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isolation of medically significant vibrio species from riverine sources in south east queensland.vibrio and vibrio-like bacteria were isolated from water, sediments, plants and faeces from eight riverine sites in south east queensland, australia, using filtrations, enrichments and selective growth on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (tcbs) and simidu agars. isolates (402 in toto) were classified by numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics and comparison with fifteen reference cultures. of the isolates 41 (10.2%) were identified as vibrio cholerae, 33 (8.2%) as v. fluvialis an ...19892607994
[are aeromonas species a cause of diarrheal diseases in yugoslavia?].isolation and identification of aeromonas spp. have been performed in 1,610 stools in the period from january 1987 to april 1988. of 1300 stool specimens taken from the patients with diarrheal syndrome (540 stools of children and 760 stools of adults) aeromonas spp. were isolated only in 4 patients (0.30%, p less than 0.001). positive stools were found in 3 adult patients and one child. in 310 examined stools of healthy adult persons aeromonas spp. were not isolated. a significantly higher incid ...19892609506
purification of igg from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.immunoglobulin g (igg) from bovine serum raised against aeromonas salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (asp) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (caas). purity of igg samples prepared by both methods were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. results suggest that igg prepared by asp is better than that obtained by caas method in terms of the yield of the igg monomers and t ...19892612135
incidence of aeromonads in samples from an abattoir processing lambs.two hundred and thirty three samples of lamb carcasses, livers, kidneys and faeces, collected at a local abattoir, were examined to determine the incidence of motile aeromonas spp. wash water from the abattoir was also tested. direct plating on starch ampicillin agar and enrichment in alkaline peptone water were used. the incidence of aeromonads was low. they were detected only after enrichment in 5/47 faecal samples and 11/50 carcass samples. the 41 strains of aeromonas isolated were identified ...19892613594
[studies on bacterial agents in acute diarrheal disease (1985-1987)].a three-year epidemiological study (from january 1985 to december 1987) was carried out on sporadic cases of acute diarrhea. a total of 2889 fecal specimens in cary-blair transport medium were examined for bacterial enteric pathogens, and 832 strains of fifteen species were isolated from 739 specimens, 73 patients having two or more pathogens. c. jejuni shared 51.7%, salmonella spp. 18.3%, v. parahaemolyticus 10.3%, and aeromonas spp. 15.7% of total fecal specimens. isolation rates of c. jejuni ...19892614097
aeromonas endocarditis in a patient with chronic hepatitis-b infection.aeromonas, a genus of gram-negative bacteria normally found in water and soil, is well established as a pathogen in the animal kingdom. often considered as a pathogen of low virulence, its role in human infections has recently been recognised. aeromonas infections in humans range from cellulitis to septicaemia. endocarditis is rare. we describe here a patient with a chronic liver disease with aeromonas bacteremia and endocarditis.19892617304
[long-term cryopreservation of microbial strains relevant to food hygiene].experiments on long-time cryopreservation at -20 degrees c were conducted, using 42 microbial strains of relevance to food hygiene. blood slant agar was coated with 10% glycerol solution, so that all strains were in re-culturing conditions, following 12 months of storage. re-culturing of 18 in 20 of the microbial genera used in the experiment was possible after 24 months of storage, if strains had been kept only in 10% glycerol solution. the method proved suitable particularly for strain keeping ...19892619482
bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea in children in kuwait.bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea were studied prospectively for one year in 343 hospitalised young children in kuwait. in 288 (84%) patients, one or more pathogens were identified compared with 12 of 86 (13.9%) children admitted with diseases other than diarrhoea (p less than 0.01). forty-four (12.9%) of the patients were infected with two or more pathogens. viral agents detected in the stools were rotaviruses (40.2%), enteric adenoviruses (1.7%), and enteroviruses (1.5%). enterobac ...19892632640
aeromonas spp. in foods: a significant cause of food poisoning?from a total of 563 samples of various foodstuffs purchased from retail outlets in the reading area 287 were found to contain mesophilic aeromonas spp. the types of sample which were most frequently contaminated were poultry (79.3%) and offal (84.3%). of three media compared for their efficiency in recovering aeromonas spp. after enrichment in alkaline peptone water, difco aeromonas was the most efficient. cytotoxin was produced by approximately 50% of the a. hydrophila and a. sobria strains but ...19892641273
[significance of the occurrence of aeromonas of various biotypes in the third world].in investigations carried out in the refugee camps of the polisario (south algeria), in the neighbourhood of the inhabitants of the waste disposal sites of cairo and in the ayoun el atrous and nema (mauritania) regions also in the bida and minna hospitals. aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas spec. were repeatedly found in the investigated material. therefore, it was of particular interest for us to investigate this type of organism.19892641444
[water studies of inhabitants of refuse disposal sites in cairo. 1].in two waste disposal sites in cairo, drinking water samples from springs, drinking vessels and kitchens were investigated. total germ count lay seldom below one thousand and ten million pro ml. apart from various faecal germs, aeromonas hydrophila was also found. the high occurrence of diarrhoeal diseases among the inhabitants of the waste disposal sites can be traced with certainty to the extremely bad drinking water quality.19892641445
toxin production by strains of aeromonas hydrophila grown in laboratory media and prawn purée.toxin production by four strains of aeromonas hydrophila grown at 30 and 37 degrees c in two laboratory media and prawn purée was studied. three different cell lines were used to test for cytotoxic activity, haemolytic activity was tested against rabbit and guinea pig erythrocytes, proteolytic activity was assayed with azo-casein and enterotoxic activity using the suckling mouse assay. results showed reduced cytotoxic and haemolytic activities in prawn purée compared with the two media, but in m ...19892641490
effect of temperature on hemolysin production in aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold environments.the effect of growth temperature on the hemolysin production in 97 aeromonas isolates was studied. only 9% of the isolates obtained from low-temperature sources such as refrigerated foods, drinking water and trout aquaculture were able to produce high hemolysin titers (titer greater than 128) at 37 degrees c compared with 65% of the isolates from warm sources such as human clinical cases and warm water aquaculture (p less than 0.001). in contrast, 61% of the low-temperature isolates were produci ...19892641493
enterotoxigenicity and drug sensitivity of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from well water in sweden: a case study.a large number of aeromonas spp. have been found in drinking water from a drilled well in sweden. isolates identified as a. hydrophila were tested for production of enterotoxin, hemolysin, enzymes and for resistant patterns to different antibiotics. the enterotoxin-producing a. hydrophila could be responsible for the long-term diarrhoeal case of a 1 1/2 year old child who consumed the contaminated water.19892641888
automated biochemical identification of bacterial fish pathogens using the abbott quantum ii.the quantum ii, originally designed by abbott diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. the instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. a sample cartridge containing 20 inoculated biochemical chambers is inserted in the path of the analyzing beam. reactions are converted into a 7-digit octal biocode, relayed via a sensor to the memory module, and compared to biocod ...19892644450
aeromonas as a human pathogen.although the first aeromonas strain was described by zimmermann as early as in 1890, it took 60 years until caselitz established human pathogenicity of strains then called "vibrio jamaicensis". since then, and especially in the last 10 years, there have been increasing numbers of reports on different infections caused by members of the genus aeromonas. these include sepsis; meningitis; cellulitis; necrotizing fasciitis; ecthyma gangrenosum; pneumonia; peritonitis; conjunctivitis; corneal ulcer; ...19892649316
haemagglutinating activity of aeromonas spp. from different sources; attempted use as a typing system.the haemagglutinating ability of 141 isolates of aeromonas spp. for human, horse and guinea-pig erythrocytes was examined. although the majority of isolates (136/141) agglutinated human group o erythrocytes, all the eight possible patterns of agglutination were observed. haemagglutination of human group o erythrocytes, but not horse or guinea-pig, was associated with the ability to agglutinate yeast cells (saccharomyces) and with aggregation in a low concentration of ammonium sulphate. haemagglu ...19892649385
bacterial growth and toxin production in ileostomy effluents.escherichia coli (2), vibrio cholerae (2) and aeromonas sobria (1) strains were examined for their ability to grow and produce toxins in samples of ileostomy fluid. three categories of response were observed: no detectable growth, growth without detectable toxin, and growth with detectable toxin. clear differences were apparent between samples of ileostomy fluid obtained from different individuals and between samples obtained from the same individual at different times. the patterns of response ...19892649680
characterization of aeromonas salmonicida mutants with low-level resistance to multiple antibiotics.aeromonas salmonicida mutants selected for low-level resistance to small-molecular-mass antibiotics occur at frequencies that suggest point mutations and exhibit pleiotropic effects such as a multiple low-level antibiotic resistance, changes in outer membrane protein profiles, and loss of major exoprotease activity. multiple low-level resistance appeared as the result of decreased outer membrane permeability associated with a change from a 38.5- to a 37-kilodalton (kda) outer membrane protein. t ...19892653212
enteroaggregative escherichia coli associated with persistent diarrhea in a cohort of rural children in india.a cohort of 452 rural children was followed longitudinally for 13 mo to ascertain the role of hep-2 cell adherent escherichia coli and other pathogens in causing acute (less than or equal to 14 d) and persistent (greater than 14 d) diarrhea. aeromonas, campylobacter jejuni, e. coli manifesting localized adherence to hep-2 cells and enterotoxigenic e. coli were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. e. coli strains that exhibit aggregative adherence, so-called enteroaggregative e. coli, a ...19892656875
[microbiologic study of low quality raw material obtained from pacific salmon].the authors examined the microflora in the regions occupied with food fish and food manufacture from pacific salmon in order to establish its interrelations with other characteristics of the quality. with this purpose in view sea and river water in the places of catching, freshly catched salmon and salted food were studied for the presence of putrefactive bacteria, potentially pathogenic for hydrobionts and man. the data obtained have demonstrated that the main causes of the deterioration of the ...19892660405
bacterial action of fertilization envelope extract from eggs of the fish cyprinus carpio and plecoglossus altivelis.the vitelline envelope (ve) and fertilization envelope (fe) in eggs of the fish cyprinus carpio and plecoglossus altivelis were purified by homogenization of eggs or embryos in 5 mm tris-hcl buffer, ph 7.0, containing 2 mm ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (edta), except for processing of ves in plecoglossus eggs, and by repeated washing wih the same buffer. to extract the outermost layer material, the purified ves and fes were processed overnight at 4 degrees c in 5 mm tris-hcl buf ...19892661718
oral cholera vaccines containing b-subunit-killed whole cells and killed whole cells only. ii. field evaluation of cross-protection against other members of the vibrionaceae family.because of demonstrable cross-reactivity of cellular antigens contained in b subunit-killed whole-cell (bs-wc) and killed whole-cell-only (wc) oral cholera vaccines with antigens of various non-cholera species of the family vibrionaceae (ncv), the protection conferred by the vaccines against diarrhoea associated with ncv was evaluated during a randomized, double-blind field trial in bangladesh. children aged 2-15 years and women aged greater than 15 years (62,285 in number) received three doses ...19892665350
[evaluation of a new semi-automatic method of identifying enterobacteriaceae, m.i.s.-enterobacteriaceae].m.i.s.-enterobacteriaceae is a new kit for identifying enterobacteriaceae using a microplate consisting of 21 biochemical characters with automated reading and interpretation. the validity of this method was studied by the identification of 350 strains of enterobacteria belonging to 44 species and comparison with the classical method of identification in test-tubes. results showed a diagnosis accuracy of 96 p. cent at the species level and 97.7 p. cent at the genus level. diagnosis accuracy reac ...19892665580
rapid method to detect shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin i based on binding to globotriosyl ceramide (gb3), their natural receptor.shiga toxin and the closely related shiga-like toxins produced by escherichia coli represent a group of very similar cytotoxins that may play an important role in diarrheal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome. these toxins have the same biologic activities and according to recent studies also share the same binding receptor, globotriosyl ceramide (gb3). they are currently detected, on the basis of their ability to damage several cell lines, by using expensive and tedious assays that require fa ...19892666433
etiology of childhood diarrhea in korea.to assess the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in korea, 231 children with diarrhea admitted to and 104 children without diarrhea seen at the well-baby clinic or the outpatient department of hanyang university hospital in seoul, korea, were evaluated during a 14-month period. stools were cultured for bacterial pathogens, including enterotoxigenic (heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing) and enteroadherent organisms. only those stools obtained from pati ...19892666437
aeromonas hydrophila infection associated with the use of medicinal leeches.the use of medicinal leeches (hiruda medicinalis) is becoming more common after plastic surgery to control venous congestion of skin grafts. we describe a patient with aeromonas hydrophila infection whose graft was treated with medicinal leeches. the infection required systemic antibiotic therapy. a. hydrophila is the predominant bacterial flora in the gut of the leech, where it plays an essential role for the animal in the digestion of blood. the potential for a. hydrophila wound infection, and ...19892666448
[antibacterial and bactericidal activities of japanese green tea].we found that extracts of japanese green tea leaves inhibited the growth of various bacteria causing diarrheal diseases. all tea samples tested showed antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, vibrio cholerae o1, v. cholerae non o1. v. parahaemolyticus, v. mimicus, campylobacter jejuni and plesiomonas shigelloides. none of the tea samples had any effect on the growth of v. fluvialis, aeromonas sobria, a. hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella enteritidis, ente ...19892677434
bacterial diseases of marine fish.the principal bacterial diseases found among wild and cultured marine fish are reviewed. the bacterial agents discussed include the gram-negative pathogens in the vibrio, aeromonas, pasteurella and edwardsiella genera, renibacterium salmoninarum and the myxobacteria, streptococci, mycobacteria, nocardias and anaerobic organisms which have been associated with fish diseases. methods for the isolation and identification of these organisms are described.19892678720
isolation of aeromonas spp. from water by using anaerobic incubation.a membrane filtration method incorporating a combination of anaerobic and aerobic incubation has been developed for the enumeration of aeromonas spp. in drinking water. the use of anaerobic incubation improved the detection of aeromonas spp. by reducing the growth of nonaeromonads. the confirmation rate of presumptive aeromonas spp. identified on the initial isolation agar exceeded 92%.19892679380
microbiological and chemical analysis of drinking water in southern india (with special consideration of aeromonas species).analyses of drinking water taken from central and individual water supplies in southern india (idukki/kerala) showed bacterial counts of 10(3)-10(6). e. coli were found in 11% and 28% of the samples. aeromonads were identified more frequently than e. coli at 44% in central and 38% in individual water supplies. due to this high rate of contamination, aeromonas spp. must be considered as a possible cause of diarrhoea and other infections in this area.19892684763
the quantitative relationship of lethality between extracellular protease and extracellular haemolysin of aeromonas salmonicida in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).an additive relationship of lethality between purified protease and haemolysin of the extracellular products (ecp) of aeromonas salmonicida was demonstrated by i.p. injection in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). the lethal toxicity of the combinations of protease and haemolysin follow a linear regression line y = -54.54x + 2400. the ld50 of protease and haemolysin when injected separately was 2400 ng/g fish and 44 ng protein/g fish, respectively.19892689276
[aeromonas-associated diarrhea]. 19892692836
[studies on motile-aeromonas infection: incidence of motile-aeromonas in river mud, river water and fresh-water fish].during the period from october 1982 to july 1984, a total of 1,157 specimens that consisted of 132 river and lake water, 514 river and lake muds, and 511 fresh-water fish caught in both tama river and sagami river were examined the presence of the organisms. of them, 132 (100%) river and lake waters, 304 (59.1%) river and lake muds, and 462 (90.4%) intestinal contents of fresh-water fish were found to have harbor a mean concentration of 1.3 x 10(3)/l, 1.6 x 10(6)/g, and 1.1 x 10(6)/g of motile-a ...19892693540
comparison of three assays to detect enterotoxigenicity of aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhoea in vellore, south india.fifty strains of aeromonas spp, isolated from patients with diarrhoea, were tested by three different assays to detect their enterotoxigenicity. culture filtrates of the isolates were tested for their ability to produce haemolysin and to produce cytopathic changes in vero cells and for their effects in the suckling mouse assay. the data indicated that biotypes alone are not adequate indicators of pathogenicity of different groups of aeromonas isolated from patients with diarrhoea. no significant ...19892698900
[application of the moore swab method to the isolation of aeromonas spp. from residual waters].the moore swab technique was applied in waste water from three different areas of the "pedro kouri" institute of tropical medicine, with the view to isolate organisms of the genus aeromonas. swabs were placed once a week, in the wards of medicine, screening, and diagnostic laboratory. of 13 swabs placed in the medicine ward, 8 were positive. of 15 swabs placed in diagnostic laboratory, 8 were positive, and of 18 placed in the screening ward, 12 were positive. of a total 46 swabs, 28 disclosed or ...19892701185
stimulation of specific aeromonas antibody secretion in rat intestine by gamma-aminobutyric acid.this study was undertaken to assess a possible role for gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) in the regulation of intestinal secretion of iga and igg antibodies. rats were immunized with culture supernatant of aeromonas hydrophila isolate ssu. this culture supernatant contains a number of toxins that may be considered virulence factors. after 24 days of immunization, rats were anesthetized and a 10-cm intestinal segment was intubated and ligated at both ends in situ. the intestinal loop was perfused w ...19892702891
associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates ostreopsis lenticularis and gambierdiscus toxicus.the growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates ostreopsis lenticularis and gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest puerto rico have been examined. clonal cultures of o. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of g. toxicus. all five ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. the degree of toxicity among poisonous clones ...19892705766
extracellular secretion of cloned aerolysin and phospholipase by aeromonas salmonicida.the promoterless structural genes for aerolysin and the extracellular phospholipase of aeromonas hydrophila were inserted into a multi-host-range expression vector and transferred into aeromonas salmonicida and escherichia coli. in both species, gene expression was under the control of the inducible tac promoter of the vector. neither the phospholipase nor the aerolysin was released by intact e. coli. instead, both proteins accumulated in the periplasm, leading to reduced growth and eventual cel ...19892708312
characterization and significance of aeromonas spp. isolated from diarrhoeic stools in nigeria.during a 12-month study period (january-december 1986), 12 aeromonas strains (eight a. hydrophila and four a. sobria) were isolated from the 400 diarrhoeic and 200 non-diarrhoeic stools examined. isolates were characterized for frequency of phenotypic properties associated with virulence using the suckling mouse test for enterotoxin assay; haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes for haemolysin production, and haemagglutination of human group a cells (ha) for presence of colonization factor antigens (c ...19892709482
[acute gastroenteritis due to vibrio parahaemolyticus in spain. presentation of 8 cases].eight cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by vibrio parahaemolyticus in humans are described; to our knowledge, they are the first such reported cases in spain. all cases appeared between august 20th and october 15th, with a frequency of 8.3% regarding the overall adult patients with acute gastroenteritis, and 11.5% regarding the overall patients with positive stool culture for any enteropathogenic organism. the eight strains were kanagawa positive and in three patients other enteropathogenic ...19892716372
[aeromonas hydrophila-related septicemia in the nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus].from diseased wild and cultured oreochromis niloticus in lower egypt, 17 aeromonas hydrophila isolates were recovered. the mortality was between 10% and 70% in among cultured fish. the course of the disease ran in an acute manner. for cultured fish, the disease outbreaks were found mainly in winter and for the wild nile fish, mortalities were observed in late spring and summer. additionally wild fish were affected with ectoparasites. the ld50 values of the isolates ranged between 10(3) and 10(7) ...19892719631
epidemiological significance of microbiological pollution criteria for river recreational waters.a retrospective follow-up study was conducted during the summer of 1986 in the french ardèche basin in order to assess the relationship between swimming-related morbidity and the bacteriological quality of the recreational water. 5737 tourists in eight holiday camps were questioned as to the occurrence of illness and their bathing habits during the week preceding the interviews. the rate-ratio contrasting swimmers and non-swimmers for total morbidity is 2.1 (1.8-2.4) = 95% confidence interval); ...19892722364
suicide phenomenon in mesophilic aeromonads as a basis for species identification.the acetic acid-mediated suicide phenomenon in mesophilic aeromonads in conjunction with tests for aerogenicity and esculin hydrolysis served as the basis for species identification. of 210 aeromonas isolates tested at 30 degrees c, 88 were identified as aeromonas hydrophila (nonsuicidal, aerogenic, esculin positive), 52 were identified as a. sobria (suicide variable, aerogenic, esculin negative), and 70 were identified as a. caviae (suicidal, anaerogenic, esculin positive). these identification ...19892723039
[production of antibiotic substances by natural variants of the marine bacterium vibrio fischeri].it was shown that under definite conditions there was competition between natural variants of sea bacteria belonging to v. fischeri. natural variants of v. fischeri, strain 6 differed in their resistance to streptomycin and had different growth rates under conditions of limited aeration. morphologically all the variants were identical. v. fischeri p-0, v. fischeri p-1 and v. fischeri p-2 were studied. the study revealed that v. fischeri p-0 produced a non-dialysing thermostable trypsin-sensitive ...19892730220
chronic colitis after aeromonas infection.three patients with an acute colitis in which the only pathogen detected was either aeromonas hydrophila or a sobria progressed to a chronic phase after the infection had been eliminated by antibiotic treatment in two and had resolved spontaneously in the third. the final diagnosis in each case was ulcerative colitis. two of the patients have responded to anti-inflammatory medication but one has required panproctocolectomy. the sequence of symptoms and observations in these cases, as well as in ...19892731763
urinary tract infection by aeromonas hydrophila in a neonate. 19892737762
characterization of the aeromonas hydrophila group isolated from retail foods of animal origin.during a recent survey of retail fresh foods of animal origin (fish and seafood, raw milk, poultry, and red meats) for organisms of the aeromonas hydrophila group, we isolated representative strains from the various foods. in this study, we sought to characterize these isolates for biochemical properties and virulence-associated factors and to compare the food isolates with clinical isolates. we identified all food and clinical isolates as a. hydrophila and found that all isolates were typical i ...19892745695
oral cholera vaccines containing b-subunit-killed whole cells and killed whole cells only. i. cross-reacting antigens of members of family vibrionaceae and the vaccines.antigenic similarity between the oral cholera b subunit-whole cell (bs-wc) and whole-cell only (wc) vaccines and strains of the family vibrionaceae was studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. a reference system consisting of vibrio cholerae inaba e1 tor antigenic extract and homologous rabbit antiserum was applied in the study. the system was represented by 30 anodically migrating antigens forming distinct precipitation bands. antigenic extracts of other members of the family vibrionaceae show ...19892750268
fever response in laboratory-maintained and free-ranging chuckwallas (sauromalus obesus).the fever response was studied in laboratory-maintained and free-ranging chuckwallas. five animals were used in a self-pairing laboratory experiment in which each animal was first injected with a sterile, pyrogen-free saline solution. approximately 7 days later, each individual was injected with a solution of 4.75 x 10(9) aeromonas sobria (formerly a. hydrophila). saline-injected individuals had a mean preferred body temperature (mpbt) of 36.8 +/- 0.4 (se) degrees c, whereas bacteria-injected an ...19892750958
[the "diseased" or "dead" guillemots (uria aalge), three-toed gulls (rissa tridactyla), silver gulls (larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (larus ridibundus) found in the area of the german bay, 1982-1985].between 1982 and 1985 the cadavers of 50 guillemots (uria aalge), 41 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), 26 herring gulls (larus argentatus) and 34 black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus) were examined pathological, bacteriological and virological. the probable cause of death was established. parasitosis were particularly prevalent in herring gulls (49%), where the main infection--as in black-headed gulls--was with cestoides. in kittiwakes and guillemots mainly spiruroideae were recorded. the commonest ...19892752934
volatile compounds associated with microbial growth on normal and high ph beef stored at chill temperatures.volatile compounds produced by pseudomonas fragi and mixed, natural floras on beef of normal ph (5.5-5.8; glucose greater than 1500 micrograms/g) and high ph (6.3-6.8; glucose less than 10 micrograms/g) included a range of alkyl esters and a number of sulphur-containing compounds including dimethylsulphide but not hydrogen sulphide. production of the last was a property common to the other gram-negative organisms tested viz. hafnia alvei, enterobacter agglomerans, serratia liquefaciens, alteromo ...19892753835
aeromonas hydrophila upper extremity infection.a severe soft tissue infection of the upper extremity caused by aeromonas hydrophila followed a water skiing injury in which a tow rope caused degloving of a portion of the skin and severe contusion to underlying muscle. infection was established within 36 hours of the injury, accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, and a foul odor. rapid clinical improvement occurred following radical debridement of all nonviable tissue and antibiotic therapy. in cases involving water contamination, aeromonas hydro ...19892754206
purification and partial characterization of a cytotonic enterotoxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila.this report describes the purification and partial characterization of a cytotonic enterotoxin produced by a human diarrheal isolate (ssu) of aeromonas hydrophila. the extracellular enterotoxin was purified by (nh4)2so4 precipitation, hydrophobic column chromatography, and chromatofocusing. the highly purified enterotoxin exhibited a molecular mass of 44 kda and an isoelectric point in the range of 4.3 - 5.5 as determined by chromatofocusing. western blot analysis using aeromonas anti-enterotoxi ...19892766121
exclusion of clinically atypical or microbiologically mixed diarrhoeal episodes from outcome events in a field trial of oral cholera vaccines.we investigated whether alternative clinical and microbiological criteria for outcome events affected estimates of vaccine efficacy in a randomized, double-blind field trial of b subunit-killed whole cell (bs-wc) and killed whole cell-only (wc) oral cholera vaccines among 62,285 rural bangladeshi participants. at one year of follow-up estimates of vaccine protective efficacy (pe = 60%, p less than 0.0001 for bs-wc; pe = 54%, p less than 0.0001 for wc) against all treated diarrhoeal episodes asso ...19892767860
clinical and epidemiologic aspects of members of aeromonas dna hybridization groups isolated from human feces.between june 1982 and may 1987 aeromonas species were isolated from 208 of 34,311 (0.61%) fecal samples submitted to a regional public health laboratory in the netherlands. aeromonas isolates were found most frequently in summer and rarely in winter. of 169 aermonas isolates that were available for further study, 19% were isolated from patients with a mixed infection, 5% from patients with underlying diseases, and 15% from patients who used medication that could predispose the intestinal tract t ...19892768441
characterization of aeromonas sobria hemolysin by use of monoclonal antibodies against aeromonas hydrophila hemolysins.aeromonas sobria produces hemolysin in a form activable with trypsin under defined cultural conditions. in immunoblotting analyses with the culture supernatant of a. sobria, the monoclonal antibody reacting specifically to aeromonas hydrophila ca-11 hemolysin bound to the 53,000- and 49,000-dalton bands before and after trypsinization, respectively. the monoclonal antibody reacting to a. hydrophila ah-1 hemolysin did not bind either band. a. sobria hemolysin is, therefore, related antigenically ...19892768466
characterization of aeromonas schubertii strains recently isolated from traumatic wound infections.recent studies have resulted in the proposal of a new species, aeromonas schubertii (mannitol, sucrose, and indole negative), formerly termed enteric group 501, on the basis of the study of seven strains isolated from the southeastern and southwestern united states and puerto rico. we have isolated two phenotypically similar a. schubertii strains from infected human wounds sustained in the chesapeake bay area. their identification was confirmed by dna-dna hybridization to the centers for disease ...19892768470
antimicrobial activity of julifloricine isolated from prosopis juliflora.antimicrobial activity of julifloricine, an alkaloid isolated from prosopis juliflora, was studied in vitro against 40 microorganisms which included 31 bacteria, two candida species, five dermatophytic fungi and two viruses. significant inhibitory effect was noted against gram positive bacteria. the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) for staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, s. citreus, streptococcus pyogenes and sarcina lutea was 1 microgram/ml and against s. faecalis, s. pneumoniae, s. la ...19892775330
occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria in communal well water around port harcourt, nigeria.a total of 108 raw water samples was collected from 36 wells at nine shanty settlements around port harcourt, nigeria, over a period of 7 months. samples were analysed for their bacteriological quality. selected bacterial strains isolated from the samples were tested for their susceptibility to ten commonly used antibiotics. the organisms isolated include pseudomonas spp., klebsiella spp., staphylococcus spp., proteus spp., enterococcus faecalis, aeromonas spp., escherichia coli, chromobacterium ...19892776852
ultrastructural study of the response of eosinophil granule cells to aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products and histamine liberators in rainbow trout salmo gairdneri richardson.intraperitoneal injections of aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products (ecp), compound 48/80 and concanavalin a were found to degranulate the eosinophil granule cells (egc) in the lower intestine and rectum of the rainbow trout salmo gairdneri richardson. ultrastructurally, the egc response resembled the anaphylactic granule extrusion of mammalian mast cells. varying degrees of granule vacuolation and loss of electron density occurred. labyrinthine channels were observed at the peak of degra ...19892776934
species identification of aeromonas strains based on carbon substrate oxidation profiles.twenty clinical strains each of aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, and aeromonas sobria were evaluated for their abilities to oxidize one or more of 95 carbon sources on a gn microplate (biolog, hayward, calif.). nine substrates yielded good, discriminatory values for the three species tested. the panel appears to be useful for the species identification of aeromonas isolates originating from human material.19892778077
initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: characterization of the oral flora of alligator mississippiensis.an open thumb fracture resulting from an alligator bite became infected with aeromonas hydrophila, enterobacter agglomerans, and citrobacter diversus. the patient was treated by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. we obtained cultures from the mouth of ten alligators to characterize their oral flora. initial empiric therapy after alligator bites should be directed at gram-negative species, in particular, aeromonas hydrophila and anaerobic species including clostridium. of the numerous f ...19892783788
endogenous aeromonas hydrophila endophthalmitis.aeromonas hydrophila as the etiologic agent of endophthalmitis is rare, having only been reported in association with a perforating injury of the eye. we describe a case of isolated spontaneous, endogenous endophthalmitis due to this agent, with no apparent source.19892786704
[the ratios and kinds of clinical bacteria isolated in taiwan's large-size hospitals].the prevalence of clinical bacteria, as isolated from linko chang-gung memorial hospital (2,300 beds) in the period january 1985 to december 1986 and from taipei veterans general hospital (2,300 beds) during the period january 1986 to december 1986, was analyzed with the following findings: (i) the isolation ratio of anaerobic and aerobic or facultative bactria during the period of investigation were 7.8% (5,513/70,799) and 92.2% (65,286/70,799), respectively. (ii) of the total aerobic or facult ...19892791722
[the dynamics of the immunologic indices of carp exposed to methylene blue].several immunological and haematological indices as well as infection of carp with ectoparasites of the dactylogyrus genus have been studied in fish that have been subjected to methylene blue treatment, to infection with rhabdovirus carpio and aeromonas hydrophila in different combinations. a dosage of 0.05 mg/l (exposure lasting for 3 days) over 20 days increases most of the immunological indices. a treatment of the carp with drug (dosage of 100 mg/l) for 4 hours has a stimulating effect on the ...19892792442
treatment with ciprofloxacin of aeromonas hydrophila associated colitis in a male with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus.a 36-year-old white male intravenous drug abuser and homosexual, with antibodies in the serum to the human immunodeficiency virus and a history of ulcerative colitis, had bloody diarrhea and spiking fevers that did not respond to treatment for 1 month with total parenteral nutrition, orally administered sulfasalazine, and 5-amino-salicylic acid enema. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from bacterial culture of a biopsy specimen obtained by sigmoidoscopy. the symptoms resolved after a 2 week cour ...19892794433
microbial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in kuwait.during a period of 15 months 621 hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis and 152 control children were investigated for etiologic agents of the disease. putative enteropathogens were identified in 86% of the patients and 10% of the controls. common viral agents associated with gastroenteritis among children included rotaviruses (45%) and enteric adenoviruses (4%). bacterial pathogens infecting children were salmonella serotypes (24%), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (9%), campylobacter ...19892797954
improved efficiency m13 cloning using electroporation. 19892798147
aeromonas-associated diarrhea in filipino children.aeromonas was isolated from the stools of ten out of sixty-six young (15%) suffering from acute diarrhea. these are the first reported cases in the philippines and the prevalence cited was higher than reported elsewhere. three species isolated were a. hydrophilia (50%), a. caviae (30%) and a. sobria (20%), either singly (60%) or in combination with etec and campylobacter jejuni. mean age of patients was 12.9 months with mean pre-admission duration of diarrhea of 48.6 hours. mean stool frequency ...19892798995
growth of aeromonas hydrophila on fresh vegetables stored under a controlled atmosphere.the effects of controlled-atmosphere storage (cas) on the survival and growth of aeromonas hydrophila on fresh asparagus, broccoli, and cauliflower were examined. two lots of each vegetable were inoculated with a. hydrophila 1653 or k144. a third lot served as an uninoculated control. following inoculation, vegetables were stored at 4 or 15 degrees c under a cas system previously shown to extend the shelf life of each commodity or under ambient air. populations of a. hydrophila were enumerated o ...19892802601
potentiation of ferrous sulphate and ascorbate on the microbial transformation of endogenous trimethylamine n-oxide to trimethylamine and dimethylamine in squid extracts.the levels of trimethylamine n-oxide (tmao) in the new zealand (nototodarus sloani) species of squid extracts were extremely high (above 9200 ppm). when the extracts were incubated for 2 days at 25 degrees c, approximately 60% tmao was converted to trimethylamine (tma) and dimethylamine (dma). this conversion was very low or negligible at 4 degrees c, but was potentiated by the presence of ferrous sulphate (0.014 m) and ascorbate (0.014 m). citrobacter freundii and aeromonas hydrophilia were iso ...19892807105
enterotoxigenic aeromonads on retail lamb meat and offal.enrichment in alkaline peptone water was compared with the direct plating method for the isolation of aeromonas spp. from lamb meat and offal samples. the enrichment method significantly increased the isolation rate of aeromonads. motile aeromonas species (a. hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae) were present in all kinds of samples investigated. seventy-three aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and examined for their ability to produce virulence factors. ...19892808183
meropenem: activity against resistant gram-negative bacteria and interactions with beta-lactamases.the activity of meropenem, a new carbapenem, was determined against 82 gram-negative bacteria in agar dilution tests. many of these isolates were resistant to one or more beta-lactam antibiotics and the mechanisms responsible for the resistance had been characterized. the production of beta-lactamases had little influence on susceptibility to either meropenem or imipenem except in tests with aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas (xanthomonas) maltophilia. these species produced metalloenzymes cap ...19892808207
comparative in-vitro activity of meropenem on clinical isolates from the united kingdom.mics of meropenem were determined for a wide range of common bacteria of clinical importance. for enterobacteriaceae, aeromonas spp., haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, gardnerella vaginalis, campylobacter coli/jejuni, beta-haemolytic streptococci and anaerobes other than clostridium difficile, mics were almost always within the range 0.002-0.5 mg/l. the activity of meropenem for these organisms was always greater than that of imipenem and piperacillin, and w ...19892808214
in vitro studies of tigemonam: a comparison of the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (mic vs mbc).the in vitro activity of tigemonam, a new oral monobactam, was studied with special attention to minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (mbcs). against 250 clinical isolates, it inhibited 100% of escherichia sp., klebsiella sp., serratia sp., citrobacter sp., providencia sp., proteus sp., morganella sp., aeromonas sp., yersinia sp., shigella sp., and haemophilus sp. at 0.5 mg/l or less. with 1 mg/l, 75% of enterobacter sp. were inhibited; however, three ...19892809701
aeromonas septicemia: relationship of species and clinical features.thirteen patients with aeromonas species septicemia were seen at westmead hospital between 1983 and 1987. in 10 patients (77%) septicemia was caused by a. sobria, and in 3 (23%) by a. hydrophila, a. caviae was not isolated. chronic underlying illness was present in 10 patients (77%), hematological malignancy being the most common (46%). the average age of the patients was 65.8 years. seven patients (54%) presented with clinical sepsis, diarrhea and abdominal pain. the biliary tract, lung and sof ...19892812870
proton motive force involved in protein transport across the outer membrane of aeromonas salmonicida.many gram-negative bacteria export proteins to the exterior. some of these proteins are first secreted into the periplasm and then cross the outer membrane in a separate step. the source of energy required for the translocation is unknown. export of the extracellular protein proaerolysin from the periplasm through the outer membrane of aeromonas salmonicida is inhibited by a proton ionophore and by low extracellular ph. one possible explanation of these results is that a proton gradient across t ...19892814486
[epidemic deaths of wild birds after aeromonas hydrophila infection].from july to september 1988 high mortality of waterfowl at several locations was observed. suspicion of botulism was expressed. however in all cases an aeromonas hydrophila infection was diagnosed. pathogenesis and clinical signs of these two diseases with similar symptoms are briefly discussed.19892815069
etiology of acute childhood diarrhoea in calcutta.of the 152 cases of acute diarrhoea, 124 (81.5%) revealed potential pathogens. altogether 27 (21.2%) out of 127 strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter, proteus and acinetobacter produced enterotoxin. single pathogenic bacteria (40 cases 26.3%), parasite (6; 6%), rota virus (6; 6%), toxigenic bacteria (19; 12.5%) and mixed agents (37; 24.24.3%) were recorded in 108 cases (71.0%). another 14 (9.2%) cases exclusively revealed moderate to heavy growth of suspected enteric p ...19892815324
two membrane filter media (mada/0129 and msa/0129 agars) for enumeration of motile aeromonas in seawater.sewage-contaminated natural seawater was analysed for the presence of motile aeromonas by two membrane filtration procedures. incubation of membranes on two modified media (mada (0/129) and msa (0/129) were compared. the specificity of the two media was high, 95.8% on mada (0/129) and 94.8% on msa (0129). the most frequent species identified were a. caviae, followed by a. hydrophila and a. sobria. motile aeromonas counts were high in both media (greater than 10(4)/100 ml) and no significant diff ...19892818793
aerolysin, a hemolysin from aeromonas hydrophila, forms voltage-gated channels in planar lipid bilayers.the cytolytic toxin aerolysin was found to form ion channels which displayed slight anion selectivity in planar lipid bilayers. in voltage-clamp experiments the ion current flowing through the channels was homogeneous indicating a defined conformation and a uniform size. the channels remained open between -70 to +70 mv, but outside this range they underwent voltage-dependent inactivation which was observed as open-closed fluctuations at the single-channel level. zinc ions not only prevented the ...19901692344
identification of the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage 18 from aeromonas hydrophila.bacteriophage 18 was previously isolated by multiplication in aeromonas hydrophila. the bacteriophage receptor was shown to be the lipopolysaccharide (lps), specifically the low mw polysaccharide fraction (lps core oligosaccharide) a. hydrophila mutants, resistant to this phage were isolated and found to be devoid of lps o antigen by several criteria and had alterations in the lipopolysaccharide core.19901693217
aerolysin of aeromonas sobria: evidence for formation of ion-permeable channels and comparison with alpha-toxin of staphylococcus aureus.aerolysin from aeromonas sobria ab3 was isolated and purified. the pure toxin formed sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble oligomers in a lipidic environment. the addition of aerolysin to the aqueous phase bathing lipid bilayer membranes resulted in the formation of ion-permeable channels which had a single-channel conductance of about 70 ps in 0.1 m kcl. this defines the toxin as a channel-forming component similar to other toxins but without any indication for an association-dissociation reaction, ...19901694819
pili of aeromonas hydrophila: purification, characterization, and biological role.aeromonas hydrophila (ae6) has 2 morphologically distinctive kinds of pili. one appeared rigid, channeled, and straight with a diameter of 9 nm (ae6-r pili). the other looked flexible, wavy, and having helical structure with a diameter of 7 nm (ae6-w pili). ae6-r pili were purified and characterized. the pili consisted of a subunit protein with a molecular weight of 18 kda as estimated by sds-page, and contained 42.3% hydrophobic amino acids and one cysteine residue. the pilus was solubilized to ...19901971705
the pili of aeromonas hydrophila: identification of an environmentally regulated "mini pilin".ultrastructural studies of aeromonas hydrophila strain ah26 revealed two distinctive pilus types: "straight" pili appear as brittle, rod-like filaments, whereas "flexible" pili are supple and curvilinear. straight pili are produced constitutively under all tested conditions of growth. in contrast, the expression of flexible pili is regulated by physical and chemical variables, being produced at 22 vs. 37 degrees c, in a liquid vs. a solid medium, and when the availability of free-iron is reduced ...19901974915
effect of bacterial pyrogen on three lizard species.1. three lizard species (callopistes maculatus, gerrhosaurus major, and varanus exanthematicus) were tested for their response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed aeromonas sobria. 2. a paired experimental design, in which each animal received an injection of sterile saline and 1 x 10(10) a. sobria, was utilized. 3. c. maculatus demonstrated a statistically significant increase in mean selected body temperature (msbt) after bacteria injection. 4. g. major and v. exanthematicus did not ...19901976479
[a membrane-bound alanine aminopeptidase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 3. inhibition of the enzyme].the alanine aminopeptidase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus is inhibited by sh-reagents like p-hydroxymercuribenzote, ellman's reagent, n-bromosuccinimide, and metal chelating agents like 1,10-phenanthroline. the aap is competitively inhibited by l-amino acids such as leucine, phenylalanine, and valine having hydrophobic side chains. bacitracin (ki = 2.0.10(-6) mol/l) inhibits aap stronger than puromycin (ki = 8.0.10(-6) mol/l). in contrast, the aeromonas aminopeptidase (ec 3.4.11.10) is stronge ...19901980190
pili of an aeromonas hydrophila strain as a possible colonization factor.aeromonas hydrophila ae6 had 2 morphologically distinctive kinds of pili. one appeared rigid and straight with a diameter of 9 nm (r-pili). the other appeared wavy and flexible with a diameter of 7 nm (w-pili). w-pili were very few on the cell as compared with r-pili. in this study, w-pili were purified and characterized. the pili consisted of a subunit protein with a molecular weight of 21 kda as estimated by sds-page. there was no immunological cross-reaction between w-pili and other cellular ...19901982552
[pulmonary infection by aeromonas hydrophila following drowning in a swimming pool]. 19902073626
analysis of the autoagglutination phenomenon, serogroup and hydrophobicity as virulence markers in mesophilic aeromonads isolated from stool cultures.the autoagglutination phenomenon (aa) was studied in 71 strains of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from stool cultures of patients with acute diarrhea (28 aeromonas hydrophila, 20 aeromonas sobria, and 23 aeromonas caviae). two phenotypes were considered in the aa+ strains: sp+ (self-pelleting) and pab+ (precipitation after boiling). serogrouping of the strains was performed only with the 0:11 serum. other properties studied were agglutination with acriflavine (acr) and crystal violet uptake (cvb ...19902073902
aeromonas hydrophila blepharoconjunctivitis. 19902073904
ecology of mesophilic aeromonas spp. in aquatic environments of a temperate region and relationship with some biotic and abiotic environmental parameters.the ecology of mesophilic aeromonas species has been investigated since january 1988 to examine their occurrence and distribution in aquatic environments of okayama prefecture. water and plankton samples were quantitatively as well as qualitatively analyzed throughout the seasons from five selected stations including fresh, brackish, and saline environments. analysis of variance and correlation coefficients among the biotic and abiotic parameters were sought. the organisms were found in all the ...19902080966
[reactions of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species in brila-mug (fluorocult) bouillion].in order to test the usefulness of brila-mug (= fluorocult) medium (merck) for isolation and identification of total coliforms and faecal coliforms in surface water according to the ec guidelines for bathing waters a total of 969 strains of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species was examined under different culture conditions. these included 486 e. coli (reference strains of o-groups 1-170, enterotoxin and verotoxin-producing strains), 149 salmonella (subspecies i-vi), 92 yersinia ...19902080970
cross resistance between oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid in aeromonas salmonicida associated with alterations in outer membrane proteins.oxytetracycline resistant mutants of aeromonas salmonicida isolated from mutation frequency experiments showed decreased susceptibility to oxolinic acid. outer membrane preparations of these resistant mutant strains revealed a major protein, with a molecular mass of approximately 37 kda, which was not present in significant quantities in the parent strain.19902083844
[new enteropathogens: aeromonas spp].aeromonas is one of the type of enteric pathogens which is commonly present in less developed countries. it leads to acute diarrhea in children and traveller's diarrhea in adults. additionally it is also responsible from the extraintestinal infections. aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria which is isolated from water, soil, foods and rarely from intestinal tract of human. aeromonas sobria is especially isolated from wound infection of scuba diver's. there are other types of aeromonas such as salmo ...19902089235
[analysis of the sensitivity of mesophilic aeromonas isolated from feces to antibiotics of everyday use].the sensitivity to antibiotics of 56 mesophilic strains of aeromonas (20 a. caviae, 18 a. sobria and 18 a. hydrophila) isolated from the feces of patients with enteritis, 89.2% of strains had some type of resistance, such as 83.9% to ampicillin, 32.1% to carbenicillin, 28.8% to cefalotin, 5.3% to co-trimoxazole and 1.7% to chloramphenicol. 48.2% of strains were simultaneously resistant to two of the tested antibiotics, 3.5% to three and 5.3% to four. 95.7% of ampicillin resistant strains were be ...19902094389
[diarrhea caused by aeromonas in madrid]. 19902095269
production of enterotoxin and cytotoxin by aeromonas veronii.fourteen strains of aeromonas veronii were isolated from salt and fresh water in rio de janeiro and investigated for the presence of virulence factors. eleven (79%) a. veronii strains were positive for enterotoxin by the suckling-mouse test and thirteen (93%) produced hemolysin. of the 13 a. veronii strains that produced hemolysin, seven were investigated for cytotoxin production using vero cells as indicator cells and all of them were positive.19902095293
wound infection due to fresh water contamination by aeromonas hydrophila.we report the case of a 24-year-old man who sustained a scalp laceration in a diving accident. his wound became infected, and he was treated with an oral cephalosporin, with subsequent progression of the infection. cultures subsequently grew aeromonas hydrophila. many strains of aeromonas are not sensitive to the antibiotics commonly used for wound infections. aeromonas must be suspected as a pathogen in all wounds occurring in fresh water if proper treatment is to be initiated.19902096165
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