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salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria.the bacterial origin of waterborne diseases was discovered at the turn of this century. introduction of slow sandfiltration, chlorination, and bacteriological control dates back to the same period. although greater concern is given to-day to chemical pollutants or to viruses, bacteria are still a menace to countries with advanced water treatment. within the last decade outbreaks were reported in europe and the us due to salmonella types, shigella, e. coli, and to vibrio cholerae, generally due t ...19817233156
plasma iron, copper, and zinc in lizard dipsosaurus dorsalis: effects of bacteria injection.the effects of inoculation of desert iguanas (dipsosaurus dorsalis) with heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila on the plasma concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc, and the total iron-binding capacity have been determined. plasma iron concentration and total iron-binding capacity fell significantly in inoculated lizards maintained at temperatures corresponding to those selected during fever. plasma copper concentration did not change in response to inoculation (as determined at 24 h postinjection). ...19817235044
salmonella, arizona, shigella and aeromonas isolated from the snail achatina achatina in nigeria.the salmonella, arizona, shigella and aeromonas contents of 39 snails (achatina achatina) were investigated. serotyping of the salmonella isolates revealed the presence of s. manhattan, s. ndolo, s. reading, s. uppsala, and s. typhimurium. six of 18 shigella isolates were identified as sh. sonnei while all the aeromonas proved to be a. hydrophila. fifty eight percent of these a. hydrophila isolates were enterotoxigenic, and their toxin was shown to be heat labile. all the a. hydrophila strains w ...19807235689
effect of temperature on growth and activity of aeromonas spp. and mixed bacterial populations in the anacostia river.during the winter months, total bacterial counts in the water column and in the sediment in the anacostia river were two- to eightfold higher than at other times of the year, whereas aeromonas spp. decreased in number of several orders of magnitude. this significant decrease in number in the anacostia river during the cold months of the year can be explained by the low metabolic activity of aeromonas at low temperatures.19817235703
aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout: relation between virulence and surface characteristics.motile aeromonas isolated from fish were studied for their virulence in fish in relation to some surface characteristics. the results showed that only the most virulent strains of a. hydrophila used in this study shared a common o antigen, did not agglutinate in acriflavine, settled down after boiling, and were resistant to the bactericidal action of fresh normal mammalian serum. the least virulent strains could not be grouped into this o antigenic group, they did not settle after boiling, and w ...19807237273
a toxigenic profile of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria isolated from fish.forty strains of motile aeromonas were isolated from healthy and diseased fish. these strains were identified as a. hydrophila or a a. sobria. it was found that only strains of a. hydrophila produced a dermonecrotic factor and two zones of hemolysis on blood agar. all the strains of a. sobria tested and 72% of the a. hydrophila were enterotoxigenic. finally, we observed that only a. hydrophila strains could regularly produce hemolysin at 10 degrees c.19817237279
unusual disease conditions in pet and aviary birds.ninety percent ot 100% mortality in budgerigar (melopsittacus undulatus) nestlings from 2 aviaries was attributed to giardiasis. treatment with dimetridazole in drinking water was effective in controlling mortality. aeromonas hydrophila infection incriminated in acute deaths of aviary canaries (serinus canarius) was successfully treated with chlortetracycline. aeromonas hydrophila also was isolated in pure culture from a toucan (ramphastos toco) with acute nephrosis and a cockatiel (nymphicus ho ...19817240000
aeromonas hydrophila bacteraemia in haematological patients. 19817242421
molecular characterization of environmental and nontoxigenic strains of vibrio cholerae.environmental and nontoxigenic strains of vibrio cholerae 0-1 were examined for genes homologous to genes encoding escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (lt). restriction fragments encoding lt a and b subunits were isolated from the recombinant plasmid ewd299 and labeled in vitro with 32p. these probes were then hybridized to deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from strains of v. cholerae and visualized by autoradiography. none of the nontoxigenic strains of v. cholerae 0-1 from louisiana, alabam ...19817251142
aeromonas hydrophila: ecology and toxigenicity of isolates from an estuary. 19817251516
role of ph in oxidase variability of aeromonas hydrophila.some strains of aeromonas hydrophila may be oxidase negative or only weakly oxidase positive by the kovacs method taken from the surface of a differential medium, such as macconkey agar. six strains of a. hydrophila, two oxidase variable, one oxidase constant, and three weakly oxidase positive on macconkey agar, were studied to determine the cause of oxidase variability. the bacteriostatic dyes in macconkey agar were considered possible inhibitors of the oxidase reaction. the concentration of th ...19817251826
the possibility of differentiating vibrio and aeromonas on the basis of correlation of the nucleotide composition of dna and the peculiarities of the antigenic structure.the nucleotide composition of dna was correlated with the peculiarities of the antigenic structure of vibrios and aeromonades. the authors propose a supplementary test for the differentiation between these microorganisms by the detection of thermolabile "indicator" antigens, most characteristic of cholera vibrios and pathogenic nag vibrios, in immunoelectrophoresis with diagnostic serum to alcoholic preparation of nag-vibrio flagellin.19817252145
nosocomial aeromonas hydrophila cellulitis and bacteremia in a nonimmunocompromised patient.an elderly man, without heat in his home for two days, presented with cold, painful, swollen feet. second-degree frostbite was present. after having moist packs applied to his feet for five days, the patient became febrile and hypotensive, and wet gangrene necessitated left below-knee and right above-knee amputations. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the patient's blood and cultures of the pedal wounds. an etiologic role of the moist pack therapy is postulated.19817256345
[on the ecology of plesiomonas shigelloides (author's transl)].studies on the generation time of p. shigelloides and its relation to incubation temperature have shown that this species in marked contrast to a. hydrophila does not multiply in temperature below 8 degrees c. these findings would explain the seasonal variations in the number of isolates from river-water observed in japan. colony counts of p. shigelloides organisms on ibg-agar from water of the river main sampled during the month of august (water temperature 20 degrees c) have shown numbers of 1 ...19817257657
serogrouping of motile aeromonas species isolated from healthy and moribund fish.a total of 195 strains of motile aeromonas isolated from fish were characterized as aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria. in view of the frequency of isolation and the importance of motile aeromonas species as fish pathogens, a serological classificaton of these organisms was attempted. antisera were prepared in rabbits against formalinized whole cell suspensions and against boiled cells of 12 different isolates. seventy-six strains could be grouped by tube agglutination with whole cells as ...19817259164
aeromonas hydrophila infection in xenopus laevis.aeromonas hydrophila caused severe disease in a group of xenopus laevis within 3 weeks of receipt. the primary clinical signs were marked pallor of the skin, petechiation, lethargy, anorexia, and edema. the duration of the outbreak was approximately 45 days during which time 21 frogs became sick and 18 died, despite tetracycline therapy. pale skin, subcutaneous edema and hemorrhages, ascites, and pale livers were seen at necropsy. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from skin, and the same organis ...19817265911
cultural and biochemical characteristics of clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila. 19807269636
pneumonia and bacteremia due to aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacillus which has been rarely identified as a human pathogen except in immunologically compromised hosts. we have recently treated three patients for severe a hydrophila pneumonia and sepsis. two of these patients were healthy young men who aspirated the organism from contaminated water associated with near drowning. one patient survived severe ards and gram-negative sepsis. a third patient with chronic renal failure acquired a hydrophila pneumonia at hom ...19817273876
purification and disposition of a surface protein associated with virulence of aeromonas salmonicida.virulent strains of aeromonas salmonicida observed by electron microscopy were characterized by an outer layer exhibiting a tetragonal repeat pattern. attenuated strains had a 2.5 x 10(3)- to 5 x 10(3)-fold reduction in virulence and lost the outer layer, autoaggregating properties, and a 49-kilodalton protein (a protein) simultaneously. the a protein is the major protein component of outer membrane fractions of virulent strains. a variety of radiolabeling studies showed that this protein was su ...19817275932
pyrogens fail to produce fever in a cordylid lizard.we investigated the effects on body temperature of the lizard cordylus cataphractus of intracardiac injections of leucocyte pyrogen (lp) synthesized from rabbit blood and of killed aeromonas hydrophila, a gram-negative bacterium reputed to be pathogenic in lizards. lizards were placed in a photothermal gradient that allowed them to select a preferred body temperature following the injections. neither injection of 0.5 ml rabbit lp nor of 4 x 10(9) organisms of a. hydrophila in 0.2 ml sterile sali ...19817282964
r factors in coliform-fecal coliform sewage flora of the prairies and northwest territories of canada.coliform and fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of the prairie provinces and the northwest territories were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of r factors. it was determined that 8.91% of the total coliform and 10.80% of the fecal coliform populations carried r factors. the following numbers of combinations of r determinants were found: 39 in the escherichia coli population, 6 in the citrobacter population, 20 in the enterobacter po ...19817283425
loss of virulence during culture of aeromonas salmonicida at high temperature.the effect of growth temperature on the loss of virulence of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida was investigated. three virulent strains were grown in trypticase soy broth at temperatures ranging from 22 to 30 degrees c. growth at a higher-than-optimal temperature (26 to 27 degrees c for the three strains studied) resulted in the selection of spontaneous attenuated derivatives in the initial bacterial population. for example, virulent bacteria represented less than 10% of the population of ...19817287625
[septicemia caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 19817302303
detection of enterotoxins of aeromonas hydrophila by a suckling-mouse test.the suckling-mouse assay was reliable for detecting enterotoxigenic strains of aeromonas hydrophila when standard conditions for growth and toxin testing were used. enterotoxins were produced by bacteria grown in tryptone soya broth supplemented with yeast extract and aerated by shaking in an environmental incubator or water bath. when culture supernates together with dye were administered intragastrically to mice less than 6 days old, the presence of enterotoxin was assessed on the basis of a s ...19817310844
[biochemical properties and differentiation of vibrionaceae isolated from water and water-oil emulsion]. 19807311653
role of ph, lactate, and anaerobiosis in controlling the growth of some fermentative gram-negative bacteria on beef.at 5 degrees c four strains of fermentative, gram-negative bacteria (serratia liquefaciens, yersinia enterocolitica, enterobacter cloacae, and aeromonas hydrophila) grew aerobically and anaerobically on adipose tissue removed from beef muscle of low ph (5.4 to 5.6). all four strains also grew aerobically and anaerobically on muscle tissue of high ph (6.0 to 6.3). however, none of the four grew anaerobically on beef muscle of low ph, and the aeromonad strain also failed to grow aerobically on suc ...19817316511
cytotoxicity and suckling mouse reactivity of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from human sources.human isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas shigelloides were tested for their ability to produce cytotoxins and (or) enterotoxins. the incidence of cytotoxin production by a. hydrophila was 81% for isolates from stool and 44% for extraintestinal isolates. chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells were more sensitive to a. hydrophila cytotoxin than either vero or y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells (y-1). there was no evidence of cytotonic enterotoxin production by any of the isolates tested. cytot ...19817317856
[histological and bacteriological examination of uterus from the repeat breeder gilt and sow (author's transl)].the investigation comprised sexual organs from 25 gilts and 97 sows culled because of repeat breeding. among the gilts 24.0 per cent and among the sows 25.8 per cent had endometritis. the following germs were present in uterus from gilts and sows with signs of endometritis: staphylococcus aureus, corynebacterium pyogenes, alpha-hemolytiske streptococcer, escherichia coli, pasteurella sp., aeromonas sp., acinetobacter sp. and citrobacter sp. among gilts and sows with germs present in uterus 40.9 ...19817322875
[etiology of erythrodermatitis of the carp]. 19817324642
isolation and characterization of 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-l-glucose from the core oligosaccharides obtained from the aquatic gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio anguillarum. 19817332867
membrane-damaging and cytotoxic effects on human fibroblasts of alpha- and beta-hemolysins from aeromonas hydrophila.the effects of two hemolysins (alpha and beta) from aeromonas hydrophila on human lung fibroblasts were investigated. the toxins differed distinctly in regard to the morphological changes they produced. the alpha-hemolysin caused rounding of the cells. the beta-hemolysin caused a striking vacuolization of the cytoplasm in cells which remained spread out on the growth surface. the toxins also differed as to relative size of the initial lesions they induced in the fibroblast membrane, scored by le ...19817333677
adhesion of vibrios and aeromonads to isolated rabbit brush borders.isolated rabbit brush borders were used to investigate the adhesive properties of clinical and environmental isolates of non-o1 vibrio cholerae and clinical isolates of vibrio parahaemolyticus and aeromonas hydrophila. a minority of the isolates were found to adhere to brush borders. the adhesion of these isolates was affected by a number of factors, including the bacteria:brush border ratio, incubation time, culture medium and growth temperature. adhesion was inhibited by l-fucose but was indep ...19817334329
separation and characterization of enterotoxin and two haemolysins from aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila produces two haemolysins, now designated alpha- and beta-haemolysin (formerly aerolysin or cytotoxic protein), and one enterotoxin. these toxins were separated and purified by isoelectric focusing and gel chromatography. alpha- and beta-haemolysin differ with regard to prerequisites for their elaboration, such as selection of a. hydrophila strains and temperature and time for cultivation. the nature of their lytic effects on erythrocytes and toxic effects on tissue culture c ...19817336925
persistence of the virulence of aeromonas salmonicida strains kept in river sediments.the persistence of pathogenicity in two strains of aeromonas salmonicida maintained in river sediments was studied at different times. cultures were kept about nine months, and the virulence was compared to its initial value exhibited by the same strain, subcultivated in rainbow trout fingerlings. trials involved intramuscular injection of comparable doses of bacteria to batches of 30 fish held at 15 degrees c, and recording of subsequent mortalities. no difference was found during the first six ...19807337394
a bacterial disease of perch (perca fluviatilis l.) in an alpine lake: isolation and preliminary study of the causative organism.an epizootic among perch (perca fluviatilis l.) occurred during the summer and fall of 1979 in an alpine lake (lake annecy, haute-savoie) in france. hemorrhagic and ulcerative clinical signs were associated with the height of the mortality. a gram-negative, non-motile, slow-growing bacterium was isolated from skin lesions is diseased fish. aeromonas hydrophila often was present. since the nonmotile bacterium was suspected to be the etiological agent, its characteristics and pathogenicity were de ...19817338972
mortality in captive atlantic cod, gadus morhua, associated with fin rot disease.a total of 320 of 621 (52%) captive atlantic cod, gadus morhua, died from fin rot over an 8-year period; mortality reached high proportions in 1979 when 110 of 168 (66%) succumbed. lesions were confined to the fins, skin and dermal musculature and were observed 3-10 days after the fish were placed in laboratory aquaria. erosion of the fins and caudal peduncle, accompanied by petechiae and ulceration also were apparent in the trunk region. most deaths occurred within 2 months after capture. infec ...19817338975
exotoxins of aeromonas hydrophila.eighty of 103 strains of aeromonas hydrophila cultured at 100 rev./min produced heat-labile enterotoxins detected using the suckling mouse assay. results in intestinal perfusion agreed with the suckling mouse test in all strains tested by both methods. enterotoxic activity correlated with haemolysin and cytotoxin production, but 4% of strains would have been wrongly classified using haemolysin assay in place of the suckling mouse test and 11% misclassified on the basis of cytotoxin assay. there ...19817340773
in vitro susceptibilities of aeromonas hydrophila to 32 antimicrobial agents.minimal inhibitory concentrations of 32 antimicrobial agents for 20 strains fo aeromonas hydrophila were determined by a microdilution method. moxalactam was the most active drug tested. all strains were also susceptible to clinically achievable concentrations of mecillinam, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, aminoglycosides (except streptomycin), tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.19817347568
a study on the possible association of copper pollution with vibriosis in eel.in this study, eel from a locality where the bacterium vibrio anguillarim was common were transferred to copper-contaminated freshwater and brackish water (10%) under laboratory conditions. in one experiment (experiment i) 9 out of 20 eel died and bacteria (in six cases v. anguillarum and in two cases aeromonas sp.) were isolated from the kidneys, and one was found to be sterile. in this experiment copper did not seem to be an initating factor in developing bacterial infection. in two other expe ...19807360621
plesiomonas (aeromonas) shigelloides septicemia and meningitis in a neonate.serious plesiomonas (aeromonas) shigelloides infections have rarely been reported, and have probably been missed because this organism is very similar to the enterobacteriaceae in associated clinical disease, and in properties investigated in the diagnostic laboratory. a case of overwhelming neonatal meningitis and sepsis is discussed, and the use of the simple indophenol oxidase test on laboratory isolates of gram-negative rods is urged to distinguish this organism and its close relatives from ...19807361158
aeromonas hydrophila as the etiologic agent in severe gastroenteritis: report of a case.aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from stool of an 82-year-old female with severe gastroenteritis. the stool was foamy and varied in color from green to yellow. the isolated organism was susceptible to most aminoglycosides. the tetracycline therapy cleared the organism from the stool and the patient's condition improved. the biochemical characteristics of the organism were similar to coliform bacilli: the oxidase test was necessary to differentiate aeromonas sp. from coliforms. the patient did n ...19807361816
fatty acid patterns in the classification of some representatives of the families enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae.twenty-three strains representing the families enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae were analysed for fatty acid composition of whole cells by means of glass capillary column gas chromatography. among the several alternatives tested, cluster analysis based on data normalized to hexadecanoate and logarithmically transformed provided good separations of species, genera and families. strains from the genera salmonella, escherichia, proteus, enterobacter, klebsiella, vibrio and aeromonas were studied ...19807365455
ocular aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the eye swabs of four patients. two were thought to have definite clinical infection; one had chronic conjunctivitis complicating the wearing of contact lenses, and the other had acute conjunctivitis associated with ectropion and lacrimal duct stenosis. two patients had no clinical evidence of infection. both of them had swabs taken at the time of surgery. one had a cataract extraction and the other had a lensectomy and vitrectomy for a penetrating injury. ...19807369306
[allomonas--a new group of microorganisms of the vibrionaceae family. i. research methods and preliminary results of differention from aeromonads and vibrios].the comparative study of 95 strains of aeromonas, plesiomonas and various vibrio species by 49 characteristics (disregarding those common to all representatives of the vibrionaceae family) allowed to distinguish a separate group of microorganisms differing from aeromonas by 17 characteristics, from plesiomonas by 13 characteristics and from vibrio by 7 characteristics. the new microogranism was provisionally named allomonas. the taxonomic study of the new microorganism continues.19807376760
optional production and utilization of polysaccharide by aeromonas hydrophila.glucans from the fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila have been extracted and purified by a method utilizing phenol/water followed by sodium deoxycholate rather than the traditional sodium hydroxide extraction. presence of substantial amounts of these glucans was shown to be dependant on whether or not the substrate contained dextrose, a point which had import because of the low carbohydrate environment in which this species must survive and multiply. these glucans, produced in the log phase, were ...19807387332
aeromonas hydrophila: analysis of 11 cases.a retrospective analysis of 11 cases in which aeromonas hydrophila was isolated indicated that the organsim caused local infection in 7 cases and asymptomatic colonization in 4. there were no cases of septicemia and none of the patients were known to have a malignant disease or immunosuppression. there were no deaths, although three of the patients required amputation of limbs because of myonecrosis. chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides appeared to be appropriate therapeutic agents.19807388723
metabolism of coho salmon ig. catabolic rate of coho salmon tetrameric ig in serum. 19807393235
isolation, enumeration, and characterization of aeromonas from polluted waters encountered in diving operations.counts of total viable, aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, indicator organisms, and aeromonas spp. were made at a diver training site on the anacostia river in washington, d.c. the numbers of aeromonas cells in anacostia river sediment and water increased during periods of elevated water temperature, to maxima of 4 x 10(5) cells per g of sediment and 300 cells per ml of water. correspondingly, aeromonas counts dropped 2 to 4 logs as the water temperature decreased to 0 to 0.5 degrees c. cultures t ...19807396482
relationships between selected strains of typical and atypical aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas hydrophila, and haemophilus piscium.serological analyses of typical and atypical aeromonas salmonicida divided the representative strains into two distinguishable groups based on their antigenic composition. however, the serological groupings do not coincide with divisions constructed on the basis of physiological reactions. all of the a. salmonicida strains and the two a. hydrophila strains examined share at least one antigen and are sensitive to a. salmonicida bacteriophage 40 rr2.8t. these data reinforce the reasons for placing ...19807397604
[genome characteristics of a new group of microorganisms in the vibrionaceae family].a new group of microorganisms isolated from river and sewage water was studied by the method of molecular dna-dna hybridization and included into the family vibrionaceae on account of their phenotypical properties. the genomes of the microorganisms belonging to this group proved to be highly similar (41-92% of homologies), which suggested that they were related on the genus level. the degree of similarity between the nucleotide sequences in the dna of the bacteria under study and the dna of othe ...19807415669
enterotoxigenicity of aeromonas strains in suckling mice.the enterotoxigenicity of 170 aeromonas strains isolated from different sources (food poisoning, random food sampling, water, faeces) was examined by the suckling mouse test. the strains were grown on syncaye culture medium covered with sterilized membrane for kiil-kidney. the culture supernatants were inoculated orally. ileal loop dilatation was compared to that produced by the international standard enterotoxic escherichia coli b7a (o148 : h28) and b2c (o6 : h16) strains. of the 87 aeromonas h ...19807415872
[study of some strains of aeromonas hydrophila of human origin].a detailed description is given of the properties of 14 aeromonas hydrophila strains: morphological, growth in cultures, biochemical and sensitivity to antibiotics. three of the strains were agglutinated by shigella schmitzi antiserum. most of the strains were isolated from 8 cases of enteritis, one from a fatal case of meningitis, and three strains from the meconium of a neonate and, subsequently, from necropsy specimens. except for the strain isolated from the meninges, the others were obtaine ...19807423091
[enterobacteria of bats (chiroptera) (author's transl)].the aerobic gram-negative faecal flora of 38 bats consisting of 10 species and genera respectively, of microchiroptera, and of 4 species and genera respectively, of megachiroptera was studied (table 1 and 3). there were no specific differences between insectivora and frugivora: e. coli 15-24%, citrobacter 8-10%, enterobacter-klebsiella-group 40-43% and proteus-group 28-30% (table 2). the overwhelming majority of the isolated bacteria were lactose-positive (table 3), corresponding to the membersh ...19807424248
aeromonas hydrophila infection of a puncture wound.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative organism generally considered a pathogen of low virulence, rarely reported as causing infection in man. recently it has been recognized as causing infection in wounds. this article reports the case of a patient who suffered a puncture wound while standing in a fresh water lake. he subsequently developed a rapidly progressing cellulitis requiring hospitalization. this organism was cultured from the wound and responded dramatically to appropriate antimicrobi ...19807425408
isolation of drug-resistant aeromonas hydrophila from aquatic environments.antibiotic-resistant strains of aeromonas hydrophila have been isolated from the natural environment in the chesapeake bay and areas surrounding dacca and the matlab region of bangladesh. the bangladesh strains carried resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and tetracycline, and 57% of them had a multiple streptomycin-tetracycline resistance phenotype correlated with the presence of a large plasmid. the chesapeake bay strains were resistant to polymyxin b ane tetracycline, but showed neith ...19807425607
r-factor carriage in a group f vibrio isolated from bangladesh.two group f vibrio organisms have been identified among a collection of vibrio strains isolated from the aquatic environment in bangladesh. neither group f strain produced a cholera-like enterotoxin. one of the isolates, bv12, contained an r plasmid conferring resistance to streptomycin and chloramphenicol.19807425610
biochemical characteristics and virulence of environmental group f bacteria isolated in the united states.bacteria phenotypically resembling aeromonas hydrophila, but requiring nacl for growth, have been isolated form the new york bight. the bacteria proved to be identical to group f organisms isolated from cases of human diarrhea in indonesia and bangladesh. anaerogenic strains initiated responses in y-1 tissue culture and rabbit ileal loop, consistent with those associated with cytotoxin- and enterotoxin-producing aeromonas spp. strains. separation on the basis of production of gas from glucose by ...19807425623
dysentery-like syndrome associated with aeromonas hydrophila. 19807427550
hand and forearm infections caused by aeromonas hydrophila.this is a report of two cases of hand and forearm infections caused by aeromonas hydrophila. this organism is resistant to penicillin and most cephalosporins and is found in most freshwater environments. it is recommended that broad-spectrum coverage such as a combination of cephalosporin and aminoglycoside antibiotic be used.19807430608
fever and antipyresis in the crayfish cambarus bartoni.1. normothermic cambarus bartoni crayfish thermoregulating behaviourally in an electronic shuttlebox prefer a mean temperature of 22.1 degrees c +/- 0.5 s.e. of mean. 2. injection of 1% saline, or addition of paracetamol to the ambient water, caused a statistically insignificant decrease in preferred temperature of 0.4 degrees c. 3. injection of killed aeromonas hydrophila bacteria into the abdomen caused a significant mean increase in preferred temperature of 1.8 degrees c (defined as a behavio ...19807431243
an eye infection in laboratory lizards associated with an aeromonas sp.laboratory-maintained lizards (family lacertidae) kept for studies on thermal biology developed a superficial eye infection associated with aeromonas liquefaciens. the origin of the infection could not be traced and attempts at therapy were generally unrewarding.19807431825
fulminant wound infection with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a water-soaked traumatic wound of a previously healthy 16-year-old boy. a progressive necrotizing infection developed despite administration of antibiotics. aeromonas should be considered in wound infections which are water-related.19807444534
[differentiation of bacteria of the genus aeromonas from other representatives of the vibrionaceae family on the basis of their dna].by comparing the data on the nucleotide composition of dna, and the phenotypic characteristics, most of the representatives of the genus aeromonas were clearly differentiated from nag vibrios isolated in the process of sanitary control of the environment. at the same time some microorganisms with the aeromonas phenotype, but having a different dna structure were detected. the use of the method of molecular dna hybridization indicated that these bacteria were the taxons analogous to the genus aer ...19807445866
[allomonads, a new group of microorganisms of the vibrionaceae family. iii. taxonomic analysis of the similarities between allomonads and other genera of the family].24 strains of gram-negative bacilli with the polar location of flagellae, oxidase positive, releasing no gas in the process of glucose fermentation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the high-leifson test, belonging to the family vibrionaceae, were isolated from the feces of healthy persons, polluted water and sewage. analysis by the method of numerical taxonomy revealed that these strains were essentially different from all other members of this family, and 19 of them formed a sharply defin ...19807445867
false-negative oxidase reaction as a result of medium acidification.acidification of the culture medium may lead to a false-negative result of the oxidase reaction. hence, if the medium contained a carbon source or another component that is convertible to acid, a negative oxidase reaction should be considered inconclusive. in order to eliminate false-negative reactions, a reagent freshly adjusted to ph 5-7 might be used; this reagent should be checked on known oxidase-negative strains. however, we recommend that the oxidase test be performed with the normal reag ...19807447434
enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.nearly 700 standard plate count (spc) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. actinomycetes and aeromonas species were the two most common groups of spc bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. aeromonas spp. and enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of spc bacteria in raw water. identification of bacterial p ...19807447444
identification and characterization of outer membrane fragments released by aeromonas sp.aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas salmonicida were shown to release "blebs" or fragments averaging 20-30 nm in diameter. the protein composition of the fragments was very similar to that of the corresponding outer membrane by sodium dodecyl sulphate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the fragments were shown to contain phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide. the results therefore indicate that the blebs are derived from the outer membrane of these organisms. fragments isolated directly by dif ...19807459670
comparison of nine brands of membrane filter and the most-probable-number methods for total coliform enumeration in sewage-contaminated drinking water.nine different brands of membrane filter were compared in the membrane filtration (mf) method, and those with the highest yields were compared against the most-probable-number (mpn) multiple-tube method for total coliform enumeration in simulated sewage-contaminated tap water. the water was chlorinated for 30 min to subject the organisms to stresses similar to those encountered during treatment and distribution of drinking water. significant differences were observed among membranes in four of t ...19807469407
lipopolysaccharides of group f, a new group of vibrios. 19807470107
proteolytic activity of aeromonas caviae.aeromonas strains produce a variety of virulence factors including proteases. studies on the kinetics of growth of aeromonas caviae nrrl b-966 and its proteases suggest that the proteolytic activities are produced throughout the growth phase, with peak level occurring at stationary phase. a. caviae synthesize both intracellular and extracellular proteases with the latter account for major portion of the total activity. optimum ph for the a. caviae proteolytic activity is at 7.0. a. caviae produc ...19957473065
recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus glycoprotein epitopes expressed in aeromonas salmonicida induce protective immunity in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).fragments of the glycoprotein genes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) were cloned into a bacterial broad-host-range expression vector under the control of the plac promoter. western blot (immunoblot) analysis with monoclonal antibodies specific to the glycoproteins demonstrated the inducible expression of the fusion proteins in escherichia coli. aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. it was conf ...19957486994
soil and sediment bacteria capable of aerobic nitrate respiration.several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence of oxygen, although the physiological advantage gained from this process is not entirely clear. the contribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. as a first step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been develope ...19957487017
indications and complications of medicinal leech therapy. 19957490356
a novel integron-like element carrying the metallo-beta-lactamase gene blaimp.a plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase gene was cloned from a carbapenem-resistant serratia marcescens strain, ak9373. the metallo-beta-lactamase gene was identical to the blaimp, and it was located in the space between an integrase-like gene and an aac(6')-ib-like gene. the deduced amino acid sequence for the putative integrase gene showed considerable identity (60.9%) to that of the escherichia coli integrase reported. sequences similar to the gttrrry and an atypical 59-base element contain ...19957492116
the renal membrane dipeptidase (dehydropeptidase i) inhibitor, cilastatin, inhibits the bacterial metallo-beta-lactamase enzyme cpha.the aeromonas hydrophila ae036 chromosome contains a cpha gene encoding a metallo-beta-lactamase which is highly active against carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem. here we show that the cpha gene product shares inhibitory similarities with a mammalian zinc peptidase, membrane dipeptidase (mdp; dehydropeptidase i). both enzymes are able to hydrolyze imipenem and are inhibited by cilastatin. the active site similarities of these enzymes are not reflected in any significant primary sequence si ...19957492120
the leucine zipper of aeromonas salmonicida abca is required for the transcriptional activation of the p2 promoter of the surface-layer structural gene, vapa, in escherichia coli.the aeromonas salmonicida abca protein is involved in the synthesis of the o-polysaccharide side-chains on the lipopolysaccharide and is also capable of enhancing the expression of the structural gene for the a-layer, vapa, when cloned into escherichia coli. the p2 promoter of the vapa gene of a. salmonicida was cloned into a promoter probe vector and expression in e. coli was monitored. the expression of p2::lacz was shown to be increased when abca was provided in trans. abca contains an n-term ...19957494486
serum antibody responses of divers to waterborne pathogens.to assess the significance of exposure of divers to waterborne pathogens, specific immunoglobulin g serum antibody responses to pseudomonas and aeromonas isolates recovered from dive sites from the respiratory tracts of nine experienced divers and seven diving trainees working in the chesapeake bay area over a 6- to 18-month period were measured. a significant increase in the frequency of isolation of these organisms from respiratory surfaces both groups of divers after each dive was noted, with ...19947496942
incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in clinical specimens from hospitals in south-western nigeria.the pattern and frequency of bacterial isolates cultured from 687 clinical specimens from four university teaching hospitals in south western nigeria were determined. a total of 707 bacterial isolates were cultured from 18 different clinical sources giving an average of 1.03 bacteria per sample identified in this collection. of these, gram negative rods constituted 78.1% and the rest were staphylococci. the most common organism isolated in urine samples was e. coli (32.1%) whilst s. aureus (28.9 ...19957498026
non-enteritic aeromonas infections in hospitalized patients.aeromonas species were isolated from specimens other than faeces from 59 hospital inpatients over a 15 year period. of the isolates, 79.7% were regarded as clinically significant, with skin and soft tissues and blood cultures as the commonest sites of infection. of the isolates, 52.5% were hospital-acquired, and 55.9% of patients had serious underlying disease. community-acquired infections in previously healthy individuals accounted for only 13.6% of isolates. however unlike many other opportun ...19957499821
transcriptional analysis of the aeromonas salmonicida s-layer protein gene vapa.the vapa gene of aeromonas salmonicida encodes the subunit of the surface protein array known as a-layer. nucleotide sequence analysis of the 374 bp of dna immediately upstream of vapa revealed two potential promoter sequences and other possible regulatory sequences. sequencing and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the region was conserved in wild-type a. salmonicida. primer extension and northern (rna) blot analysis showed that vapa transcription in a. salmonicida was directed pred ...19937504668
structure of the aeromonas toxin proaerolysin in its water-soluble and membrane-channel states.aerolysin is chiefly responsible for the pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterium associated with diarrhoeal diseases and deep wound infections. like many other microbial toxins, the protein changes in a multistep process from a completely water-soluble form to produce a transmembrane channel that destroys sensitive cells by breaking their permeability barriers. here we describe the structure of proaerolysin determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.8 a resolution. the protoxin (m(r) 52 ...19947510043
assessing glycosidic linkage flexibility: conformational analysis of the repeating trisaccharide unit of aeromonas salmonicida.a detailed conformational analysis was performed for the synthetic branched trisaccharide beta-d-mannac-(1-->4)-[alpha-d-glc-(1-->3)]-l-rha 1 which represents the repeating unit of the o-antigenic polysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida. the study was based on 26 experimental noe curves from 1d transient noe experiments, employing gaussian-shaped inversion pulses at 600 mhz. eight of the noe curves were interglycosidic and thus useful for an analysis of glycosidic linkage orientations. metropoli ...19947510557
the cytolytic toxin aerolysin: from the soluble form to the transmembrane channel.aerolysin is a cytolytic toxin which forms channels in the plasma membranes of eucaryotic cells. the protein is secreted by aeromonas hydrophila as an inactive protoxin. its stability and water solubility are conferred by its ability to dimerize. maturation of the protein occurs through proteolytic removal of a c-terminal peptide outside the secreting cell. although the aerolysin which is so produced is still a dimer, it then has the ability to oligomerize. the oligomer is the active form of the ...19947512760
o-serogrouping and surface components of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas jandaei pathogenic for eels.the relationship between virulence, o-serogroup, and some cell-surface features (self-pelleting [sp] and precipitation after boiling [pab], profile of lipopolysaccharides [lpss] and outer membrane proteins [omps]) was investigated in strains of the pathogenic species aeromonas hydrophila and a. jandaei isolated from eels. virulent strains of a. hydrophila reacted mostly with o:19 antiserum, and those of a. jandaei reacted with o:4, o:11, o:15 and o:29 antisera (guinée and jansen system). regardi ...19947514147
[a simple and rapid confirmation method of the bacterial contamination using polymerase chain reaction].we studied the method for detection of bacterial contamination. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify the 888 base pair of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene fragment of various strains of bacterial species. the supernatant of bacterial suspension after treatment for 10 min at 100 degrees c was used for a template dna. a total of 151 strains of 16 genus of gram-negative rod and of one genus of gram-positive cocci were confirmed and were divided into five categories by comparing digestio ...19947517986
carbohydrate-reactive, pore-forming outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila.two outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila a6, isolated in a one-step affinity chromatography process based on carbohydrate reactivity, were found to be pore-forming molecules in artificial planar bilayer membranes. these carbohydrate-reactive outer membrane proteins (cromps; m(r)s, 40,000 and 43,000) were subjected to amino acid analysis. the amino acid profiles for these two outer membrane proteins were almost identical. a partial protein sequence of a 14-amino-acid fragment of the 40 ...19947520425
phylogenetic analysis and assessment of the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas deduced from small-subunit rrna sequences.we sequenced nearly complete small-subunit rrnas of 54 reference strains belonging to the genera vibrio, photobacterium, aeromonas, and plesiomonas. we then performed a phylogenetic analysis by comparing the sequences which we obtained with all other known sequences for bacteria belonging to the gamma subgroup of the proteobacteria (thus providing a data base consisting of 70 sequences for the genera investigated), using methods such as neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony ...19947520733
[precooked vegetables as the possible vehicles of motile yersinia enterocolitica and aeromonas ]. 19937521181
immunoregulation in fish. i: intramolecular-induced suppression of antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens studied in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l).we report here evidence for intramolecular-induced suppression of the in vivo antibody response in fish, using a panel of t-dependent hapten-carrier antigens. atlantic salmon were immunized intraperitoneally with protein antigens (limulus polyphemus hemocyanin, chicken gamma globulin, and aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein) given in their native form or haptenated with either 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenyl-acetic acid (nip), 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-acetic acid (tnp), or fluorescein-5-iso-thiocya ...19947521853
an endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase from treponema denticola atcc 35405: evidence of hydrolysis of human bioactive peptides.an endo-acting proline-specific oligopeptidase (prolyl oligopeptidase [popase], ec 3.4.21.26) was purified to homogeneity from the triton x-100 extracts of cells of treponema denticola atcc 35405 (a human oral spirochete) by a procedure that comprised five successive fast protein liquid chromatography steps. the popase is a cell-associated 75- to 77-kda protein with an isoelectric point of ca. 6.5. the enzyme hydrolyzed (optimum ph 6.5) the pro-pna bond in carbobenzoxy-gly-pro-p-nitroanilide (z- ...19947523301
aeromonas spp. can secrete escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase into the culture supernatant, and its release requires a functional general secretion pathway.aerolysin is a channel-forming protein secreted by aeromonas hydrophila. to determine if regions of aerolysin could direct the secretion of another protein, portions of aera were fused to phoa, the escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase gene and cloned into e. coli, aeromonas salmonicida, and a. hydrophila. we were surprised to find that secretion of the enzyme by both aeromonas spp. was independent of the aerolysin segments fused to it. the smallest fusion product contained only the signal seque ...19937523832
pcr-based preparation of 23s rrna-targeted group-specific polynucleotide probes.dna coding for a variable region within domain iii of bacterial 23s rrna was used as the target for group-specific polynucleotide hybridization probes. the corresponding rdna was amplified in vitro by the pcr technique in combination with a pair of primers specific for flanking conserved target sites. the amplified fragments were cloned or used directly as probes. rna probes were generated by in vitro transcription of cloned or amplified rdna. the probes were labeled by incorporating modified nu ...19947524442
variable expression of o-antigen and the role of lipopolysaccharide as an adhesin in aeromonas sobria.on initial isolation of aeromonas sobria 3767 from a diarrhoeal stool specimen, two colony types were obtained: opaque (3767o) and translucent (3767t). strain 3767o consistently produced lipopolysaccharide (lps) core and o-antigen side chain, detectable by sds-page and by western blotting with an o-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody. strain 3767t produced lps core but the amount of o-antigen was dependent on factors including growth medium and bacterial growth phase. strain 3767t exhibited sig ...19947525403
aeromonas salmonicida resistance to complement-mediated killing.the resistance of aeromonas salmonicida to complement-mediated killing was investigated by using different strains and their isogenic mutants that had been previously characterized for their surface components. we found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible a. salmonicida strains, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved. all of the a. salmonicida strains are able to activate complement, but the smooth strains (with or without ...19947525485
the c-terminal peptide produced upon proteolytic activation of the cytolytic toxin aerolysin is not involved in channel formation.the channel-forming toxin aerolysin is secreted by aeromonas hydrophila as a protoxin that can be activated by nicking with endoproteinase lys-c after lys-427 near the c terminus of the protein. the fate of the 43-amino acid peptide distal to the activation site was investigated. a cysteine was introduced into the c-terminal region by replacing ile-445, and another replaced gly-202, which is on the proximal side of the activation site. in a double mutant, the two new cysteines were close enough ...19947527031
detection of aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared atlantic salmon smolts.the fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida, could be detected only by bacteriological culture from the kidney of dead or moribund fish in one tank in a hatchery rearing atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) smolts. however, by using a dna probe specific for this species, allied to a pcr assay, the pathogen could be detected in water, feces and effluent samples taken from this fish tank. also, the presence of the pathogen was found in effluent samples from two fish tanks containing apparently healthy fi ...19947527205
chronic diarrhea due to a single strain of aeromonas caviae.over a period of 17 months, aeromonas caviae was cultured 15 times as the sole enteropathogen from the feces of a man who had developed chronic diarrhea after traveling to turkey. determination of rrna gene restriction patterns confirmed that the seven isolates of aeromonas caviae studied were identical (hybridization group [hg]4). after therapy with ciprofloxacin for four weeks, the patient was culture negative for the original isolate, and six months later a novel strain of aeromonas media wit ...19957537217
amino-acid residues involved in biological functions of the cytolytic enterotoxin from aeromonas hydrophila.some amino acid (aa) residues within the cytolytic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila essential for biological activity were identified. act is a 52-kda polypeptide, possessing hemolytic, cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. by deletion analysis, generation of anti-peptide ab, and site-directed mutagenesis we showed that two regions in act (aa 245-274 and 361-405) were very important for biological functions. as shown by competitive inhibition assays, peptide 2 (aa 245-274) blocked cytot ...19957537706
the tetrasaccharide l-alpha-d-heptose1-->2-l-alpha-d-heptose1--> 3-l-alpha-d-heptose1-->(3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid) and phosphate in lipid a define the conserved epitope in haemophilus lipopolysaccharides recognized by a monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody, mahi 3 (immunoglobulin g2b), that is broadly reactive with haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharides (lpss) but nonreactive with all enterobacterial lpss tested was generated by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of balb/c mice immunized with azide-killed h. influenzae rm.7004. mahi 3 bound to all h. influenzae, all other human haemophilus spp., all bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis, and all aeromonas spp. tested but not to any neisseria o ...19957543887
picture story. from protoxin to pore. 19947544681
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