enterococcus spp. from food and food-processing industries and fis ...200212523638
an unwanted import to the uk: a carbapenem-resistant clinical isolate of acinetobacter baumannii producing metallo-beta-lactamase. 200212461042
phylogenetic study and identification of human pathogenic vibrio species based on partial hsp60 gene sequences.the use of hsp60 gene sequences for phylogenetic study and identification of pathogenic marine vibrios was investigated. a 600-bp partial hsp60 gene was amplified by pcr and sequenced from 29 strains representing 15 vibrio species within the family vibrionaceae. sequence comparison of the amplified partial hsp60 gene revealed 71-82% sequence identity among different vibrio species and 96-100% sequence identity among epidemiologically distinct strains with the same species designation. this degre ...200212489780
antibacterial activity of mappia foetida leaves and stem.successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of mappia foetida leaves and stem were tested for their antibacterial activity. the methanol fractions were found to be most effective against all the tested organisms.200212490245
a dna probe specific for aeromonas colonies.members of the genus aeromonas are important enteropathogens. commercial identification systems are often unable to correctly identify aeromonas strains and misidentification as vibrio spp. is common. a digoxigenin-dna probe based on a 237 bp of the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase gene has been tested in a colony hybridization assay. the probe hybridized with all aeromonas species tested (n = 16) but not with strains of other enteropathogenic bacteria (n = 20). the probe allowed ...200212493167
[clinical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) in a recent five year period].recently, treatment failure with the third generation of cephalosporin was increasingly noted in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp). we therefore were to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic resistance and its clinical significance.200212499818
the protein encoded at the 3' end of the serine protease gene of aeromonas sobria functions as a chaperone in the production of the protease.for the successful production of aeromonas sobria serine protease (asp), open reading frame 2 (orf2) protein, encoded at the 3' end of the protease operon, is required. in this study, we examined the action of orf2 protein. the results showed that the protein associated with asp in the periplasm and helped asp to form an active structure.200212446656
[persistent properties of protozoa-associated bacteria].the species structure and persistent properties (antilysozyme and antihistone activity) of bacteria forming associations with protozoa is revealed. among them, 68.9% of the isolates were enterobacteria, the remaining organisms belonged to the families aeromonas, alcaligenes, pseudomonas, vibrio, etc. within the family enterobacteriaceae bacteria of the escherichia group prevailed. 50.4% of the isolates were found to have antilysozyme activity and 97%--antihistone activity. the level of persisten ...200212449703
distribution of aeromonas spp. as identified by 16s rdna restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in a trout farm.this study used restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) with aeromonas-specific primers to identify species of aeromonas and to investigate their distribution in a trout farm and stream.200212452953
phenotypic characteristics and pathogenicity of aeromonas genomospecies isolated from common carp (cyprinus carpio l.).to evaluate the relationship between the genomospecies, phenotypic profile and pathogenicity for carp of 37 motile aeromonas strains.200212452960
the catalytic domains of thiamine triphosphatase and cyab-like adenylyl cyclase define a novel superfamily of domains that bind organic phosphates.the cyab protein from aeromonas hydrophila has been shown to possess adenylyl cyclase activity. while orthologs of this enzyme have been found in some bacteria and archaea, it shows no detectable relationship to the classical nucleotide cyclases. furthermore, the actual biological functions of these proteins are not clearly understood because they are also present in organisms in which there is no evidence for cyclic nucleotide signaling.200212456267
antibacterial activity of chitosan against aeromonas hydrophila.the effect of chitosan on growth and production of haemolysin by aeromonas hydrophila was investigated as well as the effects of temperature, ph, salts and irradiation on the antibacterial activity of chitosan. it was found that chitosan affected growth and haemolysin production of a. hydrophila in varying degrees compared to the control. growth and haemolysin production were clearly suppressed at 0.04% of chitosan. suppression was more effective at ph 6.0 than at ph 7.0. the bactericidal effect ...200212428449
diarrhoeagenic bacterial pathogens in hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea in rural communities of limpopo province, south africa.potential enteric bacterial pathogens in 60 hiv-positive patients with chronic diarrhoea in rural communities of the limpopo province, south africa, were identified using standard microbiological methods. the kirby-bauer disk-diffusion method was employed to determine antibiograms of isolated bacteria. results revealed that diarrhoeagenic bacterial agents were isolated from 48 (80%) of the 60 hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea. forty-four (73.3%) and 16 (26.7%) of the 60 patients were female a ...200212430759
chain stiffness of heteropolysaccharide from aeromonas gum in dilute solution by dynamic light scattering.dynamic light scattering measurements have been made on 15 fractions of aeromonas (a) gum, an extracellular heteropolysaccharide produced by the strain aeromonas nichidenii, with dimethylsulfoxide containing 0.2m lithium chloride as the solvent at 25 degrees c. data for the translational diffusion coefficient d covering a molecular weight range from 4.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) and ratios of the z-average radius of gyration <s(2)>(z) (1/2) to the hydrodynamic radius r(h) (calculated with previous ...200212434427
necrotizing fasciitis of the upper extremity resulting from a water moccasin bite.aeromonas hydrophila infection has been described as the cause of necrotizing fasciitis in patients with suppressed immune systems, burns, or trauma in an aquatic setting. we report a case in which severe necrotizing fasciitis involving hand, arm, chest, and lateral side of trunk, along with toxic shock, developed after the patient was bitten by a venomous snake. mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including a hydrophila, were isolated from the wound culture. the patient was treated with antiv ...200212356121
requirement of n-glycan on gpi-anchored proteins for efficient binding of aerolysin but not clostridium septicum alpha-toxin.aerolysin of the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila consists of small (sl) and large (ll) lobes. the alpha-toxin of gram-positive clostridium septicum has a single lobe homologous to ll. these toxins bind to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins and generate pores in the cell's plasma membrane. we isolated cho cells resistant to aerolysin, with the aim of obtaining gpi biosynthesis mutants. one mutant unexpectedly expressed gpi-anchored proteins, but nevertheless bound a ...200212356721
cloning of the class d beta-lactamase gene from burkholderia pseudomallei and studies on its expression in ceftazidime-susceptible and -resistant strains.ceftazidime is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of melioidosis. ceftazidime-resistant burkholderia pseudomallei have been identified and beta-lactamase production implicated in resistance. in this study, 25 strains of b. pseudomallei (15 clinical and 10 environmental strains) were examined for their ability to yield mutants that overexpress beta-lactamase. ceftazidime-resistant mutants were selected readily at high frequency and displayed four- to eight-fold increases in the mics of ce ...200212356787
aeromonas culicicola sp. nov., from the midgut of culex quinquefasciatus.the taxonomic position was examined of three isolates, mtcc 3249t, sh and slh, from the midgut of female culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegyptii mosquitoes. numbers of cells of these isolates increased 2000-fold after a blood meal of the mosquitoes. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis of the novel strains showed that they were highly homologous to strains of aeromonas. dna-dna hybridization studies showed that dna of strain mtcc 3249t was 96 and 88% similar to that of strains sh and slh, respectiv ...200212361279
staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome in an adult due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.we report a case of a 71-year-old man with staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (ssss). the patient, with a chronic history of diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our hospital with lumbago, and a diagnosis of renal-cell carcinoma with bone metastasis was made. in hospital he had sudden onset of high fever and erythema, followed by the formation of flaccid bullae and exfoliation, with a positive nikolsky sign. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), producing exfoliative toxin b, was i ...200212373491
evidence for a type iii secretion system in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis, is an important fish pathogen. we have screened this bacterium with a broad-host-range probe directed against yscv, the gene that encodes the archetype of a highly conserved family of inner membrane proteins found in every known type iii secretion system. this has led to the identification of seven open reading frames that encode homologues to proteins functioning within the type iii secretion systems of yersinia sp ...200212374830
effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads.atmospheres with o2 levels higher than 70 kpa have recently been suggested as an innovation to modified atmosphere packaging (map) for fresh processed vegetables to maintain sensory quality and safety. in the present work, mixed vegetable salad collected from a commercial processing plant and stored with the map technique was studied. two gas mixtures were actively generated by using an initial o2 concentration of 95 kpa and combined with two plastic films. the low-barrier film permeability for ...200212380740
microbiological investigations of rainwater and graywater collected for toilet flushing.seven danish rainwater systems were investigated with respect to the microbial water quality. the general microbiological quality (total numbers of bacteria (aodc)), and heterotrophic plate counts on r2a and plate count agar in the toilets supplied with rainwater were approximately the same as in the reference toilets supplied with drinking water. however, in 12 of the 27 analysed samples one or more pathogens were observed (aeromonas sp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, legionella non-pneumophila, camp ...200212381006
the identification of the transcriptional regulator crp in aeromonas hydrophila jmp636 and its involvement in amylase production and the 'acidic toxicity' effect.the physiological examination of amylase production by aeromonas hydrophila jmp636 and identification of the mechanism of regulation.200212392524
a rifampicin resistance mutation in the rpob gene confers ppgpp-independent antibiotic production in streptomyces coelicolor a3(2).in streptomyces coelicolor a3(2), deletion of rela or a specific mutation in rplk ( relc) results in an inability to synthesize ppgpp (guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate) and impairs production of actinorhodin. we have found that certain rifampicin-resistant ( rif) mutants isolated from either rela or relc strains regain the ability to produce actinorhodin at the same level as the wild-type strain, although their capacity to synthesize ppgpp is unchanged. these rif mutants were found to hav ...200212395192
experimental evidence for major histocompatibility complex-allele-specific resistance to a bacterial infection.the extreme polymorphism found at some major histocompatibility complex (mhc) loci is believed to be maintained by balancing selection caused by infectious pathogens. experimental support for this is inconclusive. we have studied the interaction between certain mhc alleles and the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, which causes the severe disease furunculosis, in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). we designed full-sibling broods consisting of combinations of homozygote and heterozygote genotypes wi ...200212396502
natural antibodies and their significance in active immunization and protection against a defined pathogen in fish.natural antibody activity against aeromonas salmonicida extracellular a-layer protein (a-protein) showed large individual variations in a farmed group of 101 goldfish (carassius auratus l.). statistical analyses of these variations led us to divide this group into homogeneous high and low naturally active (hna and lna) subgroups. the hna fish were largely protected against experimental infection with a virulent atypical a. salmonicida strain, while 100% morbidity was recorded in the lna group. i ...200212399194
structurally distinct active sites in the copper(ii)-substituted aminopeptidases from aeromonas proteolytica and escherichia coli.the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) was titrated with copper, which bound sequentially at two distinct sites. both the mono- and disubstituted forms of aap exhibited catalytic hyperactivity relative to the native dizinc enzyme. monosubstituted aap exhibited an axial cu(ii) epr spectrum with slight ph dependence: at ph 6.0 g(parallel) = 2.249, g( perpendicular ) = 2.055, and a(parallel)((63/65)cu) = 1.77 x 10(-)(2) cm(-)(1), whereas at ph 9.65 g(parallel) = 2.245, g( perpendicula ...200212405829
granulocyte responses to experimental injection of live and formalin-killed bacteria in carp (cyprinus carpio).the objective of the study was to investigate the dynamics of changes in number of granulocytes in bacterial infections of carp (cyprinus carpio). carp were inoculated with non-pathogenic or pathogenic bacteria and changes in type i (neutrophils) and type ii granulocyte (basophils/eosinophils) counts in kidney, circulating blood and peritoneal cavity were assessed. after the injection of non-pathogenic bacteria (escherichia coli), the number of type i and ii cells in blood increased after 6-12h, ...200212406659
[the expression of aeromonas hydrophila ompts gene and the immunogenicity of recombinant ompts].primers were designed based on ompts gene reported recently. with the specific primers, one target fragment about 1024 bp lacking the signal sequence of ompts gene was amplified from a. hydrophila genomic dna via pcr. the ompts gene was hyperexpressed using gene fusion expression vector prset system, and the recombinant omp exhibited a size of 39.9 kd with sds-page and western blot analysis, which showed about 51% of total lysate proteins. antibody to the purified recombinant omp reacted not onl ...200212192861
immunisation of indian major carps against aeromonas hydrophila by intraperitoneal injection.the indian major carps catla catla, labeo rohita and cirrhinus mrigala were immunised against the potent bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila by the intraperitoneal route, in field conditions. two different polyvalent antigen preparations namely, whole cell and extracellular products (ecp) were used. immunisation schedule consisting of a single booster dose given 28 days after priming resulted in a good agglutinating antibody response in the carps. kinetics of the response were similar ...200212201649
structure of the o-polysaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila o:34; a case of random o-acetylation of 6-deoxy-l-talose.the o-polysaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila o:34 was obtained by mild-acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide and studied by chemical methods and nmr spectroscopy before and after o-deacetylation. the polysaccharide was found to contain d-man, d-galnac and 6-deoxy-l-talose (l-6dtal), and the following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established [carbohydrate structure see text] where 6dtal(i) is o-acetylated stoichiometrically at position-2 and 6dtal(ii) carries no, one o ...200212204621
biosynthesis and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) polymers.in support of programs to identify polyhydroxyalkanoates with improved materials properties, we report on our efforts to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx). the copolyesters, having molar fraction of 3hhx ranging from 2.5 to 35 mol % and average molecular weights ranging from 1.15 x 10(5) to 6.65 x 10(5), were produced by fermentation using aeromonas hydrophila and a recombinant strain of pseudomonas putida ...200212217047
conversion of a transmembrane to a water-soluble protein complex by a single point mutation.proteins exist in one of two generally incompatible states: either membrane associated or soluble. pore-forming proteins are exceptional because they are synthesized as a water-soluble molecule but end up being located in the membrane -- that is, they are nonconstitutive membrane proteins. here we report the pronounced effect of the single point mutation y221g of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin. this mutation blocks the hemolytic activity of the toxin but does not affect its initial structure, ...200212219082
development of an elisa using a recombinant 41 kda partial protein (p45n') for the detection of riemerella anatipestifer infections in ducks.riemerella anatipestifer, a gram-negative bacillus, is the causative agent of duck septicemia, a disease which could incur much economic loss in the duck industry. an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed to facilitate early detection of r. anatipestifer infection in ducks. the antigen used was a recombinant 41 kda n-terminal fragment (rp45n') of a newly characterized r. anatipestifer potential surface protein, p45, which was expressed in escherichia coli as an n- ...200212220809
monitoring faecal contamination of the thames estuary using a semiautomated early warning system.the colifast early warning system, based on measuring beta-galactosidase activity (2 h method), was evaluated for monitoring the level of faecal contamination in the upper tidal thames. two trials were performed, one following heavy rain in november 2000, the next during a dry and sunny period in july 2001. in general the beta-galactosidase activity and the two coliform reference methods (recovery following membrane filtration with membrane lauryl sulphate broth (mlsb) and colilert quantitray) w ...200212227600
pcr detection of potentially pathogenic aeromonads in raw and cold-smoked freshwater fish.development of a pcr assay for detection of aeromonads carrying the hlya and/or aera genes in fish.200212234351
an aeromonas salmonicida type iv pilin is required for virulence in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss.aeromonas salmonicida expresses a large number of proven and suspected virulence factors including bacterial surface proteins, extracellular degradative enzymes, and toxins. we report the isolation and characterization of a 4-gene cluster, tapabcd, from virulent a. salmonicida a450 that encodes proteins homologous to components required for type iv pilus biogenesis. one gene, tapa, encodes a protein with high homology to type iv pilus subunit proteins from many gram-negative bacterial pathogens, ...200212240967
inhibition of hemolytic activity of aeromonas salmonicida gcat in rainbow trout red blood cells by a monoclonal antibody.the present study shows that a monoclonal antibody (mab) directed to aeromonas salmonicida glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) is capable of protecting rainbow trout red blood cells from the cytotoxic effects of the enzyme in vitro.200212240974
bacterial pathogens isolated from cultured bullfrogs (rana castesbeiana).a commercial bullfrog (rana castesbeiana) operation in south georgia had multiple epizootics of systemic bacterial infections over a 3-year period, 1998-2000. a number of potential pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila, chryseobacterium (flavobacterium) meningosepticum, chryseobacterium (flavobacterium) indolgenes, edwardsiella tarda, citrobacterfreundii, pseudomonas spp., and (streptococcus iniae) were isolated from various tissues. clinically, frogs demonstrated acute onset of torticolis, stupor, an ...200212296400
simultaneous detection of aeromonas salmonicida, flavobacterium psychrophilum, and yersinia ruckeri, three major fish pathogens, by multiplex pcr.a multiplex pcr assay based on the 16s rrna genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of three major fish pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida, flavobacterium psychrophilum, and yersinia ruckeri. the assay proved to be specific and as sensitive as each single pcr assay, with detection limits in the range of 6, 0.6, and 27 cfu for a. salmonicida, f. psychrophilum, and y. ruckeri, respectively. the assay was useful for the detection of the bacteria in artificially infected fish as well as in ...200212324372
[species composition and microbial contamination of atmospheric humidity condensate and potable water from the mir water supply systems during mir main missions 4 through 27].analyzed were quantitative and qualitative characteristics, and processes of formation and transformation of microflora in the atmospheric humidity condensate (ahc) and potable water (pw) regenerated from the condensate by the long-operating system (srv-k) aboard space station mir. the paper presents data on species composition of microflora of ahc, and pw regenerated by srv-k in the period from 1989 through to 1999. the following microbial species were identified in ahc: alcaligenes (14.8%), ba ...200212098948
a novel dizinc bridged hydroxamate model for hydroxamate inhibited zinc hydrolases.reaction of zn(oac)(2).2h2o with tmen leads to the formation of [zn(tmen)(oac)2] (i) which reacts with benzohydroxamic acid to form zn(ba)2.h2o (ii) and the novel dizinc hydroxamate bridged complex [zn2(mu-oac)2(oac)(mu-ba)(tmen)] (iii), which may also be prepared by self-assembly and whose structure closely mimics that of the native hydroxamate inhibited aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase.200212109086
antimicrobial multiresistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater chilean salmon farms.the intensive use of antimicrobial agents, mainly oxytetracycline, to prevent and control bacterial pathologies in chilean salmon culture is a frequent practice. a total of 103 gram-negative oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria recovered from various sources of 4 chilean freshwater salmon farms were identified and investigated for their susceptibility patterns to various antibacterial agents, by using an agar disk diffusion method. antibacterial resistance patterns of isolates were not correlated ...200212109474
vector potential of houseflies for the bacterium aeromonas caviae.houseflies, musca domestica linnaeus (diptera: muscidae), have been implicated as vectors or transporters of numerous gastrointestinal pathogens encountered during feeding and ovipositing on faeces. the putative enteropathogen aeromonas caviae (proteobacteria: aeromonadaceae) may be present in faeces of humans and livestock. recently a. caviae was detected in houseflies by pcr and isolated by culture methods. in this study, we assessed the vector potential of houseflies for a. caviae relative to ...200212109714
bacterial enteropathogens and factors associated with seasonal episodes of gastroenteritis in nsukka, nigeria.each year, between april and october, many children of school age and some young adults in nsukka, nigeria suffer from gastroenteritis. the period covers the rainy season in this part of africa, when manured farmland occasionally is flooded. in view of the number of people suffering diarrhoea and occasionally low-grade fever, it became necessary to investigate the nature of the bacterial agents responsible. between april and october (1996-1998), 500 loose or watery stools were collected from pat ...200212113407
effects of refrigeration and alcohol on the load of aeromonas hydrophila in oysters.members of the bacterial genus aeromonas are widely distributed throughout the environment and are readily cultured from a variety of foods. one member of this genus, aeromonas hydrophila, has been reputed to be a significant cause of gastrointestinal disease. in this study, we examined the effects of refrigeration and alcohol on the level of a. hydrophila in oysters. specifically, vodka was examined because it is used by the food service industry in preparation of oysters romanoff. one set of o ...200211899058
aeromonas species in foods.aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. aeromona ...200211899061
in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria. 200211909850
recent developments in carbapenems.carbapenems are beta-lactam antibiotics characterised by the presence of a beta-lactam ring with a carbon instead of sulfone in the 4-position of the thyazolidinic moiety. the first carbapenem to be utilised in therapy was imipenem, the n-formimidoyl derivative of thienamycin. imipenem is coadministered with cilastatin, an inhibitor of human renal dehydropeptidase i, as imipenem is hydrolysed by this enzyme. meropenem was the first carbapenem with a 1-beta-methyl group and 2-thio pyrrolidinyl mo ...200211922861
identification of mouse submaxillary gland protein in mouse saliva and its binding to mouse oral bacteria.the mouse submaxillary gland protein (msmgp) is highly expressed in the submandibular gland of the adult mouse and rat. it shares 51% identity at the amino-acid level with a human protein, the prolactin-inducible protein (pip)/gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (gcdfp-15), which has been found in saliva, tears, sweat, seminal plasma, submucosal glands of the lung and amniotic fluid. more recently, the human pip has been reported to bind to bacterial strains normally found in the mouth, ear ca ...200211922875
change in the composition of the microflora on vacuum-packaged beef during chiller storage.five fresh beefcut samples were divided into 10 pieces, respectively, vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees c for up to 6 weeks. the average ph values of five pieces from five beef samples were 5.62 +/- 0.04 at the start of storage and 5.12 +/- 0.07 after 6 weeks of storage. the pieces were homogenized, diluted and cultivated at weekly intervals on glucose-blood-liver (bl), de man rogosa and sharpe (mrs) and trypticase soya (ts) agars at 7 degrees c for 10-14 days. from plates with 30-300 colo ...200211929174
production of superoxide anion by head-kidney leucocytes of indian major carps immunised with bacterins of aeromonas hydrophila.on contact with micro-organisms or any other antigenic particles which are recognised as phagocytosable, the leucocytes of vertebrates raise their oxygen consumption suddenly (respiratory burst). the consumed oxygen is then converted into reactive oxygen species (ros). an effort has been made in the present study to estimate the production of superoxide anion, one of the ros, by the resident as well as activated head-kidney leucocytes of indian major carps. activation was accomplished by immunis ...200211931016
comparsion of selected growth media for culturing serratia marcescens, aeromonas sp., and pseudomonas aeruginosa as pathogens of adult stomoxys calcitrans (diptera: muscidae).stable flies, stomoxys calcitrans (l.), were orally infected with aeromonas sp., pseudomonas aeruginosa (schroeter), and serratia marcescens bizio that were cultured on egg-yolk media, nutrient broth, and fly egg media. aeromonas and serratia caused mortality when the bacteria were originally grown on egg-yolk medium. pseudomonas was equally lethal regardless of the media on which it was cultured. a wild isolate of aeromonas caused greater death than an isolate that had been passed through host ...200211931277
predictive modelling for packaging design: equilibrium modified atmosphere packages of fresh-cut vegetables subjected to a simulated distribution chain.the impact of temperature fluctuations in a simulated cold distribution chain, typical of commercial practice, was investigated on both the microbial and sensorial quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere (ema) packaged minimally processed vegetables. the internal o2 concentration of the designed packages could be predicted for the different steps of the simulated distribution chain by applying an integrated mathematical system. the internal atmosphere in the packages remained in its aerobic r ...200211934040
incidence of toxic aeromonas isolated from food and human infection.one hundred and ninety four aeromonas isolates (99 from food and 95 from clinical sources) were analyzed as to the species involved and the toxins produced. of the clinical isolates of aeromonas, 29.4% were enterotoxigenic, 43.1% were hemolytic and 89% were cytotoxigenic. among the food isolates, 18.2% were enterotoxigenic, 17.1% were hemolytic and 72.7% were cytotoxigenic. aeromonas sobria and aeromonas veronii produced more enterotoxin and cytotoxin than the other isolates, whereas a. veronii ...200211934569
potential virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas popoffii recovered from freshwater and seawater.aeromonas popoffii is the most recent species within the genus aeromonas described from freshwater. in our study this species was also recovered from this habitat and for the first time from seawater. most of the virulence factors known in aeromonas spp. (aerolysin/hemolysin, serine protease, lipases and dnases) were highly prevalent in this species. third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones were the most active antimicrobial agents against a. popoffii.200211934570
double-edged role of statins in angiogenesis signaling.3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors (statins) exert potent vasculoprotective effects. however, the potential contribution to angiogenesis is controversial. in the present study, we demonstrate that atorvastatin dose-dependently affects endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. in vivo relevant concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 micromol/l atorvastatin or mevastatin promote the migration of mature endothelial cells and tube formation. moreover, atorvastatin also increases mig ...200211934843
production of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine from alpha-chitin by crude enzymes from aeromonas hydrophila h-2330.the selective and efficient production of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac) was achieved from flake type of alpha-chitin by using crude enzymes derived from aeromonas hydrophila h-2330.200211950472
novel aeromonas hydrophila ppd134/91 genes involved in o-antigen and capsule biosynthesis.the sequences of the o-antigen and capsule gene clusters of the virulent aeromonas hydrophila strain ppd134/91 were determined. the o-antigen gene cluster is 17,296 bp long and comprises 17 genes. seven pathway genes for the synthesis of rhamnose and mannose, six transferase genes, one o unit flippase gene, and one o-antigen chain length determinant gene were identified by amino acid sequence similarity. pcr and southern blot analysis were performed to survey the distribution of these 17 genes a ...200211953367
aeromonas hydrophila vacuolating activity in the caco-2 human enterocyte cell line as a putative virulence factor.a non-enterotoxigenic strain of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diarrheic stools of an 8-month-old child was found to cause vacuolation in caco-2 cells. the vacuoles became prominent 60 min after addition of the bacterial culture to the cell monolayers and, after 120 min, a complete disruption of the monolayers was observed. cell vacuolation was not detected when caco-2 monolayers were tested with sterile filtrates of overnight cultures of the a. hydrophila vacuolating strain ah14846. this st ...200211958929
[effect of bacterial infection on the lipid composition of carp blood lymphocytes].the initial stage of bacterial infection is characterized by an increase in the level of total lipids and polyenoic fatty acids in membrane phospholipids of blood lymphocytes of carp (cyprinus carpio l.). in the fish infected with aeromonads, changes in the ratios of fatty acids in phospholipids are similar for either lymphocytes, liver, or whole blood. the extent to which these changes are pronounced depends on the original physiological status of the fish.200211962218
the regulation of biofilm development by quorum sensing in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that readily attaches to stainless steel to produce a thin biofilm with a complex 3d structure covering 40-50% of the available surface and producing large microcolonies. as a. hydrophila possesses an n-acylhomoserine lactone (ahl)-dependent quorum-sensing system based on the ahyri locus, the presence of the ahyi protein and c4-hsl within the biofilm phase was first established by western blot and ahl biosensor analysis respectively ...200211966822
expression of the exeab complex of aeromonas hydrophila is required for the localization and assembly of the exed secretion port multimer.aeromonas hydrophila secretes protein toxins via the type ii pathway, involving the products of at least two operons, exeab (gspab) and exec-n (gspc-n). in the studies reported here, aerolysin secretion was restored to c5.84, an exea::tn5-751 mutant, by overexpression of exed alone in trans. expression studies indicated that these results did not reflect a role of exeab in the regulation of the exec-n operon. instead, immunoblot analysis showed that exed did not multimerize in c5.84, and fractio ...200211967081
substrate-activated zinc binding of metallo-beta -lactamases: physiological importance of mononuclear enzymes.we have investigated the influence of substrate binding on the zinc ion affinity of representatives from the three metallo-beta-lactamase subclasses, b1 (bcii from bacillus cereus and blab from chryseobacterium meningosepticum), b2 (cpha from aeromonas hydrophila), and b3 (l1 from stenotrophomonas maltophilia). by competition experiments with metal-free apoenzymes and chromophoric zinc chelators or edta, we determined the dissociation constants in the absence and presence of substrates. for the ...200211967267
abdominal infections in patients with acute leukaemia: a prospective study applying ultrasonography and microbiology.a prospective study of 62 chemotherapy-induced neutropenic episodes in patients with acute leukaemia was conducted to determine the incidence and causes of abdominal infections, and to assess the diagnostic value of the combined use of ultrasonography (us) and microbiology. each patient underwent us of liver, gallbladder and complete bowel before chemotherapy, on days 2-4 after the end of chemotherapy and in cases of fever, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. us was combined with a standardized clinica ...200211972517
production of a monoclonal antibody against aeromonas hydrophila and its application to bacterial identification.to develop a monoclonal antibody (mab) for the rapid detection of aeromonas hydrophila in human faeces.200211972699
enhanced accumulation and changed monomer composition in polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) copolyester by in vitro evolution of aeromonas caviae pha synthase.by in vitro evolution experiment, we have first succeeded in acquiring higher active mutants of a synthase that is a key enzyme essential for bacterial synthesis of biodegradable polyester, polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha). aeromonas caviae fa440 synthase, termed phac(ac), was chosen as a good target for evolution, since it can synthesize a pha random copolyester of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] that is a tough and flexible material compared to polyhydroxybutyrate (phb) hom ...200211976116
in vitro stepwise autoprocessing of the proform of pro-aminopeptidase processing protease from aeromonas caviae t-64.pa protease (pro-aminopeptidase processing protease) is an extracellular zinc metalloprotease produced by the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas caviae t-64. the 590-amino-acid precursor of pa protease is composed of a putative 19-amino-acid signal sequence, a 165-amino-acid n-terminal propeptide, a 33 kda mature protease domain and an 11 kda c-terminal propeptide. the proform of pa protease, which was produced as inclusion bodies in escherichia coli, was subjected to in vitro refolding. it was r ...200211983417
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