PMID(sorted descending)
a pore-forming toxin produced by aeromonas sobria activates ca2+ dependent cl- secretion.bacteria produce many types of hemolysin that induce diarrhea by mechanisms that are not completely understood. aeromonas sobria hemolysin (ash) is a major virulence factor produced by a. sobria, a human pathogen that causes diarrhea. since epithelial cells in the intestine are the primary targets of hemolysin, we investigated the effects of ash on ion transport in human colonic epithelial (caco-2) cells. ash increased short-circuit currents (isc) in a dose-dependent manner, and it also activate ...200515797812
spectroscopic studies on cobalt(ii)-substituted metallo-beta-lactamase imis from aeromonas veronii bv. an effort to probe the structure of a group bb metallo-beta-lactamase, co(ii)-substituted imis was prepared and characterized by electronic absorption, nmr, and epr spectroscopies. imis containing 1 equiv of co(ii) (co(ii)(1)-imis) was shown to be catalytically active. electronic absorption studies of co(ii)(1)-imis revealed the presence of two distinct features: (1) an intense sulfur to co(ii) ligand to metal charge transfer band and (2) less intense, co(ii) ligand field transitions that sug ...200515794654
characteristics of bacterial strains inhabiting the wood of coniferous trees.the presented studies embraced samples of wood chips from coniferous trees which contained layers of duramen, alburnum and bark. microbiological analysis involved qualitative and quantitative determination of bacterial flora inhabiting the studied wood material. the wood chips were found to contain primarily species belonging to the genera bacillus and pseudomonas. the presence of the potentially pathogenic species bacillus cereus 1, sphingomonas paucimobilis, aeromonas salmonicida and chryseomo ...200415790079
the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen hypogymnia tubulosa and its 3-hydroxyphysodic acid constituent.the antimicrobial activity and the mic values of the diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethanol extracts of the lichen hypogymnia tubulosa and its 3-hydroxyphysodic acid constituent have been investigated against some microorganisms. at least one of the extracts or 3-hydroxyphysodic acid showed antimicrobial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, listeria monocytogenes, proteus vulgaris, salmonella ...200515787241
antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp., vibrio spp. and plesiomonas shigelloides isolated in the philippines and thailand. 200515784318
characterization of a type iii secretion substrate specificity switch (t3s4) domain in yscp from yersinia enterocolitica.the length of the needle ending the yersinia ysc injectisome is determined by yscp, a protein acting as a molecular ruler. in addition, yscp is required for yop secretion. in the present paper, by a systematic deletion analysis, we localized accurately the region required for yop secretion between residues 405 and 500. as this c-terminal region of yscp has also been shown to control needle length it probably represents the substrate specificity switch of the machinery. by a bioinformatics analys ...200515773978
synthesis of some 1-[(n, n-disubstituted thiocar bamoylthio)acetyl]-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives and investigation of their antibacterial and antifungal activities.fourteen new 1-[(n, n-disubstituted thiocarbamoylthio)acetyl]-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives (7a-n) were synthesised by reacting 1-(chloroacetyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazolines (5a-g) and appropriate sodium salts of n, n-disubstituted dithiocarbamoic acids (6a, b). the structures of the synthesised compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, uv, ir, (1)h-nmr and fab(+)-ms spectral data. their antibacterial activities against proteus vulgaris (nrrl b-123), escherichia coli ...200515765490
diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain (1998-2001).this paper lists the pathological findings and causes of mortality of 93 sea turtles (88 caretta caretta, 3 chelonia mydas, and 2 dermochelys coriacea) stranded on the coasts of the canary islands between january 1998 and december 2001. of these, 25 (26.88%) had died of spontaneous diseases including different types of pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, septicemic processes and neoplasm. however, 65 turtles (69.89%) had died from lesions associated with human activities such as boat-strike injuri ...200515759796
[urinary tract infection caused by bacteria of the genus aeromonas]. 200515757594
a survey for phosphoglucose isomerase with lysyl aminopeptidase activity in vibrionaceae and non-vibrio pathogens.phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) with a novel lysyl aminopeptidase (lysap) activity was recently purified and characterized from vibrio vulnificus. we showed that it cleaves the amino-terminal lysyl residue from des-arg(10)-kallidin to produce des-arg(9)-bradykinin, suggesting that it plays a role in virulence. a survey was conducted to determine the presence of this potential virulence-enhancing enzyme among twenty-three halotolerant human and fish pathogens from eleven species within the vibrion ...200515752701
biological effect of vaccination can be assessed directly from diluted whole blood of rainbow trout using homologous blood phagocytes as immunosensors.a rapid and simple method is presented for determining antibody activity following vaccination, directly from diluted fish blood. the proposed method evaluates the effects of specific antibodies on ingestion by blood phagocytes, and may be used for measuring antibody levels following vaccination. the enhancing effect of trout igm on ingestion was measured by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (cl) emission of blood phagocytes. respiratory burst (rb) activity of blood phagocytes was induced with ...200515752656
evaluation of dna vaccination of spotted sand bass (paralabrax maculatofasciatus) with two major outer-membrane protein-encoding genes from aeromonas veronii.genes encoding two major outer membrane proteins (omps) of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas veronii, omp38 and omp48, were used to construct dna vaccines. the protective effect of such vaccines against motile aeromonad septicaemia was evaluated in spotted sand bass (paralabrax maculatofasciatus), an endemic species of the mexican northwest pacific coast and a potential resource for the aquaculture industry. weak protein expression, as determined by immunoblotting, was observed after transfection ...200515752654
adhesion and ingestion activities of fish phagocytes induced by bacterium aeromonas salmonicida can be distinguished and directly measured from highly diluted whole blood of fish.the phagocytes of fish play an important role in innate host defense against bacterial infection, and participate in various immunoregulatory processes. here, we investigated the effects of various opsonins in the ingestion and adhesion processes by examining respiratory burst (rb) activity in blood and head kidney (hk) fish phagocytes. rb activity was induced in rainbow trout phagocytes with the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida (strain mt004) in the presence of various opsonins [purified antibod ...200515752549
experimental infection of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and evaluation of cross protection induced by a furunculosis vaccine.turbot was shown to be sensitive to injection challenges by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes (asa). a systemic disease was induced and the bacterium was isolated from various internal organs. histopathological changes involved haemorrhages, necrosis and degeneration in skin and muscle, haemorrhages and necrosis in kidney, degeneration in the heart muscle, and fusion of the secondary gill lamellae. a polyvalent commercial salmon vaccine, containing a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as on ...200515752279
efficacy of furunculosis vaccines in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.): evaluation of immersion, oral and injection delivery.the commercial furunculosis vaccine aquavac furovac 5 and an autogenous vaccine, based on the challenge strain, induced immune protection in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), as shown in challenge tests 120 days post-immunization by injection (relative percentage of survival, rps = 72-99%). this protective effect lasted for at least 6 months post-immunization at appreciable levels (rps = 50-52%). neither the autogenous vaccine nor the commercial vaccine was able to induce significant levels of ...200515752277
aeromonas sobria, a causative agent of disease in farmed perch, perca fluviatilis l.significant numbers of perch, perca fluviatilis, raised on a pilot fish farm in switzerland presented focal skin lesions on the lateral sides and fin rot. mortality rates reached levels of up to 1% of the total fish on the farm per day. virtually pure cultures of aeromonas sobria were isolated from the liver, kidney, spleen and skin lesions of affected fish. aeromonas sobria isolated from the farmed perch had a haemolytic effect on sheep and trout erythrocytes, autoaggregated, was cytotoxic for ...200515752274
isolation and characterization of potentially human pathogenic, cytotoxin-producing aeromonas strains from retailed seafood in berlin, germany.the presence of potentially human pathogenic strains of aeromonas was investigated in 84 samples of seafood which were purchased from retail traders in berlin, germany in spring 2000. a total of 134 aeromonas strains were isolated on selective [gsp agar and aeromonas (ryan) agar] and unselective (standard count agar and enterohaemolysin agar) media from 27 (32.1%) of the samples and were classified as aeromonas hydrophila (67.9%), a. caviae (26.1%) and a. sobria (6.0%) by biotyping. thirteen (48 ...200515752267
evaluation of candidate probiotic strains for gilthead sea bream larvae (sparus aurata) using an in vivo approach.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six bacterial strains on gilthead sea bream larvae (sparus aurata).200515752217
family 19 chitinase from aeromonas sp. no.10s-24: role of chitin-binding domain in the enzymatic 19 chitinase from aeromonas sp. no.10s-24 (72.6 kda) is composed of two chitin-binding domains (chbds), two proline- and threonine-rich (pt-rich) linkers, and a catalytic domain. the purified enzyme was labile in a standard buffer condition and spontaneously degraded into a 46-kda fragment upon storage at 4 degrees c. the n-terminal sequence of the 46-kda fragment was found to correspond to the sequence of the c-terminal region of the second pt-rich linker, indicating that the 46-kda frag ...200515749838
antibiotic resistance pattern of motile aeromonads from farm raised fresh water fish.motile aeromonads isolated from the intestines of farm-raised freshwater fish such as catla catla, labeo rohita and ctenopharyngodon idella have been characterized to species level. morphological and physiological grouping revealed 61% aeromonas hydrophila, 30% aeromonas caviae, 7% aeromonas sobria and 2% which remained unidentified. hemolytic activity was detected mostly in a. hydrophila, while only half of the a. sobria and a. caviae showed this activity. antibiotic resistance patterns of the ...200515747443
cutaneous and pulmonary mycosis in green anacondas (euncectes murinus).two dead, captive green anacondas (eunectes murinus), including one male and one female, submitted for necropsy were in poor body condition, having multiple, scattered, dark red foci on the scales and mottled lungs. both snakes had severe mycotic dermatitis. in addition, the male snake had mycotic stomatitis, and the female snake had mycotic pneumonia. trichophyton sp., verticillium sp., and alternaria sp. were isolated from the dermal lesions. the pulmonary lesions were morphologically consiste ...200415732602
a vibrio vulnificus type iv pilin contributes to biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells, and virulence.vibrio vulnificus expresses a multitude of cell-associated and secreted factors that potentially contribute to pathogenicity, although the specific roles of most of these factors have been difficult to define. previously we have shown that a mutation in pild (originally designated vvpd), which encodes a type iv prepilin peptidase/n-methyltransferase, abolishes expression of surface pili, suggesting that they belong to the type iv class. in addition, a pild mutant exhibits reduced adherence to he ...200515731039
novel bromotyrosine derivatives that inhibit growth of the fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila, from a marine sponge hexadella sp.three new bromotyrosine derivatives, 11-n-methylmoloka'iamine (1), 11-n-cyano-11-n-methylmoloka'iamine (2), and kuchinoenamine (3), were isolated as antibacterial constituents from a marine sponge hexadella sp. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical methods. they exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against the fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila.200515730316
effect of over-expression of phasin gene from aeromonas hydrophila on biosynthesis of copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate.the gene phapah, encoding the protein phasin that is associated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) granule of aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4, was cloned and characterized. recombinant strains harboring additional copies of the phasin gene (phapah) and the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene (phacah) accumulated phbhhx copolyesters consisting of 21 mol% 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) as compared to 14 mol% 3hhx produced by wild type strain. the molecular weight of phbhhx produ ...200515727816
structural and serological characterization of the o-chain polysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida strains a449, 80204 and 80204-1.the o-chain polysaccharide (o-ps) of aeromonas salmonicida was studied by a combination of compositional, methylation, ce-esms and one- and two-dimensional nmr analyses. it was found to be a branched polymer of trisaccharide-repeating units composed of l-rhamnose (rha), d-glucose (glc), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-mannose (mannac) and o-acetyl group (oac) and having the following structure: ce-esms analysis of a. salmonicida cells from strains a449, 80204 and 80204-1 grown under different conditions c ...200515721342
laminarin enhanced immunological disorders of septicimeric albino rats infected with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of man that gives rise to both intestinal and extraintestinal infection. this study examined the effect of one the immunostimulants; fungal cell-wall beta-1, 3-d-glucan (laminarin) on the immune response to aeromonas hydrophila in albino rats. intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 1% laminarin (15 mg/100 g b.wt) stimulated humoral immunity. on the ninth day, after application of laminarin in vivo, a statistically higher value of tota ...200315719611
placental and intestinal alkaline phosphatases are receptors for aeromonas sobria hemolysin.the aeromonas sobria hemolysin causes diarrhea following infection by this enteropathogenic bacterium. we previously identified the putative receptor for a. sobria hemolysin as a p66 protein on intestine 407 cells (microb. pathog. 27 (1999) 215-221). here, we have partially purified and obtained a peptide mass fingerprint of p66 which revealed its identity with placental alkaline phosphatase (plap). recombinant plap expressed in 293t cells was also found to bind to hemolysin and the binding was ...200515715171
high-resolution crystal structure of the restriction-modification controller protein c.ahdi from aeromonas hydrophila.restriction-modification (r-m) systems serve to protect the host bacterium from invading bacteriophage. the multi-component system includes a methyltransferase, which recognizes and methylates a specific dna sequence, and an endonuclease which recognises the same sequence and cleaves within or close to this site. the endonuclease will only cleave dna that is unmethylated at the specific site, thus host dna is protected while non-host dna is cleaved. however, following dna replication, expression ...200515713456
effect of bovine lactoferrin on the mics of ampicillin/sulbactam (unasyn), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (augmentin), ticarcillin clavulanate (timentin), and piperacillin-tazobactam (zosyn), against clinical and environmental isolates of motile aeromonas. 200515710671
production of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine from chitin by aeromonas sp. gj-18 crude enzyme.a bacterium, gj-18, having strong chitinolytic activity was isolated from coastal soil. the isolated strain was identified as aeromonas sp. by morphological and biochemical properties along with 16s rrna gene sequence. the crude chitinolytic activity of culture supernatants was maximal on the 5th day of culture. below 45 degrees c, chitin was effectively hydrolyzed to n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine (glcnac) by aeromonas sp. gj-18 crude enzymes, but hydrolysis decreased markedly above 50 degrees c. ...200515692805
structural analysis of the laetiporus sulphureus hemolytic pore-forming lectin in complex with sugars.lsl is a lectin produced by the parasitic mushroom laetiporus sulphureus, which exhibits hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities. here, we report the crystal structure of lsl refined to 2.6-a resolution determined by the single isomorphous replacement method with the anomalous scatter (siras) signal of a platinum derivative. the structure reveals that lsl is hexameric, which was also shown by analytical ultracentrifugation. the monomeric protein (35 kda) consists of two distinct modules: an n- ...200515687495
the flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from escherichia coli.escherichia coli k-12 possesses two adjacent, divergent, promoterless flagellar genes, fhia-mbha, that are absent from salmonella enterica. through bioinformatics analysis, we found that these genes are remnants of an ancestral 44-gene cluster and are capable of encoding a novel flagellar system, flag-2. in enteroaggregative e. coli strain 042, there is a frameshift in lfgc that is likely to have inactivated the system in this strain. tiling path pcr studies showed that the flag-2 cluster is pre ...200515687208
selective preparation of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine and n,n'-diacetylchitobiose from chitin using a crude enzyme preparation from aeromonas sp.a bacterium, aeromonas sp. gj-18, having strong chitinolytic activity was isolated from coastal soil and used for crude enzyme preparations. this enzyme preparation contained n-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase and n,n'-diacetylchitobiohydrolase. n-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase was inactive above 50 degrees c, but n,n'-diacetylchitobiohydrolase was stable at this temperature. utilizing the temperature sensitivities of the chitin degradation enzymes in crude enzyme preparation, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac) ...200515685412
expressed sequence tags analysis of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus) liver, kidney and spleen tissues following vaccination against vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas investigate the response of atlantic halibut to vaccination and pathogen exposure, a cdna library was constructed from liver, kidney and spleen mrna collected following vaccination against vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas salmonicida. after sequencing 1114 clones 1072 (96.23%) readable sequences were obtained of which 106 sequences are the first reported from the fish. of these, 182 clones (16.98%) contained cell/organism defence genes including immunoglobulin light chain, mhc class i and ii, ...200515683917
aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus) with aroclor 1254. after contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg aroclor 1254 kg(-1) fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg(-1)) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by arctic animals. after four months, pcb concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, pcbs in kidneys of fed fish w ...200515683174
influence of temperature, salinity and ph on the growth of environmental aeromonas and vibrio species isolated from mai po and the inner deep bay nature reserve ramsar site of hong kong.four environmental bacterial isolates including aeromonas hydrophila mp-3, a. salmonicida mp-4, vibrio vulnificus mp-2 and v. cholerae mp-1 isolated from sediment and water of mai po nature reserve of hong kong were examined for their responses to temperature, ph and salinity under laboratory conditions in this study. v. cholerae mp-1 was found to resist vibriostatic agent o/129 at concentration of 10 microg/ml. in addition, bacterial growth under test conditions was measured and the results wer ...200515678554
antibiotic resistance in aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from a wound infection: a case report. 200515674175
molecular cloning and functional analysis of two polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases from two strains of aeromonas hydrophila spp.polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase genes (phac) were cloned from two aeromonas hydrophila strains named wq and 4ak5, respectively. both strains are able to produce phbhhx copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx). sequence analysis showed that there was only 2 bp difference between these two pha synthase genes, corresponding to two-amino acid difference at positions of 437 and 458 of the two synthases. pha productivity and its monomer content produced by a ...200515668013
antimicrobial susceptibility of uncommonly isolated non-enteric gram-negative bacilli.the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 3059 non-enteric gram-negative bacilli (ngb), other than pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter spp., consecutively collected as part of the sentry antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2003) were reviewed. during this period, a total of 221,084 bacterial isolates were collected from several clinical specimens worldwide, including 25,305 (11.5%) ngb. acinetobacter spp. and p. aeruginosa accounted for 82.7% of the ngb i ...200515664479
freshwater selenium-methylating bacterial thiopurine methyltransferases: diversity and molecular phylogeny.the diversity of bacterial thiopurine methyltransferases (btpmt) among five natural se-methylating freshwaters was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) screenings and sequencings. dna sequence analyses confirmed the cloned products' identity and revealed a broad diversity of freshwater tpmts. neighbour-joining (nj) phylogenetic analyses combining these sequences, all genbank entries closely related to these sequences and deduced tpmts obtained in this work from selected gamma-proteoba ...200515658983
a deterministic model for the dynamics of furunculosis in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.studies were undertaken to determine the parameters of transmission of aeromonas salmonicida in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and to develop a deterministic model of the dynamics of experimental furunculosis. for determination of disease transmission coefficient (beta), disease-related mortality rate (alpha) and natural mortality rate (gamma), fish in 70 tanks (approximately 42 fish tank(-1)) were each exposed to a single infectious donor fish, 7 tanks were randomly selected daily and ...200415648831
fatal aeromonas hydrophila infection of soft tissue after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for gastric variceal bleeding.aeromonas hydrophila, an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, can cause severe infections in immune-compromised patients. we present a 45-year-old cirrhotic man who suffered from hematemesis and received emergency endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (eis) for gastric variceal bleeding. twenty-one hours after eis, painful swelling of the bilateral lower extremities and fever occurred. severe soft-tissue infections with emergence of hemorrhagic bullae over the bilateral lower extremities followed. eve ...200415646300
occurrence, characterisation and detection of potential virulence determinants of emerging aquatic bacterial pathogens from the philippines and thailand.strains of aeromonas spp., 'non-cholera vibrios' (ncvs) and plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from aquatic environments, fish and human diarrhoeal cases in the philippines and thailand were characterised for potential virulence markers. thus, the production of cytotoxin, cell-associated and cell-free haemolysin and their capacity to adhere to human intestinal (henle 407) cells in vitro was investigated. in addition, the occurrence of tlh and tdh haemolysin genes and urease activity among v. para ...200415646053
first record of the rare species aeromonas culicicola from a drinking water supply.we describe the recovery of the rare species aeromonas culicicola, so far known only in mosquitoes in india, from a drinking water supply in spain. typing, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-pcr, revealed that the 27 new isolates belonged to 3 very closely related strains. these strains were genetically identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. spanish strains differed from the mosquito strains in three nucleotide positions. the ahcytoen gene was present in these water strains, ...200515640231
suppurative sequelae of symbiosis. 200515639303
performance comparison of the biosys optical assay and the violet red bile agar method for detecting coliforms in food products.coliform counts in a variety of foods, including dairy products (raw milk, pasteurized milk, yogurt, butter, and ice cream), meats (pork sausage, ground beef, and raw chicken), raw eggs, and chocolate, were performed by the rapid automated biosys optical assay and the conventional method with violet red bile agar (vrba). the standard deviation (sd) among five replicate counts for the optical assay was similar to or better than that obtained with vrba plates for all foods tested. the average sd f ...200415633683
studies on the occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in ticks: ixodes ricinus as a potential vector of pasteurella.a total of 372 ixodes ricinus ticks (101 females, 122 males, and 149 nymphs) collected by flagging in 6 mixed woodlands of eastern poland were examined by culture for the presence of internal gram-negative bacteria other than borrelia burgdorferi. adult ticks were examined in pools of 2 specimens each and nymphs were examined in pools of 3-5 specimens each. ticks were disinfected in 70 % ethanol and homogenized in 0.85% nacl. the diluted homogenate was inoculated onto 3 kinds of agar media: buff ...200415627343
aeromonas hydrophila clinical and environmental ecotypes as revealed by genetic diversity and virulence genes.aeromonas hydrophila strains recovered from clinical samples and ambient sources were phenotypically and genetically identified. in addition, the distribution of putative virulence factors was assayed. to determine the genetic diversity of these strains, random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (eric)-pcr markers were used. the discriminatory ability of the techniques, using simpson's index, was 0.96 for both methods. the most consistent ...200515621443
a pore-forming toxin produced by aeromonas sobria activates camp-dependent cl- secretory pathways to cause diarrhea.aeromonas sobria hemolysin (ash) is one of the major virulence factors produced by a. sobria, a human pathogen that causes diarrhea. we investigated the effects of ash on cl(-) transport in human colonic epithelial cells. ash increased short-circuit currents (isc) and (125)i efflux from caco-2 cells, indicating ash activate cl(-) secretion. additions of inhibitors of cyclic amp dependent cl(-) channels, glybenclamide and nppb suppressed the isc and (125)i efflux increases induced by ash. and ash ...200515621437
characterization of pras1-like plasmids from atypical north american psychrophilic aeromonas salmonicida.atypical psychrophilic aeromonas salmonicida isolates were obtained from farmed and wild fish in northeastern north america. these bacteria were isolated between 1992 and 2001 and carried tetracycline resistance (tc(r)) plasmids of approximately 58 kb. the nine isolates had plasmids which could be divided into four groups based on the specific tetracycline resistance (tet) gene carried [tet(a) or tet(b)], incompatibility of the plasmid [incu or other], whether the plasmid carried the is6100 sequ ...200515621420
[identification and characterization of a plasmid in strain aeronomas hydrophila ibrb-36 4cpa carrying genes for catabolism of chlorophenoxyacetic acids].results of studying plasmid pah36 in strain aeronomas hydrophila ibrb-36 4cpa are presented. plasmid pah36 possesses bamhi, psti, and hindiii restriction sites and is 5.4 kb in size. the plasmid was shown to contain genes for catabolism of chlor-substituted phenoxyacetic acids.200415612565
genetic diversity among a-proteins of atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida.the virulence array protein gene a (vapa) encoding the a-protein subunit of the surface layer of 23 typical and atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida from salmonids and marine fish species were sequenced, and the deduced a-protein sequences compared. the a-proteins of the typical a. salmonicida ssp. salmonicida strains were shown to be identical, while amino acid variability was revealed among a-proteins of atypical strains. the highest amino acid variability appears to be in a predicted sur ...200415609880
etiologies and manifestations of persistent diarrhea in adults with hiv-1 infection: a case-control study in lima, peru.objective we sought to determine the etiologies, manifestations, and risk factors for persistent (> or =7 days) diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected persons in peru.200415592997
a metallo-beta-lactamase enzyme in action: crystal structures of the monozinc carbapenemase cpha and its complex with strategy developed by bacteria to resist the action of beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases. cpha from aeromonas hydrophila is a member of a clinically important subclass of metallo-beta-lactamases that have only one zinc ion in their active site and for which no structure is available. the crystal structures of wild-type cpha and its n220g mutant show the structural features of the active site of this enzyme, which is modeled specifically for carbapenem hydro ...200515588826
effects of treated sewage effluent on immune function in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).in this study, the immune reactions of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined, after exposure to 10, 30 and 70% of tertiary-treated municipal sewage effluent for 27 days. exposures were conducted concurrently with and without an immune challenge using intraperitoneal injections of inactivated aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida. due to the time required to prepare and analyse samples, fish sampling was conducted over two consecutive days. there was no trout mortality for any of the expe ...200415588644
complete nucleotide sequence of the conjugative tetracycline resistance plasmid pfbaot6, a member of a group of incu plasmids with global ubiquity.this study presents the first complete sequence of an incu plasmid, pfbaot6. this plasmid was originally isolated from a strain of aeromonas caviae from hospital effluent (westmorland general hospital, kendal, united kingdom) in september 1997 (g. rhodes, g. huys, j. swings, p. mcgann, m. hiney, p. smith, and r. w. pickup, appl. environ. microbiol. 66:3883-3890, 2000) and belongs to a group of related plasmids with global ubiquity. pfbaot6 is 84,748 bp long and has 94 predicted coding sequences, ...200415574953
bulgecin a: a novel inhibitor of binuclear metallo-beta-lactamases.bulgecin a, a sulphonated n-acetyl-d-glucosamine unit linked to a 4-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethylproline ring by a beta-glycosidic linkage, is a novel type of inhibitor for binuclear metallo-beta-lactamases. using steady-state kinetic analysis with nitrocefin as the beta-lactam substrate, bulgecin a competitively inhibited the metallo-beta-lactamase bceii from bacillus cereus in its two-zinc form, but failed to inhibit when the enzyme was in the single-zinc form. the competitive inhibition was restore ...200515569001
an unusually high level of quinolone resistance associated with type ii topoisomerase mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions of aeromonas caviae isolated from diarrhoeal patients.we examined 158 strains belonging to different aeromonas species isolated from hospitalized acute diarrhoea cases for susceptibility to quinolones. compared to other species, a high percentage of the a. caviae strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. based on mic values, 6 a. caviae strains were selected and the nucleotide sequences for the quinolone-resistant-determining regions (qrdrs) of gyra, gyrb and parc genes were analysed. in resistant strains, double mutations (ser(83)-- ...200415567276
structural studies of the capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide o-antigen of aeromonas salmonicida strain 80204-1 produced under in vitro and in vivo growth conditions.aeromonas salmonicida is a pathogenic aquatic bacterium and the causal agent of furunculosis in salmon. in the course of this study, it was found that when grown in vitro on tryptic soy agar, a. salmonicida strain 80204-1 produced a capsular polysaccharide with the identical structure to that of the lipopolysaccharide o-chain polysaccharide. a combination of 1d and 2d nmr methods, including a series of 1d analogues of 3d experiments, together with capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ms (ce-es ...200415560791
probiotic and nutritional effects of microbial communities on axenic cultures of a rotifer strain brachionus plicatilis. 200415560221
effect of temperature and glucose concentration on the kinetics of production of butanoyl homoserine lactone by aeromonas hydrophila. 200415560217
the aeromonas hydrophila luxr homologue ahyr regulates the n-acyl homoserine lactone synthase, ahyi positively and negatively in a growth phase-dependent manner.aeromonas hydrophila is a pathogen of fish, amphibians and humans which produces n-acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing signal molecules and possesses homologues of the vibrio fischeri luxi and luxr quorum sensing genes termed ahyi and ahyr, respectively. the ahyi and ahyr genes of a. hydrophila comprise a divergon with a 62 bp intergenic region and control biofilm maturation and extracellular protease production. stationary phase culture supernatants from an ahyr but not an ahyi mutant contain ...200415556717
[microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems].drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of viable not culturable (vnc) bacteria. turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. the milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of tur ...200415554533
bass hepcidin synthesis, solution structure, antimicrobial activities and synergism, and in vivo hepatic response to bacterial infections.bass hepcidin was purified from the gill of hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops x morone saxatilis) based on antimicrobial activity against escherichia coli. this 21-amino acid peptide has 8 cysteines engaged in 4 disulfide bonds and is very similar to human hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide with iron regulatory properties. to gain insight into potential role(s) of bass hepcidin in innate immunity in fish, we synthesized the peptide, characterized its antimicrobial activities in vitro, determi ...200515546886
aeromonas molluscorum sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs.five aeromonas strains (848t(t), 93m, 431e, 849t and 869n), which were isolated from bivalve molluscs and were recognized previously by numerical taxonomy as members of an unknown aeromonas taxon, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. dna-dna hybridization experiments showed that dna of strain 848t(t) was <70 % similar (27-45 %) to that of the type/reference strains of the current aeromonas hybridization groups (hgs), but 93 % similar to that of strain 93m. the dna g+c content of the f ...200415545437
characterization of the o-4 phosphorylated and o-5 substituted kdo reducing end group and sequencing of the core oligosaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida ssp salmonicida lipopolysaccharide using tandem mass spectrometry.the molecular structure of the wild strain of the lipopolysaccharide core of aeromonas salmonicida, ssp salmonicida has been sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. the core oligosaccharide was determined to contain an o-4 phosphorylated and o-5 substituted kdo reducing group, and its structure is proposed as the follows: [structure: see text] after the core oligosaccharide of lps was released from the lipid a portion by conventional treatment with 1% acetic acid, we demonstrated the existence ...200415531806
oral immunization of carassius auratus with modified recombinant a-layer proteins entrapped in alginate beads.this study was focused on the utilization of a recombinant expression system to produce a unique modified subunit vaccine possessing a self-contained delivery system which could potentially improve the uptake and delivery of vaccine products as well their immunogenic potential. for this purpose the a-layer protein (at-r) associated with the fish pathogen atypical aeromonas salmonicida was cloned and modified by the genetic fusion of the protein transduction domain (mts) derived from kaposi fibro ...200415530693
aeromonas popoffii urinary tract infection.aeromonas popoffii is a recently described species isolated mainly from freshwater. an isolate of aeromonas popoffii was found to be responsible for a urinary tract infection in a 13-year-old boy suffering from spina bifida with enterocystoplasty. this is the first reported case of human infection attributed to this species.200415528763
complete type iii secretion system of a mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila strain.we have investigated the existence and genetic organization of a functional type iii secretion system (ttss) in a mesophilic aeromonas strain by initially using the aeromonas hydrophila strain ah-3. we report for the first time the complete ttss dna sequence of an aeromonas strain that comprises 35 genes organized in a similar disposition as that in pseudomonas aeruginosa. using several gene probes, we also determined the presence of a ttss in clinical or environmental strains of different aerom ...200415528564
microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.the microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees c for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and ph changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. in addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degree ...200415527918
important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in acipenser sp.we describe here the main pathological conditions of freshwater fish recently introduced for intensive rearing (open ponds and recirculating freshwater systems) in greece. sturgeon were susceptible to skeletal abnormalities of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis) of unknown aetiology. horizontal transmission of nodavirus from infected sea bass to sturgeon was detected for the first time. this caused serious pathology and clinical signs, such as lethargy and imbalance, leading to secondary infectio ...200415521324
protection against experimental aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp by oral immunisation with bacterial antigen entrapped liposomes.liposome-entrapped atypical aeromonas salmonicida antigen was prepared to investigate the potential protective efficacy for a. salmonicida infection. carp (cyprinus carpio) were immunised orally with liposome-entrapped a. salmonicida antigen. after immunisation, significantly higher antigen-specific antibodies were detected in serum, intestinal mucus and bile than non-immunised control group. furthermore, immunised carp were challenged by immersion with 1 x 10(6) cfu ml(-1) of a. salmonicida for ...200515519542
modulation of the immune response to an aeromonas hydrophila aroa live vaccine in rainbow trout: effect of culture media on the humoral immune response and complement consumption.the aeromonas hydrophila aroa is an attenuated strain that has been assessed as a live vaccine in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss. in this study the effects of different culture media used to grow the strain on its survival after in vitro exposure to rainbow trout serum, and on its immunogenicity in rainbow trout were compared. four culture media were tested: luria broth (lb), luria broth with 0.25% glucose, trypticase soy broth (tsb), and brain-heart infusion broth (bhib). bacteria grown in ...200515519541
experimental infection of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), by moritella viscosa, vaccination effort and vaccine-induced side-effects.moritella viscosa is the causative agent of winter ulcers in farmed salmonids and atlantic cod in countries around the north atlantic. the bacterium has also been isolated from various marine fish species. bacterial diseases have been a limiting factor in farming of turbot, but m. viscosa has not so far been isolated. in this study, turbot was shown to be sensitive to m. viscosa infection in experimental challenges. pathological changes in infected turbot were comparable with those previously de ...200415509259
detection of ticarcillin-clavulonic acid susceptibility with microdilution method in citrobacter, hafnia, proteus and some gram negative bacteria.the broth dilution method has been regarded as a good alternative test for detection of susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents. in this study, the antimicrobial activity of ticarcillin-clavulonic acid (tim) was investigated by the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) method on strains of aeromonas, citrobacter, hafnia, morganella, proteus, pseudomonas and gram negative bacteria isolated from raw milk. the isolate collection included 91 gram negative strains. fifty-one (56.04%) isolates were ...200415508433
aeromonas spp. and infectious diarrhea, hong kong. 200415503399
damaging effect of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida on intestinal enterocytes of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).in fish, bacterial pathogens can enter the host by one or more of three different routes: (a) skin, (b) gills and (c) gastrointestinal tract. bacteria can cross the gastrointestinal lining in three different ways. in undamaged tissue, bacteria can translocate by transcellular or paracellular routes. alternatively, bacteria can damage the intestinal lining with extracellular enzymes or toxins before entering. using an in vitro (ussing chamber) model, this paper describes intestinal cell damage in ...200415503156
resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).bacterial infections caused by members of the genus aeromonas, with a relatively high antibiotic resistance, are among the most common and troublesome diseases of fish raised in ponds with recirculation systems. in this study, carried out at an experimental aquaculture station in northern portugal, 51 strains identified as belonging to the genus aeromonas were isolated from 20 rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) skin and kidney samples, as well as from raceway water samples. macro- and microscop ...200415492935
ileal ulcers due to aeromonas hydrophilia infection. 200415492614
restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer of aeromonas spp.we analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region (isr) of aeromonas species. a total of 69 isolates belonging to 18 dna hybridization groups (hg; equivalent of genomic species) were used in this study. isrs were amplified by pcr and the products were digested with four restriction endonucleases: hin6i, csp6i, taqi, and tasi. the rflp patterns obtained after digesting by particular enzymes revealed isr polymorphism of isolates allocated to indiv ...200415490556
sequence and expression of c-type lectin receptors in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).the diverse receptors of the c-type lectin superfamily play key roles in innate immunity. in mammals, cell surface receptors with c-type lectin domains are involved in pathogen recognition and in immune response, and in some cases are exploited by pathogens to gain entry into cells. this study reports on sequence and expression analysis of three paralogous group ii c-type lectins from the teleost fish atlantic salmon (salmo salar). each of the receptors showed similarity to immune-relevant mamma ...200415490154
distribution of six virulence factors in aeromonas species isolated from us drinking water utilities: a pcr examine whether aeromonas bacteria isolated from municipally treated water had virulence factor genes.200415479425
an outbreak of hospital acquired diarrhea due to aeromonas sobria.six children admitted in a 18 bedded hematology-oncology unit, developed acute diarrhea in a four week period between march and april 2001. salmonella senftenberg was the additional pathogen in the stool sample of one patient who developed cola colored urine and pneumonia in the course of his illness. all the aeromonas strains had a similar biotype and antibiogram. the diarrhea subsided spontaneously in two children whilst three responded to antimicrobial therapy. one patient sought discharge an ...200415475633
generation and characterization of clostridium septicum alpha toxin mutants and their use in diagnosing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchors various proteins to the membrane of eukaryotic cells. paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is primarily due to the lack of gpi-anchored proteins on the surface of blood cells. to detect the gpi-deficient cells in pnh patients, we modified alpha toxin, a pore-forming toxin of the gram-positive bacterium clostridium septicum. we first showed that aerolysin, a homologous toxin from aeromonas hydrophila, bound ...200415474491
[evaluation of the phoenix system for identifying and determining the susceptibility of clinical isolates. comparative study with the microscan system].the phoenix system (bd diagnostic systems), a rapid id/ast system, was compared with the microscan walkaway-40 system for accuracy of identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results. the 327 bacterial isolates, were comprised of 191 gram-negative bacilli (187 enterobacteriaceae and 4 aeromonas spp.) and 136 gram-positive cocci (27 staphylococcus aureus, 53 coagulase-negative staphylococci, 45 enterococci and 11 beta haemolytic streptococci). the overall rate of agreement between the ...200415470511
metabolic engineering for the production of copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate by aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 was able to synthesize copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and about 15 mol-% 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) (phbhhx) when grown in long chain fatty acids such as dodecanoate regardless of growth conditions. to regulate the unit fraction in phbhhx, phba and phbb genes encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-coa reductase in ralstonia eutropha, were introduced into a. hydrophila 4ak4. when gluconate was used as cosubstrate of dodecanoate, the recombinant pro ...200415468215
biosynthesis and compositional regulation of poly[(3-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(3-hydroxyhexanoate)] in recombinant ralstonia eutropha expressing mutated polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes.a new strategy for bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) production by recombinant ralstonia eutropha phb(-)4 harboring mutated pha synthase genes (phac(ac)) from aeromona caviae was investigated. the strain harboring wild-type phac(ac) gene produced a pha copolymer consisting of (r)-3-hydroxybutyrate and (r)-3-hydroxyhexanoate [p(3hb-co-3hhx)] with 3.5 mol-% of 3hhx fraction from soybean oil. when the mutants of phac(ac) gene were applied to this production system, 3hhx fraction in copolymers wa ...200415468213
pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila serogroup o:14 and o:81 strains with an s layer.five autoagglutinating aeromonas hydrophila isolates recovered from eels and humans were assigned to serogroups o:14 and o:81 of the sakazaki and shimada (national institutes of health) scheme. they had the following properties in common: positive precipitation after boiling, moderate surface hydrophobicity (salt-aggregation-test value around 1.2), pathogenicity for fish and mice (50% lethal dose, 10(4.61) to 10(7.11)), lipopolysaccharides that contained o-polysaccharide chains of homogeneous ch ...200415466530
molecular cloning of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis operon from aeromonas hydrophila and its expression in escherichia coli.the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis operon was cloned from aeromonas hydrophila cgmcc 0911. heterogeneous expression of the cloned polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis operon in escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) consisting of 13.9 mol % 3-hydroxyhexanoate up to 29.2 wt % of cell dry weight when grown in lauric acid. the cell dry weight of recombinant e. coli harboring the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis operon was improved to 1.7 g l (-1), which w ...200415458314
engineered aeromonas hydrophila for enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) with alterable monomers composition.aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produces poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) containing 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and about 15 mol% 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) from dodecanoate. to study the factors affecting the monomer composition and phbhhx content, genes encoding phasin (phap), pha synthase (phac) and (r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase (phaj) from aeromonas punctata (formerly named aeromonas caviae) were introduced individually or jointly into a. hydrophila 4ak4. the phac gene increas ...200415451119
phylogenetic analysis of the genus aeromonas based on two housekeeping genes.the phylogenetic relationships of all known species of the genus aeromonas, and especially aeromonas bestiarum and aeromonas salmonicida, were investigated on 70 strains using the rpod sequence, which encodes the sigma70 factor. this analysis was complemented with the sequence of gyrb, which has already proven useful for determining the phylogenetic relationships in the genus. nucleotide sequences of rpod and gyrb showed that both genes had similar substitution rates (< 2 %) and a similar number ...200415388703
phenotypic and genotypic identification of aeromonas spp. isolated from a chlorinated intermittent water distribution system in lebanon.aeromonas spp. were detected in samples collected from both untreated groundwater and treated drinking water in lebanon. aeromonas spp. levels ranged between 2 and 1,100 colonies per 100 ml in the intake underground well and between 3 and 43 colonies per 100 ml in samples from the distribution system. samples positive for aeromonas spp. from the network had a free chlorine level ranging between 0 and 0.4 mg l(-1). multiple antibiotic-resistance was common among the isolated aeromonads; all were ...200415387135
detection, integration and persistence of aeromonads in water distribution pipe biofilms.the occurrence of aeromonas spp. within biofilms formed on stainless steel (ss), unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (upvc) and glass (gl) substrata was investigated in modified robbins devices (mrd) in potable (mrd-p) and recycled (mrd-r) water systems, a biofilm reactor (br) and a laboratory-scale pipe loop (pl) receiving simulated recycled wastewater. no aeromonads were isolated from the mrd-p whereas 3-10% of ss and upvc coupons (mean 3.85 cfu cm(-2) and 12.8 cfu cm(-2), respectively) were aero ...200415387132
rapid screening of highly efficient vaccine candidates by immunoproteomics.diseases caused by microorganisms can be controlled by vaccines, which require neutralizing antigens. therefore, it is very important to identify highly efficient immunogens for immune prevention. by combining immunoproteomics and bacterial challenge after immunization, we developed a rapid method for screening protected antigens of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture. our approach may be divided into three consecutive steps. first, dominant immunogens of outer membrane proteins are screened by i ...200415378699
crystal structure of a dodecameric tetrahedral-shaped aminopeptidase.protein turnover is an essential process in living cells. the degradation of cytosolic polypeptides is mainly carried out by the proteasome, resulting in 7-9-amino acid long peptides. further degradation is usually carried out by energy-independent proteases like the tricorn protease from thermoplasma acidophilum. recently, a novel tetrahedral-shaped dodecameric 480-kda aminopeptidase complex (tet) has been described in haloarcula marismortui that differs from the known ring- or barrel-shaped se ...200415375159
comparison of the microbiologic quality of point-of-use (pou)-treated water and tap water.activated carbon filtration devices placed on household faucets are used to improve the taste and odour of tap water. however, there has been a concern that the growth of bacteria capable of causing opportunistic infections in these devices might present a public health risk. the water quality from point-of-use (pou) water activated carbon treatment devices and that of tap water with pou-connections and tap water without pou devices were compared. heterotrophic plate count (hpc) bacteria, total ...200415369990
effect of growth conditions on extracellular products (ecps) of aeromonas hydrophila.owing to the significant role in gastrointestinal illness of a. hydrophila, frequently detected in various raw and ready-to eat foods, its pathogenetic mechanisms are particularly studied. in this paper we report the results obtained studying in vitro the effect of o2 tension and inoculum age on the extra cellular products (ecps) of seven strains food-borne isolated and cultured at 37 degrees. the considered factors influenced markedly bacterial growth as well as ecps production and the more not ...200415366510
function of the signal peptide and n- and c-terminal propeptides in the leucine aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica.the leucine aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (also known as vibrio proteolyticus) (aap) is a metalloenzyme with broad substrate specificity. the open reading frame (orf) for aap encodes a 54 kda enzyme, however, the extracellular enzyme has a molecular weight of 43 kda. this form of aap is further processed to a mature, thermostable 32 kda form but the exact nature of this process is unknown. over-expression of different forms of aap in escherichia coli (with aap's native leader sequen ...200415358350
digestive pathology of sea turtles stranded in the canary islands between 1993 and 2001.digestive lesions were observed in 84 of 136 sea turtles (128 caretta caretta, four chelonia mydas and four dermochelys coriacea) stranded in the canary islands between january 1993 and december 2001. in the oral cavity ulcerative and necropurulent stomatitis were the most frequently observed lesions, and in the oesophagus ulcerative and fibrinous oesophagitis, and traumatic oesophageal perforation were most frequently observed; all these lesions were mainly associated with the ingestion of fish ...200415357377
[evaluation of xylose galactosidase (xg) culture medium for the isolation of enteropathogens].the chromogenic medium, xg, was evaluated and compared to conventional media for the isolation of salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia enterocolitica and aeromonas spp.200415355767
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