does aeromonas salmonicida affect the immune system of carp, cyprinus carpio l.?aeromonas salmonicida is a significant bacterial pathogen of cyprinid and salmonid fishes causing the systemic disease furunculosis. several observations led us to believe that a. salmonicida was able to evade or suppress the immune system of the fish: injection of whole bacteria or surface antigens was unsuccessful at protecting fish against lethal challenges; memory did not develop in survivors of sublethal infections; diseased fish often carried other opportunistic bacterial pathogens in addi ...19863765353
surface antigens of virulent strains of aeromonas hydrophila.antiserum was raised in rabbits to whole cells of a representative strain from a group of a. hydrophila strains exhibiting enhanced virulence for fish. the major surface antigens of the strain were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and western blotting. the lipopolysaccharide (lps) was examined using sds-page and silver staining. it was found to possess o polysaccharide chains of homogeneous length that were highly immunogenic. the lps was conserv ...19863765354
protective efficacy of aeromonas hydrophila vaccines in nile and serum antibody production against aeromonas hydrophila was examined in nile tilapia, tilapia nilotica (l.). intraperitoneally injected formal in-killed and freunds complete adjuvant vaccines were compared using different doses (2.9 x 10(7) and 2.9 x 10(9) cfu/ml). upon challenge, the protective ability and antibody titers resulting were significantly different between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. a relative level of protection of 100% was obtained within two-weeks, and a ma ...19863765355
[hygienic basis for using fish treated with crotonolactone as human food].a hygienic evaluation has been presented of fish bred in pools and treated with commercial crotopolactone for the therapy and prevention of aeromonosis, which was not previously used for this purpose. basing on the study of the residual amounts of crotonolactone in the fish, of the organoleptic properties, chemical composition and biological value of the fish, as well as on the results of a chronic (12 months) experiment on test animals, the authors have made a conclusion on the possibility of u ...19863765543
aeromonas intestinal infections in the united evaluate the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of aeromonas enteritis, we studied the cases of 34 persons nationwide from whom aeromonas hydrophila had been isolated in large numbers from stool in 1984. compared with 68 control subjects, these patients were more likely to have drunk untreated water, usually from private wells (odds ratio = 20.9; p less than 0.01). eighteen of the isolates belonged to a single dna-relatedness group of the eight described for aeromonas species, but no clear co ...19863767148
cadmium-nickel toxicity interactions towards a bacterium, filamentous fungi, and a cultured mammalian cell line. 19863768552
improved bacterial growth test for rapid water toxicity screening. 19863768554
a modified enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for monitoring antibody production during experimental aeromonas salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) 19863770272
evidence for production of an enterotoxin and cholera toxin cross-reactive factor by aeromonas hydrophila.the enterotoxins produced by aeromonas hydrophila were examined for biological activity by the rabbit ileal loop and suckling mouse assays, as well as by elongation of cho cells. antigenic evaluation of the culture filtrates from various isolates of a. hydrophila was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with anti-cholera toxin and anti-aeromonas enterotoxin. heat stability data demonstrated the presence of a heat-labile cholera toxin cross-reactive factor and a heat stable non-cholera ...19863771756
in vitro activities of ro 19-5247 and ro 15-8074, new oral cephalosporins.the in vitro activities of two new oral cephalosporins, ro 19-5247 and ro 15-8074, were compared with the in vitro activities of cefuroxime, cefaclor, amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz), and doxycycline against a variety of bacterial species. mic50s (mics required to inhibit 50% of strains) of ro 19-5247 were less than or equal to 0.13 micrograms/ml for streptococci (except streptococcus faecalis) and haemophilus influenzae; 0.25 to 2 micrograms/ml for most strains ...19863777906
the structure of the heptose-3-deoxy-d-mannooctulosonic-acid region in a mutant form of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide.lipopolysaccharide was isolated from a phage-selected mutant of a wild strain of aeromonas salmonicida by the aqueous phenol method. the lipopolysaccharide consisted of the r form, containing per mole, three moles of l-glycero-d-manno-heptopyranose, one mole of 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid (docla) and lipid a. the docla was not fully assayable by the thiobarbituric acid methods usually used, but its degradation product was detected, after smith degradation of the lipopolysaccharide, either ...19863780744
isolation and characterization of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from natural spring waters in the lanjaron area (spain).aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from nine natural mineral water springs in the lanjaron area of spain over the period july 1980 to may 1981. the mineral waters contained few bacteria (mean counts 26-5275 cfu per 100 ml) and the bacterial flora of all nine springs was very similar. most of the isolates were gram-negative rods (90%), and among these pseudomonas spp. and members of the flavobacterium-cytophaga-flexibacter group were numerically dominant. aeromonas-vibrio and enterobac ...19863781942
the relative importance of various enteropathogens as a cause of diarrhoea in hospitalized children in chiang mai, thailand.a study of 208 children aged under 15 hospitalized with diarrhea and 108 matched controls was conducted at chiang mai university hospital, chiang mai, thailand from may 1983 to april 1984 to investigate the incidence, seasonal distribution, and causative agents of diarrhea. 1 or more enteropathogens were isolated from 121 (58%) diarrhea patients and from 32 (30%) controls. in diarrhea patients, shigella spp. were most frequently isolated (22%) followed by enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epe ...19863794260
toxin production by aeromonas spp. from different hundred and eleven isolates of aeromonas from water and from human sources were identified to species level and tested for the production of cytotoxin. these results were correlated with the source of each isolate and, for those from human faeces, with the clinical history of diarrhoea. a. caviae predominated in water, comprising 16 of 32 isolates; only one isolate from water was a. sobria. in human faecal samples 21 of 76 isolates were a. sobria; this was a significant difference. cytotoxin ...19863795251
comparison of direct plating with the use of enrichment culture for isolation of aeromonas spp. from plating of faecal specimens on blood agar was compared with the use of enrichment culture for isolation of aeromonas spp. from faeces during a large epidemiological study. of enterotoxigenic strains isolated by direct plating, 89% were associated with acute diarrhoea and 7% with an episode of diarrhoea during the month before collection, but 79% of enterotoxigenic strains isolated only after enrichment were not associated with acute diarrhoea. with aeromonas spp., as with intestinal patho ...19863795252
aeromonas hydrophila-associated diarrhea in a neonate. 19863797303
antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas species isolated from patients with vitro susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined for aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, and a. sobria isolated from feces of patients with diarrhea. the three aeromonas species shared a similar susceptibility pattern, except to cephalothin. of the oral antimicrobial agents, the quinolones, followed by chloramphenicol, were most active; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline had good but variable activity.19863800356
modified activity of aeromonas aminopeptidase: metal ion substitutions and role of substrates.aeromonas aminopeptidase contains two nonidentical metal binding sites that have been shown by both spectroscopy and kinetics to be capable of interacting with one another [prescott, j.m., wagner, f.w., holmquist, b., & vallee, b.l. (1985) biochemistry 24, 5350-5356]. the effects of metal ion substitutions on the susceptibility of the p-nitroanilides of l-alanine, l-valine, and l-leucine--substrates that are hydrolyzed at widely differing rates by native aeromonas aminopeptidase--were studied by ...19863801458
importance of aeromonas sobria in aeromonas bacteremia. 19873805781
comparative study of the biotype, hemolysin-producing capability and antibiogram of the aquatic and the clinical strains of aeromonas hundred and seventy-two aeromonas hydrophila strains were isolated from aquatic hosts including fish, turtle, frogs, shellfish and water itself. the aquatic organisms were compared with 45 clinical strains with regard to biotype, hemolysin, and antibiogram. the carrier rate of a. hydrophila in the aquatic environment was 61.7%. of the aquatic strains 51% were hemolysin producers, equivalent to a capability for producing enterotoxin. the hemolysin-producing capability of aquatic strains was n ...19863816361
adhesion of aeromonas salmonicida strains associated with net electrostatic charges of host tissue cells.the adhesion of aeromonas salmonicida, the pathogenic bacterium of fish furunculosis in salmon and trout, to the surface of host tissue cells was investigated with two fish tissue culture cell lines (rtg-2 cells from rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri, and chse-214 cells from chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and four a. salmonicida strains. bacterial cells of pathogenic strains were highly adhesive to rtg-2 and chse-214 cells and were negatively charged in the net electrostatic charges, as ...19873818093
interaction of thromboxane a2 and tissue pathology during graded bacteremia.the purpose of this study was to determine whether or not thromboxane a2 (txa2) was necessary or sufficient for the development of end-organ pathology during graded bacteremia. pulmonary artery catheters were placed in 21 adult male pigs under pentobarbital anesthesia and breathing room air. after a control period, animals were studied in four groups: group 1, anesthesia only; group 2, infusion of 1 x 10(9) ml aeromonas hydrophila which was gradually increased from 0.2 ml/kg/hr to 4.0 ml/kg/hr o ...19873820352
aeromonas-associated diarrhea in the netherlands. 19873826975
comparative electrophoretic profiles of esterases, and of glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases, from aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae and a. sobria.esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 64 aeromonas hydrophila, a. caviae and a. sobria strains, were analysed by polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by thin layer isoelectrofocusing. on the basis of the isoelectric points of malate dehydrogenase from the three species and the mobility of lactate dehydrogenase from a. sobria, 8 species specific zymotypes were defined: three for a. hydrophila strains, three for a. caviae strains and two for a. sobria strains. th ...19853831235
aeromonas hydrophila hand infection complicating an open rolando fracture: a case report. 19853831733
purpura fulminans produced by aeromonas hydrophila: a case report.a case of purpura fulminans produced by aeromonas hydrophila in a twelve year-old thai boy was reported. the patient also had aplastic anemia which facilitated the severity of disease. he died despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy.19853835694
[gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics in foods].from 154 food samples, including vegetables (lettuce), milk and meals served at school it was possible to isolate and identify 400 gram negative bacilli distributed among 339 enteric bacteria (escherichia, shigella, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia and proteus) and other 61 non enteric bacilli (acinetobacter, flavobacterium, aeromonas and pseudomonas). submitting this cultures to the drugs sulfadiazine (su), streptomycin (sm), tetracycline (tc), chloramphenicol (cm), kanamycin (km ...19853837834
acute cholecystitis due to aeromonas hydrophila. 19853864036
in-vitro activity of ofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compared to other quinolones and other antimicrobial agents.ofloxacin is a new quinolone carboxylic acid compound. its activity against 900 bacterial isolates was determined. it inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella sp., aeromonas hydrophila, salmonella spp., shigella spp., citrobacter spp., enterobacter spp., morganella morganii, proteus mirabilis, yersinia enterocolitica at less than or equal to 0.8 mg/l. branhamella catarrhalis, haemophilus sp., neisseria sp. were inhibited by less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ps ...19853865923
porphyrin binding by the surface array virulence protein of aeromonas salmonicida.congo red binding by virulent a-layer-containing (a+) and avirulent a-layer-deficient (a-) strains of aeromonas salmonicida was examined. congo red binding to a+ cells was enhanced by salt and thus hydrophobically driven, but at low congo red concentrations binding was salt independent. congo red was bound by a+ cells by a kinetically distinct mechanism (kd, 0.25 microm) which was absent in a- isogenic strains. purified a-layer protein ("a protein") protein a also bound congo red with similar af ...19853877720
yersinia enterocolitica infection in children.the role of yersinia enterocolitica as a human pathogen has been documented in publications from over 30 countries, and y. enterocolitica has been recognized increasingly to cause gastrointestinal disease in children. in 1979, an australian survey yielded only three isolates of y. enterocolitica from 3298 faecal specimens obtained from adults. we screened all stool specimens received during a 22-month period for yersinia by means of a recently developed selective agar medium. y. enterocolitica w ...19853877859
disease patterns in the detroit zoo: a study of the avian population from 1973 through 1983.a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate disease patterns in birds at the detroit zoo from 1973 through 1983. data were derived from the zoo's medical and animal census records; the mean (+/- sd) population of birds during the study period was 469 +/- 42. overall annual morbidity rates were 12.5% to 21.5%, with spring months having the highest morbidity rates. annual mortality rates were 3.1% to 15.2%; 23.9% of the deaths were caused by microbial agents (particularly erysipelothrix rhusio ...19853878351
disease patterns in the detroit zoo: a study of reptilian and amphibian populations from 1973 through 1983.a retrospective study was conducted to determine disease patterns in reptilian and amphibian populations at the detroit zoo from 1973 through 1983. in the reptilian population (mean +/- sd = 285.2 +/- 28), overall annual mortality rates were 1% to 40%. mortality rates were highest in the fall months (20%) and lowest in the winter months (6%). the most frequently affected reptiles were iguana (iguana iguana), reticulated python (python reticulatus), rattlesnakes (crotalus spp), common boa (constr ...19853878352
identification of gram-negative bacilli using the autobac idx.the autobac idx is a new system for the rapid identification of clinically significant members of the enterobacteriaceae and aeromonas, acinetobacter, alcaligenes, flavobacterium, moraxella, and pseudomonas species. the use of 18 differentially inhibitory compounds such as dyes and antibiotics along with a computerized algorithm based on a multivariate analysis provides the basis for the identification of 30 different groups of gram-negative bacilli. required preliminary tests include observatio ...19853881212
a case report: aeromonas sobria gastroenteritis in an adult.aeromonas sobria, a member of the aeromonas hydrophila group, recently has been recognized as a gastrointestinal pathogen in adults. there have been a few documented cases, and these have come from far eastern countries, namely india, thailand, and indonesia. the authors have isolated a strain of a. sobria from a 62-year-old male patient suffering from diarrheal disease. he had no history of travel outside of the united states for several decades. he presented with a severe diarrheal disease tha ...19853883745
loss of virulence in a protease-deficient mutant of aeromonas salmonicida.the importance of extracellular protease production by aeromonas salmonicida, the bacterial pathogen of fish furunculosis, was investigated with four virulent strains (which were autoagglutinative, hemagglutinative, resistant to fish serum, adhesive to fish tissue culture, protease positive, hemolysin positive, and leukocytolysin positive) and three avirulent strains (which were nonagglutinative, nonhemagglutinative, sensitive to serum, nonadhesive, protease positive, hemolysin positive, and leu ...19853884507
biochemical and exoenzymatic properties of aeromonas hundred twenty-seven isolates of aeromonas comprising the three currently recognizable species (a. hydrophila, a. sobria, and a. caviae) were evaluated for biochemical and exoenzymatic properties. aeromonas species were generally (greater than 90%) characterized as gram-negative fermentative rods that were oxidase-, catalase-, and beta-galactosidase-positive, produced arginine dihydrolase, and failed to decarboxylate ornithine. more than 95% of all isolates tested failed to grow on 6.5% salt ...19853888508
a comparative study of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, shigella, aeromonas, and vibrio as etiologies of diarrhea in northeastern thailand.the incidence of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), shigella, aeromonas, and vibrio was determined in patients with diarrhea seen at a hospital in northeastern thailand, and compared with the incidence of these bacteria in household contacts and their neighbors. etec was identified in 17%, shigella in 9%, aeromonas in 9%, v. parahaemolyticus in 5%, and non-01 v. cholerae in 2% of 299 patients with diarrhea. these five species of bacteria were isolated more often from patients with diarrhea ...19853890578
genetic and biochemical properties of aer-1, a novel carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophila.a novel carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase has been discovered in a blood isolate of aeromonas hydrophila. the enzyme resembles plasmid-determined carbenicillinases in substrate profile but differs in isoelectric point (pi 5.9) and molecular weight (22,000) and has been termed aer-1. no evidence for a plasmid location could be obtained in a. hydrophila, but the aer-1 gene and resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfonamide could be transferred by mobilization with incp plasmid ...19853890725
activation of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin by extracellular processing.a precursor-product relationship between aerolysin and a protein with a higher molecular weight was observed in culture supernatants of aeromonas hydrophila. the larger protein was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography and compared with purified aerolysin. it was at least 250 times less hemolytic than aerolysin. both proteins had the same amino acid sequence at the amino terminus. cyanogen bromide fragments obtained from the two were identi ...19853891735
etiology and epidemiology of diarrheal diseases in the united states.accurate data on the frequency of acute diarrheal illness and the distribution of pathogens are not available for several reasons, including the facts that only a small fraction of cases come to the attention of physicians and that available diagnostic tests establish an etiology in only about half of these. in a survey of three groups of patients in a community (upper-middle class and lower class outpatients and hospitalized infants), a possible cause was found in fewer than 20 percent of outpa ...19853893118
gastritis in lake tanganyika cichlids (tropheus duboisii).necrotic and granulomatous gastritis is described in lake tanganyika cichlids. clostridium hastiforme and flagellated protozoa were both associated with the reaction but the significance of either is unknown. nevertheless, treatment of surviving fish with ampicillin was carried out and mortalities ceased. the possible involvement of an unsuitable diet as a predisposing factor is discussed.19853895712
a comparison of various media in the detection of aeromonas spp. from stool samples. 19853896260
role of caseinase from aeromonas salmonicida in activation of hemolysin.mutants of the bacterial fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida selected for inability to digest casein concomitantly lost hemolytic activity against horse erythrocytes under certain conditions. mixtures of wild-type with mutant culture supernatants indicated that mutants produce an inactive precursor of a hemolysin which was activated by autogenous caseinase and, with less efficiency, by other serine proteases. selective inhibition or repression of caseinase production in the wild-type strain also ...19853897063
sch 34343: in-vitro antibacterial activity and susceptibility to beta-lactamases.the in-vitro activity of the penem sch 34343 was assessed in comparison with third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam and imipenem. sch 34343 was active, with mics generally 2 mg/1 or less, against a broad spectrum of organisms amongst which were staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant strains), streptococci (though enterococci were less susceptible with sch 34343 mics mostly 4-8 mg/1), anaerobes (including the bacteroides fragilis group), haemophilus influenzae and neisseria gonorrhoea ...19853897169
aeromonas and plesiomonas as possible causes of diarrhoea.the number of reports on the isolation of aeromonas from patients with diarrhoeal disease is now large and suggests an etiological role of the bacterium. it is well established that strains of aeromonas produce an enterotoxin. this enterotoxin is cytotonic, i.e. it does not damage the membrane, and it does not cross-react immunologically with cholera toxin and escherichia coli heat-labile (lt) toxin. most enterotoxigenic strains also produce a cytotoxic protein (hemolysin), the role of which is ...19853899944
trat gene sequences, serum resistance and pathogenicity-related factors in clinical isolates of escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria.the r6-5 plasmid-specified outer membrane protein, trat protein, has previously been shown to mediate resistance to bacterial killing by serum. colony hybridization with a 700 bp dna fragment carrying most of the trat gene was used to examine the prevalence of trat in gram-negative bacteria, particularly strains of escherichia coli, isolated from clinical specimens. trat was found in isolates of e. coli, salmonella, shigella and klebsiella, but not in pseudomonas, aeromonas or plesiomonas, nor i ...19853900279
[multicenter study of the in vitro effect of imipenem (n-formimidoyl-thienamycin) on hospital bacteria].minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) of imipenem were evaluated by agar dilution for 2 895 bacterial strains isolated in 9 hospitals. imipenem proved highly active against enterobacteriaceae, with an mic less than or equal to 0.25 for 63% of the 1 556 tested strains, less than or equal to 1 for 89.6% and less than or equal to 4 for 99%. the different groups of enterobacteriaceae exhibited similar mode mics (0.12 to 0.25), with the exception of serratia (0.25-0.5), p. mirabilis (0.5), indole- ...19853911142
thromboxane, prostacyclin, and the hemodynamic effects of graded bacteremic shock.this study investigates the interaction of thromboxane, prostacyclin, and the hemodynamic dysfunction of graded bacteremia. arterial, venous, and pulmonary artery catheters were inserted into eight adult female pigs under barbiturate anesthesia. after a 60-min control period aeromonas hydrophila (1.0 x 10(9)/ml) was infused intravenously at 0.2 ml/kg/hr, increasing gradually to 4.0 ml/kg/hr at 4 hr. hemodynamic measurements, blood gases, and radioimmunoassay of thromboxane b2 (txb) and prostagla ...19853915237
[the "water vibrio" of puntoni in the waters of castellammare di stabia]. 19853915350
[campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni, aeromonas hydrophila, helicoidal bacteria and coronavirus in the murine intestine].intestinal contents of 28 laboratory-bred white mice and 6 wild-caught rats were extracted and observed with phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy; cultures were made in butzler agar and aeromonas, incubated in microaerobiosis, at 37 degrees c for 5 days. in three mice and two rats, helicoidal bacteria were observed, with 8 to 11 periplasmic fibers and terminal branches of 8 to 11 structures, similar to flagella. in one of the rats, coronavirus-like particles were observed. campylo ...19853916393
resistance patterns of nonfermentative gram-negative rods and aeromonads to beta-lactam antibiotics: a diagnostic aid.consistent resistance to certain antimicrobial agents has in the past been of help in the diagnosis of nonfermentative gram-negative rods. in order to establish patterns of consistent resistance to 15 mostly newer betalactam antibiotics, 561 strains of such organisms plus aeromonas and plesiomonas were tested with the kirby-bauer method and also against the selective agent c-390 in three concentrations in mueller-hinton agar. no species-specific patterns emerged but the resistance data can be us ...19853925660
the in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of cefpirome (hr 810), a pyridine cephalosporin agent active against staphylococci, enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonas aeruginosa.the in vitro activity of cefpirome, a new cyclopyridinium cephalosporin, was evaluated against 947 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. cefpirome inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., citrobacter diversus, morganella morganii, proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis, aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., shigella spp. and haemophilus and neisseria species at less than or equal to 0.4 mg/l. it had activity comparable to that of cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and moxalactam again ...19853928497
congo red agar, a differential medium for aeromonas salmonicida, detects the presence of the cell surface protein array involved in virulence.strains of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida which possess the cell surface protein array known as the a-layer (a+) involved in virulence formed deep red colonies on tryptic soy agar containing 30 micrograms of congo red per ml. these were readily distinguished from colorless or light orange colonies of avirulent mutants lacking a-layer (a-). the utility of congo red agar for quantifying a+ and a- cells in the routine assessment of culture virulence was demonstrated. intact a+ cells adsorb ...19853934141
identification of hydroxy fatty acids in aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, and aeromonas caviae.gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters obtained from clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila, a. sobria, and a. caviae revealed the presence of two hydroxy fatty acid species, 3-oh 12:0 and 3-oh 14:0.19853934208
in vitro activities of the quinolone antimicrobial agents a-56619 and a-56620.the in vitro activities of two new quinolone antimicrobial agents, a-56619 and a-56620, were compared with those of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other antimicrobial agents. the activity of a-56620 was comparable to that of ciprofloxacin against escherichia coli, enterobacter cloacae, and aeromonas hydrophila (mics for 90% of the strains were less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml); acinetobacter anitratus and staphylococcus aureus (mic for 90% of the strains was 0.5 micrograms/ml); and most ...19853935046
[studies of aeromonas spp. isolated from patients with sporadic diarrhea]. 19853936889
effects of paraquat and glyphosate on growth, respiration, and enzyme activity of aquatic bacteria. 19863940567
[the significance of various aeromonas species in the feces of patients with and without diarrhea]. 19863951634
mercury resistant bacteria isolated from sediment. 19863955253
two patterns in the aeromonas salmonicida a-layer may reflect a structural transformation that alters permeability.electron micrographs of negatively stained regular surface layers (a-layers) of aeromonas salmonicida showed two square patterns having p4 symmetry. computer image processing demonstrated that, at a resolution of 2.3 nm, both square arrays were composed of two different morphological units arranged alternatively to give a face-centered lattice in which the four nearest neighbors of each unit were the other type of unit. the lattice constant was slightly but significantly different in the two pat ...19863957865
prevalence, species differentiation, and toxigenicity of aeromonas strains in cases of childhood gastroenteritis and in a 1-year period (january to december 1984), aeromonas strains were isolated from feces of 21 of 561 (3.7%) children with gastroenteritis and from 12 of 576 (2.1%) children without intestinal disturbances (controls). the difference between the two isolation rates was not significant (x2 = 2.2; p greater than 0.05). in five cases of illness other intestinal pathogens were isolated together with aeromonas in the same stool sample. a total of 39 aeromonas strains were detected since in some cases ...19863958147
focal hepatic necrosis in young ferrets infected with aeromonas species. 19863959372
nosocomial pneumonia due to a. hydrophila. 19863960539
heme requirement for growth of fastidious atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida.the growth of fastidious atypical strains of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida on both solid and liquid media was dependent specifically on a source of heme which was apparently required for initiation of growth at low inoculum densities. thus, hemin enhanced the plating efficiencies of such strains on solid medium and significantly reduced their inoculum-size-dependent lag times in broth. the heme requirement could also be satisfied by hematoporphyrin and, less effectively, by hemoglobin. ...19863963814
phospholipids and lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila.the phospholipids and lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila were characterized. phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major phospholipid components. the outer membrane contained more phosphatidylethanolamine and less phosphatidylglycerol than the inner membrane, and the phospholipids of the outer membrane contained a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. only four fatty acids (c14:0, c16:0, c16:1, and c18:1) were found in the phospholipids. the lipopolysaccharide ...19853968030
immunological and structural relatedness of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferases and the anabolic enzymes of enterobacteria.purified catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase of pseudomonas putida and anabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (argf product) of escherichia coli k-12 were used to prepare antisera. the two specific antisera gave heterologous cross-reactions of various intensities with bacterial catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferases formed by pseudomonas and representative organisms of other bacterial genera. the immunological cross-reactivity observed only between the catabolic ornithine carbamoyltrans ...19853968036
invasion of hep-2 cells by fecal isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.human diarrheal isolates of aeromonas hydrophila were found to be invasive in hep-2 cell monolayers. microscopic examination of two isolates from patients with symptoms of dysentery revealed that infected hep-2 cells contained up to 50 bacteria localized within areas of the cytoplasm. a quantitative invasion assay was developed, using viable counts of total intracellular bacteria. five fecal isolates of a. hydrophila were classified as invasive, with an average of 0.1 up to 2 bacteria per hep-2 ...19853972447
protein export by a gram-negative bacterium: production of aerolysin by aeromonas hydrophila.the synthesis and export of aerolysin, an extracellular protein toxin released by the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila, was studied by pulse-labeling with [35s]methionine. the toxin was synthesized as a higher-molecular-weight precursor. this was processed cotranslationally, resulting in the appearance within the cell of the mature protein, which was then exported to the supernatant. precursor aerolysin accumulated in cells incubated in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl ...19853972770
pathogenicity of aeromonas.the ability of 15 aeromonas sobria and 9 aeromonas hydrophila isolates to cause subcutaneous lesions was tested. an inoculum of 10(11) colony forming units/l was injected subcutaneously into mice. surviving animals developed a subcutaneous abscess and/or localised skin sloughing and loss of hair (alopecia). an abscess was induced by all nine a. hydrophila isolates and by three of the 15 a. sobria isolates. the induction of local epidermal sloughing and loss of hair followed challenge with either ...19853981022
methods for the detection of haemagglutinins in aeromonas.when grown in specified conditions and tested by a rocked-tile method, 40 of 41 isolates of two species of aeromonas formed simultaneously at least two haemagglutinins among which were: (i) a mannose-sensitive haemagglutinins with strongest activity for guinea-pig or fowl red cells, formed by all of 31 isolates of a. hydrophila and 9 of 10 isolates of a. punctata ss. caviae; (ii) a haemagglutinin, sensitive to l-fucose or d-mannose, that reacted with human red cells and which was formed by all 4 ...19853981614
aeromonas hydrophila--an accepted enterotoxigenic "neoenteropathogen"? 19853989329
biochemical and immunological characterization of the cell surface of the fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida.the identification of lipopolysaccharide as periodic acid-schiff positive material, present in the membrane fraction of the fish pathogenic gram-negative bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is shown. such analysis has revealed several periodic acid-schiff positive bands and many membrane proteins among which a pathogenicity-related mr 54000 protein as a constituent of an additional surface layer outside the outer membrane (evenberg et al., (1982) ...19853995026
humoral response and memory formation in carp after injection of aeromonas hydrophila bacterin.the humoral immune response of carp (cyprinus carpio) upon a bacterial fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila was studied in relation to memory formation. after a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of formalin killed a. hydrophila cells (f-ah), maximum serum ab (ab) titers were observed at day 20. distinct titers were still seen at day 360 in the groups injected with a medium or high antigen (ag) dose (10(7) respectively 10(9) f-ah). the effect of a second immunization with a high ag dose was stu ...19853996709
[spontaneous aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in the cirrhotic. apropos of 2 cases]. 19854001643
comparative in vitro activities of selected antimicrobial agents against aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides.the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal isolates of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, and plesiomonas shigelloides were tested by agar dilution. this in vitro study suggested that ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole might be effective oral agents for treatment of diarrhea involving aeromonas spp. or p. shigelloides.19854004196
clinical and microbiological features of aeromonas hydrophila-associated diarrhea.the prevalence of aeromonas hydrophila in stool specimens from patients with diarrhea was studied during 18 months. a. hydrophila was found in 1.1% of patients with diarrhea and in none of 533 control patients (p less than 0.02). cases were detected 1.5 times more often during the summer months than the winter months, and most occurred in children less than 2 years of age. clinical features included fever greater than 38 degrees c (55%), abdominal cramps (35%), vomiting (25%), and duration of il ...19854008621
rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family enterobacteriaceae.a method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family enterobacteriaceae is described. flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. this scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of salmonella, shige ...19854008622
comparison of the cathra repliscan ii, the automicrobic system gram-negative general susceptibility-plus card, and the micro-media system fox panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.a comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the cathra repliscan ii agar dilution system (diagnostic equipment, inc., st. paul, minn.), the automicrobic system with gram-negative general susceptibility-plus card (vitek systems, inc., hazelwood, mo.), and the micro-media fox panel micro broth dilution system (micro-media systems, inc., san jose, calif.) in determining mics of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of ...19854008625
[gram-negative nonfermenting bacteria in respiratory tract infections]. 19854010380
isolation of aeromonas species from animals. 19854018073
invasiveness of aeromonas spp. in relation to biotype, virulence factors, and clinical features.of 69 fecal isolates of aeromonas spp., 18 had the ability to invade hep-2 cells. invasiveness correlated with biotype; of the 18 invasive strains, 16 were a. sobria and 2 were a. hydrophila. no invasive strains were found among the a. caviae. of the 18 invasive strains, 13 were enterotoxigenic. of the enterotoxigenic and invasive strains, 12 were a. sobria, but enterotoxicity was also more common among noninvasive strains of a. sobria. fucose-resistant hemagglutination was also more common in a ...19854019741
the antagonism of tetracycline and ferric iron in test the hypothesis that the in-vivo antibiotic action of tetracycline might be affected by ferric iron and the enhancement of infection by ferric iron by tetracycline, the actions of intraperitoneal antibiotic and local ferric ammonium citrate, given separately and together, were measured in the dorsal skin of guinea-pigs bearing lesions due to staphylococci, streptococci, a proteus sp., an erysipelothrix sp., clostridium perfringens, pseudomonas aeruginosa, aeromonas hydrophila and klebsiel ...19854020849
bacteremia caused by aeromonas species in hospitalized cancer patients.bacteremia caused by aeromonas species occurred in 24 hospitalized patients in a cancer institute during a 13-year period. all but one of these patients had a malignancy (88% had leukemia), and most were receiving chemotherapy for cancer. there was a striking numerical predominance of male patients (82%). unlike some previously described patients with infections due to this organism, none of these 24 patients had recently been exposed to fresh or salt water or to fish. the source of the infectin ...19854023526
a transition-state-analog inhibitor influences zinc-binding by aeromonas aminopeptidase.the transition-state-analog inhibitor, 1-butaneboronic acid, markedly enhances the uptake of one g-atom of zn2+ ions from a metal ion buffer system by zn-depleted aeromonas aminopeptidase. in contrast, a substrate-analog inhibitor, n-valeramide, does not perturb the equilibrium between zn2+ ions and the enzyme in a metal ion buffer system. these results establish a role for metal ions in the binding of 1-butaneboronic acid to aeromonas amino-peptidase and strongly imply that a bound zn2+ ion int ...19854026862
salmonellae and pollution indicator bacteria in municipal and food processing effluents and the cornwallis river.a study was conducted to determine the incidence of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, aeromonas hydrophilia, and salmonella spp. in the waste discharges of seven sewage treatment plants, four fruit and vegetable canneries, a meat packing plant, a poultry processing plant, and a potato processing plant located along the cornwallis river in nova scotia, canada. surface water samples were also collected from 13 locations in the river to assess the impact of these waste discharges on the receivin ...19854027779
bacteria in bivalve shellfish with special reference to the oyster.the bacterial flora of the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas, the sea mussel perna viridis and the arkshell clam scapharca cornea differed considerably from that of seawater in both numbers and generic composition. the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in the bivalve shellfish, including the anaerobes and spore-forming bacteria, were greater than that in the surrounding water. pseudomonas spp. were the dominant organisms, comprising over one third of the 321 strains characterized after isolation ...19854030530
[amino acid composition of white poultry meat contaminated with psychrophilic microorganisms].studied was the effect of psychrophilic organisms of the acinetobacter, aeromonas, alcaligenes, and flavobacter genera on the amino acid composition of white poultry meat stored at 0 degrees to 4 degrees c in the course of 48 hours, and at 18 degrees c in the course of 6 to 12 months. the quantitative determination of individual amino acids was carried out by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer, hitachi type, after the method of speckman, stein, and moore. no changes were established in th ...19854035999
in vitro susceptibilities of aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, and aeromonas caviae to 22 antimicrobial agents.mics of 22 antimicrobial agents for 60 strains of three aeromonas species were determined by a microdilution method. the newer cephalosporins such as moxalactam, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone, the aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole inhibited most of the strains studied. within the genus, a. hydrophila was more resistant than either a. caviae or a. sobria to the antibiotics tested.19854037775
immunity to aeromonas salmonicida in coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) induced by modified freund's complete adjuvant: its non-specific nature and the probable role of macrophages in the phenomenon.juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch), vaccinated with one intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed virulent aeromonas salmonicida cells suspended in saline, showed increased protection against approximately one ld60 of homologous challenge administered at 30 days post-vaccination. under similar conditions, coho vaccinated with a modified complete freund's adjuvant (mfca) alone were also equally protected. when measured against a more severe a. salmonicida challenge of approximately on ...19854043481
demonstration of cholera toxin-related factor in cultures of aeromonas species by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the production of toxins by aeromonas species was examined by the suckling mouse test, the hemolysin test, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with anticholera enterotoxin. a factor that was immunologically related to cholera enterotoxin was produced by 5 of 14 strains of aeromonas hydrophila and 4 of 15 strains of aeromonas sobria. analysis by these assays and by a test for heat stability suggested that the factor differed from hemolysin and from toxin that was active in the suckling mous ...19854044041
lack of correlation between known virulence properties of aeromonas hydrophila and enteropathogenicity for humans.five strains of aeromonas hydrophila were selected for use in volunteer challenge trials. all five strains produced cytotoxin, hemolysin enterotoxin, lysine decarboxylase, acetylmethylcarbinol, and dnase. two strains hydrolyzed esculin. all strains produced purulent hemorrhagic fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops, but failed to induce keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs. none of the strains produced mannose-resistant hemagglutinins. in challenge studies, diarrhea was demonstrated in only 2 ...19854044042
the purification and some properties of h-lysin from aeromonas salmonicida.h-lysin from aeromonas salmonicida has been purified 1770-fold by freeze fractionation, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. the purified material was predominantly h-lysin, devoid of detectable t-lysin, caseinase or gelatinase activity, although glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) activity was present. the results suggested that h-lysin and gcat activities were due to different extracellular products. studies of the ...19854045422
clinical predictors of acute bacterial diarrhea in young children.this prospective study assessed the value of presenting history, physical examination, and screening laboratory tests in predicting whether diarrhea in a young child is associated with a stool culture positive for a bacterial pathogen. acutely ill children less than 4 years old were studied in a hospital outpatient setting. two hundred patients were seen in a 9 1/2-month period, which encompassed the seasons of summer, fall, and winter. one hundred ninety-five patients had cultures completed and ...19854047797
[metabolic traits of plesiomonas shigelloides strains isolated from children with acute enteritis]. 19854048753
unfamiliar bacteria isolated from cats. 19854049692
comparison of api 20e, api rapid e, and api rapid nft for identification of members of the family vibrionaceae.sixty isolates, from nine species of the family vibrionaceae, were tested by the api 20e, api rapid e, and api rapid nft systems. results were compared with those obtained with standard biochemicals. included were 7 aeromonas caviae isolates, 27 aeromonas hydrophilia isolates, 10 aeromonas sobria isolates, 3 plesiomonas shigelloides isolates, 3 vibrio alginolyticus isolates, 3 vibrio cholerae isolates, 1 vibrio fluvialis isolate, 5 vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates, and 1 vibrio vulnificus isolat ...19854056003
cephalothin susceptibility as a potential marker for the aeromonas sobria group.fifty-four motile aeromonas strains, composing the three currently recognizable species, were tested for susceptibility to cephalothin by broth dilution and disk agar diffusion assays. cephalothin susceptibility was significantly associated with aeromonas sobria (p less than 0.001) and may be an additional phenotypic marker useful in the identification of this species.19854056009
media for the isolation of aeromonas hydrophila.isolation rates of aeromonas hydrophila from stool samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were examined for several common enteric media. sheep blood agar with 10 micrograms of ampicillin per ml, preceded by overnight enrichment in alkaline peptone water, yielded 2.6 times the number of isolates as the other media examined and is recommended for the isolation of a. hydrophila from humans.19854056015
recurrent aeromonas hydrophila septicemia, a case report. 19854056647
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