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enumeration of aeromonas hydrophila from domestic wastewater treatment plants and surface waters.influents, effluents and sludges from sewage purification plants and surface water samples were examined quantitatively for aeromonas hydrophila on the ma medium of rippey and cabelli. between 10(4) and 10(6)/ml a. hydrophila were found in domestic wastewaters. on the average 99.975% were removed by activated sludge and 98.25% by trickling filters. only 20.9% of a. hydrophila end up in the primary sludge, which contained up to 10(7)/g dry sludge. after 3 months, anaerobically (methane) fermented ...19911960113
an extracellular acetylcholinesterase produced by aeromonas hydrophila is a major lethal toxin for fish.a hitherto unrecognised lethal toxin from the extracellular products (ecp) of aeromonas hydrophila is described. the pure toxin was 300 times more toxic than the crude ecp and is the most toxic substance so far described from this bacterium, with a minimum lethal dose of 0.05 micrograms g-1 fish. the toxin had high acetylcholinesterase activity and occurred in native ecp as a monomeric 15.5 kda polypeptide. the purified toxin had five isoelectric focusing forms ranging from pl 4.45 to 4.70. the ...19911961106
surface-disorganized, attenuated mutants of aeromonas salmonicida as furunculosis live vaccines.a slow-growing, aminoglycoside-resistant mutant and a rapidly-growing pseudo-revertant were isolated from aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of salmonid furunculosis. these mutants continued to elicit a variety of classical virulence factors associated with a. salmonicida pathogenesis. they differed morphologically from the wild-type and from one another with respect to a-layer organization, membrane antagonist sensitivity and particularly to aerobic metabolism. both mutants were drastic ...19911961112
the etiology of diarrhea among american adults living in peru.during 1984-1989, 655 diarrheic and 287 nondiarrheic stool specimens from adult u.s. citizens living in lima, peru were tested for presence of bacterial enteropathogens. frequencies of isolation among diarrheic specimens were: shigella 9.8%; campylobacter 6.1%; enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) 6.0%; plesiomonas 2.0%; salmonella 1.4%; and vibrio 0.6%. isolates recovered from non-diarrheic stools were: shigella 4.5%; campylobacter 2.1%; salmonella 1.0%; etec 0.7%; plesiomonas 0.7%; and vibr ...19911961431
isolation and characterization of a cryptic plasmid from mesophilic aeromonads: potential as a cloning vector.a 2.6 kb covalently closed circular plasmid has been isolated from clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas sobria and a. hydrophila. the possibility that the plasmid carries genetic determinants that mediate resistance to a variety of anti-microbial agents has been eliminated. the plasmid is stable at approximately 20-25 copies per chromosome equivalent which, together with its relatively small size and the presence of unique restriction sites, makes it a good candidate for development ...19911366999
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to aeromonas hydrophilia. 199117590777
etiology of bacterial diarrhea in a major referral center in saudi arabia.a total of 34, 856 stool specimens from 19, 437 patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis were analyzed for bacterial enteropathogens during the period of january 1, 1985, to december 31, 1989, at a major tertiary care referral hospital in saudi arabia. bacterial pathogens were isolate from 1426 (7.3%) patients, with salmonella being the most frequent (3.8%), followed by campylobacter (2.0%), shigella (1.1%), and aeromonas hydrophila (0.34%). salmonella serogroups b and c and shigella b and d co ...199117590814
purification and properties of beta-1, 4-xylanase from aeromonas caviae w-61.aeromonas caviae w-61, which was isolated from water samples at the faculty of agriculture, tohoku university, produced beta-1, 4-xylanase (1,4-beta-d-xylan xylanohydrolase; ec 3.2.1.8) extracellularly. the xylanase was purified to homogeneity by using deae-sephadex a-50, cm-sephadex c-50, and sephadex g-100 column chromatographies. the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 22,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the isoelectric point of the enz ...199116348410
mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium.a bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (las) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. the consortium, designated kjb, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the aeromonas spp. cell suspensions were grown together in min ...199116348496
evidence for bacterial chemotaxis to cyanobacteria from a radioassay technique.lyngbya birgei and aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. there was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of l. birgei and a. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of a. hydrophila. the assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ.199116348544
molecular cloning of the tryptophan operon from an aeromonas hydrophila freshwater isolate.a genomic library of aeromonas hydrophila f9 was constructed by using pbr322 as a vector. from that, two dna fragments (5.8 and 11.6 kb) were isolated containing genetic information to complement trpa and trpb defects (5.8-kb fragment) and to complement trpa, trpb, trpc, trpd, and trpe defects (11.6-kb fragment) in escherichia coli mutants. evidence of the existence of a secondary promoter is given.199216348662
influence of solid surface, adhesive ability, and inoculum size on bacterial colonization in microcosm studies.microcosm studies were performed to evaluate the effect of solid surfaces, bacterial adhesive ability, and inoculum size on colonization success and persistence of pseudomonas fluorescens and xanthomonas maltophilia, each with a tn5 insertion that conferred resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. two types of microcosms were used: (i) a simple system that was colonized by aeromonas hydrophila and a coryneform and (ii) a complex system produced from lake water enrichment cultures. simple microc ...199216348769
enumeration and characterization of bacterial colonists of a submersed aquatic plant, eurasian watermilfoil (myriophyllum spicatum l.).a simple procedure for enumerating and grouping the bacterial colonists of eurasian watermilfoil (myriophyllum spicatum l.) is described. colony characteristics of bacteria associated with m. spicatum were better defined and more stable on nutrient-poor, diluted nutrient broth agar than on high-nutrient media. acinetobacter, cytophaga, flavobacterium, moraxella, pseudomonas and/or alcaligenes, and vibrio/aeromonas spp., as well as two highly fastidious unidentified bacterial groups (gram-negativ ...199216348792
[camp factor for the differentiation among aeromonas species].the camp factor technique, described by natale figura as a presumptive method for the differentiation of the species hydrophila, sobria and caviae, was applied to 80 aeromonas strains isolated from children under 5 years with acute diarrheic disease. the typical phenomenon was seen in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis conditions in 10 strains, which were classified as aeromonas hydrophila. in aerobiosis conditions/alone, it was observed in 20 strains, which were identified as aeromonas sobria. it was ...19929768204
persistent diarrhoea still a serious and difficult problem.in bangladesh, the likelihood of a diarrhea episode becoming chronic ranges from 7.5-23%. if health providers knew the clinical characteristics of the early phase of diarrhea that becomes persistent diarrhea, they could manage that early diarrheal episode to limit its duration and minimize adverse effects. in bangladesh, aggregative adherent escherichia coli (eaggec) is the most common pathogen in initial stools of children with diarrhea. further, shigella, giardia, aeromonas, and rotavirus a ...199212344717
binding of laminin and fibronectin by the trypsin-resistant major structural domain of the crystalline virulence surface array protein of aeromonas salmonicida.the surface of aeromonas salmonicida is covered by a tetragonal paracrystalline array (a-layer) composed of a single protein (a-protein, mr = 50,778). this array is a virulence factor. cells containing a-layer and isolated a-layer sheets specifically bound laminin and fibronectin with high affinity. binding by cells was inactivated by selective removal of a-layer at ph 2.2, and neither isogenic a-layer-deficient a. salmonicida mutants nor tetragonal paracrystalline array producing aeromonas hydr ...19921730607
seasonal variation in etiology of travelers' diarrhea. finnish-moroccan study group.the etiology of travelers' diarrhea was studied in 579 adult finnish tourists participating in two packaged tours to morocco in the winter (n = 233) and fall (n = 346) of 1989. a research team accompanied the travelers, and a laboratory for enteric pathogens was established in agadir. at least one pathogen was found in 62% of the 60 diarrhea cases in winter and in 58% of the 111 diarrhea cases in fall. multiple pathogens were found less often in winter (8%) than in fall (21%, p less than .05). c ...19921730905
antigenic diversity of the s-layer proteins from pathogenic strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria.the antigenic relatedness of paracrystalline surface array proteins with subunit molecular weights of approximately 52,000 from isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria belonging to a single heat-stable serogroup was examined. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting with two different polyclonal antisera against surface exposed and non-surface-exposed epitopes of the s-layer protein from a. hydrophila tf7 showed that the s-layer proteins of the mesophili ...19921370287
immune responses to aeromonas hydrophila in cat fish (heteropneustis fossilis) exposed to cadmium and hexachlorocyclohexane. 19921371421
aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov., a new mesophilic member of the genus aeromonas.phenotypic and genetic studies were performed on some atypical aeromonas strains of uncertain taxonomic position. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed that these strains represent a hitherto unknown genetic line within the genus aeromonas, for which the name aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov. is proposed. the type strain is cect 4199.19921378035
crossing three membranes. channel formation by aerolysin.aerolysin is a channel-forming toxin responsible for the pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila. it crosses the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria in separate steps and is released as a 52-kda inactive protoxin which is activated by proteolytic removal of approximately 40 amino acids from the c terminus. the toxin binds to the erythrocyte transmembrane protein glycophorin and oligomerizes before inserting into the membrane, producing a voltage gated, anion selective channel about 1 nm in d ...19921379197
rrna gene restriction patterns as taxonomic tools for the genus aeromonas.in the genus aeromonas there are at least 13 dna hybridization groups, which are difficult to differentiate biochemically. we investigated the usefulness of rrna gene restriction patterns for characterization and identification of the various groups. genomic dna was digested with restriction endonuclease smai, transferred to a nylon membrane, and hybridized with biotinylated plasmid pkk3535 containing the rrnb operon of escherichia coli. the smai bands at 0.8 to 4 kb but not those at positions c ...19921380286
phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera aeromonas and plesiomonas as determined by 16s ribosomal dna sequencing: lack of congruence with results of dna-dna hybridizations.the phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera aeromonas and plesiomonas were investigated by using small-subunit ribosomal dna (rdna) sequencing. members of the genus aeromonas formed a distinct line within the gamma subclass of the proteobacteria. plesiomonas shigelloides also clustered within the confines of the gamma subclass of the proteobacteria but exhibited a closer association with members of the family enterobacteriaceae than with members of the family aeromonadaceae. spe ...19921380289
immunochemical analysis and possible biological role of an aeromonas hydrophila surface array protein in septicaemia.the biochemical, immunological, and biological properties of an s layer purified from an aeromonas hydrophila strain (ah-342) involved in a case of bacteraemia were investigated. the s layer selectively removed from the cell surface was composed of a single acidic (pi 4.56) protein subunit (surface array protein, sap) with a molecular mass of approximately 52 kda. amino acid analysis of this 52 kda protein indicated a molecule composed of 498 amino acids with 46% hydrophobic residues. no cystein ...19921382113
spectroscopic study of the activation and oligomerization of the channel-forming toxin aerolysin: identification of the site of proteolytic activation.the channel-forming protein aerolysin is secreted as a protoxin which can be activated by proteolytic removal of a c-terminal peptide. the activation and subsequent oligomerization of aerolysin were studied using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. mass spectrometric determination of the molecular weights of proaerolysin and aerolysin permitted identification of the sites at which the protoxin is processed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. the results of far- and near-uv circular dichroism measure ...19921382579
characterization of an o-antigen bacteriophage from aeromonas hydrophila.a unique bacteriophage of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o:34 was isolated, purified, and characterized. the bacterial surface receptor was shown to be the o-antigen polysaccharide component of lipopolysaccharide specific to serotype o:34, which was chemically characterized. the high molecular weight lipopolysaccharide fraction (a fraction enriched in o antigen) was fully able to inactivate bacteriophage pm1. phage-resistant mutants of a. hydrophila o:34 were isolated and found to be specifically ...19921382822
the channel-forming toxin aerolysin.aeromonas sp. secrete a precursor of the cytolytic protein aerolysin into the culture medium, where it is activated by proteolytic removal of a c-terminal fragment. activation can be achieved by a variety of mammalian proteases as well as by proteases released by the bacteria itself. activated toxin binds with high affinity to the transmembrane protein glycophorin on the surface of eucaryotic cells. binding is followed by oligomerization and the formation of transmembrane channels, leading to ce ...19921384593
structural features of the pore formed by staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin inferred from chemical modification and primary structure analysis.staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin makes cells and model membranes permeable to ions and uncharged molecules by opening oligomeric pores of uniform size. its primary sequence reveals peculiar features which give some hints on the structure of the pore. a flexible region separating the toxin into two halves, several amphiphilic beta-strands and two amphiphilic alpha-helices long enough to span the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer are predicted. in analogy to bacterial porins, we propose that ...19921384596
[aeromonas hydrophila infection in a case of open fracture]. 19921386446
comparative study of virulence and virulence factors of aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water and sediments of a river.seventy-four strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from water and sediments of the river porma (león, n.w. spain) were characterized biochemically and biologically. fifty-seven strains (77.02%) were virulent for rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) by intramuscular challenge but showed differing degree of pathogenicity which could not be associated with the source. a lack of correlation between caseinase, haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the strains and their isolation source was also observ ...19921388613
novel heme-binding component in the serum of the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus).the serum of the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) was examined for heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins. electrophoretic mobility retardation assays failed to detect a hemoglobin-binding material similar to mammalian haptoglobin; however, a heme-binding component (not previously described) was identified in catfish serum. the heme-binding component was purified by gel filtration chromatography; electrophoretic analyses suggested it to be composed of two polypeptide subunits of molecular ma ...19921392473
structure of the core oligosaccharide in the lipopolysaccharide isolated from aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.the core oligosaccharide isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida has been investigated by methylation analysis, nmr spectroscopy (13c and 1h), oxidation with periodate and chromium trioxide, and smith degradation. the following structure is proposed: [formula: see text]19921394331
bacterial contamination of food and household stored drinking water in a farmworker community in zimbabwe.food and water samples, collected from the homes of farmworkers with children less than five years old, were cultured for escherichia coli (which was used as an indicator of faecal contamination) and bacterial enteric pathogens. sixteen percent of the food samples and 41 pc of the household stored water samples had e.coli. ten percent of the foods had high e.coli counts greater than 10(4) counts per ml or g of food. most of the foods were stored for more than 12 hours. bacterial enteric pathogen ...19921394394
effect of growth temperature on outer membrane components and virulence of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34.growth of aeromonas hydrophila strains from serotype o:34 at 20 and 37 degrees c in tryptic soy broth resulted in changes in the lipids, lipopolysaccharide (lps), and virulence of the strains tested. cells grown at 20 degrees c contained, relative to those cultured at 37 degrees c, increased levels of the phospholipid fatty acids hexadecanoate and octadecanoate and reduced levels of the corresponding saturated fatty acids. furthermore, the lipid a fatty acids also showed thermoadaptation. in add ...19921398945
s-layer-mediated association of aeromonas salmonicida with murine macrophages.the interaction of aeromonas salmonicida with the murine macrophage (m phi) cell line p388d1 was used as a convenient model to study the involvement of the bacterial crystalline surface array (or a-layer) in the association with m phi s. a-layer-positive (a+) cells readily associated with m phi s in phosphate-buffered saline, whereas a- mutants were unable to do so, even when the bacterium-m phi interaction was forced by centrifugation. m phi s selectively interacted with a+ cells when challenge ...19921398947
interaction of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida with rainbow trout macrophages.a procedure was developed to culture rainbow trout macrophages (m phi) on supported glass coverslips. using this method and a variety of well-characterized aeromonas salmonicida strains with normal or altered cell surfaces, we investigated the role of this unusual bacterial surface in the bacterium-m phi interaction. an intact crystalline protein array, the a-layer, mediated adherence of a. salmonicida cells to m phi even in the absence of opsonins. in contrast, unopsonized cells of an a-layer-n ...19921398975
incidence of toxigenic vibrios in foods available in taiwan.a total of 1088 vibrios and related species were isolated from seafood and aquacultured foods available in taiwan. they were identified as vibrio alginolyticus, v. cholerae, v. fluvialis i, v. fluvialis ii, v. parahaemolyticus, v. mimicus, aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, a. sobria and other species. incidence of these vibrio and aeromonas species in these foods was high. vibrio parahaemolyticus was frequently found in seawater and in foods of freshwater origin. the vibrio isolates were examined ...19921399913
specific detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.development of a routine detection assay for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaa gene of c. coli vc167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by pcr. the primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of c. coli and 47 strains of c. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of campylobacter fetus, campylobacter lari, campylobacter upsaliensis, cam ...19921400961
[o serogroup and virulence factors of motile aeromonas].a total of 182 isolates of motile aeromonas from patients with diarrhea and environmental sources was investigated for hemolytic activity to rabbit erythrocyte and cytotoxicity to hela 229 cell. furthermore, the relation between o serogroup and virulence factors, which were lethal to mouse and autoagglutination, were investigated. there were many strains possessing both the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities in a. hydrophila from overseas traveller's diarrhea, suggesting that these activities we ...19921402072
[studies on motile-aeromonas infection 3). phage typing of motile aeromonas isolated from patients with diarrhea].phage types were determined for 102 strains of motile aeromonas isolated from patients with diarrhea at four metropolitan hospitals in tokyo. the following results were obtained. 1) of the 102 strains examined, 52 (51.0%) were divided into 28 phage types. this rate was considerably higher, compared to our previous results, namely, 21.7% for strains isolated from natural environments and 25% for those isolated from meats. by bacterial species, phage types could be determined for 33 (52.4%) of 63 ...19921402096
production of haemolysis and its correlation with enterotoxicity in aeromonas spp.a total of 147 clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas that included 14 a. hydrophila, 60 a. sobria and 73 a. caviae strains was tested for haemolysin production and its correlation with enterotoxicity; 108 isolates produced beta-haemolysis. for a. hydrophila and a. sobria, titres of haemolysin were 16-128 hu/ml and for a. caviae, 16-64 hu/ml. in the ileal loop test, 82 (55.8%) strains of aeromonas spp. produced enterotoxin. of the beta-haemolytic strains, 72.7% of a. hydrophila, 58.6% ...19921404325
musculoskeletal and soft tissue aeromonas infection: an environmental disease.during a 4-year period from november 1985 to november 1989, aeromonas was isolated from wounds and soft tissues with clinical evidence of infection in 28 patients at our institution. of the 28 patients, 23 (82%) had sustained an acute open or penetrating injury, more than half of which (13 of the 23) were water-related trauma. one patient had aeromonas osteomyelitis. five patients had no history of trauma, and three of these five had an underlying chronic disease. treatment included débridement ...19921405767
extraintestinal aeromonas infections--looking for mr. sandbar. 19921405778
characterization of a vibrio cholerae virulence factor homologous to the family of tonb-dependent proteins.irga is an iron-regulated virulence factor for infection in an animal model with classical vibrio cholerae strain 0395. we detected gene sequences hybridizing to irga at high stringency in clinical isolates in addition to 0395, including another classical strain of v. cholerae, three v. cholerae strains of the el tor biotype, three non-o1 isolates of v. cholerae, and individual isolates of vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, and vibrio alginolyticus. no hybridization to irga was seen with ...19921406279
[bacteria of the genus aeromonas and their role in aquaculture].bacteria of genus aeromonas are constant components of microbiota of fresh reservoirs where they, together with other microorganisms, play the part of natural biofilter and promote water self-purification. they are necessarily present in normal microflora of hydrobionts inhabiting fresh reservoirs. the greatest attention is paid by the researchers to aeromonas and biotrophs in connection with epizootics in aquaculture which have become more frequent, in particular, under fish breeding. that is w ...19921406386
comparison of two assays for the detection of haemolysins of aeromonas species.the haemolysins produced by aeromonas species were detected and compared by two assay methods--a modified blood agar plate assay and the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin method. both assays showed a high level of agreement (86%). the titres of the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin assay correlated with the haemolytic zone diameter of the ox blood agar assay. in addition the agar haemolysin assay had simple media requirements, was easy to perform and results were well defined.19921411668
temperature-dependent in vitro antimicrobial activity of four 4-quinolones and oxytetracycline against bacteria pathogenic to fish.the in vitro antimicrobial activities of oxolinic acid, flumequine, sarafloxacin, enrofloxacin, and oxytetracycline against strains of bacteria pathogenic to fish (aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, atypical a. salmonicida, vibrio salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum, and yersinia ruckeri) were determined at two different incubation temperatures, 4 and 15 degrees c, by a drug microdilution method. the main objective of the study was to examine the effect of incubation temperature on the in vit ...19921416857
[clinical and diagnostic characteristics of aeromonas strains].we studied the taxonomic, clinic, microbiological diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of aeromonas strains. eleven geno-species have been isolated in human. they can be enterotoxigenic or enteroinvasive. these bacteria can be easily confused with other gram negative bacilli (the aeromonas are oxidase positive). they produce diarrhea but can only colonizer. in others localizations they are always diagnostic. their detection in stools can be realized with the blood agar plus ampicillin or c ...19921420766
epidemiology of persistent diarrhea and etiologic agents in mirzapur, bangladesh.to determine the epidemiology and etiologic agents of persistent diarrhea we carried out an intensive diarrhea surveillance on children less than six years old in rural bangladesh. from march 1987 to february 1989 we examined 363 children through diarrhea recall interviews and analyzed stool samples of all diarrhea cases for potential pathogens. results showed that children had an average of two episodes per year and the incidence rate of diarrheal episodes defined as acute (< 14 d) and persiste ...19921421936
rapid identification of motile aeromonas.the clinical relevance and taxonomy of motile aeromonas species are areas of current controversy. strains of motile aeromonas isolates (n = 60) from various sources were identified to species level using the following tests (all incubated at 30 degrees and 37 degrees c): esculin hydrolysis; formation of gas from glucose; production of acetoin; production of acid from mannitol and arabinose; decarboxylation of lysine and ornithine, dihydrolation of arginine; and pyrazinamide hydrolysis in a semis ...19921424504
effect of aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxins on function of mouse phagocytes.two enterotoxins produced by aeromonas hydrophila isolate ssu have been characterized in this laboratory. one is a cholera toxin cross-reactive cytolytic enterotoxin (ctc toxin) and the other is a non-cholera toxin cross-reactive cytotonic enterotoxin (non-ctc toxin). the two enterotoxins are capable of causing fluid accumulation in animal models; however, only the ctc toxin is lethal to mice and expresses hemolytic as well as cytotoxic activities. in this study, we have investigated the effects ...19921425069
a 15-year study of the role of aeromonas spp. in gastroenteritis in hospitalised children.during a 15-year period, 146 strains of aeromonas spp. were isolated from 32810 faecal specimens from 13,820 hospitalised patients up to 13 years of age. these isolates constituted 4% of all the pathogenic bacterial strains cultured. for the years 1978-1988, the files of children with gastro-enteritis revealed 81 whose faeces yielded aeromonas spp. most of them (94%) were < 3 years of age, 78% < 1 year old. the peak incidence was at 2-6 months, involving severe morbidity including dehydration an ...19921433252
purification and characterisation of an extracellular metalloprotease, serine protease and haemolysin of aeromonas hydrophila strain b32: all are lethal for fish.three different lethal (for rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri) extracellular toxins were purified by hplc from the culture supernatants of aeromonas hydrophila strain b32 which had been isolated from rainbow trout. a metalloprotease, mw 38 kda, was stable at 56 degrees c for 10 min, had no cytotoxic activity and and ld50 of 150 ng/g fish. in narrow range isoelectric-focusing (ief) the enzyme had 11 isomers with (pls) between 4.12 and 4.8. a serine protease (22 kda) was stable at 56 degrees c for 10 ...19921435227
dietary vitamin b6 and vitamin c. influence on immune response and disease resistance in atlantic salmon (salmo salar). 19921444053
variation in growth kinetics and phenotype of aeromonas spp. from clinical, meat processing and fleshfood sources.sixty-four strains of motile aeromonads (a. hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae), isolated from clinical meat processing and ready-to-eat fleshfood sources, and the a. hydrophila type strain were tested with respect to their growth kinetics at 4 degrees c and 37 degrees c, and the reported indicators of pathogenicity: autoagglutination and haemolysis (tested using a camp reaction). between the species, a. caviae grew the fastest at 37 degrees c and had the highest percentage of strains not able ...19921445756
incidence and coincidence of listeria spp., motile aeromonads and yersinia enterocolitica on ready-to-eat fleshfoods.a survey for the presence of listeria spp., yersinia enterocolitica and motile aeromonads in 203 samples of ready-to-eat fleshfoods purchased from retail outlets was conducted. overall, 39.4%, 3.4% and 23.2% of samples were positive for the presence of listeria spp., y. enterocolitica and motile aeromonads respectively. two factors have been identified as contributing to contamination of fleshfoods by these cold-tolerant bacteria. these are (i) the method of sale; delicatessen-bought foods were ...19921445763
contaminated marine wounds--the risk of acquiring acute bacterial infection from marine recreational beaches.an animal model was used to determine the potential for causing wound infections of bacteria isolated from marine recreational beaches in hong kong. water samples were characterized physically, chemically and bacteriologically and used to inoculate artificially-induced wounds in rats. morbidity and mortality correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with macconkey plate counts and faecal coliform counts (membrane filtration) and inversely with salinity of the water. the majority of deaths were due to ...19921447057
aeromonas sobria spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. 19921449170
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of the gene encoding an extracellular deoxyribonuclease (dnase) from aeromonas hydrophila.the gene encoding an extracellular dnase from aeromonas hydrophila chc-1 has been cloned and sequenced. following expression of the dns in escherichia coli, it was revealed that some of the cloned enzyme was present in the cell-free extracellular supernatant fluid, and there was no cell lysis and concurrent release of cytoplasmic or periplasmic proteins. therefore, results suggest that e. coli cells were capable of secreting the dnase extracellularly, albeit very inefficiently. the dns is transc ...19921452026
aeromonas spp as a potential cause of diarrhoea in children.to determine the prevalence of aeromonas spp in the faeces of children and the association with symptoms of gastroenteritis.19921452789
electrophoretic mobility and immunoblot analysis of the outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae.the outer membrane profiles of three species of the genus aeromonas were examined by means of sds-page and immunoblotting to identify species-specific polypeptides and antigens which could presumably be applied to differentiate aeromonas spp. at the species or subspecies level. profiles on an 11% discontinuous sds-page showed common band sharing at the 52 kd position. species-specific bands for the three strains could also be detected. immunoblots using heterologous lps-adsorbed polyclonal antis ...19921453982
crocodile attacks in the northern territory of australia.to examine crocodile attacks in the northern territory with particular reference to risk factors, range of injuries, microorganisms isolated from wounds, and surgical management; and to make recommendations for optimal treatment.19921453999
prevalence of bacterial agents of diarrhoeal disease at the national university hospital, singapore and their resistance to antimicrobial agents.over a 50-month period, 4,508 stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea were bacteriologically examined at the national university hospital, singapore. salmonella serotypes other than the typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli were the most common finding, being isolated in 10.8% of cases. campylobacter jejuni was unexpectedly infrequent (1.9%); aeromonas hydrophila was found in 1.8%. no other aerobic pathogen occurred in more than 1% of cases. clostridium difficile was sought only when requested, a ...19921455527
stimulation of neutrophil leukocyte chemotaxis by a cloned cytolytic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila.a cytolytic enterotoxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila, isolate ssu, has been cloned in our laboratory. this enterotoxin lysed rabbit red blood cells, destroyed chinese hamster ovary cells, caused fluid secretion in rat ligated ileal loops, inhibited the phagocytic function of mouse phagocytes, and was lethal to mice when injected intravenously. in this study, the effect of this cytolytic enterotoxin on the chemotaxis of human leukocytes (cell line rpmi 1788) was examined. this toxin, at conce ...19921459417
identification of a cyprinid fish, the tench tinca tinca l., as a carrier of the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids.a typical, pigment-producing strain of aeromonas salmonicida (a. sal.), the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish species, was isolated from a cyprinid species, the tench tinca tinca l. with papilloma-like skin alterations. histopathology of the papilloma-like skin alterations in tench revealed "round holes", distinctly lined by thick layers of epithelial cells, but no bacteria. the organism was isolated from skin, gills and fins, but not internal organs. the isolate proved highly vir ...19921462724
[bacterial pathogens in diarrhea: demonstration of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli using the polymerase chain reaction].in 23% of 576 diarrhea patients we were able to demonstrate putative bacterial pathogens. not included in this number is clostridium difficile which was found in 8 of 48 (8.3%) specimens analyzed. in addition to salmonella (8.2%), campylobacter (6.0%), aeromonas (2.7%), shigella (1.9%) and yersinia (0.8%) we identified verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) in 10 patients (1.9%). vtec were found as frequently as shigella (occurring exclusively in patients returning from the tropics) and we ...19921465595
destruction of bacteria on fresh meat by hot water.strains of different bacterial genera; escherichia coli (7), salmonella serotypes (7), enteropathogenic e. coli o 157 (2), aeromonas hydrophila (4), yersinia enterocolytica (1), pseudomonas fragi (5), and listeria monocytogenes (5), inoculated onto the surface tissues of pieces of fresh beef were found to be susceptible to the lethal action of hot water. on average, more than 3 log10 (99.9%) of these organisms were destroyed when water at 80 degrees c was applied for 10 or 20 s. therefore, a hot ...19921468533
the cloning and nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene (aspa) of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.the gene for aeromonas salmonicida serine protease has been cloned into phagemid ptz18r in two restriction fragments, 2.0-kb psti and 2.3-kb kpni, of genomic dna. the nucleotide sequences of the two fragments have been determined, in both directions, after subcloning, by double-stranded sequencing of nested deletions. an open reading frame of 1863 bp translated into a sequence of 621 amino acids, a 24-amino acid signal peptide and a 597-amino acid mature enzyme of molecular mass 64,173 da. the c ...19921468618
detection of bacterial and mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by polymerase chain reaction.a fast and simple method to detect bacterial and especially mycoplasma contamination in tissue culture by means of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification is described. in a first step the universal primer pairs p1/p2 (190-bp fragment) and p3/p4 (120-bp fragment) directed to different conserved parts of the prokaryotic 16s rrna gene are used. a positive signal after amplification on cell culture dna with these primers provides an indication of bacterial infection. using the internal primer ...19921468621
detection of aeromonas salmonicida from fish by using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the virulence surface array protein gene.a dna-based assay was developed to detect aeromonas salmonicida from infected fish by analyzing tissues, feces, and the tank water in which the infected fish were held. this analysis was done both by direct detection from samples and after a bacterial outgrowth step. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of a 421-bp sequence from the 3' region of the surface array protein gene (vapa) of a. salmonicida provided a specific and sensitive method for the detection and identification of this i ...19921476426
phenotypic methods for speciating clinical aeromonas isolates.to establish the suitability of currently available phenotypic methods for speciation of clinical aeromonas isolates in diagnostic microbiology laboratories.19921479034
diagnostic exercise: high mortality in red-eared slider turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans). 19921479815
in vitro activities of ro 40-6890 against 164 predominantly intestinal members of the families enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae.the in vitro activities of ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the national committee for clinical laboratory standards. ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (mic for 90% of isolates [mic90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families entero ...19921482154
development of monoclonal antibodies that identify vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. the pathogens included vibrio alginolyticus, v. anguillarum, v. carchariae, v. cholerae, v. damsela, v. furnissii, v. harveyi, v. ordalii, v. parahaemolyticus, and v. vulnificus. three types of mabs were selected. the first important group included mabs that reacted with only a single species. a second group comprised a number of mabs that reacted w ...19921482190
aeromonas hydrophila conjunctivitis in a pet parrot (amazona versicolor).a bilateral conjunctivitis in a pet parrot (amazona versicolor) is reported. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated in pure culture from both eyes and considered of diagnostic significance. biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of the strain were studied, as were the factors that could have contributed to the clinical conjunctivitis and the role of a. hydrophila as an opportunistic pathogen.19921485867
[the suicide phenomenon and fermentative metabolic activity in strains of the aeromonas group isolated from feces].we study the "suicide" phenomena as well as metabolic pathways of mixed acids (methyl red test, mr) and butylene glycol (voges-proskauer, vp), in 107 strains belonging to mesophilic aeromonas group, isolated from stools. the strains have been identified as a. hydrophila, 28 cases (26.1%), a. sobria 26 cases (24.3%) and a. caviae 53 cases (49.6%). all a. caviae strains behave homogeneously as f+, rm+ and vp-, independently of temperature (30 or 37 degrees c). a. hydrophila strains only showed the ...19921489794
aeromonas hydrophila fulminant pneumonia in a fit young man.a previously healthy 24 year old athletic man became ill suddenly with pneumonia the day after swimming in the sea. despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit he died three hours after admission and 21 hours after his first symptom. necropsy showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrotising pneumonia. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lungs at necropsy. the infection may have come from contaminated sea water.19921496512
formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei and attendant changes in shape and adhesive capacity of constitutive cells.the formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity may result from an aggregation of coelomocytes around offending foreign cells such as bacteria, gregarines, incompatible graft fragments, and altered self structures such as setae or necrotic muscle cells. the initial nodule rapidly increases in volume by aggregation of new coelomocytes and various waste particles. when a brown body has reached a diameter of 1-2 mm, its external cells flatten and lose their adhesiveness toward free coelomocyte ...19921499843
use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1 strains from the latin american cholera epidemic.in january 1991, an outbreak of cholera started in peru and spread throughout most of latin america within 8 months. as of march 1992, over 450,000 cases and approximately 4,000 deaths have been reported to the pan american health organization. the causative organism is toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1 of the el tor biotype and is distinct from the u.s. gulf coast strains. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that amplifies a 564-bp fragment of the cholera toxin a subunit gene (ctxa) was used to identi ...19921500520
occurrence of haemolysin producing aeromonas species in the aquatic environment.a total of 532 environmental isolates of motile aeromonads were evaluated for their ability to produce haemolysins. of those isolates tested, 68 (12.5%) and 18 (3.4%) were found to be alpha and beta haemolytic, respectively. aeromonas caviae was found to be alpha haemolytic (3.8%) for the first time. isolates of aeromonas which were either alpha or beta haemolytic on plate assay also produced detectable amounts of haemolysin in cell free broth assay.19921501594
in vitro activity of ro 23-9424, a dual-action antibacterial agent, against bacterial isolates from cancer patients compared with those of other agents.the in vitro activity of ro 23-9424 against bacterial isolates from patients with cancer was compared with those of fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. ro 23-9424 inhibited the majority of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae and all aeromonas isolates at a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/ml. it was also active against acinetobacter spp. and haemophilus influenzae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. the mic for 90% of isolates (mic90) ...19921503453
isolation and characterization of the hupa gene coding for hu of aeromonas proteolytica. 19921508695
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
automated lanes detection and comparison of bacterial electrophoretic protein fingerprints using fast fourier transformation.a method of computer-automated analysis of bacterial fingerprints produced by electrophoresis of proteins in a one-dimensional slab gel system is described. proteins were visualized by silver staining. western blotting, or autoradiography. gels were recorded with a ccd camera, and after initial manual removal of the unwanted image margins, track margins were identified and extracted and a normalized trace was produced automatically using fourier routines to smooth plots required for this process ...19921511600
survival of bacterial enteric pathogens in traditional fermented foods.the survival of strains of bacterial enteric pathogens was investigated in two traditional fermented foods (mahewu and sour porridge) and in unfermented porridge. the foods were inoculated with cell suspensions of salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, aeromonas species and pathogenic escherichia coli which had a final concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml of food. none of the strains of aeromonas and campylobacter were detected in mahewu and sour porridge 20 min after inoculation. the salmonellas w ...19921512176
the activity of ceftiofur sodium for aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish.our objective was to determine the activity of ceftiofur sodium against aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria isolated from a variety of domestic and imported tropical fish. twelve antimicrobial drugs were tested for effectiveness against these aeromonads using the kirby-bauer disk diffusion technique and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations. ceftiofur sodium was highly effective in vitro against aeromonads isolated from ornamental fish. of the 42 isolates of aeromonas spp. tested, none ...19921512880
[sensitivity of vibrio and aeromonas to antibiotics].the antibiotic sensitivity of 696 cultures belonging to the family vibrionaceae (v. cholerae o1, v. cholerae non-o1, v. albensis, v. parahaemolyticus, v. alginolyticus and aeromonas spp.) was studied and general regularities of the antibiotic sensitivity were shown: a high sensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics (tetracycline and chloramphenicol) and a low sensitivity to ++beta lactams (carbenicillin and ampicillin). the comparative examinations revealed similarity in the antibioticograms of v ...19921514858
emerging food-borne pathogens and their significance in chilled foods. 19921517168
effect of culture age, pre-incubation at low temperature and ph on the thermal resistance of aeromonas hydrophila.the thermal resistance of aeromonas hydrophila strain nctc 8049 was determined within the range 48 degrees-65 degrees c with a thermoresistometer tr-sc and mcilvaine buffer. the effects of culture age, pre-incubation at 7 degrees c and the ph of the heating menstruum were evaluated. the pattern of thermal death was dependent on culture age. cells heated in the late logarithmic growth phase (15 h at 30 degrees c) were twice as resistant as those in the early stage (5 h at 30 degrees c), and the m ...19921517173
numerical classification and identification of aeromonas genospecies.a total of 176 aeromonas strains representing all currently characterized genospecies were tested for 329 biochemical characters. overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomic techniques, the upgma algorithm and the ssm and the sj coefficients as measures of similarity. sixteen clusters (two or more strains) and seven unclustered strains were recovered at the 93.5% similarity level (ssm). genospecies 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 13 were largely represented by single phen ...19921517176
epidemiology of aeromonas infections in california.in may 1988, california became the first state to make aeromonas infection a reportable condition, thereby permitting the first population-based study of the epidemiology of infection caused by aeromonas organisms. case investigations were carried out on 219 of the 280 patients whose infections were reported during the first year of notification. the overall incidence rate for aeromonas isolation was 10.6 cases per 1 million population. the gastrointestinal tract was the most commonly reported s ...19921520792
aeromonas hydrophila infections following use of medicinal leeches in replantation and flap surgery.aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of postoperative leech application, and can occur with measurable frequency in populations of patients treated with leeches. we review 11 previously reported leech-related aeromonas infections and analyze seven unreported cases. these infections range from minor wound complications to extensive tissue loss and sepsis. often, these infections followed leech application to tissue with questionable arterial perfusion. onset of clinical i ...19921524373
postprandial aeromonas hydrophila cultures and antibiotic levels of enteric aspirates from medicinal leeches applied to patients receiving antibiotics.increasing use of medicinal leeches has been accompanied by increasing numbers of reports of aeromonas hydrophila infections after leech application on or near damaged tissue. we examined the enteric contents of postprandial leeches after their application to patients receiving antibiotics. we found measurable levels of antibiotic in the leech enteric contents, and in leeches applied to patients receiving an antibiotic effective against aeromonas hydrophila, there was a significant decrease in p ...19921524374
the use of medicinal leeches in the salvage of flaps with venous congestion.the use of medicinal leeches (hirudo medicinalis) for the salvage of tissues with venous congestion has been intermittent over the last two centuries. during the last decade, interest in leech therapy has undergone a resurgence. hirudo's tricuspid bite injects a highly potent anticoagulant. the site usually bleeds for 1 to 2 hours and under special circumstances may bleed for up to 24 hours. this collective series presents four patients in whom immediate postoperative venous congestion threatene ...19921524375
comparative in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a novel cephalosporin with a catechol moiety.the in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in 1230 clinical isolates from 1028 consecutive patients. using an agar dilution method, the drugs were tested against 625 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, 68 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 xanthomonas maltophilia, 20 aeromonas hydrophila, 54 acinetobacter, 373 staphylococci, and 54 strains of enterococci. more than 98% of enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to ro 09-1 ...19921525790
[late onset serum iga and igm deficiency revealed by acute diarrhea caused by aeromonas sobria infection]. 19921526403
occurrence of a capsule in aeromonas salmonicida.aeromonas salmonicida grown in a medium with excess glucose as carbon source produces both capsular and exocellular polysaccharides. the capsular polysaccharide is composed of glucose, mannose, rhamnose, n-acetylmannosamine and mannuronic acid in the molar ratios of approximately 5:3:0.75:2:1. the extracellular polysaccharide is similarly constituted, but in the molar ratios of approximately 4.75:10.5:1.5:2:1. the capsular and exocellular polysaccharides did not cross-react with monoclonal antib ...19921526444
molecular cloning, characterization and nucleotide sequence of the gene for secreted alpha-amylase from xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-d-glucan glucanohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.1) of apparent molecular mass 45 kda was secreted by xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris grown in medium containing starch or maltose. we isolated its structural gene from a recombinant lambda library and located it on a 2.7 kb dna fragment. nucleotide sequencing of the fragment revealed a potential orf encoding a protein of 475 amino acid residues, including a potential signal sequence of 35 amino acids. the signal processing site w ...19921527504
siderophore production and dna hybridization groups of aeromonas spp.a correlation between the genospecies (dna-dna hybridization group) and the type of siderophore produced by 118 isolates of the genus aeromonas was established. organisms in hybridization groups 1 through 5 (including 5a, 5b, and 5ab) and group 12 predominantly produced the siderophore amonabactin, while an enterobactinlike siderophore was prevalent in groups 8/10 and 9. the siderophore produced by strains in group 6 may be an as-yet-unidentified nonphenolate, nonhydroxamate compound, and group ...19921532398
amoxycillin in the control of furunculosis in atlantic salmon parr.the efficacy of amoxycillin in the control of laboratory induced aeromonas salmonicida infection in atlantic salmon parr was investigated. when given in the diet at a dose rate of 80 mg per kg bodyweight it was effective against both a moderate and severe challenge (with mortality rates in untreated groups of 75 per cent and 45 per cent). at 40 mg per kg it was effective against the moderate challenge only. the plasma levels in these regimens were 1.25 micrograms per ml and 0.3 to 0.6 micrograms ...19921546434
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