PMID(sorted descending)
molecular and functional characterization of a toxr-regulated lipoprotein from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila.human diseases caused by species of aeromonas have been classified into two major groups: septicemia and gastroenteritis. in this study, we reported the molecular and functional characterization of a new virulence factor, toxr-regulated lipoprotein, or taga, from a diarrheal isolate, ssu, of aeromonas hydrophila. the taga gene of a. hydrophila exhibited 60% identity with that of a recently identified stce gene from escherichia coli o157:h7, which encoded a protein (stce) that provided serum resi ...200616790746
biofilm formation in an ice cream plant.the sites of biofilm formation in an ice cream plant were investigated by sampling both the production line and the environment. experiments were carried out twice within a 20-day period. first, stainless steel coupons were fixed to surfaces adjacent to food contact surfaces, the floor drains and the doormat. they were taken for the analysis of biofilm at three different production stages. then, biofilm forming bacteria were enumerated and also presence of listeria monocytogenes was monitored. b ...200616779628
adjuvant effect of mushroom glucan and bovine lactoferrin upon aeromonas hydrophila vaccination in catla, catla catla (hamilton).mushroom glucan and bovine lactoferrin (lf), known for their immunostimulatory potential, were used as adjuvant in conjunction with a formalin-killed aeromonas hydrophila vaccine in catla, catla catla. in vitro antigen-specific responsiveness of catla leucocytes and protective responses against experimental challenge with homologous antigen were monitored following immunization. antigen-specific proliferation, 'macrophage activating factor' (maf) production and antibody production were significa ...200616768713
perturbations in the catfish immune responses by arsenic: organ and cell specific effects.the present study was an attempt to elucidate the effect of non-lethal arsenic (as) exposure (1/10 lc50) on different immunologically important organs and cells of a catfish. clarias batrachus l. were exposed to arsenic trioxide for different time intervals, which resulted in significant, time-dependent changes in total head kidney and splenic leucocyte count (p<0.05) and reduction in the organosomatic indices (p<0.05) of these two important immunocompetent organs. routine histological studies r ...200616765097
aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing fasciitis. a case report. 200616757773
the nature of the aeromonas fermentation. 194416747769
anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) oviposition in response to agarose media and cultured bacterial volatiles.anopheles gambiae s.s. giles accepted a range of agarose gels, varying from 0.5 to 8% (wt:vol), for oviposition; laid more eggs on 0.5% agarose gels than on moist filter paper or on drier agarose; and laid equal numbers of eggs on 0.5% agarose gels and distilled water. larvae hatched on agarose gel substrates and crawled onto the surface of moist agarose gels, but they tended only to burst the egg cap and remain within the egg case on drier gels. a mixture of cultured bacteria, originating from ...200616739407
contribution of the type iii secretion system (ttss) to virulence of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.the recently described type iii secretion system (ttss) of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been linked to virulence in salmonids. in this study, three ttss effector genes, aext, aoph or aopo, were inactivated by deletion, as was ascc, the gene encoding the outer-membrane pore of the secretion apparatus. effects on virulence were assayed by live challenge of atlantic salmon (salmo salar). the deltaascc mutant strain was avirulent by both intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and immersion ...200616735747
segmental ascending colitis associated with aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. 200616732806
characterization of fe(iii)-reducing enrichment cultures and isolation of fe(iii)-reducing bacteria from the savannah river site, south carolina.the savannah river site, south carolina (srs), has been subjected to heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacteria, by reducing insoluble fe(iii) to soluble fe(ii), may enhance contaminant mobility through subsurface environments. in order to investigate populations of the indigenous iron-reducing microbes from the srs, duplicate enrichment cultures were initiated using a 10% inoculum of 7 sediment/soil samples, and serial dilutions were made into wolfe's mi ...200616730954
time of vaccination influences development of adhesions, growth and spinal deformities in atlantic salmon salmo august 1998, 3000 atlantic salmon salmo salar l. parr were divided into 7 groups with 2 replicates. every 6 wk until march of the following year 1 group was vaccinated. one group was held as an unvaccinated control. the fish were transferred to seawater in may 1999, and slaughtered in february 2000. temperature, fish size and photoperiod at vaccination, and the time between vaccination and sea transfer thus varied among the groups. in all vaccinated groups, growth was reduced for 1 to 2 mo fo ...200616724568
dna fingerprinting of vibrio cholerae and aeromonas species by pulsed-field minigel electrophoresis.dna molecules of vibrio cholerae and aeromonas species were prepared by incubating immobilized cells for 4 and 2 h, respectively, with a nonenzymatic solution that contains chemical reagents only (ndsuplus). this method gave results as reproducible as the enzymatic one that uses proteinase k, and rendered dna molecules suitable for fingerprinting by mini-chef electrophoresis. as rapid dna separations at high electric field are achieved in mini-chef chamber with low heat evolution, dna restrictio ...200616721902
pancreatic abscess due to aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an uncommon cause of deep-seated infection in man. we present what we believe to be the first reported case of a pancreatic abscess due to a. hydrophila. the outcome of this case attests to the potentially lethal nature of infection that can occur with this organism.200716716404
clinical significance and distribution of putative virulence markers of 116 consecutive clinical aeromonas isolates in southern taiwan.the objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical manifestations of aeromonas infections and the association of putative virulence genes with clinical invasiveness.200716716402
genetic diversity among five t4-like bacteriophages.bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. as one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. the contribution of the t4-like phages to this overall phage di ...200616716236
rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. this study provides data on the prevalence of salmonella, escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica, listeria spp., motile aeromonas spp., and staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. a total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. in addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes w ...200616715811
studies on ternary metallo-beta lactamase-inhibitor complexes using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.metallo-beta-lactamases (mbls) are targets for medicinal chemistry as they mediate bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (esi-ms) was used to study the inhibition by a set of mercaptocarboxylates of two representative mbls with different optimal metal stoichiometries for catalysis. bcii is a dizinc mbl (class b1), whilst the cpha mbl (class b2) exhibits highest activity with a single zinc ion in the active site. experimental parameters for the ...200616713713
di-, tri-, and tetranuclear zinc hydroxamate complexes as structural models for the inhibition of zinc hydrolases by hydroxamic acids.attempts to produce zn analogues of the structural model complexes [m2(mu-o2cr)2(o2cr)2(mu-h2o)(tmen)2] (m = ni, co, mn; r = ch(3), c(ch3)3, cf3) by the reaction of a series of zinc carboxylates with n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen), resulted in the mononuclear complexes [zn(oac)(2)(tmen)] (1) and [zn(crot)2(tmen)].(0.5)h2o (2) for r = ch3 and (ch)2ch3, respectively, and the dinuclear complexes [zn(2)(mu-piv)(2)(piv)(2)(mu-h2o)(tmen)2] (3) and [zn2(mu-oac(f))2(oac(f))2(mu-h2o)(tmen)2] ...200616711700
[aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in são bento do una, pernambuco].an acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during january to july, 2004, in são bento do una, pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients). aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5%) and the main isolates were aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%), aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%), aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6%) and other species (19-3.2%). the other isolated enteropathogens were vibrio cholerae o1-ogawa toxi ...200616699653
species-specific identification of vibrio fluvialis by pcr targeted to the conserved transcriptional activation and variable membrane tether regions of the toxr gene. 200616687605
translocation of viable aeromonas salmonicida across the intestine of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).the pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of the destructive disease furunculosis in salmonids. horizontal transmission in salmonids has been suggested to occur via the skin, gills and/or intestine. previous reports are contradictory regarding the role of the intestine as a route of infection. the present study therefore investigates the possibility of bacterial translocation across intestinal epithelia using ussing chamber technology, in vitro. intestinal segments we ...200616677315
massive mortality of common carp (cyprinus carpio carpio) in the st. lawrence river in 2001: diagnostic investigation and experimental induction of lymphocytic encephalitis.a massive fish kill affecting exclusively common carp (cyprinus carpio carpio) in the st. lawrence river, québec, canada, during the summer of 2001 was investigated by use of laboratory diagnostic methods and by an attempt to experimentally induce the disease. the ultimate causes of mortality were opportunistic bacterial infections with aeromonas hydrophila and flavobacterium sp. secondary to immunosuppression induced by physiologic (i.e., spawning) and environmental (i.e., high temperatures and ...200616672577
dominance of lysobacter sp. in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, calystegia soldanella and elymus mollis.bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of beach morning glory (calystegia soldanella) and wild rye (elymus mollis), two of the major plant species inhabiting the coastal sane dune in tae-an, korea, was studied by the analysis of community 16s rrna gene clones. the amplified rdna restriction analysis (ardra) of the clones using haeiii exhibited significant differences in the community composition between the two plant species as well as regional differences, but also identified a specific ardra p ...200616652206
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among gastroenteritis-causing pathogens recovered in europe and latin america and salmonella isolates recovered from bloodstream infections in north america and latin america: report from the sentry antimicrobial surveillance program (2003).gastroenteritis-causing pathogens are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. complicating the clinical diarrhoea syndrome is the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among the responsible bacterial pathogens. the reported increases in fluoroquinolone resistance in salmonella, shigella and campylobacter have been extremely worrisome considering the primary role of ciprofloxacin as a treatment. in this study, 1479 bacterial isolates from gastroenteritis infections were col ...200616647842
[health risks associated with the migration of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.): an epidemiological surveillance programme in northern spain].the authors present the results of an epidemiological surveillance programme involving atlantic salmon (salmo salar) populations in north-eastern spain. the study investigates the risk factors critical in disease transmission, which include the presence of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms, the innate cell-mediated immune response of the salmon, and the potential interactions between the two. also taken into account are the biological and migratory cycles of these salmon populations. the re ...200516642759
quantitative expression (walbaum) of immunological factors in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), after infection with either flavobacterium psychrophilum, aeromonas salmonicida, or infectious haematopoietic necrosis further enhance our understanding of immunological gene expression in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, after infection with naturally occurring pathogens, a series of probes and primers were developed for the quantification of immune factors. separate groups of specific-pathogen-free rainbow trout were infected with either flavobacterium psychrophilum, aeromonas salmonicida or infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv). three different concentrations of each pathogen were used and sam ...200616635061
innate immune responses in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) induced by probiotics.carnobacterium maltaromaticum b26 and carnobacterium divergens b33, which were isolated from the intestine of healthy rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum), were selected as being potentially useful as probiotics with effectiveness against aeromonas salmonicida and yersinia ruckeri. thus, rainbow trout administered with feed supplemented with b26 or b33 dosed at >10(7) cells g(-1) feed conferred protection against challenge with virulent cultures of the pathogens. moreover, both cultures ...200616631379
acute phase response in zebrafish upon aeromonas salmonicida and staphylococcus aureus infection: striking similarities and obvious differences with mammals.zebrafish has emerged as a valuable model for immunological studies. however, little is known about the overall picture of its immune response to infectious pathogens. here we present the first systematic study of its immune response to aeromonas salmonicida and staphylococcus aureus, a gram-negative and a gram-positive bacteria, respectively. genes induced upon infection were identified with suppression subtractive hybridization, with many of them encoding acute phase proteins (apps). when comp ...200716630661
aeromonas sobria hemolysin causes diarrhea by increasing secretion of hco3-.aeromonas sobria hemolysin (ash) is one of the major virulence factors produced by a. sobria, a causative agent of diarrhea in humans. we investigated the effects of ash on anion transport in human colonic epithelial cells. ash increased short circuit currents across the intestinal epithelia, which were suppressed by anion channel antagonists, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and by the removal of external hco3-. iliac fluid accumulation was also inhibited by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. ...200616630261
antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from aquaculture sources in carry out a preliminary assessment of the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria that has been isolated from a variety of aquaculture species and environments in australia.200616630011
deletion of the genes encoding the type iii secretion system and cytotoxic enterotoxin alters host responses to aeromonas hydrophila our previous study, we deleted the gene encoding aeromonas outer membrane protein b (aopb), a structural component of the type iii secretion system (t3ss) from a cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act)-minus diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. our laboratory also molecularly characterized the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), which is secreted by the bacterium utilizing the type ii secretion system (t2ss). the act/aopb mutant exhibited significantly reduced cytotoxicity to cultured cells (e.g. ...200616626931
molecular requirements for the colonization of hirudo medicinalis by aeromonas veronii. 200616623399
decolorization of triphenylmethane, azo, and anthraquinone dyes by a newly isolated aeromonas hydrophila strain.a broad-spectrum dye-decolorizing bacterium, strain dn322, was isolated from activated sludge of a textile printing wastewater treatment plant. the strain was characterized and identified as a member of aeromonas hydrophila based on gram staining, morphology characters, biochemical tests, and nearly complete sequence analysis of 16s rrna gene and the gyrase subunit beta gene (gyrb). strain dn322 decolorized a variety of synthetic dyes, including triphenylmethane, azo, and anthraquinone dyes. for ...200616622679
expression of and secretion through the aeromonas salmonicida type iii secretion system.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the aetiological agent of furunculosis, a disease of farmed and wild salmonids. the type iii secretion system (ttss) is one of the primary virulence factors in a. salmonicida. using a combination of differential proteomic analysis and reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr, it is shown that a. salmonicida a449 induces the expression of ttss proteins at 28 degrees c, but not at its more natural growth temperature of 17 degrees c. more modest increases in expres ...200616622045
comparison of antibody responses in atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) to aeromonas salmonicida and vibrio anguillarum.the immune system of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) differ from other bony fish species in that no or only very low increases in antibody levels are detected post-immunization with vibrio salmonicida or v. anguillarum. here, we report the results from the first study on comparison of antibody responses in cod to aeromonas salmonicida and v. anguillarum. a. salmonicida appear to induce a stronger antibody response in cod compared to v. anguillarum, and more individuals immunized with a. salmonici ...200616616955
antibiotic resistance and identification of uncommon gram-negative bacteria isolated from sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. 200616613138
immune response and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus to aeromonas hydrophila after exposure to hexavalent chromium.the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (k2cr2o7) on the immune response and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus (peters) to bacterial aeromonas hydrophila infection. fish (45 to 50 g) were exposed to 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg l(-1) [0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10% lc50, respectively] of hexavalent chromium cr (vi) for 28 d. the specific immune response was assessed by antibody response to a. hydrophila by ...200616610584
role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.stable flies, stomoxys calcitrans (l.), are the most important pests of cattle in the united states. however, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. in this study, stable flies laid ...200616608496
[screening methods for detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing gram negative rods].modified hodge test and a method using a disk with imipenem plus 1000 mg of edta were used to determine the presence of metallo-beta-lactamase producing gram-negative rods among 166 clinical isolates from hospitals in iaşi and galaţi. of 9 imipenem resistant strains found, only one pseudomonas aeruginosa gave positive results with both tests and other two p. aeruginosa clinical isolates gave negative results with both tests. the rest of the strains (2 p. aeruginosa, 2 acinetobacter baumanii, 1 s ...200516607806
clinical features and risk factors for mortality in aeromonas bacteremic adults with hematologic malignancies.aeromonas spp. often cause infections in immunocompromised patients. to specifically understand the clinical features of aeromonas bacteremic adults with hematologic malignancies, we investigated the demographic, clinical and microbiologic characteristics of aeromonas bacteremia in this patient population.200616604248
chlorine residual efficiency in inactivating bacteria from secondary contamination in isfahan, investigate the inactivation of potential pathogens, we evaluated survival rates for escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, aeromonas hydrophila and salmonella typhi in samples taken from the isfahan drinking water system. chlorine residual, ph, temperature and total organic carbon levels were measured. the organism most sensitive to chlorine was a. hydrophila. it was inactived in < 100 minutes at chlorine levels of 0.11 mg/l to 0.90 mg/l. the other 3 organisms showed higher resistance. e. ...200516602463
identification of aeromonas culicicola by 16s rdna rflp.studies were conducted on the improvement of a. culicicola identification. this species is phenotypically very similar to a. veronii biotype sobria, a. sobria, and a. allosaccharophila. the sequences of 16s rdna of a. culicicola isolates show the highest similarity with a. jandaei, a. veronii, and a. caviae. digestion of 16s rdna pcr product with alui and mboi restriction endonucleases allowed discriminating a. culicicola from all other aeromonas species with the exception of a. jandaei. additio ...200516599307
16s rdna-based analysis of dominant bacterial populations associated with early life stages of coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch).in this study, we used a 16s rdna-based approach to determine bacterial populations associated with coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) in its early life stages, highlighting dominant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract during growth in freshwater. the present article is the first molecular analysis of bacterial communities of coho salmon. cultivability of the salmon gastrointestinal microbiota was estimated by comparison of direct microscopic counts (using acridine orange) with colony counts ...200616598631
the high-resolution structures of the neutral and the low ph crystals of aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica.the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) contains two zinc ions in the active site and catalyzes the degradation of peptides. herein we report the crystal structures of aap at 0.95-a resolution at neutral ph and at 1.24-a resolution at low ph. the combination of these structures allowed the precise modeling of atomic positions, the identification of the metal bridging oxygen species, and insight into the physical properties of the metal ions. on the basis of these structures, a new p ...200616596389
occurrence of aeromonas hydrophila in acute gasteroenteritis among children.the interest on the occurrence multidrug resistance and pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila is increasing worldwide since it causes gasteroenteritis to children. though reports on the occurrence of gasteroenteritis among children due to a. hydrophila in tamil nadu are available from certain areas, no information is available from coimbatore. hence, this study was undertaken to find out the occurrence of the pathogenic a. hydrophila in diarrhoeal stool of children, particularly in coimbatore re ...200616567870
phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic discrepancies to differentiate aeromonas salmonicida from aeromonas bestiarum.the taxonomy of the "aeromonas hydrophila" complex (comprising the species a. hydrophila, a. bestiarum, a. salmonicida, and a. popoffii) has been controversial, particularly the relationship between the two relevant fish pathogens a. salmonicida and a. bestiarum. in fact, none of the biochemical tests evaluated in the present study were able to separate these two species. one hundred and sixteen strains belonging to the four species of this complex were identified by 16s rdna restriction fragmen ...200516562378
isolation of a pigment-producing strain of aeromonas liquefaciens from silver salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch). 196216561960
identification and characterization of an aeromonas salmonicida (syn haemophilus piscium) strain that reduces selenite to elemental red selenium.a bacterium that reduces toxic and mobile selenite to insoluble elemental selenium (se0) was isolated from a laboratory scale permeable reactive biobarrier. biochemical tests and 16s rrna gene sequence alignment identified the isolate as aeromonas salmonicida. two colony types were isolated, one more resistant to selenite than the other. both grew on agar plates containing 16 mm: selenite, although the colony diameter was reduced to 8% of controls with the small colony type and to 18% with the l ...200616550462
purification, characterization and comparison of reptile lysozymes.cation exchange column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify four reptile lysozymes from egg white: sstl a and sstl b from soft shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis), astl from asiatic soft shelled turtle (amyda cartilagenea) and gstl from green sea turtle (chelonia mydas). the molecular masses of the purified reptile lysozymes were estimated to be 14 kda by sds-page. enzyme activity of the four lysozymes could be confirmed by gel zymograms and showed charge difference ...200616549391
concentrations and tracking of listeria monocytogenes strains in a seafood-processing environment using a most-probable-number enrichment procedure and randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis.concentrations of environmental microflora and listeria monocytogenes were monitored at multiple environmental locations within a seafood-processing facility over the course of 6 months. concentrations of l. monocytogenes were determined using a most-probable-number (mpn) enrichment procedure. two floor drains had persistent low concentrations of l. monocytogenes (0.03 to >1,100 mpn/cm2). in comparison, concentrations of the other organisms in the drain were much higher (heterotrophic plate coun ...200616541676
dissimilatory nitrate reduction in anaerobic sediments leading to river nitrite accumulation.recent studies on northern ireland rivers have shown that summer nitrite (no(inf2)(sup-)) concentrations greatly exceed the european union guideline of 3 (mu)g of n liter(sup-1) for rivers supporting salmonid fisheries. in fast-flowing aerobic small streams, no(inf2)(sup-) is thought to originate from nitrification, due to the retardation of nitrobacter strains by the presence of free ammonia. multiple regression analyses of no(inf2)(sup-) concentrations against water quality variables of the si ...199716535749
differential susceptibility of aeromonads and coliforms to cefsulodin.volumn 62, no. 6, p. 1885, abstract, line 3: "for 102 of 129 aeromonas isolates" should read "for 102 of 130 aeromonas isolates." page 1887, column 1, lines 16 and 17: "and for 13 of 21 coliform isolates" should read "and for 13 of 94 coliform isolates." [this corrects the article on p. 1885 in vol. 62.].199616535434
comparison of the growth and survival of larval turbot in the absence of culturable bacteria with those in the presence of vibrio anguillarum, vibrio alginolyticus, or a marine aeromonas sp.larval turbot (scophthalmus maximus) were reared on rotifers (brachionus plicatilis) in the absence of culturable bacteria for up to 14 days and exhibited growth and high rates of survival (>55% in five experiments). low numbers of known bacteria were introduced into similar cultures by exposure of the rotifers to a suspension of bacteria prior to addition of rotifers to the larval cultures; vibrio anguillarum 91079 caused a highly significant decrease (p <0.01) in the proportion of survivors in ...199516535196
distribution of aeromonas species in the intestinal tracts of river fish.aeromonas isolates were obtained from fish intestines, water, and sediments from an urban river and identified by the dna-dna microplate hybridization method. the isolates were aeromonas veronii (22%), aeromonas caviae (18%), aeromonas hydrophila (13%), aeromonas sobria (8%), aeromonas jandaei (7%), and other aeromonas spp. (33%). aeromonas species occurred at high densities with high incidences, regardless of season. the results strongly suggest that aeromonads are indigenous in fish intestines ...199516535171
survival and activity of lux-marked aeromonas salmonicida in seawater.the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida was chromosomally marked with genes encoding bacterial luciferase, luxab, isolated from vibrio fischeri, resulting in constitutive luciferase production. during exponential growth in liquid batch culture, luminescence was directly proportional to biomass concentration, and luminometry provided a lower detection limit of approximately 10(sup3) cells ml(sup-1), 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection. in sterile s ...199516535133
xylanase iv, an exoxylanase of aeromonas caviae me-1 which produces xylotetraose as the only low-molecular-weight oligosaccharide from xylan.a novel xylanase (xylanase iv) which produces xylotetraose as the only low-molecular-weight oligosaccharide from oat spelt xylan was isolated from the culture medium of aeromonas caviae me-1. by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the xylanase iv molecular weight was 41,000. xylanase iv catalyzed the hydrolysis of oat spelt xylan, producing exclusively xylotetraose. the acid hydrolysate of the product gave d-xylose. the enzyme did not hydrolyze either p-nitrophenyl-(beta)- ...199516535010
immunostimulation of larvae and juveniles of cod, gadus morhua l.cod larval culture is currently hampered by high mortalities in the first 2-3 weeks after hatching, often due to infectious diseases. the immune system of cod is not fully competent until 2-3 months after hatching. conventional vaccination is, therefore, not of value before this time, and the larvae are wholly reliant on non-specific parameters for their defence against infection. a range of substances, generally derived from bacterial, fungal or plant origin, can activate these non-specific par ...200616533300
pre- and post-challenge immuno-haematological changes in labeo rohita juveniles fed gelatinised or non-gelatinised carbohydrate with n-3 pufa.the combined effect of dietary carbohydrate type and n-3 pufa (epa+dha) on pre- and post-challenge haemato-immunological responses in labeo rohita juveniles was studied. fish were fed for 67days with six different test diets containing either gelatinised (g) or non-gelatinised (ng) corn (43%) with three levels of n-3 pufa (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%). during the pre-challenge period, significantly higher (p<0.05) nbt, serum lysozyme activity, total protein and globulin content was recorded in the ng ca ...200616530425
the immunostimulating effect of bacterial genomic dna on the innate immune responses of bivalve mussel, hyriopsis cumingii lea.the genomic dna of escherichia coli, which contains the unmethylated cpg motif, was used to evaluate the immunostimulating effect of bacterial dna on innate immune responses in the bivalve mussel hyriopsis cumingii lea. the results showed that the e. coli dna had no significant effect on the production of superoxide anion (o(2-)) or acid phosphatase (ap) by haemocytes in vitro. however, the bactericidal activity of the haemocytes was significantly increased when the cells were incubated with 50 ...200616529949
thermal inactivation of water-borne pathogenic and indicator bacteria at sub-boiling temperatures.the use of harvested rainwater in domestic hot water systems can result in optimised environmental and economic benefits to urban water cycle management, however, the water quality and health risks of such a scenario have not been adequately investigated. thermal inactivation analyses were carried out on eight species of non-spore-forming bacteria in a water medium at temperatures relevant to domestic hot water systems (55-65 degrees c), and susceptibilities to heat stress were compared using d- ...200616524613
comparative genomics profiling of clinical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida using dna microarrays.aeromonas salmonicida has been isolated from numerous fish species and shows wide variation in virulence and pathogenicity. as part of a larger research program to identify virulence genes and candidates for vaccine development, a dna microarray was constructed using a subset of 2024 genes from the draft genome sequence of a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain a449. the microarray included genes encoding known virulence-associated factors in a. salmonicida and homologs of virulence genes of o ...200616522207
evaluation of the phoenix 100 id/ast system and nid panel for identification of enterobacteriaceae, vibrionaceae, and commonly isolated nonenteric gram-negative bacilli.the phoenix 100 id/ast system (becton dickinson co., sparks, md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. this system with its negative identification (nid) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family vibrionaceae. all of the ...200616517878
a turtle colony epizootic apparently of microbial origin. 197016512157
crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic studies of xynx, a family 10 xylanase from aeromonas punctata me-1.xylanases catalyze the hydrolysis of beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages within the xylan backbone. xynx is a xylanase from aeromonas punctata me-1 and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 10. while most xylanases show endo-type catalytic activities, xynx shows exo-like catalytic activities, selectively producing xylobiose from birchwood xylan. in this study, xynx was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group p2(1)2(1)2(1), with uni ...200516511010
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-beta-lactamase.the cpha metallo-beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. the crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (p2(1)2(1)2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 a. there is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. a data set extending to 1.8 a has been measured.200516510987
comparative susceptibility of atlantic salmon (salmo salar) to the enteric redmouth bacterium and aeromonas salmonicida.the bacterium causing enteric redmouth (erm) and aeromonas salmonicida were found to be equally pathogenic for fingerling atlantic salmon (salmo salar). injection of 5 x 10(5) cells of erm or a. salmonicida killed all salmon within 96 h. after a 30 min exposure to water-borne cells of the two test bacteria about one-half of the test salmon died within 14 days. both erm and a. salmonicida were transmitted horizontally. results indicate that efforts should be made to prevent introduction of erm in ...197616498881
epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiology of traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is the most frequent health problem in travelers to developing countries. several personal and environmental risk factors are at the basis of td acquisition and are discussed in this paper. td is caused by a wide range of infectious organisms, etec and eaec bacteria strains being the main enteropathogens incriminated in td. other causative bacteria are: shigella spp., campylobacter spp., vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., and plesiomonas spp. parasite species ...200616498258
growth of aeromonas hydrophila in the whey cheeses myzithra, anthotyros, and manouri during storage at 4 and 12 degrees c.the fresh whey cheeses myzithra, anthotyros, and manouri were inoculated with aeromonas hydrophila strain ntcc 8049 (type strain) or with an a. hydrophila strain isolated from food (food isolate) at levels of 3.0 to 5.0 x 10(2) cfu/g of cheese and stored at 4 or 12 degrees c. duplicate samples of cheeses were tested for levels of a. hydrophila and ph after up to 29 days of storage. at 4 degrees c, a. hydrophila grew in myzithra and anthotyros with a generation time of ca. 19 h, but no growth was ...200616496570
cleavage specificity of the serine protease of aeromonas sobria, a member of the kexin family of subtilases.subtilisin-like proteases have been grouped into six families based on a sequence of the catalytic domain. one of the six is the kexin family, of which furin is a representative protease. all members of the kexin family, except one, are from eukaryotes. the one prokaryotic protease is a serine protease of aeromonas sorbria (asp). here, we examined the substrate specificity of asp based on the cleavage of short peptides. the results showed that asp preferentially cleaves the peptide bond followin ...200616487335
cell surface display of chi92 on escherichia coli using ice nucleation protein for improved catalytic and antifungal activity.the gene encoding chitinase 92 (chi92) from aeromonas hydrophila jp10 has been displayed on the cell surface of escherichia coli using the n-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (inpn) as an anchoring motif. immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that chi92 was anchored on the cell surface. western blot analysis further identified the synthesis of inp derivatives containing the n-terminal domain inpn-chi92 fusion protein of the expected size (112 kda). whole cell enzyme assay indicated th ...200616487328
delayed leech-borne infection with aeromonas hydrophilia in escharotic flap wound.medicinal leeches (hirudo medicinalis) are commonly used in plastic surgery for the salvage of congested flaps and replanted parts compromised by venous congestion. infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20% [de chalain tm. exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. j reconstr microsurg 1996;12(3):165-72.1]. we describe a case of delayed leech-borne infection, from th ...200616482796
cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase gene in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea).in mammals, interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and presentation of mhc class ii-restricted antigen (ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction, thus unfolding native protein ag and facilitating subsequent cleavage by proteases. here, we reported the cloning of a gilt gene homologue from the spleen of large yellow croaker, a marine fish (lycgilt). the full-length cdna of lycgilt gene is 1033 nucleotides (nt) encod ...200616478632
occurrence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in retail prepackaged portions of marine fish in survey the presence of indigenous and nonindigenous foodborne bacterial pathogens in displayed prepacked portions of fresh marine fish.200616478492
lack of association between presentation of diarrhoeal symptoms and faecal isolation of aeromonas spp. amongst outpatients in hong kong. 200616476802
the effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (cyprinus carpio l.).the effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, cyprinus carpio. the immuno-stimulants aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, yeast dna (containing unmethylated cpg motifs) or high-m alginate (an extract of algae containing poly-mannuronic acid) were used. the effect of this treatment was studied on ...200616476554
assessment of pathogens and toxicants in new orleans, la following hurricane katrina.storm surge associated with hurricane katrina and the breach of levees protecting new orleans, louisiana allowed floodwaters from lake pontchartrain to inundate 80% of the city. environmental samples were collected during september 16-18, 2005 to determine immediate human and wildlife health hazards from pathogens and toxicants in the floodwaters. baseline information on potential long-term environmental damage resulting from contaminants in water and sediments pumped into lake pontchartrain was ...200616468391
a marine bacterium, micrococcus mccb 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.a marine bacterium, micrococcus mccb 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against vibrio alginolyticus, v. parahaemolyticus, v. vulnificus, v. fluviallis, v. nereis, v. proteolyticus, v. mediterranei, v cholerae and aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. the isolate inhibited the growth of v. alginolyticus during co-culture. the antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable a ...200516465832
identification of the major outer membrane proteins of aeromonas salmonicida.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a gram-negative bacterium that is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a serious infectious disease of salmonids. aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous waterborne bacteria responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases among aquatic organisms and humans. bacterial outer membrane proteins (omps) play a significant role in virulence as they comprise the outermost surface in contact with host cells and immune defense factors. to identify the major omps of a. salmo ...200516465831
identification of nif genes in n2-fixing bacterial strains isolated from rice fields along the yangtze river plain.the aim of this research was to identify nifh and nifhdkye ' genes in twenty strains of n2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria isolated from rice fields in the yangtze river plain. southern hybridization of the total dna from each strain was performed with the klebsiella pneumoniae nifhdkye ' gene probe (6.2 kb eco ri fragment from psa30) and the azospirillum brasilense nifh gene probe (0.6 kb eco ri-hin diii fragment from phu8). we found that eco ri fragments of total dna from aeromonas hydrophila hy ...200616463319
aerobic heterotrophic bacterial diversity in sediments of rajakkamangalam estuary, south west coast of india.the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacterial population in the sediment sample of six experimental stations (s1 to s6) at rajakkamangalam estuary was studied for a period of one year from march, 1998 to february, 1999. the important bacterial genera encountered were pseudomonas, bacillus, vibrio, escherichia, micrococcus, enterobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, shigella, klebsiella, proteus, alkaligenes, staphylococcus, citrobacter and flavobacterium. the bacterial population based on numerical ...200516459565
spontaneous bilateral bacterial empyema in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.spontaneous bacterial empyema (sbem), a rare infectious complication among liver cirrhosis patients, is characterized by infection in the presence of pleural effusion without evidence of pre-existing pneumonia. the prevalence of sbem in cirrhotic patients with hydrothorax is about 13%. however, it has previously not been reported in medical literature in patients with nephrotic syndrome. the most common microorganism identified is escherichia coli, followed by streptococcus species, enterococcus ...200616457891
mechanical transmission of pathogenic organisms: the role of cockroaches.cockroaches (diploptera punctata) are basically tropical insects and will do their best to find a home that is both warm and moist. their involvement in the transmission of tropical diseases is poorly investigated in africa.200516457381
survival of escherichia coli and aeromonas hydrophila in non-carbonated mineral water.the study was carried out on the survival of escherichia coli and aeromonas hydrophila in samples of mineral waters. enumeration of the bacteria was performed by spread inoculation of samples (0.1 cm3) over the surface of selected media in petri plates. twenty bottles (four bottles of each of the five brands) of non-carbonated mineral waters with different levels of dissolved solids and organic content were chosen to study every strain. ten bottles were stored at 4 degrees c, the other ten were ...200516457378
microbiological quality of carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water stored at different temperatures.the microbiological quality of five brands of carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water sold in poland was studied. the study was carried out on the survival of heterotrophic bacteria at 22 and 37 degrees c (pour plate technique) in the samples of mineral waters stored at 4 and 22 degrees c. the one hundred ten bottles (twenty two bottles of each of the five brands) of carbonated and uncarbonated mineral waters with different levels of dissolved solids and organic content were chosen to microo ...200516457377
antibacterial activity of plant extracts from azuki beans (vigna angularis) in vitro.this study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial property of azuki beans (vigna angularis). the water extracts of green, black and red colored azuki beans showed antibacterial effects against staphylococcus aureus, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio parahaemolyticus. in contrast, the extract of white azuki beans showed no inhibition towards any of the microorganisms examined. the extracts of colored azuki beans contained larger amounts of polyphenols including proanthocyanidins than the extra ...200616444673
dietary beta-1,3 glucan potentiates innate immunity and disease resistance of asian catfish, clarias batrachus (l.).this study investigated the effects of short and prolonged administration of a yeast beta-glucan on non-specific immune parameters, growth rate and the disease resistance of asian catfish, clarias batrachus. fish fed with a basal diet (control) and test diet (basal diet supplemented with 0.1% glucan) for 1, 2 and 3 weeks were assayed for superoxide production, serum myeloperoxidase (mpo) content, natural haemagglutinin level, complement and lysozyme activities. fish were weighed at weekly interv ...200616436120
evidence of enhanced bacterial invasion during diplostomum spathaceum infection in european grayling, thymallus thymallus (l.).farmed grayling, thymallus thymallus (l.), are susceptible to atypical aeromonas salmonicida (aas) infections. interactions between bacteria and parasites were studied using grayling subjected to concomitant exposure to aas bacteria and the digenean parasite diplostomum spathaceum. atypical as was detected from fish by a combination of bacterial cultivation and polymerase chain reaction techniques. a detection level of 17 aas cells per 100 mg intestine tissue sample was obtained. concomitant bac ...200616436118
aeromonas veronii biovar sobria bacteraemia with septic arthritis confirmed by 16s rdna pcr in an immunocompetent 81-year-old man developed septic arthritis and bacteraemia with aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. cultures of the joint wash-out fluid were negative; however, dna matching that of aeromonas veronii was identified by 16s rdna pcr. the patient was successfully treated with a 4 week course of ciprofloxacin. no recognized risk factors were found.200616434719
sequential binding of cobalt(ii) to metallo-beta-lactamase an effort to probe co(ii) binding to metallo-beta-lactamase ccra, epr, exafs, and (1)h nmr studies were conducted on ccra containing 1 equiv (1-co(ii)-ccra) and 2 equiv (co(ii)co(ii)-ccra) of co(ii). the epr spectra of 1-co(ii)-ccra and co(ii)co(ii)-ccra are distinct and indicate 5/6-coordinate co(ii) ions. the epr spectra also reveal the absence of significant spin-exchange coupling between the co(ii) ions in co(ii)co(ii)-ccra. exafs spectra of 1-co(ii)-ccra suggest 5/6-coordinate co(ii) wit ...200616430228
analysis of the lateral flagellar gene system of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3.mesophilic aeromonas strains express a polar flagellum in all culture conditions, and certain strains produce lateral flagella on semisolid media or on surfaces. although aeromonas lateral flagella have been described as a colonization factor, little is known about their organization and expression. here we characterized the complete lateral flagellar gene cluster of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 containing 38 genes, 9 of which (lafa-u) have been reported previously. among the flgll and lafa structu ...200616428388
detection of the frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated tap water samples by cultivation and ap-pcr.the frequency, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypic discrimination of aeromonas strains isolated from municipally treated drinking tap water distribution systems were investigated in this study. we have analyzed 148 tap water samples collected from 8 different locations by bacterial cultivation and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-pcr). gram negative, hemolytic, oxidase (+) and catalase (+) bacterial colonies were applied to the study. identification of bacterial colonies was ...200616427154
potential involvement of galectin-3 and snap23 in aeromonas hydrophila cytotoxic enterotoxin-induced host cell apoptosis.we investigated the potential of the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila to bind to 1869 human and 4319 yeast proteins, using protein microarray technology. act was capable of binding nine different human proteins, including the snare complex scaffolding protein synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (snap23), galectin-3, and guanylate kinase 1 (guk-1). act was also able to bind to four of the yeast proteins examined, which included the vesicle tethering protein vsp52. we verified in ...200616426811
catalytic mechanism of class b2 metallo-beta-lactamase.the initial nucleophilic substitution step of biapenem hydrolysis catalyzed by a subclass b2 metallo-beta-lactamase (cpha from aeromonas hydrophila) is investigated using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods and density functional theory. we focused on a recently proposed catalytic mechanism that involves a non-metal-binding water nucleophile in the active site of the monozinc cpha. both theoretical models identified a single transition state featuring nearly concomitant nucleo ...200616423823
[beta-lactamases of gram negative bacteria: never-ending clockwork!].the acquired resistance against the wide-spectrum and highly stable beta-lactams including third-generation cephalosporins (3gc) and carbapenems is constinuously increasing and widespead with the discovery of various plasmid-encoded, or genes cassette or integrons coding for a novel beta-lactamase, always a major mechanism of resistance. to explain resistance against 3gc, with the continuing story with tem and shv mutated enzymes, several types of esbl (class a) emerge the ctx-m type, at least c ...200616420989
interactions between peptidoglycan and the exeab complex during assembly of the type ii secretin of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila transports extracellular protein toxins via the type ii secretion system, an export mechanism comprised of numerous proteins that spans both the inner and outer membranes. two components of this secretion system, exea and exeb, form a complex in the inner membrane that functions to locate and/or assemble the exed secretin in the outer membrane. in the studies reported here, two-codon insertion mutagenesis of exea revealed that an insertion at amino acid 495 in the c-terminal ...200616420372
necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophilia in an immunocompetent child.necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive and potentially fatal infection. it is characterized by extensive subcutaneous and muscle necrosis. aeromonus hydrophilia is a gram-negative faculatively anaerobic bacillus that is part of the normal flora of nonfecal sewage and is found in most water systems, soil, and fresh brackish water. necrotizing fasciitis caused by a. hydrophilia have occurred in children who had underlying systemic diseases or immune dysfunction. we report a 14-year-old boy ...200616418613
carriage by the german cockroach (blattella germanica) of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans, in hospitals and households in tripoli, libya.using standard bacteriological procedures, 403 cockroaches (blattella germanica) collected in tripoli, from hospitals or the households surrounding the hospitals, were examined for bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans. almost all of the cockroaches (96.1% of the 253 from hospitals and 98.7% of the 150 from households) were found to be carrying potentially pathogenic bacteria, with similar mean burdens of 3.2 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) (range=0-1.4 x 10(7)) for each hospital ...200616417714
dietary administration of bovine lactoferrin influences the immune ability of the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) and its resistance against aeromonas hydrophila infection and nitrite stress.haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, agglutinin levels, total protein content, bacterial clearance efficiency, resistance to the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila and nitrite stress were measured in the giant freshwater inter-moult sub-adult prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (15-20 g) which had been fed diets containing bovine lactoferrin (lf) at 50, 100, 200mg kg(-1) feed for 7 or 14 days. m. rosenbergii fed a diet containing 100mg lf kg(-1) diet for 7 days showed significant (p<0.05) increase in ...200616413208
monitoring the zinc affinity of the metallo-beta-lactamase cpha by automated nanoesi-ms.metallo-beta-lactamases are zinc containing enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. the subclass b2 enzyme cpha of aeromonas hydrophila is a unique metallo-beta-lactamase because it degrades only carbapenems efficiently and is only active when it has one zinc ion bound. a zinc titration experiment was used to study the zinc affinity of the wild-type and of several mutant cpha enzymes. it shows that a second zn(2+) is also bound at high ion concentrations. all s ...200616406807
respiratory burst activity of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) blood phagocytes differs markedly from that of rainbow the present study we investigated the respiratory burst (rb) activity of atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) blood phagocytes and we evaluated how the rb activity of cod blood cells differ from that of trout. the rb activities were measured directly from highly diluted whole blood as luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (cl) under various conditions. studies regarding the blood dilutions for cod whole blood chemiluminescence measurements (wbcl) revealed that at a final blood dilution of 1.5 microl ...200616406251
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