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mechanistic studies of two amino acid racemases of broad substrate specificity from pseudomonas striata and aeromonas caviae.the conversion of l-[alpha-2h]alanine in h2o and unlabeled l-alanine in 2h2o into d-alanine, under nearly irreversible conditions, with the amino acid racemase from pseudomonas striata showed significant internal transfer of the alpha-hydrogen. this result has been interpreted as being indicative of a single base mechanism for the racemization. the relative rates of deuterium incorporation into unlabeled d- and l-methionine by the two amino acid racemases of broad substrate specificity from p. s ...19911920082
major diseases of striped bass and redfish.diseases of striped bass, their hybrids, and redfish (red drum) are important constraints to the culture of these two species. since striped bass have been cultured for years the organisms that cause most diseases of these fish are well known, but very little specific disease information exists for redfish. however, it appears that the organisms that cause diseases of striped bass and redfish do not differ greatly from those of other fishes. the most significant viral disease is lymphocystis, bu ...19911926745
enrofloxacin in salmonids. 19911926748
gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of cellular fatty acid methyl esters in aeromonas species.the cellular fatty acids of 39 strains belonging to the genus aeromonas (aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas media, aeromonas schubertii, aeromonas veronii) were determined by high resolution gas-liquid chromatography. the fatty acid profiles were characterized by major amounts (60% or more) of one saturated (hexadecanoic acid = 16:0) and two unsaturated (hexadecenoic acid = 16:1 and octadecenoic acid = 18:1) acids. while the majority of the strains of the six spe ...19911930556
multilocus enzyme analysis of the genus aeromonas and its use for species identification.a total of 153 aeromonas strains were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. all 11 genetic loci were polymorphic with three to 14 alleles per locus (average 6.55). the genetic diversity of each locus varied between 0.095 for indophenol oxidase and 0.881 for the fast variety of malic enzyme. cluster analysis of the 122 enzyme types revealed a good correlation with taxonomic groupings as determined by dna-dna hybridization. in conjunction with biochemical analysis, as few as two enzymes m ...19911930563
susceptibilities of motile aeromonas sp. to antimicrobial agents.resistance to antimicrobial agents of 106 isolates of motile aeromonas sp. was characterized. the results indicated that in vitro susceptibilities among the three species of the motile aeromonas sp. were similar, and only the distribution of susceptibility to cephalothin was different. the percentage of resistance of a. sobria strains was lower than the percentage of the resistant strains of a. hydrophila and a. caviae. all of the isolates were susceptible to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tobramyci ...19911930569
[aeromonas spp. isolated from human feces. species and pathogenicity factors].the role of aeromonas genus as a primary intestinal pathogen is still a matter of controversy. we have studied the isolation of aeromonas spp. from human stools samples, looking for the production of pathogenic factors and its relationship with different species. from a total of 471 strains isolated, 241 were a. caviae, 127 a. sobria, 89 a. hydrophila and 14 non-typable strains. the pathogenic factors production was studied in a bacteria-free filtrate from a 18 hours trypticase-soy broth culture ...19911932239
[bacteremia of biliary origin caused by aeromonas caviae in a healthy patient]. 19911932258
induction of the alka gene of escherichia coli in gram-negative bacteria.a broad-host-range plasmid containing a fusion of the alka and lacz genes of escherichia coli was introduced into various aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacteria--33 species belonging to 19 genera--to study the induction of expression of the alka gene by alkylating agents. the bacteria included species of the families enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonadaceae, rhizobiaceae, vibrionaceae, neisseriaceae, rhodospirillaceae, and azotobacteraceae. results obtained show that all bacteria tested, exc ...19911938974
a positive fever response in agama agama and sceloporus orcutti (reptilia: agamidae and iguanidae).three species of lizards (agama agama, mabuya perrotetii, and sceloporus orcutti) were tested for a possible increase in mean selected body temperature (msbt) in response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed aeromonas sobria, a gram-negative bacterium known to be pathogenic to reptiles. a paired experimental design was utilized in which each animal was given an injection of sterile saline and 1.10(10) a. sobria. body temperatures were monitored via indwelling cloacal thermocouples at 4 ...19911939744
intestinal secretory immune response to infection with aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides among students from the united states in mexico.intestinal secretory iga (siga) response or lack of response among adults in mexico with diarrhea was used as an indicator of enteropathogenicity of aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides. siga was extracted from stool specimens obtained at day of presentation and 5 days later. total siga was standardized, and specific siga titer against the organism being shed by each patient was determined. western blotting was used to determine which microbial antigens elicited an intestinal siga resp ...19911940478
in vitro invasion of aeromonas spp. to hep-2 tissue culture cells. 19911950848
enteric infections associated with exposure to animals or animal products.the epidemiology and clinical presentation of enteric infections are discussed in this article. these include bacterial, viral, and parasitic illnesses, and are associated with the increasing popularity of drinking unpasteurized milk; eating raw fish and shellfish; consuming undercooked pork, poultry, and eggs; and having contact with pets. salmonella, campylobacter jejuni, vibrio, yersinia, aeromonas, edwardsiella, hepatitis a virus, norwalk virus, anisakis, eustrongylides, diphyllobothrium, na ...19911955706
the role of lipopolysaccharide in complement-killing of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34.the role of lipopolysaccharide (lps) in the susceptibility of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34 to non-immune human serum was investigated using isogenic mutants (serum-sensitive), previously obtained on the basis of phage resistance, and characterized for their surface components. the classical complement pathway was found to be principally involved in the serum-killing of these sensitive strains. lps preparations from serum-resistant or serum-sensitive strains, or purified core oli ...19911955853
the etiology of childhood diarrhea in northern coastal peru: the 1989 fuerzas unidas humanitarian civic action--a model for international and interservice cooperation, community service, and scientific opportunity.as a humanitarian civic action project, american and peruvian military medical personnel established a temporary clinic in dos palos, peru. fecal specimens from 20 diarrheic children and 10 non-diarrheic controls were tested for common agents of diarrhea. enteropathogens detected in diarrheic stools were enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec; 30%), aeromonas (20%), enteropathogenic e. coli (15%), and campylobacter (15%). isolates from control specimens were aeromonas (10%) and campylobacter (10 ...19911956529
enumeration of aeromonas hydrophila from domestic wastewater treatment plants and surface waters.influents, effluents and sludges from sewage purification plants and surface water samples were examined quantitatively for aeromonas hydrophila on the ma medium of rippey and cabelli. between 10(4) and 10(6)/ml a. hydrophila were found in domestic wastewaters. on the average 99.975% were removed by activated sludge and 98.25% by trickling filters. only 20.9% of a. hydrophila end up in the primary sludge, which contained up to 10(7)/g dry sludge. after 3 months, anaerobically (methane) fermented ...19911960113
an extracellular acetylcholinesterase produced by aeromonas hydrophila is a major lethal toxin for fish.a hitherto unrecognised lethal toxin from the extracellular products (ecp) of aeromonas hydrophila is described. the pure toxin was 300 times more toxic than the crude ecp and is the most toxic substance so far described from this bacterium, with a minimum lethal dose of 0.05 micrograms g-1 fish. the toxin had high acetylcholinesterase activity and occurred in native ecp as a monomeric 15.5 kda polypeptide. the purified toxin had five isoelectric focusing forms ranging from pl 4.45 to 4.70. the ...19911961106
surface-disorganized, attenuated mutants of aeromonas salmonicida as furunculosis live vaccines.a slow-growing, aminoglycoside-resistant mutant and a rapidly-growing pseudo-revertant were isolated from aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of salmonid furunculosis. these mutants continued to elicit a variety of classical virulence factors associated with a. salmonicida pathogenesis. they differed morphologically from the wild-type and from one another with respect to a-layer organization, membrane antagonist sensitivity and particularly to aerobic metabolism. both mutants were drastic ...19911961112
the etiology of diarrhea among american adults living in peru.during 1984-1989, 655 diarrheic and 287 nondiarrheic stool specimens from adult u.s. citizens living in lima, peru were tested for presence of bacterial enteropathogens. frequencies of isolation among diarrheic specimens were: shigella 9.8%; campylobacter 6.1%; enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) 6.0%; plesiomonas 2.0%; salmonella 1.4%; and vibrio 0.6%. isolates recovered from non-diarrheic stools were: shigella 4.5%; campylobacter 2.1%; salmonella 1.0%; etec 0.7%; plesiomonas 0.7%; and vibr ...19911961431
can isolation of aeromonas hydrophila from human feces have any clinical significance?a total of 27,480 stool specimens from 15,548 patients with gastroenteritis were analyzed for bacterial enteropathogens during a 4-year period between 1986-89 at a major referral center in saudi arabia. bacterial pathogens were isolated from 1,152 patients, salmonella being the most frequent, followed by campylobacter, shigella, and aeromonas hydrophila. the latter bacterium was found in 58 patients; seven of them were associated with other enteric pathogens, but a. hydrophila was the only organ ...19911744389
etiology and management of diarrhoeal diseases in karachi.the incidence of diarrhoeal disease are very high in our population and bacterial etiology amounts to 43.55% of all cases. pathogen such as aeromonas hydrophila, plesiomonas shigelloides, yersinia enterocolitica and campylobacter are also present in significant numbers, they make up 50% of bacterial causes. all enteric pathogens can be easily isolated on commonly used media and could be precisely identified by simple biochemical tests.19911744967
[isolation of yersinia, campylobacter, plesiomonas and aeromonas from environmental water and fresh water fishes].yersinia, campylobacter, plesiomonas and aeromonas are known causative agents in waterborne diseases. for about 10 years, outbreak of diarrhea has been observed, especially among children, in the mountain areas of okayama. y. pseudotuberculosis recently isolated from non-chlorinated drinking water sources such as mountain streams and wells has been suspected to be the causative bacteria of the disease. attempts were made to isolate yersinia and campylobacter from water samples from rivers in rur ...19911747520
recent advances in the study of the taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infectious syndromes associated with the genus aeromonas.over the past decade, the emergence of aeromonas species as bona fide human pathogens and their probable role as etiologic agents of bacterial gastroenteritis have resulted in an explosion of scientific interest in the genus. major accomplishments occurring in this field during that interval include a more refined taxonomy, identification of new cell-associated factors (surface layers, pili), and the molecular analysis of selected extracellular gene products that may play a critical role in path ...19911747858
aerokey ii: a flexible key for identifying clinical aeromonas species.a small subset (n = 18) of highly discriminatory tests was derived from the feature frequency of 50 tests used in the study of 167 predominantly clinical aeromonas strains. seven of these eighteen tests were used to construct a flexible, dichotomous key, aerokey ii, for identifying clinical aerontonads: esculin hydrolysis, gas from glucose, acid from arabinose, indole production, acid from sucrose, voges-proskauer reaction, and resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms). this schema was initially ...19911757558
s-layer positive motile aeromonads isolated from channel catfish.motile aeromonads are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that can cause motile aeromonad septicemia (mas), a disease which affects channel catfish and can produce significant economic loss. motile aeromonads isolated from commercially-raised channel catfish were screened for production of s-layer protein in order to evaluate its potential role in natural epizootics. the s-layer protein was produced by 14 of 24 (58%) isolates from epizootics evaluated in this study. concomitant infections with other int ...19911758021
amperometric monitoring of bacteria-induced milk acidity using a platinum disc microelectrode.the acidity induced by the action of bacteria in milk samples was monitored amperometrically by using a platinum microelectrode. the measurements were performed directly on commercial packs of milk, stored at 32 degrees c, and were continued for 9-10 d after inoculation. the data were compared with those obtained by measuring the ph of the samples and the results are discussed on the basis of the metabolism of each bacterial species. the effects of the following bacteria were examined: staphyloc ...19911759720
evaluation of brl 42715, a beta-lactamase-inhibiting penem.brl 42715 is a new penem which inhibits a wide range of plasmid as well as chromosomally mediated bacterial beta-lactamases. we used a total of 902 recent clinical isolates, consisting of 455 enterobacteriaceae, 247 staphylococci and 200 other gram-negative bacteria to evaluate its ability for potentiation of amoxycillin. mics for all the 104 strains of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus were reduced from 8-greater than 32.0 to less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml in the presence ...19911760938
treatment of symptomatic enteric aeromonas hydrophila infection with ciprofloxacin.as a part of local sporadic outbreak of aeromonas hydrophila gastroenteritis, 3 symptomatic patients required hospitalisation. treatment with ciprofloxacin appeared to accelerate recovery from severe or persistent diarrhoea due to this organism. all the isolates from the outbreak were sensitive to this drug.19911767263
isolation and characterization of turbot (scophtalmus maximus)-associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against vibrio anguillarum.more than 400 isolates from the intestine and the external surface of farmed scophtalmus maximus as well as from fish food and hatchery water were screened for inhibitory effects against the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum hi 11345 and seven other fish pathogens. the bacteria with inhibitory effects were then characterized with regard to their sites of colonization, especially the intestinal regions and sites within each region. of the total number of bacterial isolates from the intestine, 28% ...19911768092
cloning and expression of a chitinase gene from aeromonas hydrophila in escherichia coli.an extracellular secreted chitinase gene from aeromonas hydrophila was cloned in escherichia coli, and the gene product was detected in the culture medium. like the natural chitinase protein, the excreted chitinase had a molecular weight of approximately 85,000 and was subject to catabolite repression by glucose.19911768115
distribution and survival of motile aeromonas spp. in brackish water receiving sewage treatment effluent.the spatiotemporal distributions of aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in a cove receiving sewage treatment effluent and draining into a brackish lagoon were studied for 34 months with sampling at six stations. a total of 452 strains of aeromonas spp. were isolated and identified at the outflow of the treatment system and at stations in the cove. hemolytic activity of 289 aeromonas strains was determined. the aeromonas spp. and fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles in the pond effl ...19911768120
survival of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida in seawater.survival of aeromonas salmonicida in natural (non-sterile) seawater, as determined from colony counts on marine agar, was found to be influenced by the presence of potentially inhibitory organisms, i.e., acinetobacter, aeromonas hydrophila, chromobacterium, escherichia coli, flavobacterium and pseudomonas, and their metabolites. yet, samples, thought to be devoid of culturable a. salmonicida, were found to contain cells, which were filterable through 0.22 and 0.45 microns millipore millex porosi ...19911769545
aeromonas hydrophila infections following clinical use of medicinal leeches: a review of published cases.ten aeromonas hydrophila infections following postsurgical leech applications have been reported. these cases indicate that postsurgical wounds and damaged tissue can provide entry for either acute or delayed a. hydrophila infection. these infections can range from localized cellulitis to progressive myonecrosis and sepsis. these infections may occur with measurable frequency in groups of patients exposed to leeches. based on this review, it is recommended that leeches be applied only to tissue ...19911772993
modification to the ritard surgical model.the removable intestinal tie-adult rabbit diarrhea (ritard) procedure is the surgical model of choice for studying pathogenesis of diarrheas of campylobacter, escherichia coli, and aeromonas origin. other than nonhuman primates, the ritard rabbit is the only model that closely resembles human infection. classically, the ritard model is created by isolating the terminal ileum using umbilical tape placed in a slipknot fashion, and injecting the occluded segment with the organism of choice. the sli ...19911777445
optimal growth temperature for the isolation of plesiomonas shigelloides, using various selective and differential agars.the growth characteristics of known strains of plesiomonas shigelloides were compared with those of aeromonas species (the major competing species in environmental waters) on plesiomonas differential agar, inositol brilliant green bile salt, and modified salmonella-shigella agar at incubation temperatures of 37, 42, and 44 degrees c. using local isolates from clinical and environmental sources, optimal growth conditions, as determined by colony counts and the colony characteristics, plesiomonas ...19911777858
specific binding of lactoferrin to aeromonas hydrophila.the interaction of lactoferrin (lf) with aeromonas hydrophila (n = 28) was tested in a 125i-labeled protein-binding assay. the mean per cent binding values for human lf (hlf) and bovine lf (blf) were 13.4 +/- 2.0 (sem), and 17.5 +/- 2.7 (sem), respectively. the lf binding was characterized in type strain a. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila ccug 14551. the hlf and blf binding reached a complete saturation within 2 h. unlabeled hlf and blf displaced 125i-hlf binding in a dose-dependent manner, and mor ...19911778417
[a report on the hygienic status of sacred "temizu" water in shrines].the quality of the sacred "temizu" water in shrines in kyoto was surveyed. it was found that the sources of "temizu" were the municipal water supply or domestic wells and that the "temizu" was usually used for washing the hands and mouth, while in certain shrines it was drunk as well. of 50 visitors responding to questions, 26 persons said that they drank "temizu". in some shrines using the municipal water supply as "temizu", the free residual chlorine concentration was lower than that in the mu ...19911779475
bacteremia in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.infections are frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis, as their defenses against infectious agents are altered. but bacteremia occurring in cirrhotic patients has seldom been reported in the literature. from 1981 to 1986, we collected 197 cases with 228 episodes of bacteremia for this retrospective study. the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients was 8.8%; no significant difference was noted between cirrhotic patients with variant etiologies of hbv(+), hbv(-) and alcohol. but the inci ...19911779712
[aeromonads, their biological properties, antibiotic sensitivity, role in infection development]. 19911781716
the pathogenicity of aeromonas strains relative to genospecies and phenospecies identification.the relative pathogenicity of 80 aeromonas strains typed by biochemical (phenospecies) and genetic (genospecies) methods was assessed by determining the 50% lethal dose for each isolate in swiss-webster mice by intraperitoneal injection. overall, the maximum difference in virulence potential observed between the least and most pathogenic strains was a four log (10,000-fold) difference. results according to phenospecies designation supported previous investigations indicating that both a. hydroph ...19911783279
[occurrence of conjugated r-plasmids in bacteria of the aeromonas genus isolated from purified urban sewage water].the aim of the study was to determine a participation of aeromonas sp., having conjugation r plasmids, in a population of the bacteria present in purified urban sewage . in 1 ml of sewage 1.8 x 10(3) - 50 x 10(3) of aeromonas sp., were found. the isolated strains belonged to the following genera: a. hydrophila, a. caviae, a. sorbia. all tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, kanamycin and nalidixic acid. among 186 strains of aeromonas sp., two belonging to a. caviae genus tra ...19911784136
parapharyngeal soft-tissue infection with aeromonas hydrophila.parapharyngeal soft tissue infections may be rapidly progressive and life-threatening. prompt institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is of paramount importance. this report highlights the potential virulence of aeromonas hydrophila in infection of the head and neck and the need to consider this organism in selected patients.19911791146
antibacterial effects of different snake venoms: purification and characterization of antibacterial proteins from pseudechis australis (australian king brown or mulga snake) venom.venoms from 30 different snake species were tested in a disc diffusion assay for antibacterial effects against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. a number of venoms gave a zone of inhibition against both groups of bacteria, including aeromonas hydrophila, an important pathogen of reptiles and amphibians. two antibacterial components from the venom of an australian elapid, pseudechis australis (australian king brown or mulga snake) were purified to homogeneity. the proteins, designated lao ...19911796476
[assignment of strains of the mesophilic aeromonas group isolated from feces to their corresponding hybridization groups (genus, species)]. 19911799619
a study of the bacterial and parasitic causes of acute diarrhoea in northern jordan.the prevalence of bacterial and parasitic diarrhoeagenic agents in 200 patients suffering from acute diarrhoea and reporting to hospitals and health centres in northern jordan, and in controls was determined. one or more bacterial or parasitic enteropathogens was isolated from 79 patients (39.5%). prevalence rates for these pathogens was as follows: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, 9%; enteropathogenic e. coli, 9%; salmonella spp. 7%; campylobacter spp, 5.5%; yersinia enterocolitica, 4.5%; shig ...19911800560
nucleotide sequence and expression of an extracellular hemolysin gene of aeromonas hydrophila.the extracellular hemolysin (ahh1) gene of aeromonas hydrophila atcc7966 was cloned into charomid9-28 in escherichia coli dh1, and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. escherichia coli carrying this gene expressed an extracellular heat-labile hemolysin for rabbit red blood cells. the minimum size of the coding region of the 2.6 kilobase-pair bamhi-sphi fragment was subcloned into puc118 and puc119, selecting for hemolytic activity. the nucleotide sequence of this region contained a singl ...19911800890
acute diarrhoeal diseases in infants aged below six months in hospital in calcutta, india: an aetiological study.in a prospective 2-year study, 218 infants aged less than 6 months admitted to a children's hospital in calcutta with acute diarrhoea and 102 infants (control group) from the out-patient department of the same hospital with similar age, sex and socio-economic composition as the diarrhoea patients, were concurrently investigated for enteropathogenic agents in the faeces. enteropathogenic escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic e. coli, and enteroadherent e. coli constituted the 3 types of diarrhoeageni ...19911801358
activity of meropenem against antibiotic-resistant or infrequently encountered gram-negative bacilli.meropenem was compared in vitro with imipenem as well as with several other contemporary beta-lactams, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin against a group of highly antibiotic resistant members of the family enterobacteriaceae and a collection of oxidase-positive and/or glucose-nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli. in this study, meropenem was more active than imipenem against isolates of enterobacter, klebsiella, morganella, providencia, alcaligenes, aeromonas, and pasteurella.19911804016
cultural conditions for aeromonas hydrophila affect the production of haemolysins with differing host specificities.five strains of aeromonas hydrophila were studied for production of haemolysin specific for erythrocytes of various animal species using three cultural methods. all the strains produced haemolysin for all the erythrocyte species when the organisms were cultured on blood agar. using cellophane overlay method, all the strains produced haemolysin for fish erythrocytes and variable activity to mammalian erythrocytes. only one strain produced haemolytic activity for various though not all of the eryt ...19911804029
what is the diagnostic value of beta-d-glucuronidase (bdg) activity of bacteria using fluorocult ecd agar for their cultivation?a total of 1510 strains from 15 genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were studied. more than 94% of 327 escherichia coli strains showed beta-d-glucuronidase (bdg) activity. seventeen serotypes from 170 e. coli o serogroup representatives were negative. relationship between the existence of bdg positive and negative e. coli strains in the same serogroup or serotype has not been observed. the rate of bdg positivity was 42% among salmonella arizonae strains and 42.2% among shigella st ...19911805501
in vitro susceptibility of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida to flumequine.the activity of the fluoroquinolone flumequine was investigated against the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida and was compared with that of oxolinic acid. flumequine was more active than oxolinic acid in terms of its mic against oxolinic acid-resistant isolates of a. salmonicida and was as active as oxolinic acid against susceptible isolates. in contrast to oxolinic acid, flumequine was bactericidal, with only 1% of the bacteria surviving 6 h of exposure to the drug at concentrations slightly ...19911810198
[a study on diarrhoea disease caused by vibrionaceae along coast the east of zhejiang province].a study of the etiology of 1028 cases of acute diarrhoea due to vibrionaceae was carried out between august 1988 to july 1990 along the coast of east zhejiang province. from 417 clinical cases (40.56%) were found. 590 strains (57.39%) of pathogenic vibrios among them, the detection rates of vibrio, aeromonas and plesionmonas were 48.14%, 44.74%, 7.12% respectively. there were 8 species of vibrio detected: v. parahemolyticus (63.73%), v. fluvialis (11.97%), v. alginolyticus (10.215), non-01 vibri ...19911816992
microbiological investigation into ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) in fish in west bengal. 19911823339
acquisition of iron from host sources by mesophilic aeromonas species.the mesophilic aeromonas species are opportunistic pathogens that produce either of the siderophores amonabactin or enterobactin. acquisition of iron for growth from fe-transferrin in serum was dependent on the siderophore amonabactin; 50 of 54 amonabactin-producing isolates grew in heat-inactivated serum, whereas none of 30 enterobactin-producing strains were able to grow. most isolates (regardless of siderophore produced) used haem as a sole source of iron for growth; all of 33 isolates grew w ...19911826735
[the aeromonas genus].aeromonas hydrophila manifested itself since its discovery in 1891 as a pathogen of cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals and man. aeromonads cause intestinal and non-intestinal disease. the genus aeromonas comprises: a. hydrophila, a. sorbria, a. caviae, a. veronii, a. schubertii, i.e. mesophilie species and as to psychrophilie immobile species. a. salmonicida and a. media. for warm-blooded animals and man mesophilie motile species are important as pathogens. a. veronii is an ornithine-decarbox ...19911828721
carp erythrodermatitis (ce) due to an aeromonas hydrophila infection. casuistic and experimental results.in november 1987 high losses of carp (cyprinus carpio) with the main symptom of skin ulcera were observed in a farm in northern greece. sixty-six isolates of bacteria, characterized mainly as aeromonas hydrophila or pseudomonas spp. could be isolated from lesions of diseased fish. transmission experiments with these isolates using mirror carp showed that aeromonas hydrophila strains induced identical clinical and pathological pictures after intra- or subcutaneous injection. extracts of these aer ...19911830440
cloning, mutagenesis, and nucleotide sequence of a siderophore biosynthetic gene (amoa) from aeromonas hydrophila.many isolates of the aeromonas species produce amonabactin, a phenolate siderophore containing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-dhb). an amonabactin biosynthetic gene (amoa) was identified (in a sau3a1 gene library of aeromonas hydrophila 495a2 chromosomal dna) by its complementation of the requirement of escherichia coli sab11 for exogenous 2,3-dhb to support siderophore (enterobactin) synthesis. the gene amoa was subcloned as a sali-hindiii 3.4-kb dna fragment into psup202, and the complete nucl ...19911830579
siderophore production by aeromonas salmonicida.growth under conditions of iron-restriction and the production of siderophores was examined in 21 typical and 14 atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida. with the exception of one atypical strain, all strains grew and multiplied in the presence of the high-affinity iron chelators ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid), alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl or transferrin. chrome azurol s agar was used to screen bacterial strains growing under these conditions for the production of siderophores. side ...19911830896
[cholangitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas caviae]. 19911833749
plasmid associated virulence properties of environmental isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.the plasmid profiles, and their association with antimicrobial resistance, of 60 strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish, shellfish and water were investigated. only two strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested; the highest incidences of resistance were to tetracycline (96.7%), prystanamycin (93.3%), ampicillin (91.7%) and cephalothin (91.7%). forty strains harboured one or more plasmids and the plasmid profile most frequently detected (15%) was the association ...19911834850
mutagenesis and isolation of aeromonas hydrophila genes which are required for extracellular secretion.transposon mutagenesis was used to isolate mutants of aeromonas hydrophila which were deficient in the production of extracellular proteins. the culture supernatants of two of the mutants were essentially devoid of the proteins normally secreted by the parent strain, despite their continued synthesis. western immunoblot analysis of one of these proteins indicated that normal signal sequence processing occurred but that normal zymogen activation did not, and cell fractionation experiments indicat ...19911846860
isolation and phenotypic characterization of an oxidase-negative aeromonas salmonicida causing furunculosis in coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch).an oxidase-negative aeromonas salmonicida was isolated from coho salmon (oncorhynchus) kisutch) suffering from an epizootic of furunculosis at the state hatchery near belfair, washington. typical, oxidase-positive a. salmonicida was isolated concurrently from the same population of fish. mortality was controlled with medicated feed treatments. evidence supporting the identification of the two types of a. salmonicida is presented. methods for the proper identification of oxidase-negative a. salmo ...19911850808
aquatic and terrestrial bacteria in diving environments: monitoring and significance. 19911853470
pathogenic vibrionaceae in patients and the environment. 19911853471
aeromonas and plesiomonas as food- and waterborne pathogens.aeromonas and plesiomonas have become increasingly recognized as human enteropathogens. plesiomonas shigelloides has mainly been recovered from various sea foods, whereas aeromonas sp. have also been cultured from pigs, broilers, eggs, milk and vegetables. aeromonas sp. also multiply rapidly at +4 degrees c which is a significant risk in food storage. aeromonas sp. have furthermore been recovered from fresh water sources, and some isolates are resistant to chlorination which makes it a further r ...19911854599
[molecular mechanisms of invasion and virulence in strains of the mesophilic aeromonas group isolated from human beings]. 19911854836
the aeromonas hydrophila cpha gene: molecular heterogeneity among class b metallo-beta-lactamases.an aeromonas hydrophila gene, named cpha, coding for a carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-beta-lactamase, was cloned in escherichia coli by screening an aeromonas genomic library for clones able to grow on imipenem-containing medium. from sequencing data, the cloned cpha gene appeared able to code for a polypeptide of 254 amino acids whose sequence includes a potential n-terminal leader sequence for targeting the protein to the periplasmic space. these data were in agreement with the molecular mass ...19911856163
characterization of classic and atypical serogroup o:11 aeromonas: evidence that the surface array protein is not directly involved in mouse pathogenicity.a number of different techniques were used to analyse classic and atypical serogroup o:11 aeromonas isolates. five of seven atypical o:11, s layer-negative strains lacking a homogeneous lps side-chain pattern exhibited varying degrees of mouse pathogenecity. one virulent atypical strain (ah-77) synthesized a surface array protein (sap) but was unable to anchor it to the cell surface in an intact form, presumably due to a defect in its lps architecture. proteinase k digestion to remove the sap, o ...19911857200
site-directed mutagenesis of a single tryptophan near the middle of the channel-forming toxin aerolysin inhibits its transfer across the outer membrane of aeromonas salmonicida.the channel-forming protein aerolysin must cross both the inner and outer bacterial membranes during its secretion from aeromonas hydrophila or from aeromonas salmonicida containing the cloned structural gene. we examined the fate of three mutant proteins in which trp-227, near the middle of the amino acid chain, was replaced with glycine, leucine, or phenylalanine by site-directed mutagenesis. all three proteins crossed the inner membrane and entered the periplasm in the same way as wild-type, ...19911860853
high frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized peruvian infants.rectal swabs from 391 infants less than 18 months of age who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea and from 138 similarly aged healthy infants were examined for the etiologic agents of diarrhea. aeromonas spp. were recovered from 205 of 391 (52.4%) diarrheic patients, whereas they were recovered from 12 of 138 (8.7%) controls (p less than 10(-11). among the 205 aeromonas-positive diarrheic patients, 118 (57.6%) were found to be coinfected with other common enteropathogens. of the 164 aeromonas-p ...19911864933
aeromonas trota sp. nov., an ampicillin-susceptible species isolated from clinical specimens.previous dna hybridization studies established 12 aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: aeromonas hydrophila, a. sobria, a. caviae, a. media, a. veronii, a. schubertii, a. salmonicida, a. eucrenophila, and a. jandaei. we have delineated a new aeromonas genospecies, a. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern asia. all strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, ah2 (atcc 49657t): ...19911864939
effect of aeromonas proteases on the binding of aeromonas hydrophila strains to connective tissue proteins.125i-labelled connective tissue protein binding to cells of aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae, and a. sobria strains isolated from diseased fish, was correlated with the aeromonas protease degradation of 125i-labelled collagen types i and iv, fibronectin and laminin, immobilized on tissue culture microtitre plates. an inverse relation between 125i-labelled connective tissue protein binding to cells of aeromonas strains and proteolytic degradation of immobilized connective tissue proteins by aeromo ...19911865830
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis.haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (hus) associated with aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis is reported in a 23-month-old female infant. the a. hydrophila strain isolated from the patient's stool sample produced cytotoxin against verocells; increasing levels of cytotoxin-neutralizing antibody in the patient's sera were demonstrated, suggesting a recent infection. this report indicates that a. hydrophila should be suspected as a possible cause of hus, and that this pathogen should be looked for in cases ...19911867983
structure of the tetragonal surface virulence array protein and gene of aeromonas salmonicida.the paracrystalline surface protein array of the pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida is a primary virulence factor with novel binding capabilities. the species-specific structural gene (vapa) for this array protein (a-protein) was cloned into lambda gt11 but was unstable when expressed in escherichia coli, undergoing an 816-base pair deletion due to a 21-base pair direct repeat within the gene. however, the gene was stable in cosmid pla2917 as long as expression was poor. a-protein was lo ...19911869553
aeromonas-associated diarrhoea in north india.the incidence of aeromonas-associated diarrhoea in patients attending the hospital attached to the dayanand medical college, ludhiana, india was investigated during may 1984-may 1987. microbiological examination of single faecal samples from 2,661 patients showed the presence of various enteropathogens of which details of only aeromonas isolations are given and discussed in the present article. a small control sample of 105 age-matched healthy volunteers were also examined. only 55 patients (2.1 ...19911869799
survival of aeromonas salmonicida in lake water.the survival of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in lake water was investigated by using a variety of techniques. they included acridine orange epifluorescence, respiration, cell culture, cell revival, flow cytometry, plasmid maintenance, and membrane fatty acid analysis. during a 21-day study, a. salmonicida became nonculturable in sterile lake water samples. flow cytometry and direct microscopy indicated that cells were present. although the nonculturable cells could not be revived, th ...19911872606
cloning and characterization of an extracellular temperature-labile serine protease gene from aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas virulence is thought to depend on multigenic functions. the gene for an extracellular protease from aeromonas hydrophila so2/2 was cloned in escherichia coli c600-1 by using pij860, bifunctional plasmid, as a vector. the gene encodes for a temperature-labile serine protease (p2) with a molecular mass of approx. 68 kda which is highly inhibited by pmsf. the gene was expressed in streptomyces lividans 1326 by transforming protoplasts with the original clone ppa2. we were also able to tra ...19911874394
health status of salmonids in river systems in natal. iii. isolation and identification of bacteria.both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria were isolated from fish, both salmonid and non-salmonid, from selected river systems in natal. pasteurella pisicida was isolated for the first time from fish in south africa. the isolation of yersinia ruckeri, aeromonas salmonicida, and edwardsiella tarda were recorded for the first time from fish in natal. a. hydrophila and flexibacter columnaris were found to be widespread throughout the river systems in natal. the streptococcus species which caused ...19911881658
comparative toxicity of organotin compounds to rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) yolk sac fry.the comparative toxicity of various organotin compounds was investigated in early life stages of the rainbow trout. beginning with yolk sac fry, trout were continuously exposed for 110 days to tributyl- (tbtc), triphenyl- (tphtc) or tricyclohexyltin chloride (tchtc) at concentrations of 0.12-15 nm, to trimethyltin chloride (tmtc) at concentrations of 3-75 nm or to dibutyl- (dbtc) or diphenyltin chloride (dphtc) at 160-4000 nm. the diorganotin compounds dbtc and dphtc were about three orders of m ...19911882234
physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters in a hypereutrophic lagoon (albufera lake, valencia, spain).several physico-chemical parameters related to water quality, as well as saprophytic and public health-related heterotrophic bacterial groups were studied in a hypereutrophic lake (albufera, valencia) at different seasons. total microscopic and viable counts were compared, and, together with faecal indicators, were determined in water samples from different sites. heterotrophic bacteria grown on nonselective medium were identified to genus level and a diversity index was calculated. pseudomonas- ...19911882597
multilocus genetic relationships between clinical and environmental aeromonas strains.allelic variations in the chromosomal genome of 120 isolates of motile aeromonas (a. hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae) and eight reference strains with one plesiomonas shigelloides were assessed by analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable polymorphism in 16 genes encoding metabolic enzymes. the strains were collected from humans (n = 59) and from the aquatic environment (n = 61) in canton tessin, switzerland. clustering of the electrophoretic types (et) from a matrix of pairwise genetic d ...19911884994
the role of cell-wall deficient bacteria (l-forms; sphaeroplasts) in fish diseases. 19911887263
aeromonads and their significance as potential pathogens in water. 19911887266
selective isolation methods for fish pathogens. 19911887270
growth of and toxin production by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria at low temperatures.the effects of different temperatures on the growth and toxin production of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria were studied. the results showed that these aeromonas species are not only able to grow at low temperatures (e.g. at 4 and 10 degrees c) but may also produce cytotoxin, hemolysin and enterotoxin under suitable growth conditions.19911888660
behavior of aeromonas species at refrigeration temperatures.the ability of many strains of aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria to produce several types of virulence factors has been documented. the presence of aeromonas in drinking water, as well as in river and saline waters and on various finfish and shellfish taken from them, has caused some concern relative to the role this bacterium plays as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis. the fairly common occurrence of aeromonas on red meats, poultry and fresh produce and its ability to grow at 4 degree ...19911892739
travelers' diarrhea among united states military personnel during joint american-egyptian armed forces exercises in cairo, egypt.a study was conducted of travelers' diarrhea in a united states military population on deployment in cairo, egypt, during july and august 1987. acute diarrhea requiring medical attention developed in 183 (4%) of 4,500 troops. a possible etiologic agent was identified in 49% of all diarrhea cases. enteric pathogens associated with cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (17% st-producers, 13% lt-producers, and 3% lt/st-producers); shigella (9%); campylobacter spp. (2%); salmo ...19911900113
cellulitis and compartment syndrome due to plesiomonas shigelloides: a case report.we report a case of cellulitis, compartment syndrome, and septicemia associated with fish handling. the etiologic pathogen isolated from the wound and blood cultures was plesiomonas shigelloides. the pathogen can cause serious illness in people handling fish.19911900118
purification of merozoites of theileria sergenti from infected bovine erythrocytes.a simple and rapid method for purifying merozoites of theileria sergenti from infected bovine erythrocytes was developed. infected erythrocytes were lysed by the use of a cytolytic toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila and the lysate was subjected to ultracentrifugation in a percoll discontinuous density gradient. pure and morphologically intact merozoites free of erythrocyte membrane were recovered from a band formed at the interface of 40% and 60% (by vol.) percoll solutions. in this merozoit ...19911902954
incidence of aeromonas and listeria spp. in red meat and milk samples in brisbane, australia.a total of 150 samples, 50 each of beef, lamb and pork from 10 local retail stores in brisbane metropolitan area as well as 150 raw bovine bulk milk tank samples obtained from queensland united foods (quf), were examined for the presence of aeromonas and listeria spp. over a period of 1 year. different sets of enrichment and plating media were used to recover the organisms with subsequent identification using conventional biochemical and serotyping techniques. a total of 509 isolates consisting ...19911904764
unusual case of aeromonas hydrophila endocarditis.we describe a case of aeromonas hydrophila endocarditis in a 66-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome and non-a, non-b hepatitis, the infection resolved with antibiotic therapy, but the patient succumbed to complications of his underlying illness. this is the second case of aeromonas endocarditis reported in the world literature.19911905319
[phenotypic characteristics of 100 strains belonging to the mesophilic aeromonas group isolated from feces].phenotypic characteristics of 100 strains pertaining to the group of mesophilic aeromonas isolated in feces of patients with diarrhea (23 a. hydrophila, 34 a. sobria, 19 a. caviae, and 24 considered atypical because produced a the negative esculin reaction and a positive gas formation from glucose [tsi]). the percentages obtained in the different biochemical tests support the hypothesis that in this group there is a taxonomic complexity. we observed variations in the following tests: ldc, arabin ...19911906754
inhibition of food-borne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat.ten strains of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from retail cuts of meat. these 10 strains along with 11 other bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were tested for inhibitory activity against psychotrophic pathogens, including four strains of listeria monocytogenes, two strains of aeromonas hydrophila, and two strains of staphylococcus aureus. inhibition due to acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lytic bacteriophage were excluded. the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory ...19911908209
[severe occurrence of idiopathic ulcerative colitis caused by aeromonas sobria]. 19911910924
the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to medical microbiology: molecular epidemiology of viruses and bacteria.a variety of molecular methods can be used to identify protein and nucleic acid markers with which to investigate the epidemiology of viruses and bacteria. this paper reviews the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-d page) for studying microbial molecular epidemiology. a small format 2-d page system is described for locating protein markers in group b coxsackie viruses (cvb) and haemophilus influenzae isolates. representative isolates of cvb serotypes 2, 4, and 5 ...19911915251
distribution of aeromonas species in waters with different levels of pollution.strains of aeromonas spp. (883) were isolated from 10 stations in the north-west of spain. biotyping of the strains gave: 55% aeromonas caviae, 34% a. hydrophila, 6% a. sobria and 5% aeromonas spp. phenotypic characters that have been claimed to be related to virulence such as haemolysis and the voges-proskauer reaction were detected mostly in a. hydrophila and a. sobria. the distribution of the species was significantly related to levels of faecal pollution in waters. aeromonas caviae predomina ...19911917727
genes coding for integration host factor are conserved in gram-negative bacteria.a genetic system for the selection of clones coding for integration host factor and hu homologs is described. we demonstrate that the hima and hip genes of serratia marcescens and aeromonas proteolytica can substitute for the escherichia coli genes in a variety of biological assays. we find that the sequence and genetic organization of the hima and hip genes of s. marcescens are highly conserved.19911917861
vibrio navarrensis sp. nov., a species from sewage.a group of 11 strains, mostly isolated from sewage water in the province of navarra, spain, were found to constitute a dna relatedness group which is 2 to 39% related to 23 species of the genus vibrio and 2 to 3% related to two aeromonas species. phenotypically, these strains have all of the properties that define the genus vibrio. however, they differ from the previously described species by three or more properties. the strains are negative for arginine, ornithine, and lysine decarboxylase act ...19911854642
iron acquisition and virulence in the motile aeromonads: siderophore-dependent and -independent systems.during an infection, a microbial pathogen must acquire all of its iron from the host. aeromonas isolated producing the siderophore amonabactin obtain iron either from host fe-transferrin (siderophore dependent) or from host heme-containing molecules (siderophore independent). isolates producing the siderophore enterobactin do not utilize fe-transferrin in serum and probably rely exclusively on host heme iron.19911828435
significance of sinking particles in the distribution of motile aeromonas during the winter season.the role of sinking particles in the distribution of motile aeromonas species was studied during the winter season. various environmental parameters and microbial populations were investigated to elucidate the relationship with motile aeromonads. motile aeromonas species were enumerated by most probable number technique with alkaline peptone water as the enrichment medium and modified pril-xylose ampicillin agar as the plating medium. aeromonas species were isolated in a water column in any one ...19911784252
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