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aeromonas, acclimation, and penicillin as complications when leeches are applied to skin flaps in rabbits.the medicinal leech, hirudo medicinalis, has been recognized by plastic surgeons for its ability to reduce congestion and improve blood flow in grafted skin flaps by withdrawing excess blood. the leech's ability to digest blood is due to the presence of aeromonas hydrophila in the gut of the leech. in this report we describe the occurrence of aeromonas hydrophila septicaemia in rabbits used in a study to evaluate the efficacy of the medicinal leech on abdominal skin flap survival. in new zealand ...19902366512
[aeromonas species as cause of diarrhea and infections outside the gastrointestinal tract in the netherlands].in a national survey in the period may 1986-december 1987, aeromonas was isolated from 277 out of 16,857 (1.6%) samples of watery, bloody or mucous stool, from patients with diarrhoea. there was a clear seasonal pattern (less than 1% in winter, up to 3% in summer). a. caviae was isolated most frequently (49%), followed by a. sobria (35%) and a. hydrophila (15%). some non-identifiable strains were isolated as well. aeromonas were isolated in particular from faeces of patients aged over 70 years ( ...19902366898
aeromonas hydrophila as cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in a ground-hornbill (bucorvus abyssinicus).an acute hemorrhagic septicemia in a captive ground-hornbill (bucorvus abyssinicus) is reported. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from lungs, liver, kidney, and intestines. postmortem lesions were characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs. microscopically, necrotic lesions were found in the liver, lungs, and kidney. factors that might have contributed to the clinical disease condition are discussed.19902369389
lymphomyeloid cells, susceptibility to erythrodermatitis of carp and bacterial antigens.pronounced changes occur in the kidneys carp injected with extracellular product (ecp), lipopolysaccharide (lps) of a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, freund's complete adjuvant (fca). ecp caused 50-70% decrease in macrophages and neutrophils, whereas blasts and lymphocyte-like cells increased fca-elicited increased percentages of blasts and a left shift of neutrophils after lps injection. after both ecp and fca injections, the density of major leucocyte types and red blood cells (rbc) in the ki ...19902369967
differences in the phagocytosis of four bacteria by channel catfish neutrophils.the purpose of this study was to compare the phagocytosis of aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella ictaluri, edwardsiella tarda and micrococcus luteus by channel catfish neutrophils. various aspects of opsonization effect and bactericidal ability of channel catfish neutrophils were investigated. percent phagocytosis ranged from a low of 1% to a high of 91%. the highest percent phagocytosis and phagocytic indices routinely occurred with normal serum and were highest for m. luteus (91.78%, 55.25) and ...19902369968
aeromonas hydrophila diarrhea in a long-term care setting.infectious diarrheal diseases can be a serious problem in long-term care institutions. aeromonas hydrophila, a facultative, anaerobic gram-negative rod, has not been implicated previously in an acute diarrheal outbreak in this setting. we report 17 patients with this disorder all characterized by the acute onset of painless, nonbloody diarrhea. thirteen of 17 (76%) patients had two to four loose bowel movements and a duration of illness of less than 48 hours. eleven of 17 (65%) patients were afe ...19902370399
effect of transport medium on recovery of aeromonas species in intestinal infections. 19902373092
phenotypic study of bacteria associated with the caribbean sclerosponge, ceratoporella nicholsoni.heterotrophic bacteria associated with the caribbean sclerosponge, ceratoporella nicholsoni (hickson), were found to occur extracellularly and were confined to the mesohyl regions of the sponge tissue. physiological, metabolic, and morphological attributes of the culturable bacteria associated with the sponge were recorded by using numerical taxonomy methods for the analysis of 158 phenotypic attributes. morphometric methods were used to determine the proportion of the total sponge-associated ba ...19902383012
[aeromonas hydrophila in the drinking water in djibouti: commensal germ or diarrhea-causing agent?].to investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water used by inhabitants of the republic of djibouti who were not supplied with piped running water, we analysed 16 fresh-water samples from various sources. only 3 samples were sterile; they were taken from village pumps and from a water-truck. eleven samples yielded colonies of aeromonas hydrophila too numerous to be counted; they were taken from water tanks, metal barrels, or wells dug in either dry river beds or along the seashore. we s ...19902385169
in vitro susceptibility of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria to fifteen antibacterial agents.in vitro testing of the activity of 15 antibacterial agents against 522 clinical isolates of aeromonas species demonstrated some species-associated trends. amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was effective against approximately 45% of aeromonas caviae and aeromonas hydrophila, but all aeromonas sobria isolates were resistant. aztreonam, piperacillin and mezlocillin were highly active against all the strains of aeromonas tested. ticarcillin was equally effective against aeromonas caviae and aeromona ...19902387294
dynamics of aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, and aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond.the spatiotemporal dynamics of aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms in the sewage treatment ponds of an urban wastewater center were studied after 20 months of sampling from five stations in these ponds. isolation and identification of 247 aeromonas strains were undertaken over four seasons at the inflow and outflow of this pond system. the hemolytic activity of these strains was determined. the aeromonas spp. and the fecal coliform distributions showed seasonal cycles, the amplitude of which incr ...19902389929
classification of the spoilage flora of fish, with special reference to shewanella putrefaciens.one hundred and fifty-nine gram-negative strains isolated from refrigerated fish, taken from the baltic sea or swedish inland waters, together with 32 reference strains of shewanella, pseudomonas, aeromonas and alcaligenes, were phenotypically classified using 124 unit characters. data were processed by the simple matching (ssm) and jaccard (sj) coefficients, and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. fourteen clusters were defined at the 75% sj similarity level which correspo ...19902391295
a method for detecting shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin-i in pure and mixed culture.shiga toxin and shiga-like toxins (slts, syn. verotoxins) are currently detected by tissue culture assays that are expensive, time-consuming and require specialised facilities and experienced personnel. we have developed a rapid method to detect shiga toxin and slt-i (verotoxin 1) based on their binding to globotriosyl ceramide (gb3). bound toxin was then detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with monoclonal antibodies. the direct detection of cytotoxins from pure culture plat ...19902391709
distribution and characterization of hemolytic, and enteropathogenic motile aeromonas in aquatic environment.a year-long survey on the distribution of motile aeromonas species in the surface waters of riverine and marine environments was conducted. the filtered membranes were directly placed onto the modified pril-xylose-ampicillin agar for the enumeration of aeromonas species. high counts of motile aromonads were found in riverine stations and this bacterial population was also observed in significant quantities in polluted marine samples. in the identification of 2,444 isolates, three species of moti ...19902392066
[effect of the isolation medium and isolation conditions on the isolation of the bacterial species spectrum in drinking water].with the method of colony-count estimation according to german standards (trinkwasserverordnung, tvo), bacteria of the genera aeromonas, shewanella, pseudomonas etc. and (if present) representatives of the family enterobacteriaceae can be detected. longer incubation and application of low nutrient media enhance the colony counts up to 100-fold, and other bacteria can be isolated, in most cases belonging to the genera pseudomonas, alcaligenes, acinetobacter, flavobacterium etc.. for the detection ...19902393490
antibiotic combination effect on the clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.the effect of antibiotic combinations on 191 clinical strains of aeromonas hydrophila was analysed by checkerboard microdilution methods. the combinations of antibiotics were as follows: amikacin (an) + carbenicillin (cb), an + cephalexin (clx), an + piperacillin (pip), an + cefoperazone (cfp), an + ceftriaxone (roc), gentamicin (gm) + cb, gm + clx, gm + pip, gm + cfp, gm + roc, gm + tetracycline (tc). the results of this study indicated that (i) the effect of an + cb and an + pip was considered ...19902394181
[clinical aeromonas hydrophila contain the dna fragments with nucleotide sequence similar to those of hemolysin and cholera-toxin gene].the artificially synthesized aquatic aeromonas hydrophila partial aerolysin gene dna (ae, containing 48 oligonucleotides), and partial cholera-toxin gene dna fragments (c1 and c2, containing 34 and 19 oligonucleotide, respectively) were used as probes to determine their dna sequence homology to the chromosome dna of 191 strains of the clinically isolated a. hydrophila, using the colony hybridization test. the three probes had a positive reaction with clinical a. hydrophila strains. several posit ...19902394187
[cloning and sequencing of hemolysin gene from clinical aeromonas hydrophila].aerolysin is one of the important virulence factors for aeromonas hydrophila infection. to understand the characteristics of the aerolysin gene in clinical a. hydrophila, a genomic library was constructed by using puc19 as cloning vector. the positive clone containing the aerolysin gene was selected by the colony hybridization method, using the aerolysin probe (an 48 mer oligonucleotide) of aquatic a. hydrophila. four positive out of 1,200 transformants were obtained from the primarily screened ...19902394188
glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase complexed with lipopolysaccharide (lps) is a major lethal exotoxin and cytolysin of aeromonas salmonicida: lps stabilizes and enhances toxicity of the enzyme.an extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas salmonicida was purified by fast-protein liquid ion-exchange chromatography. the toxin is composed of glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) (molecular mass, 25 kilodaltons) aggregated with lipopolysaccharide (lps), the gcat/lps complex having a molecular mass of about 2,000 kilodaltons, estimated by gel filtration chromatography. the toxin is lethal for atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) at a concentration of 0.045 micrograms of ...19902394687
cytotoxin and enterotoxin production as factors delineating enteropathogenicity of aeromonas caviae.twenty-one stool and environmental aeromonas caviae isolates were studied for cytopathogenicity for cultured hep-2 cells. cytotoxic activity was demonstrated by the 21 a. caviae strains and by a. caviae atcc 15468 after challenging hep-2 cells with filtrates from a 24-h-old broth shake culture composed of double-strength, glucose-free trypticase soy broth, incubated at 35 degrees c. heat-stable cytotoxicity was observed 5 h after the addition of 1/5 and 1/10 concentrations of filtrates and consi ...19902394803
transient intestinal colonization by multiple phenotypes of aeromonas species during the first week of life.the intestinal colonization rate of aeromonas spp. was determined for 52 cesarean-born peruvian neonates. rectal swabs were obtained daily from newborns during their postdelivery hospitalization (mean = 5.5 days), and the gross appearances of their feces (blind determinations) were recorded. aeromonas spp. were recovered from rectal swabs of 12 of 52 (23.1%) infants during their first week of life; the isolates were obtained from 5 of 9 (55.6%) infants with at least one stool with a watery consi ...19902394805
aquatically acquired aeromonas hydrophila wound infection. a report of 3 cases.the occurrence of aeromonas hydrophila wound infections in healthy hosts after water-associated injury is being reported more frequently. this paper reports our experience with 3 such cases and outlines the importance of recognising the association between a water-related injury and this organism.19902396158
growth characteristics of motile aeromonas spp. isolated from different environments.the growth of 80 strains of motile aeromonas spp. derived from environments with temperatures above 25 degrees c and below 15 degrees c, respectively, were examined at five temperatures (5 degrees c, 10 degrees c, 25 degrees c, 37 degrees c and 44 degrees c) and four salt levels (0.05%, 2%, 4% and 6% nacl). sixty-one strains were further examined at two ph levels (ph 7.3 and ph 5.3). all strains grew at 25 degrees c and 10 degrees c with the majority of the isolates proliferating from approx. 10 ...19902397155
the bacteriology of fresh and spoiling lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus).a total of 177 bacterial cultures isolated from lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus) were investigated. the flora on newly caught nile perch consisted of organisms belonging to the genera moraxella, alcaligenes, acinetobacter, pseudomonas, aeromonas, micrococcus and other gram-positive organisms. 39% were identified as gram-positive species and 61% were negative in the gram-reaction. three cultures out of 53 investigated caused weak rotten off-odours in sterile fish broth and one culture, ...19902397157
distribution and characteristics of aeromonas in food and drinking water in denmark.a total of 970 danish commercial foods and drinking water samples were examined for the presence of motile aeromonas spp. with a detection limit of 10(2)/g the frequent prevalence in raw foods was confirmed. aeromonas occurred in 7% of 779 samples of prepared foods; most frequently in whipped cream from ice cream parlors (28%) and mayonnaise salads (10%) with numbers occasionally exceeding 10(5)/g. the prevalence in drinking water was 28% with a detection limit of 1/100 ml. a hydrophila was the ...19902397158
aeromonas species in human septicaemia & diarrhoea.an increase was observed in the isolation of aeromonas sp. from clinical specimens, especially faeces, from patients with diarrhoeal disease and blood cultures from patients with suspected septicaemias. the isolation rate from diarrhoeal patients was 0.2 per cent in 1978-79 and this increased to 5.0 per cent in 1986-87. it is noteworthy that 13 patients of septicaemia due to aeromonas species were encountered, predominantly in adults with lowered resistance due to underlying disease states inclu ...19902397936
characterization of 22 vibrio species by gas chromatography analysis of their cellular fatty acids.the cellular fatty acid compositions of 51 vibrio strains belonging to 22 species as well as five aeromonas strains were determined by using capillary gas-liquid chromatography (glc). the major fatty acids were most often hexadecenoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids. heptadecenoic acid was present in significant amounts in v. alginolyticus, v. natriegens, v. parahaemolyticus and "vibrio navarrensis". twenty fatty acids including branched and hydroxy acids were detected in the genus vibrio. ...19902399366
type i and iv collagen and fibrinogen binding to aeromonas species isolated from various infections.collagen binding is a common property of strains of aeromonas species. however, agglutination of latex beads coated with types i and iv collagen and fibrinogen with aeromonas cells varied among strains of aeromonas species and their source of isolation. culture media and growth conditions greatly influenced expression of aeromonas cell surface receptors to bind collagen (types i and iv) and fibrinogen immobilized on the latex particles as suggested by the particle agglutination assay (paa). aero ...19902400535
[resistance to antimicrobial agents, hemolytic activity and plasmids in aeromonas species].a total of 174 aeromonas isolates consisting of 100 strains from patients with diarrhea being mainly overseas travellers nd healthy subjects, and 74 strains from environmental sources including foods, fish, fresh water, sea water and river soil collected in the area of tokyo metropolis and kanagawa prefecture was examined for the antimicrobial resistance, presence of plasmids and hemolytic activity. almost all the isolates (99.4%) were resistant to aminobenzyl penicillin. the isolation frequency ...19902401817
epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea and relative importance of various pathogens.each year 12 million persons travel from an industrialized country to a developing country in the tropics or subtropics. these travelers experience a high rate of diarrhea caused by a wide variety of enteric pathogens acquired by ingestion of contaminated food or water. one or more pathogens can be found in the stool of a majority of ill individuals. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli generally are the most frequently identified pathogens, having been found in a median of 42% of travelers' diarrhe ...19902406860
action pattern of aeromonas hydrophila chitinase on partially n-acetylated chitosan.oligosaccharides from the digestion of 34% n-acetylated chitosan by aeromonas hydrophila chitinase were separated by cm-sephadex c-25 column chromatography. sugar compositions and the sequences of main oligosaccharides were identified through their n-acetylation, their cleavage with exo-glycosidases, and their degradation with nitrous acid. hetero-chitooligosaccharides such as glcn.glcnac, glcn.glcnac.glcnac, glcnac.glcn.glcnac, and glcnac.glcn.glcnac.glcnac, together with glcnac and (glcnac)2, ...19901368549
a general method to generate dna probes for microorganisms.we present a method that permits the rapid generation of dna probes for eubacteria. in the procedure the variable regions for the 16s rrna genes are amplified using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology and primers based on the conserved regions of these genes. following sequencing of the variable regions, a choice is possible for a probe specific for that organism. no knowledge of the molecular biology of the microorganism is required prior to the application of this approach. the generali ...19901369980
studies on the reaction mechanism of a microbial lipase/acyltransferase using chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis.aeromonas hydrophila releases a protein which is a member of the lipase superfamily, similar in reaction mechanism to the important mammalian plasma enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. we have used chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis of the protein to identify amino acids which may be involved in catalysis. the enzyme was unaffected by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but it was almost completely inhibited by another serine-reactive compound, diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphat ...19911985976
aeromonas hydrophila diarrhea. 19911991958
description and evaluation of the semiautomated 4-hour atb 32e method for identification of members of the family enterobacteriaceae.a study was performed to compare the rapid identification system atb 32e (api-biomérieux sa, la balme-les-grottes, france) with conventional biochemical methods for identifying 414 isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae and the genus aeromonas, mainly of clinical origin. overall, 395 strains (95.4%) were correctly identified, with 48 (11.6%) requiring extra tests for complete identification. ten strains (2.4%) were not identified, and nine (2.9%) were misidentified. the atb 32e is a suitable ...19911993747
etiology of childhood diarrhea in beijing, china.to determine the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in china, 221 children with diarrhea and 108 controls seen at the beijing children's hospital were studied during april and may 1989. stools were examined for ova, parasites, and rotavirus, cultured for bacterial pathogens, and probed for enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), and enteropathogenic adherence factor-positive (eaf+) e. coli. pathogens ...19911993771
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli of serotypes o157:h7 and o26:h11.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4e8c12) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7 and o26:h11 was produced by immunizing balb/c mice with a rough strain of e. coli o157:h7. the antibody reacted strongly by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with each of 36 strains of e. coli o157:h7. no cross-reactivity was observed with strains of salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, shigella dysenteriae, proteus spp., escherichia hermanii, klebsiella pneumoniae, campylobacter jejuni, serratia marcescens, c ...19911993773
aeromonas hydrophilia infection complicating digital replantation and revascularization. 19911995683
freeze-substitution of gram-negative eubacteria: general cell morphology and envelope profiles.freeze-substitution was performed on strains of escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, campylobacter fetus, vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas putida, aeromonas salmonicida, proteus mirabilis, haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, caulobacter crescentus, and leptothrix discophora with a substitution medium composed of 2% osmium tetroxide and 2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone. a thick periplasmic gel ranging from 10.6 to 14.3 nm in width was displayed in e. coli k-12, k30, and hi ...19911999383
effect of paracrystalline protein surface layers on predation by bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.we determined that paracrystalline protein surface arrays (s layers) protected gram-negative eubacteria from predation by bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. aquaspirillum serpens vha and mw5 and aquaspirillum sinuosum were resistant to predation by b. bacteriovorus 6-5-s when fully covered by their s layers. the s layer of aeromonas salmonicida a449 protected the cells from predication by b. bacteriovorus 109j. a predacious, plaque-forming vibrio that lysed an s-layer- variant of caulobacter crescentus ...19912007549
aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis after consumption of contaminated shrimp. 19912009882
biochemical and genetic characterization of autoagglutinating phenotypes of aeromonas species associated with invasive and noninvasive disease.the genetic characteristics and biochemical and structural properties of a number of autoagglutinating (aa) strains of aeromonas associated with invasive and noninvasive disease in humans and infections in animals and from environmental sources were investigated. of 27 strains analyzed by multilocus enzyme typing and dna hybridization studies, 25 (93%) were confirmed to belong to either hybridization group 1 (phenospecies and genospecies aeromonas hydrophila) or 8 (phenospecies aeromonas sobria; ...19912010642
sgap-10c agar for the isolation and quantification of aeromonas from water.glutamate starch penicillin (gsp) medium was used for the simultaneous isolation of pseudomonas and aeromonas. modifications to reduce the number of pseudomonas and background flora and to improve the recovery of aeromonas from water samples are described. the original medium was modified by adding glucose and ampicillin. the addition of 10 micrograms/l of c-glucose to the medium (sgap-10c) permitted better recuperation of stressed cells of aeromonads and the ampicillin reduced the numbers of ps ...19912016212
a membrane filter procedure for assaying cytotoxic activity in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water.cytotoxic activity assays of gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. the objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. water samples were passed through 0.45 microns membrane filters which were then placed upon appropriate media incubated. after incubation, each membrane filter was transferred to the surface of y-1 mouse adrenal cells overla ...19912016213
furunculosis in wrasse. 19912017848
comparative study of extracellular matrix protein binding to aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish and human infection.binding of 125i-labelled types i and iv collagen, fibronectin and laminin to aeromonas cells is a common characteristic among aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish and human infections. the proportion of aeromonas strains which bind to the various proteins were significantly greater for a. hydrophila than for a. sobria or a. caviae. the binding property was specific since it was inhibited by unlabelled homologous proteins. bacterial cells incubated with proteolytic enzymes lose the abili ...19912030645
aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies dna group 9 a. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.a large numerical taxonomy study conducted in 1988 of 165 mostly clinical aeromonas strains from diverse geographic sources produced a cluster (s = 84%, ssm) of four sucrose-negative strains that included the dna definition strain for dna group 9 a. sobria (cdc 0787-80). these four strains, together with five additional strains received in 1989, were subjected to dna-dna hybridization (hydroxyapatite, 32p, 60 and 75 degrees c), and all eight strains were closely related to the ninth labeled dna ...19912037673
aeromonas jandaei and aeromonas veronii dual infection of a human wound following aquatic exposure.exudate removed from an infection that developed below the left eye of a 10-year-old male following a previously inflicted wound after aquatic exposure was cultured and revealed two different aeromonas spp. further characterization showed that one strain was phenotypically identical to aeromonas veronii, while the other strain was confirmed by dna hybridization analysis to be aeromonas jandaei sp. nov. this is the first report of these more recently described aeromonads, thus far rarely reported ...19912037674
genetic variation in related cytolytic toxins produced by different species of aeromonas.comparative analyses were performed at the immunological, biological, and genetic level to establish the degree of relatedness of a group of four cytotoxic enterotoxins and aerolysins produced by different isolates of aeromonas: ssu [16], ah1 [13], ah2 [18], and ah65 [21]. results obtained from western blot analysis, neutralization studies, and southern blot analysis indicated that although the members of this group of toxins displayed structural similarities they also differed from each other a ...19912040431
opsonizing activity of anti-aeromonas salmonicida antibodies after inactivation of complement in rainbow trout.young rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with killed aeromonas salmonicida, bled 5 wk later, and tested for the presence of serum agglutinins. the positive antisera were pooled and fractionated in a ultrogel aca 34 column. seven fractions were collected and concentrated. the higher agglutinin titres were found in the 2nd fraction, which also contained igm revealed by immunoelectrophoresis. the 7 fractions were heated for 30 min at 45 degrees c to inactivate the complement system, ...19912042906
action of a microbial lipase/acyltransferase on phospholipid monolayers.vibrio species release a lipase which shares many properties with mammalian lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. we have studied the action of the enzyme on phospholipid monolayers. at similar surface pressures, reaction velocities were higher with monolayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine than with the corresponding phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylethanolamine. the dependence of reaction velocity on molecular density was very similar for phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine mo ...19912043645
aeromonas update: new species and global distribution.there are currently eight proposed or validated aeromonas spp. of which five have been implicated in human disease: a. hydrophila, a. sobria, a. caviae, a. veronii, and a. schubertii. recent studies have extended the geographic distribution and source of isolation of the newer species and resulted in the possibility of two new species, a. jandaei and a. trota, from diarrheal, wound, blood and environmental sources.19912044682
the taxonomy and nomenclature of the psychrotrophic aeromonads.following the introduction of the dna hybridization technique several genotypes have been separated from the older phenotypically described aeromonas species. work has been undertaken on some arbutin-negative psychrotrophic aeromonas strains. these were differentiated into three genotypically and phenotypically identifiable groups. one group (i) is genetically related to a. sobria (type 208). the two other groups (ii and j) can be separated genotypically and phenotypically from the a. sobria, a. ...19912044683
media and methods for isolation of aeromonads from fecal specimens. a multilaboratory study.an international multilaboratory study was conducted to establish the optimal combination of culture media, incubation time and temperature for recovery of aeromonads from stools using blood ampicillin (10 mg/l) agar (baa), starch ampicillin (10 mg/l) agar (saa), and cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin agar (cin) with alkaline peptone water (apw) for enrichment. optimal recovery of aeromonads (167/186) occurred using baa (37 degrees c; 24 h) and cin (25 degrees c; 48 h) with apw (25 degrees c; 24 h) s ...19912044684
form and functions of the regular surface array (s-layer) of aeromonas salmonicida.the principal virulence factor of aeromonas salmonicida is its s-layer (a-layer) which is comprised of tetragonally arrayed approximately 50,000 mr protein subunits tethered to the cell surface via lps. the detailed composition of its lps is known, as is the primary sequence, and three-dimensional disposition of the a protein subunits. the a-layer physically protects the cell against bacteriophage, proteases, as well as immune and non-immune complement. the a-layer appears to be uniquely adapted ...19912044685
new lectins and other putative adhesins in aeromonas hydrophila.the ability of strains of aeromonas hydrophila to bind 125i-labelled collagen types i and iv, fibronectin, laminin, lactoferrin, and immobilized mucins and orosomucoid on latex beads was found to be a property common to all the isolated strains. the binding was specific, was inhibited by homologous unlabelled glycoproteins, and was protease sensitive. the nature of the binding is discussed.19912044686
secretion and mechanism of action of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin.aeromonas hydrophila exports aerolysin as a protoxin which is activated by proteolysis after release. aerolysin binds to the eucaryotic cell receptor glycophorin and oligomerizes, forming holes in the membrane. important regions of the molecule have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis, and channel formation has been studied in planar lipid bilayers.19912044687
studies on aerolysin and a serine protease from aeromonas trota sp. nov.hybridization of 257 mesophilic aeromonads revealed that the aerolysin gene is present in virtually all strains irrespective of origin of isolation. a probe comprising the promotor region was specific for a species now defined as aeromonas trota sp. nov. finally, isolation of a serine protease that is concomitantly expressed with aerolysin is described.19912044688
application of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detection of the aerolysin gene in whole cell cultures of beta-hemolytic aeromonas hydrophila.oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction protocol to detect the aerolysin gene in aeromonas hydrophila. primers detected template dna in hemolytic, cytotoxic and enterotoxic strains of a. hydrophila and no amplification was detected with hemolytic a. sobria, non-hemolytic a. hydrophila and a. caviae strains.19912044689
review of aeromonas enterotoxins.this report reviews the work of other investigators regarding aeromonas toxins and describes work conducted in our laboratory relating to the biochemical characterization of a cytolytic factor with an antigenic moiety that cross-reacts with cholera toxin (referred to as ctc-cytolysin), as well as the purification and partial characterization of a non-ctc enterotoxin. these two toxins were produced by aeromonas hydrophila, isolate ssu, and are capable of causing fluid accumulation in animal model ...19912044690
re-examination of rattus norvegicus as an animal model for aeromonas-associated enteritis in man.we have developed an oral feeding model for aeromonas hydrophila enteritis using rattus norvegicus with clindamycin pretreatment. all animals in the clindamycin group developed a self-limited, loose stool by day four of feeding. intestinal examination revealed evidence of enteritis. moreover, antibiotic usage may be a predisposing risk factor to infection.19912044691
the phenomenon of toxin secretion by vibrios and aeromonads.vibrio and aeromonas species have a remarkable ability to secrete extracellular proteins, including toxins, haemagglutinins and other virulence factors. here we discuss the pathways and potential mechanisms of toxin secretion through the double-membraned envelopes which surround these organisms.19912044692
bacteriological and clinical aspects of aeromonas-associated diarrhea in the netherlands.aeromonas species were isolated from 0.61% of 34,311 fecal samples during a 5-year period. most strains belonged to dna hybridization groups (hg) 4 (a. caviae), 8 (a. sobria), and 1 (a. hydrophila). mannitol-negative a. schubertii (hg 12) and ornithine-positive a. veronii (hg 10) were not found. multivariate analysis of the clinical data showed that aeromonas-associated diarrhea cannot be attributed solely to cytotoxin production of the strains, but that it is also strongly associated with host ...19912044693
aeromonas caviae: ecologic adaptation in the intestinal tract of infants coupled to adherence and enterotoxin production as factors in enteropathogenicity.aeromonas caviae isolated from stools of diarrheic formula-fed infants and environmental sources produce acetic acid when grown in glucose broth, which is bactericidal (suicide phenomenon). a. caviae grows anaerobically in a minimal medium or under permissive conditions such as the intestinal tract of formula-fed infants. these isolates adhered to hep-2 cells and produced a cytotoxic and a cytotonic enterotoxin which underscore their enteropathogenicity.19912044694
spectrum of aeromonas and plesiomonas infections in patients with cancer and aids.the spectrum of infection with aeromonas and plesiomonas included gastroenteritis, bacteremia, biliary tract infection, perirectal infection, and disseminated disease. most patients (86%) with bacteremia were neutropenic (less than 500 pmn/mm3). colonization of stools and sputum also occurred. therapy with aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and the newer quinolones was effective in patients with aids and cancer.19912044695
the role of motile aeromonads in the fish disease, ulcerative disease syndrome (uds).ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) is an epizootic fish disease characterized by the presence of severe, open dermal ulcers on the head, midbody, and dorsal regions of the fish. aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria were recovered more often from uds fish than other bacteria from the genera vibrio, alteromonas and plesiomonas. representative isolates of a. hydrophila, a. sobria, v. anguillarum, v. vulnificus, alteromonas putrefaciens, and p. shigelloides taken from uds and healthy fish were assayed ...19912044697
nutritional requirements of aeromonads and their multiplication in drinking water.aeromonads can utilize a wide range of low molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, carbohydrates and long-chain fatty acids at a concentration of a few micrograms per liter. utilization of biopolymers such as gelatin, casein and amylose is slow at this concentration level. the concentration of substrates available for an a. hydrophila strain in drinking water was usually below 10 micrograms of c/l. the autochthonous bacteria utilized these substrates more rapidly than the aeromonads. ...19912044698
pore-forming cytolysins of gram-negative bacteria.a great deal is known about the structure, function and metabolic effects of enzymatic bacterial toxins such as the diphtheria, pertussis and cholera toxins. by comparison, our understanding of the pore-forming, cytolytic toxins, particularly those produced by gram-negative bacterial pathogens, is far less complete. the genetics and biochemistry of a large, newly discovered family of calcium-dependent, pore-forming cytotoxins (rtx toxins) produced by different genera of the enterobacteriaceae an ...19912046545
experimental evidence for toxin production by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria in a meat extract at low temperatures.the ability of enterotoxigenic strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria to produce exotoxins (enterotoxin and haemolysin) in a meat extract at low temperatures (5 and 12 degrees c) was investigated. all three strains incubated at 12 degrees c were enterotoxigenic and haemolytic in the meat extract after 5 days. at 5 degrees c, five of the six strains tested were able to produce these exotoxins after 8 days incubation while one strain was neither enterotoxigenic nor haemolytic after 5 ...19912049284
antibacterial activity of eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: iii--relationship within the polymorphic hemolysins.the antibacterial activity exhibited by 10 different hemolytic, genetic families was established by measuring the inhibition of spontaneous in vitro growth by cell-free coelomic fluid toward 2 bacteria which are pathogenic for the earthworm: bacillus megaterium (gram +) and aeromonas hydrophila (gram -). only two families (b and k) displayed potent inhibitory activities. this finding is consistent with the fact that the b family occurs most frequently in both natural as well as in industrial bre ...19912050244
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) analogues, the inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway.metabolic and antiproliferative effects of methylglyoxal bis(butylamidinohydrazone) (mgbb) and methylglyoxal bis(cyclopentylamidinohydrazone) (mgbcp), inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway, on escherichia coli, shigella sonnei, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio cholerae were investigated. mgbb at the concentration of 100 mumol/l depleted intracellular putrescine and spermidine concentrations of e. coli to 25 and 20% of the controls, respectively, while mgbcp depressed the ...19912055790
cellular fatty acid composition of plesiomonas shigelloides.the cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides and 5 strains of aeromonas hydrophila were studied. the cellular fatty acid compositions of all the plesiomonas strains were identical and characterized by the presence of hexadecanoate (16:0) (33%), hexadecenoate (16:1) (28%), octadecenoate (18:1) (9%), and octadecanoate (18:0) (6%). the cellular fatty acid composition of a. hydrophila was similar to that of the plesiomonas strains, except that the former contained a ...19912056045
aeromonas spp. and their association with human diarrheal disease.between january 1988 and december 1989 aeromonas species were isolated from 45 (1.8%) of 2,480 patients with acute gastroenteritis. no other bacterial enteric pathogens were found in any of these 45 patients. of the 45 aeromonas isolates, 35 strains (77.8%) were aeromonas hydrophila, 7 (15.5%) were aeromonas sobria, and 3 (6.7%) were aeromonas caviae. most of the patients were under 5 years of age. no bacterial enteric pathogens, including aeromonas species, were isolated from 512 age- and sex-m ...19912056050
exotoxin profiles of clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.eighty-six clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila were studied for their ability to produce four exotoxins: a haemolysin active against rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxin and enterotoxin detectable with vero cell cultures, and the cholera toxin-like factor detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. at least one exotoxin was produced by 80% of enteric and 96% of non-enteric isolates. the exotoxin profiles of non-enteric isolates were more restricted than those of enteric isolates, with haem ...19912056519
[liver abscess caused by aeromonas hydrophila].because of the rare incidence of liver abscess in childhood and of extremely rare observed aeromonas hydrophila as pathogen of such a disease we report on a 14 7/12 year old girl with a liver abscess. for the last 4 years she had to be enrolled in chronic hemodialysis. the treatment comprised opening of the abscess cavity and drainage, and antibiotic therapy with cefotiam. we were unable to isolate aeromonas hydrophila in the environment of the hemodialysis center. some aspects of clinical impor ...19912056675
further study on polyamine compositions in vibrionaceae.it has previously been reported that norspermidine, one of the unusual polyamines, is present in vibrio species. to expand this observation, the cellular polyamine compositions of additional species and strains in the family vibrionaceae (vibrio, photobacterium, listonella, and shewanella) as well as aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides, which have been proposed to be excluded from vibrionacea, were determined by using gas-liquid chromatography. some vibrio species previously reported ...19912059921
effect of lernaea cyprinacea (crustacea: copepoda) on stocked rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).prevalence, intensity and pathogenesis of lernaea cyprinacea (anchorworm) in stocked rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were monitored annually for 4 yr (1981 to 1984) in east canyon reservoir, utah (usa). anchorworms were first detected in midsummer each year and were most abundant in the fall. the mean parasite intensity was highest in october 1982 (19 anchorworms per fish); in other years, maximum density was 7 to 9. the dorsal and caudal areas of the fish were the most heavily p ...19912067042
haemolysin occurrence among aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae and aeromonas sobria strains isolated from different aquatic ecosystems.a total of 909 aeromonas spp. isolates from different aquatic ecosystems were tested for haemolysin production by both sheep and horse blood agar-plate assays and by rabbit erythrocytes in broth assay. a comparison of these different methods was undertaken in order to appreciate their capacity to evaluate the haemolytic activity of aeromonas spp. isolated from aquatic ecosystems. the haemolytic activity was associated particularly with a. hydrophila and a. sobria (about 95% of strains), whereas ...19912068383
aztreonam versus gentamicin for short-term prophylaxis in biliary and gastric surgery.short-term antibiotic prophylaxis was studied in 80 patients undergoing biliary or gastric surgery. the patients were randomized to receive 1 g of aztreonam or 80 mg of gentamicin intravenously 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 16 hours after surgery. of samples taken from the abdominal cavity for bacteriologic study, 53% were culture positive. wound infections developed in two (4.5%) of 44 patients receiving aztreonam and in seven (19.4%) of 36 patients treated with gentamicin. staphylococcus ...19912068469
comparison of two o-serogrouping systems for mesophilic aeromonas spp.two o-serogrouping systems for mesophilic aeromonas spp., national institute of health, tokyo, japan, and national institute of public health and environmental hygiene, bilthoven, the netherlands, containing 44 and 30 reference strains, respectively, were compared. nine strains in each system were considered identical. thirty-four unique strains were identified, and 22 strains of the two systems were in an a,b-a,c type of relationship to each corresponding o group.19911704382
the role of alpha 2-macroglobulin in furunculosis: a comparison of rainbow trout and brook trout.1. the molecular basis for the high survival rate of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with furunculosis was investigated. 2. alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2m), a major serum protease inhibitor, was partially purified from rainbow trout and brook trout, salvelinus fontinalis, sera; the latter species shows marked disease susceptibility. 3. it is shown that a 10-fold species-based difference in alpha 2m inhibitory activity exists against a furunculosis associated bacterial protease. 4. ...19911714367
evolution of the ferric enterobactin receptor in gram-negative bacteria.using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of iron-deficient and replete cell envelopes, 59fe-siderophore uptake studies, and western immunoblots and cytofluorimetric analyses with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), we surveyed a panel of gram-negative bacteria to identify outer membrane proteins that are structurally related to the escherichia coli k-12 ferric enterobactin receptor, fepa. antibodies within the panel identified fepa epitopes that are conserved among the majority ...19911717434
cellular but not humoral antibacterial activity of earthworms is inhibited by aroclor 1254.earthworms, eisenia fetida andrei and lumbricus terrestris, exposed to aroclor 1254, followed by infestation with aeromonas hydrophila, elicited two types of responses. first, in e. fetida, there was no change in the ld50 nor in the in vitro antibacterial growth capacity of cell-free coelomic fluid. thus, aroclor exerts no influence on antibacterial proteins nor on the chloragogue cells responsible for their release. second, in l. terrestris, both a high ld50 value and no antibacterial activity ...19911723380
site-directed mutagenesis at histidines of aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila: a lipid planar bilayer study.the role of histidine residues in the formation of channels by the cytolytic toxin aerolysin has been studied in planar lipid bilayers by substituting each of the six histidines in the native protein with asparagine. his341 or his186 mutants had the same channel-forming ability as native toxin, whereas the his332 and his121 mutants were less active. mutations at his132 and his107, which interfere with the oligomerization of the toxin, drastically reduce pore formation. these findings support the ...19911723472
enzymatic characterization of vibrionaceae strains isolated from environment and cold-blooded animals.enzymatic profiles were determined by the api zym system for 15 strains of non 01 vibrio cholerae, 4 strains of v. metschnikovii, 9 strains of v. anguillarum, 6 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides and 115 strains motile aeromonas sp. all of the tested strains produced alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase and did not possess alpha-fucosidase and alpha-mannosidase. some differences in enzymatic activities among the tested vibrionaceae strains were noted. the strains of non 01 v. cholerae, ...19911725094
methods for the identification of dna hybridization groups in the genus aeromonas.among the 269 substrates tested in assimilation tests we found some that may help in the identification of dna hybridization groups in the genus aeromonas. in addition, isoenzyme analysis and ribotyping seem to be accurate although not routine procedures that allow discrimination between genetic species.19911646115
[surveillance study on bacteriological etiology of 8371 children with diarrhea].the results of stool cultures from 8371 children of 0-13 years old with diarrhea during the years of january 1981 to december 1989 in shanghai area are reported. 2906 strains of enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated, with total detection rate of 34.72%. shigella were still the most common pathogens in 1981-1984, and campylobacter jejuni took second place, whereas from 1985 on campylobacter exceeded shigella as the first pathogenic bacteria of children's diarrhea. except in 1987 and 1988 shigel ...19911647837
development of fish peritoneal macrophages as a model for higher vertebrates in immunotoxicological studies. i. characterization of trout macrophage morphological, functional, and biochemical properties.the immune defense mechanisms of fish are not as well characterized as those of mammals but seem to be related and similarly competent. because of this, there is an increased interest in the immune responses of fish as models for higher vertebrates in immunotoxicological studies. prior to such studies, baseline criteria for specific components of the immune response needed to be established. for this study, we have examined trout macrophage morphology using light and scanning electron microscopy ...19911649778
[isolation of enteropathogenic microorganism from patients with infection of the digestive tract during 1976 to 1988 in tenri hospital].enteropathogenic microorganisms isolated from feces of 9,393 patients with diarrhea or enteritis in our hospital between 1976 and 1988 were analyzed. as the result of the examination of 5,443 outpatients, 1,811 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1,686 cases (31.0%). several species including salmonella spp., escherichia coli serotype, vibrio parahaemolyticus, were isolated before 1978, and the incidence of pathogens was low (14.8%). for the 10-year period since 1979, the incidence markedly ...19911655921
dgtp triphosphohydrolase, a unique enzyme confined to members of the family enterobacteriaceae.the enzyme dgtp triphosphohydrolase (dgtpase; ec 3.1.5.1) was assayed in partially purified extracts of several genera of bacteria, and it was found to be strictly confined to members of the family enterobacteriaceae. whereas 11 of 12 enteric bacteria had comparable activity for this enzyme, 8 of 8 nonenteric bacteria, including species in the very closely related genera vibrio and aeromonas, did not assay positively for this enzyme. when challenged with escherichia coli anti-dgtpase antiserum, ...19911657865
in vitro activity of temafloxacin against gram-negative bacteria: an overview.the in vitro activities of temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against gram-negative bacteria are compared. the 90% minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic90s) of temafloxacin for respiratory pathogens such as haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, neisseria meningitidis, bordetella pertussis, and legionella pneumophila are less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml. temafloxacin is also active against bacterial agents of sexually transmitted diseases, including neisseria gonorrhoeae ...19911662890
the specificity of bacterial siderophore receptors probed by bioassays.the ability to utilize siderophores of bacterial and fungal origin has been studied in wild-type and mutant strains of the enterobacterial genera salmonella, escherichia, shigella, moellerella, klebsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, pantoea, ewingella, tatumella, yersinia, and in the non-enterics aeromonas, pseudomonas and aureobacterium. although only a few representative strains were tested, the results show characteristic genus-specific differences in the utilization of hydroxamate and catecholate ...19911663779
the prevalence of enteric pathogens in diarrhoeic thoroughbred foals in britain and ireland.a survey of 77 normal and 326 diarrhoeic foals in britain and ireland from 1987 to 1989 revealed a significantly higher prevalence of group a rotaviruses and aeromonas hydrophila in diarrhoeic foals. the prevalence of cryptosporidia, potentially pathogenic escherichia coli, yersinia enterocolitica and clostridium perfringens was similar in normal or diarrhoeic foals. rotaviruses had a similar prevalence in all age groups of scouring foals up to three months of age, with an overall prevalence of ...19911663866
studies of bacterial, rotaviral and cryptosporidium etiology of acute diarrheal diseases in hospitalized children.657 hospitalized children with acute diarrheal disease were studied for bacterial and rotaviral etiology. cryptosporidium presence was followed in 123 children. intestinal pathogens were detected in 195 (29.6%) cases: 132 (20.3%) enterobacteria, 47 (7.1%) rotaviruses, 4 (3.2%) cryptosporidium sp. and 12 (1.8%) combined infections. among enterobacteria, e. coli was the most frequent (10% cases) with enteropathogenic (epec), enterotoxigenic (etec), enterohemorrhagic (ehec) and enteroinvasive (eiec ...19911666314
research on aeromonas and plesiomonas. papers presented at the 3rd international workshop on aeromonas and plesiomonas, helsingor, september 5-6, 1990. 19911675175
mannose-resistant adhesion of motile aeromonas to int407 cells and the differences among isolates from humans, food and water.aeromonas has been recognized as an important enteropathogen, but factors related to its virulence have not been clarified. for most enteric pathogens, attachment is a prerequisite for infection and for the effective delivery of toxins to the intestinal epithelial cells. we examined a total of 273 strains isolated from stool, food and environmental specimens by an assay for mannose-resistant adhesion to int407 cells in vitro. seventeen of the 102 faecal isolates were adhesive strains with more t ...19911679017
comparison of different media for the identification and quantification of aeromonas spp. in water.in order to assess the suitability of the starch glutamate ampicillin penicillin-10c agar for the isolation of aeromonas spp. from waters it was necessary to compare the properties of this medium with those of three others, starch ampicillin agar, ampicillin dextrin agar and m-aeromonas medium, and to monitor different kinds of waters. a selection of forty eight samples were taken from moderately polluted river water, highly polluted river water, polluted sea water (littoral) and treatment & dis ...19911679321
purification and characterization of aeromonas sobria pili, a possible colonization factor.pili of aeromonas sobria ae1 were purified and characterized. the molecular mass of the pilin was estimated to be about 23 kda by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the ae1 pili were electrophoretically and immunologically distinguishable from the w pili of a. hydrophila ae6, although the two pili were morphologically indistinguishable. the n-terminal amino acid sequences of the two pilins were identical in the first 10 residues. strain ae1 and its purified pili adhered t ...19911680105
effect of temperature on the immune system of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus)--ii. adaptation of anterior kidney phagocytes to 10 degrees c.1. anterior kidney phagocytes from channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) exposed to 10 and 24 degrees c from 1 day to 5 weeks were assayed for phagocytic ability and respiratory burst activity to aeromonas hydrophila and edwardsiella ictaluri. 2. the results of this study indicated that phagocytosis in channel catfish remained partially functional at low temperature without adaptation, although partial suppression was observed. 3. adaptation to low temperature did lead to an improvement in the r ...19911685385
aeromonas hydrophila wound infection. 19911686270
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