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species identification of clinically important aeromonas spp. by restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s rdna.the aim of the study was to characterize 16s rdna of aeromonas spp. to rapidly identify clinically important species of these bacteria.200717451524
dominant pathogenic species of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from diseased and healthy fish cultured in poland.aeromonas isolates were collected from cultured fish, characterized phenotypically and identified to species using 16s rdna. the pathogenicity of all isolates was assayed on the basis of haemolytic and proteolytic activity and challenge tests were performed for isolates from healthy fish. a total of 131 aeromonas isolates were obtained and identified as follows: a. hydrophila (13), a. bestiarum (23), a. salmonicida (motile biogroup) (19), a. caviae (2), a. sobria (18), a. veronii bt. sobria (42) ...200717501739
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in naturally- and laboratory-challenged farmed haddock, melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.). 200717501741
[hirudo medicinalis-leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery--a literature review].medical leech therapy has enjoyed a renaissance in the world of reconstructive microsurgery during recent years. especially venous congestion is decreased using hirudo medicinalis application such as following replantation of amputated fingers or congested flaps. they provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. living in symbiosis with aeromonas hydrophila, who can digest the sixfold blood meal related to their body weight, and a broad number of ant ...200717497605
bacterial symbionts in the hepatopancreas of isopods: diversity and environmental transmission.the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods contain bacterial symbionts. we analysed the phylogenetic diversity of hepatopancreatic bacteria in isopod species from various suborders colonizing marine, semiterrestrial, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. hepatopancreatic bacteria were absent in the marine isopod idotea balthica (valvifera). the symbiotic bacteria present in the midgut glands of the freshwater isopod asellus aquaticus (asellota) were closely related to members of th ...200717506824
multiplex-pcr for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, flavobacterium columnare, edwardsiella ictaluri, and aeromonas hydrophila.a multiplex pcr (m-pcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. the m-pcr to amplify target dna fragments from flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. the lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-pcr reaction mixture. the sensitivity ...200717465305
wound infection and septic shock due to aeromonas trota in a patient with liver cirrhosis. 200717479957
aeromonas infection in critically ill burn patients.aeromonas infection in burn patients is extremely uncommon. here we report on four cases of aeromonas infection in burn patients admitted to the bicu at the singapore general hospital burn unit between june 2001 and may 2006. two patients had positive blood cultures, and the other two had tissue samples with growth. there was no history of exposure to soil or fresh water in all patients. the average age of patients was 35 years (range 24-41) and the average % tbsa was 48% (range 35-80). cultures ...200717521817
cystitis caused by aeromonas caviae.aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. we report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by a. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.200717522269
quantitative detection of aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time pcr using self-quenched, fluorogenic primers.in this study a real-time pcr assay using self-quenched primers labelled with a single fluorophore for the detection of aeromonas salmonicida was developed. probe specificity was confirmed by amplification of 16 a. salmonicida strain templates and by the lack of a pcr product with 26 non-a. salmonicida strains. with a pure culture of a. salmonicida, the assay was linear over a range of 0.5 pg to 50 ng and was able to detect 16 c.f.u. per reaction. a similar sensitivity was observed in dna extrac ...200717314361
assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.a new aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, roundup, in the albufera lake, a protected area near valencia. viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between a. caviae counts of viability m ...200717270238
aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs.a polyphasic study was performed to determine the taxonomic position of two aeromonas strains, 665n and 868e(t), isolated from bivalve molluscs, that could not be identified at the species level in a previous numerical taxonomy study. the dna g+c content of these isolates was 62.3 and 62.6 mol%, respectively. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene showed that the two new strains were closely related to members of the genus aeromonas. fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprin ...200717329789
quantitative analysis of organ tissue damage after septic shock.the objective of this study was to quantify end-organ damage caused by bacteremic sepsis. twelve adult swine were divided into two groups. the anesthesia control group (n = 6) received general anesthesia for 4 hours. the septic shock group (n = 6) received an infusion of aeromonas hydrophila under general anesthesia for 4 hours. swine were sacrificed at the end of the 4-hour procedure. tissues from lungs, kidneys, livers, and hearts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. images of tissues were ...200717375779
a stochastic modelling approach to describing the dynamics of an experimental furunculosis epidemic in chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).a susceptible-infected-removed (sir) stochastic model was compared to a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed (slir) stochastic model in terms of describing and capturing the variation observed in replicated experimental furunculosis epidemics, caused by aeromonas salmonicida. the epidemics had been created by releasing a single infectious fish into a group of susceptible fish (n = 43) and progress of the epidemic was observed for 10 days. this process was replicated in 70 independent groups. th ...200717298564
antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms.the aims of this study were: (i) to determine the proportions of aeromonas spp. resistant to florfenicol (fc), oxolinic acid (oa) and oxytetracycline (otc) along a river receiving effluents from fish farms, and (ii) to assess the relevance of using this bacterial group as an indicator for studying the consequences of the use and release of these aquacultural antimicrobials in the freshwater environment, as compared with performing antimicrobial measurements in sediments.200717381761
serum antibody response of indian major carp, labeo rohita to three species of pathogenic bacteria; aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens.the immune response to mixed whole cell antigens of aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens, the common gram negative bacterial pathogens associated with diseases of indian major carps were evaluated for their efficacy in triggering antibody responses in rohu, labeo rohita (ham.). the rohu yearlings were either immunized with antigens from single bacterial strain, a. hydrophila, e. tarda and p. fluorescens or a combination of all three. an antibody response was detec ...200717383016
quorum-sensing-dependent switch to butanediol fermentation prevents lethal medium acidification in aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n.aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n shows biphasic growth in glucose containing broth at 30 degrees c. the first phase is characterized by strong acidification, while the second phase is accompanied by an increase in medium ph. disruption of ahl production by knockout of ahyi did not affect the first growth phase, but resulted in further acidification which completely blocked the second growth phase and even caused cell death. the block could be relieved by addition of 5 microm (or less) synthetic n-buta ...200717408926
culturable and vbnc vibrio cholerae: interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population.vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. recently, it was found that chironomid (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible windborne carriers of v. cholerae non-o1 non-o139. chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. females deposit egg masses at the water's edge, and each egg mass contains eggs embedded in a gelatinous matrix. hemagglu ...200717186156
contribution of ahyr to virulence of aeromonas hydrophila j-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a broad-host-range pathogen and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. a regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing has been found to be involved in the regulation of virulence in many bacteria. in a. hydrophila the ahyr gene encodes luxr-type response regulator. here we describe the inactivation of the ahyr gene of a. hydrophila j-1 by the insertion of a dna fragment containing a kanamycin resistance determinant and reintroduced by allelic exchange into the chromosome of ...200717383694
bacterial-binding activity and plasma concentration of ladderlectin in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).soluble, defense lectins bind conserved microbial patterns leading to pathogen opsonization, enhanced phagocytosis and activation of complement. these immune functions, however, vary widely among individuals due to genetic and acquired differences affecting binding capacity or plasma concentration. most evidence for the defensive function of soluble lectins is based on mammals, but several functionally homologous, but less well-characterized, lectins have been identified in fish. in this study, ...200717383895
vaccination against atypical furunculosis and winter ulcer disease of fish.atypical furunculosis is a problem in farming of salmonids and various other fish species caused by a heterogeneous group of atypical aeromonas salmonicida strains. winter ulcer is a disease of salmonids and cod caused by moritella viscosa, but a number of fish species are susceptible to the infection. vaccines are available against atypical furunculosis of salmonids, but their efficacy is dependent on the characteristics of the infective strain. vaccines for non-salmonid fish are currently not ...200717367897
screening of genes involved in chitinase production in aeromonas caviae cb101 via transposon mutagenesis.to find genes involved in chitinase production in chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas caviae cb101.200717309612
immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles due to dietary gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch.a 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (g) and non-gelatinized (ng) starch on immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles. two hundred and thirty four juveniles (av. wt. 2.53+/-0.04) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. six semi-purified diets containing ng and g corn starch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100) were prepared viz., t(1) (100% ng, 0% g starch), t(2) (80% ng, 20% g starch), t(3) ( ...200717383896
[extraintestinal infection due to aeromonas spp.: review of 38 cases].aeromonas spp. typically cause gastroenteritis, but can occasionally produce extraintestinal infections. the aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of extraintestinal infections caused by aeromonas spp. in our area.200717386217
non-structural flagella genes affecting both polar and lateral flagella-mediated motility in aeromonas hydrophila.an aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 minitn5 mutant unable to produce polar and lateral flagella was isolated, in which the transposon was inserted into a gene whose encoded protein was an orthologue of the campylobacter jejuni motility accessory factor (maf) protein. in addition to this gene, several other related genes were found in this cluster that was adjacent to the region 2 genes of the polar flagellum. mutation of the a. hydrophila ah-3 maf-2, neub-like, flmd or neua-like genes resulted in non-m ...200717379726
insertion of a homing endonuclease creates a genes-in-pieces ribonucleotide reductase that retains function.in bacterial and phage genomes, coding regions are sometimes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins, which can encode mobility-promoting homing endonucleases. homing endonuclease genes are also found free-standing (not intron- or intein-encoded) in phage genomes where they are inserted in intergenic regions. one example is the hnh family endonuclease, mobe, inserted between the large (nrda) and small (nrdb) subunit genes of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) of t-even phages t4, rb2 ...200717395719
gene structure of an antimicrobial peptide from mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi (basilewsky), suggests that moronecidins and pleurocidins belong in one family: the piscidins.the gene of piscidin, an antimicrobial peptide, has been cloned from the mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi. from the first transcription initiation site, the mandarin fish piscidin gene extends 1693 nucleotides to the end of the 3' untranslated region and contains four exons and three introns. a predicted 79-residue prepropeptide consists of three domains: a signal peptide (22 aa), a mature peptide (22 aa) and a c-terminal prodomain (35 aa). the shortage of xqq motif in the prodomain of mandarin ...200717498177
phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria and their adhesive capability in relation to the intestinal mucus of carp.the aims of the present study are to characterize the intestinal microbial community displaying a high-adhesive capability in fish, and to evaluate the relationship between mucosal adhesion of intestinal bacteria and fish health and disease.200717448166
characterization of a catalase gene from aeromonas veronii, the digestive-tract symbiont of the medicinal leech.the catalase gene kata of the medicinal leech symbiont aeromonas veronii bv. sobria was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. southern hybridization, using an a. veronii kata-specific hybridization probe, suggested the presence of a single gene copy in many aeromonas species. a. veronii kata consisted of 1446 nt encoding a protein with a high degree of similarity to the small-subunit group iii bacterial catalases. a catalase-null mutant (jg186) was constructed through gene-replaceme ...200717526846
issues for microbial regulation: aeromonas as a model.the decision by public health agencies to regulate specific microorganisms that may be found in drinking water can only be made if specific criteria find that a microorganism poses a health risk. these criteria should include: (1) there is a clinical history of an organism causing disease from the ingestion of drinking water; (2) there is epidemiological evidence that drinking water rather than food or other vectors is a major source of disease; (3) there is sufficient evidence that the target o ...200717453931
interaction between innate immune cells and a bacterial type iii secretion system in mutualistic and pathogenic associations.animals house a community of bacterial symbionts in their digestive tracts that contribute to their well being. the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, has a remarkably simple gut population carrying two extracellular microbes in the crop where the ingested blood is stored. this simplicity renders it attractive for studying colonization factors. aeromonas veronii, one of the leech symbionts, can be genetically manipulated and is a pathogen of mammals. screening transposon mutants of a. veronii for ...200717517651
association of bacteria with metacercarial cysts of echinostoma caproni.echinostoma caproni metacercarial cysts often need to be stored for several months to a year to meet laboratory requirements. this study examined the bacteria associated with encysted metacercariae stored at 4 degrees c. bacterial assemblages from the kidney-pericardial region of uninfected snails and assemblages from the site of metacercarial infection in biomphalaria glabrata were determined. four species of gram-negative rods were isolated and identified from the stored cysts to species or ge ...200717483963
microbial and clinical determinants of time-to-positivity in patients with bacteraemia.time-to-positivity is useful in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteraemia and as a predictor of an endovascular source in patients with staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. however, this parameter has been evaluated for only a limited number of microorganisms. in the present study, time-to-positivity was recorded for 1872 episodes of significant monomicrobial bacteraemia diagnosed at a teaching hospital during a 2-year period, and the associated microbial and clinical variables were investigat ...200717484763
global trade in ornamental fish from an australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into australia alone. compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the sanitary and phytosanitary ( ...200717485126
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (cyprinus carpio l.) by oral administration of humus extract.humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. in the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection. mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treat ...200717485929
sampling bias created by ampicillin in isolation media for aeromonas.members of the bacterial genus aeromonas are widely isolated from aquatic environments and studied in part for their ability to act as opportunistic pathogens in a variety of animals. all aeromonads, with the exception of aeromonas trota, are generally thought to be resistant to ampicillin, so the antibiotic is frequently added to isolation medium as a selective agent. in this study, 282 aeromonads from environmental sources were isolated on a medium without ampicillin and their resistance to am ...200717496948
importance of flagella and enterotoxins for aeromonas virulence in a mouse model.a genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaa/flab, flag), lateral flagella (lafa), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. when 16 aeromonas hydrophila strains, seven aeromonas veronii strains, and seven aeromonas caviae strains exhibiting different combinations of virulence factor genes were tested in immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal inj ...200717496975
use of the novel phylogenetic marker dnaj and dna-dna hybridization to clarify interrelationships within the genus aeromonas.the interrelationships of 27 aeromonas strains were investigated using dnaj sequences and dna-dna hybridization. dnaj sequence similarities showed a stronger relationship with dna-dna relatedness values than did 16s rrna gene sequence similarities. additionally, dnaj sequence analysis, with interspecies divergence over 5.2 % in most cases, gave better resolution than 16s rrna gene sequences for the differentiation of strains at the species level. relationships among aeromonas species were theref ...200717551035
characterization of aeromonas caviae and a. veronii by standardized cellular protein electrophoretic patterns.aeromonas caviae and a. veronii recovered from clinical and environmental samples were characterized by sds-page of whole cell proteins. all strains were typable and showed unique banding patterns. a high intra-specific diversity within these two microorganisms was revealed. separation of the polish strains from the hong-kong isolates was observed. a. caviae and a. veronii were not distinguishable with respect to their ecological origin. however, strains with very similar protein patterns could ...200717571798
the role of c-di-gmp signaling in an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strain.aeromonas is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium that persists in the environment. it is shown that all isolates of persistent aeromonas clones show strong biofilm formation ability. c-di-gmp regulates biofilm formation in many bacteria. to investigate the impact of c-di-gmp signaling, we introduced heterologous ggdef and eal domain proteins from salmonella typhimurium to an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strain. overexpression of the ggdef domain protein adra increased c-di-gmp concentration ...200717573931
controversial data on the association of aeromonas with diarrhoea in a recent hong kong study. 200717577068
gamma study of ph, nitrite, and salt inhibition of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis states that there are no interactions between antimicrobial environmental factors. the time to growth of aeromonas hydrophila challenged with ph, nano(2), and salt combinations at 30 degrees c was investigated. data were examined using a model based on the gamma hypothesis (the gamma model), which takes into account variance-stabilizing transformations and which gives biologically relevant parameters. at high concentrations of nano(2) and at phs of >6.0, the antimicrobial ac ...200717293519
immune response in the tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to tannery effluent.the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent (te) on the specific immune response and nonspecific immunity in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. the effluent from the tannery was collected directly from a chrome-tanning factory situated in dindigul district, tamil nadu, india. apart from chromium (88.2 ppm), the effluent contained appreciable amount of calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. groups of fish (45-50 g) we ...200717261332
spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech.the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, is one of the simplest naturally occurring models for digestive-tract symbioses, where only two bacterial species, aeromonas veronii bv. sobria (gamma-proteobacteria) and a rikenella-like bacterium (bacteroidetes), colonize the crop, the largest compartment of the leech digestive tract. in this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes of the localization and microcolony structure of the native symbionts in the crop, after ingestion of a sterile blo ...200717277211
characterization of aeromonas virulence using an immunocompromised mouse model.an immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. a total of 34 isolates of aeromonas (a. hydrophila [n = 12]), a. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], a. caviae [n = 4], a. enchelia [n = 4], a. allosaccharophila [n = 2], a. salmonicida (n = 4), and a. bestiarum [n = 1]) were introduced by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompetent or chemically compromised (using cyclophosphamide) mice. the ability of ...200717277907
characterization of extracellular proteins produced by aeromonas hydrophila ah-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which can cause motile aeromonad septicemia in both fish and humans. a. hydrophila secretes many extracellular proteins associated with pathogenicity and environmental adaptability. in this study, an extracellular proteome map of a. hydrophila ah-1 was constructed. the major extracellular virulence factors were characterized by comparing the proteomes of various deletion mutants with that of the wild type. the results suggested that se ...200717203509
characterization of cytotoxin-producing aeromonas caviae (strain ht10) isolated from a sulfur spring in orissa, india.during a study of microbial diversity, a bacterial strain designated ht10, was isolated from sediment collected from an unexplored sulfur spring at athamallik, orissa, india. various biochemical tests and 16s rdna sequence analysis revealed that strain ht10 is aeromonas caviae. the growth temperature of this strain ranged from 12 to 43 degrees c and the optimum temperature was 30 degrees c. the strain ht10 showed cytotoxic and alpha-hemolytic activity. this is the first report on the isolation o ...200717309514
evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.an enzyme immunoassay-based antigen test (ridascreen campylobacter; r-biopharm, darmstadt, germany) was evaluated for the detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in 1050 clinical stool samples as compared with culture on selective medium. after routine inoculation for salmonella, shigella, yersinia, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and campylobacter, the same swab specimens were used for the antigen test. the positivity rate for campylobacter was 9.3% in culture, and the antigen test gav ...200717300899
aeromonas salmonicida toxin aext has a rho family gtpase-activating protein domain.the n terminus of the aeromonas salmonicida adp-ribosylating toxin aext displays in vitro gtpase-activating protein (gap) activity for rac1, cdc42, and rhoa. hela cells transfected with the aext n terminus exhibit rounding and actin disordering. we propose that the aeromonas salmonicida aext toxin is a novel member of the growing family of bacterial rhogaps.200717237181
aeromonas hemolytic uremic syndrome. a case and a review of the literature.although rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome can be induced by aeromonas. we report a case in a 40-year-old spanish female produced by aeromonas veronii bv. sobria and review the previous cases described in the literature. this is the 2nd case described in adults.200717300902
characterization of a broad range antibacterial substance from a new bacillus species isolated from amazon basin.a bacillus sp. strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16s rdna sequencing. the phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain has low sequence similarity with most bacillus spp., suggesting a new species was isolated. the antimicrobial activity was detected starting at the exponential growth phase, and maximum activity was observed at stationary phase. the substance was inhibitory to a broad range of indicator strains, including pathogenic ...200717534601
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of lamb encoding outer membrane maltose-inducible porin of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a significantly important pathogen causing major diseases in humans and fresh water fish. the outer membrane proteins (omp) which are strong immunogens have been reported to act as adhesins aiding in the attachment of enteropathogenic bacteria. it is of interest to investigate the role of omp in pathogenesis and their potential as vaccine candidates. in our laboratory, we cloned the gene encoding channel protein lamb porin of a. hydrophila. dna sequence analysis revealed ...200717541836
filter-feeder macroinvertebrates as key players in culturable bacteria biodiversity control: a case of study with sabella spallanzanii (polychaeta: sabellidae).the present study investigates the effect of the filtering activity of sabella spallanzanii on the culturable heterotrophic bacterial community through the comparison of the bacterial diversity in transplanted polychaetes and the surrounding seawater. for isolation of culturable heterotrophic bacteria, seawater samples as well as polychaete homogenates were plated in triplicates onto bacto marine agar 2216 (difco). all the colonies grown were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morph ...200717548107
recombinant prostate-specific antigen proaerolysin shows selective protease sensitivity and cell cytotoxicity.native proaerolysin is a channel-forming bacterial protoxin that binds to cell-surface receptors and then is activated by furin or furin-like proteases. we genetically engineered proaerolysin by replacing the furin-cleavage sequence with a prostate-specific antigen-selective sequence. the recombinant modified proaerolysin was expressed and purified from aeromonas salmonicida in good yields and purity. recombinant modified proaerolysin had no furin sensitivity and markedly increased prostate-spec ...200717581303
bacteriostatic effect of flavonoids isolated from leaves of psidium guajava on fish pathogens.the antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial pathogens of flavonoids (morin, morin-3-o-lyxoside, morin-3-o-arabinoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-o-arabinoside) isolated from the leaves of psidium guajava was evaluated. the flavonoids were shown to have bacteriostatic effect on all of the tested bacteria.200717553634
biochemical and functional characterization of udp-galactose 4-epimerase from aeromonas hydrophila.bacteria of genus aeromonas, responsible for a variety of pathological conditions in humans and fish, are ubiquitous waterborne bacteria. aeromonas produces several virulent factors including a complex of lipopolysaccharide and surface array protein, involved in colonization. udp-galactose 4-epimerase (gale) catalyzes the production of udp-galactose, a precursor for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and thus is an important drug target. gale exhibits interspecies variation and heterogeneity at it ...200717553760
oral administration of eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus.immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. for this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing e. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. after each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against aero ...200717499515
variation in copolymer composition and molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoate generated by saturation mutagenesis of aeromonas caviae pha synthase.amino acid substitutions at two residues downstream from the active-site histidine of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases are effective for changing the composition and the molecular weight of pha. in this study, saturation mutagenesis at the position ala505 was applied to pha synthase (phacac) from aeromonas caviae to investigate the effects on the composition and the molecular weight of pha synthesized in ralstonia eutropha. the copolymer composition and molecular weight of pha were varied by ...200717541931
x-ray crystallographic characterization of the co(ii)-substituted tris-bound form of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica.the x-ray crystal structure of the co(ii)-loaded form of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica ([coco(aap)]) was solved to 2.2a resolution. [coco(aap)] folds into an alpha/beta globular domain with a twisted beta-sheet hydrophobic core sandwiched between alpha-helices, identical to [znzn(aap)]. co(ii) binding to aap does not introduce any major conformational changes to the overall protein structure and the amino acid residues ligated to the dicobalt(ii) cluster in [coco(aap)] are the s ...200717574677
bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila. 200717627288
the immune response and protective efficacy of oral alginate microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine in soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis).aeromonas sobria is an important bacterial pathogen of soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). the effect of an oral alginate microparticle a. sobria vaccine (mav) on immune response and protection efficacy of soft-shelled turtles was investigated. the formalin-killed cultures of a. sobria strain z-1 (fkc) were incorporated into alginate microparticles, and the encapsulated vaccine was orally used for immunizing turtles. the serum agglutinating antibody titers, bactericidal activity of blood le ...200717628697
biological characterization of a new type iii secretion system effector from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila-part ii.we recently identified a novel type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector, aexu, from a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, and demonstrated that mice infected with the deltaaexu mutant were significantly protected from mortality. although the nh(2)-terminal domain of this toxin exhibits homology to aext of a. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, and exot/s of pseudomonas aeruginosa, the cooh-terminal domain of aexu is unique, with no homology to any known proteins in the ncbi database. in th ...200717582731
antibacterial activity of guava (psidium guajava l.) and neem (azadirachta indica a. juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.the antibacterial activity of guava (psidium guajava) and neem (azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--listeria monocytogenes (five strains), staphylococcus aureus (four strains), escherichia coli o157:h7 (six strains), salmonella enteritidis (four strains), vibrio parahaemolyticus, and bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: pseudomonas aeroginosa, p. putida, alcaligenes faecalis, and aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). guava and neem e ...200718041957
accumulation of silver(i) ion and diamine silver complex by aeromonas sh10 biomass.the biomass of aeromonas sh10 was proven to strongly absorb ag+ and [ag(nh3)2]+. the maximum uptake of [ag(nh3)2]+ was 0.23 g(ag) g(-1)(cell dry weight), higher than that of ag+. fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra analysis indicated that some organic groups, such as amide and ionized carboxyl in the cell wall, played an important role in the process of biosorption. after sh10 cells were suspended in the aqueous solution of [ag(nh3)2]+ under 60 degrees c for more than 12 h, [ag(nh3)2 ...200718025596
combination of n149s and d171g mutations in aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and impact on polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phac(ac)) is an important biocatalyst for the synthesis of practically useful two-component polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer, poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(r)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] [p(3hb-co-3hhx)]. in a previous study, two phac(ac) mutants that have a single amino acid substitution of either asparagine 149 by serine (n149s) or aspartate 171 by glycine (d171g) were isolated as higher active enzymes by means of evolutionary engineering. in this study, ...200718031343
aeromonas sobria prostatitis and septic shock in a healthy man with chronic alcoholic consumption.prostate infection caused by aeromonas sobria has not been reported in the literature. we presented a 44-year-old healthy man with a habit of alcoholic consumption who was admitted because of primary a. sobria prostatitis with septicemia. the patient was successfully treated with intravenous ofloxacin and was uneventful after a half-year follow-up. based on our rare case, we suggest to clinical physicians that prostatitis might be considered in healthy male patients with a. sobria bacteremia and ...200718032845
isolation of aeromonas salmonicida from sea lamprey (petromyzon marinus) with furuncle-like lesions in lake ontario.for the past six decades, parasitic sea lampreys (petromyzon marinus) have caused devastating losses to salmonid fisheries in the great lakes. to reduce the number of sea lampreys, the great lakes fishery commission began a large-scale program based on trapping male sea lampreys, sterilizing them, and releasing sterile males back into streams to compete with fertile males for spawning females. the transfer of lampreys among lakes can potentially lead to the transfer of various pathogens, and thi ...200717984256
luxri homologs are universally present in the genus aeromonas.aeromonas spp. have been regarded as "emerging pathogens". aeromonads possess multifactorial virulence and the production of many of these virulence determinants is associated with high cell density, a phenomenon that might be regulated by quorum sensing. however, only two species of the genus are reported to possess the luxri quorum sensing gene homologs. the purpose of this study was to investigate if the luxri homologs are universally present in the aeromonas strains collected from various cu ...200717953777
antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen parmelia sulcata and its salazinic acid constituent.the antimicrobial activity of the acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the lichen parmelia sulcata and its salazinic acid constituent have been screened against twenty eight food-borne bacteria and fungi. all of the extracts with the exception of the petroleum ether extract showed antimicrobial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, proteus vulgaris, yersinia enterocolitica, staphylococcus aureus ...200717913083
prevalence and characterization of integrons from bacteria isolated from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant.to investigate the presence and distribution of integron-carrying bacteria from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant (wwtp).200717913715
on the identification of clinical aeromonas by a new restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s rdna method. 200717916125
[preparation and characterization of the mab against vibrio harveyi].to prepare the mab against vibrio harveyi and analyse their biological properties.200717825231
further characterization of a type iii secretion system (t3ss) and of a new effector protein from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila--part i.a type iii secretion system (t3ss)-associated cytotoxin, aext, with adp-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins exot/s, was recently identified from a fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. in this study, we reported the molecular characterization of an aext-like toxin gene (designated as aexu) from a diarrheal isolate ssu of a. hydrophila. the aexu gene was 1539bp in length and encoded a protein of 512 amino acid (aa) residues. the nh(2)-terminus of ...200717644303
bacillus subtilis ab1 controls aeromonas infection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum).to develop a probiotic with effectiveness against aeromonas sp., which was pathogenic to rainbow trout.200717953580
carbohydrate analysis and serological classification of typical and atypical isolates of aeromonas salmonicida: a rationale for the lipopolysaccharide-based classification of a. salmonicida.the cell envelope of aeromonas salmonicida contains a lipopolysaccharide (lps) essential for the physical integrity and functioning of bacterial cell membrane. using a recently developed in-source fragmentation technique, we screened 39 typical and atypical isolates of a. salmonicida and established their o-chain polysaccharide structure by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (ce-ms), compositional and linkage analyses and comparison to the previously determined o-chain polysaccharide st ...200717658271
haemato-immunological responses to dietary yeast rna, omega-3 fatty acid and beta-carotene in catla catla juveniles.a preliminary study with 60 days feeding was conducted to study the immunomodulatory role of different immunostimulants like beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acid and yeast-rna in catla catla fingerlings. two hundred and sixty four fingerlings were randomly distributed into eight treatment groups with each of three replicates. eight isonitrogenous (crude protein 34.12-35.40%) and isocaloric (458.41-461.48 kcal/100g) purified diets were prepared with graded level of beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acid ...200717681812
aeromonas veronii, a tributyltin (tbt)-degrading bacterium isolated from an estuarine environment, ria de aveiro in portugal.organotin compounds are used in a variety of industrial processes therefore their subsequent discharge into the environment is widespread. bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical transformations acting as natural decontamination agents. therefore, screening for tributyltin (tbt)-resistant and -degrading bacteria is relevant for the selection of isolates with decontamination ability of these polluted areas. with this purpose, 50 strains were isolated from sediment and water from ria de ...200717719084
identification of a new hemolysin from diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila.a clinical strain ssu of aeromonas hydrophila produces a potent cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. a new gene, which encoded a hemolysin of 439-amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 49 kda, was identified. this hemolysin (hlya) was detected based on the observation that the act gene minus mutant of a. hydrophila ssu still had residual hemolytic activity. the new hemolysin gene (hlya) was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in escherichia co ...200717725618
[changes in the profiles of causative agents and antibiotic resistance rate for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an analysis of cultured microorganisms in recent 12 years].the causative agents for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) and antibiotic resistance rate vary according to the regions and time. this study evaluated the recent changes in the profiles of microorganisms and antibiotic resistance rate for the choice of effective antibiotics in treating sbp.200717898553
the development of probiotics for the control of multiple bacterial diseases of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).jb-1 and gc2, which were equated with bacillus sp. and aeromonas sobria respectively, were recovered from the digestive tract of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss and ghost carp, cyprinus sp. respectively, and demonstrated effectiveness as probiotics for the control of infections caused by aeromonas salmonicida, lactococcus garvieae, streptococcus iniae, vibrio anguillarum, vibrio ordalii and yersinia ruckeri. when administered to rainbow trout (average weight = 12 g) for 14 days in feed dosed ...200717850573
molecular characterization of goose-type lysozyme homologue of large yellow croaker and its involvement in immune response induced by trivalent bacterial vaccine as an acute-phase protein.lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against the invasion of bacterial pathogens. here, the cdna of a goose-type lysozyme (g-lysozyme) was cloned from large yellow croaker (pseudosciana crocea) by expressed sequence tags (est) and race-pcr techniques. the full-length cdna of large yellow croaker g-lysozyme (lycgl) is 716 nucleotides (nt) encoding a protein of 193 amino acids (aa), with a theoretical molecular weight of 21.3kda. the deduced lycgl possessed the typical structural features ...200717850883
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized hiv infected versus non-hiv infected patients with diarrhoea in southern india.a prevalence study on campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens was carried out in 200 hiv infected and 200 non-hiv infected subjects with diarrhoeal symptoms at an aids hospital in southern india. diarrhoeal specimens were inoculated onto standard culture media as well as onto columbia and campylobacter blood agar media for c. jejuni isolation. all the c. jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using kirby-bauer's method. a significant difference in recover ...200717852888
evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture's ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response.to assess the virulence of aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture.200717897183
interactions of clinical and environmental aeromonas isolates with caco-2 and ht29 intestinal epithelial cells.evaluation of adherence and invasion of aeromonas spp. to human colon carcinoma cell lines caco-2 and ht29 and assessment of cytotoxic activity.200717897383
[microbiological characteristics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in korea]. 200717898547
rapid detection of virulence factors of aeromonas isolated from a trout farm by hexaplex-pcr.the detection of virulence factors of aeromonas is a key component in determining potential pathogenicity because these factors act multifunctionally and multifactorially. in this study water samples were collected from a trout farm on a seasonal basis, and diseased fish and aeromonas species were isolated and identified. for rapid detection of six virulence factors of isolated aeromonas, a hexaplex-polymerase chain reaction (hexaplex-pcr) assay was used. the detected virulence factors include a ...200717846582
virulence potential and genetic diversity of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii, and aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolates from mexico and spain: a comparative study.a comparative study of 109 aeromonas clinical isolates belonging to the 3 species most frequently isolated from patients with diarrhea in mexico and spain was performed to investigate the distribution of 3 prominent toxin genes and the gene encoding flagellin of lateral flagella; 4 well-established virulence factors in the genus aeromonas. the aerolysin-hemolysin toxin genes were the most prevalent, being present in 89% of the total isolates. the ast toxin gene was conspicuously absent from the ...200717898843
prokaryotic community composition and ecology of floating macroscopic filaments from an extreme acidic environment, río tinto (sw, spain).the prokaryotic diversity of macroscopic filaments located at the water surface in an extreme acidic environment, río tinto (sw, spain), has been analysed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge), cloning of 16s rrna genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish). the dominant species present in the macrofilaments were acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, leptospirillum ferrooxidans and acidiphilium spp., which represented the three main bacterial genera found in the water column o ...200717950555
isolation and selection of bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish.to isolate, select and evaluate bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish.200717953558
cloning, expression and characterization of aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila in escherichia coli.aerolysin is a toxin (protein in nature) secreted by the strains of aeromonas spp. and plays an important role in the virulence of aeromonas strains. it has also found several applications such as for detection of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins etc. a. hydrophila is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which causes frequent harm to the aquaculture. to obtain a significant amount of recombinant aerolysin in the active form, in this study, we expressed the aerolysin in e. col ...200717970277
febrile response to infection in the american alligator (alligator mississippiensis).temperature probes were inserted into the stomachs of juvenile american alligators (alligator mississippiensis) maintained outdoors at ambient fluctuating temperatures. internal body temperatures (t(b)) were measured every 15 min for two days, and then the alligators were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps), pyrogen-free saline, or left untreated. alligators injected intraperitoneally with lps exhibited maximum t(b)s 2.6+/-1.1 degrees c and 3.5+/-1.2 degrees c higher than untreated ...200717977038
inactivation of pseudomonas aeruginosa and aeromonas hydrophila by silver in tap water.this study was conducted to assess the efficacy of silver as a secondary disinfectant to replace or reduce the level of chlorine utilized in water distribution systems. pseudomonas aeruginosa and aeromonas hydrophila are opportunistic pathogens present in drinking water and have been associated with waterborne disease. after 8 hours of exposure to 100 microg/l of silver, there was a >6-log10 reduction in p. aeruginosa in tap water at room temperature at ph7 and a 5.55-log10 reduction in the pres ...200717849299
cloning and characterization of photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida phospholipase: an enzyme that shows haemolytic activity.a phospholipase gene of photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (ppp) was cloned from a genomic library and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the open reading frame consisted of 1218 bp encoding a protein of 405 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 46 kda. the ppp had identities (53-55%) with phospholipase and haemolysin of vibrio spp., while it showed low identities (23-26%) with glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase of aeromonas spp. a recombinant ppp (rppp) with a his ...200717958612
phenoloxidase is an important component of the defense against aeromonas hydrophila infection in a crustacean, pacifastacus leniusculus.the melanization cascade, in which phenoloxidase is the terminal enzyme, appears to play a key role in recognition of and defense against microbial infections in invertebrates. here, we show that phenoloxidase activity and melanization are important for the immune defense toward a highly pathogenic bacterium, aeromonas hydrophila, in the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus. rna interference-mediated depletion of crayfish prophenoloxidase leads to increased bacterial growth, lower phago ...200717855335
replication of legionella pneumophila in floating biofilms.biofilms are a major source of human pathogenic legionella pneumophila in aquatic systems. in this study, we investigated the capacity of l. pneumophila to colonize floating biofilms and the impact of acanthamoeba castellanii on the replication of biofilm-associated legionella. biofilms were grown in petri dishes and consisted of aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, flavobacterium breve, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. six hours following inoculation, legionella were detected in floating biofilms ...200717713816
identification of culturable stream water bacteria from urban, agricultural, and forested watersheds using 16s rrna gene sequencing.bacteria present in water samples taken on a weekly basis, from june 2004 through june 2005, from three streams, were cultured on coliscan easygel agar plates. colonies representative of a variety of colors and morphologies were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a 1000-1100 nt portion of the 16s rrna gene. a total of 528 colonies were sequenced; these categorized into 26 genera and 78 species. of 175 dark blue/purple colonies presumed to be e. coli, sequence analysis indicated that 45 ...200717878554
molecular characterization of class 1 integrons and antimicrobial resistance in aeromonas strains from foodborne outbreak-suspect samples and environmental sources in taiwan.one hundred thirty-three aeromonas spp. isolates were examined for multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes and prevalence of class 1 integron sequences. twenty-four (18.0%) of these isolates contained class 1 integron. seven different class 1 integrons were found among 24strains, with a total of 10 different gene cassettes encoding for resistance to trimethoprim (dfr12 and dfr2d), aminoglycosides (aada1 and aada2), beta-lactam antibiotics (oxa2), chloramphenicol (catb3 and catb8), quaternary a ...200717908616
genetic variations in aeromonas hydrophila isolates from clinical and environmental sources in thailand.aeromonas hydrophila, a widely distributed human pathogen causing a variety of diseases, can be isolated from clinical and environmental sources. analysis in thailand of 110 isolates of aeromonas hydrophila by randomly amplified polymorphic dna-pcr (rapd-pcr) revealed one specific rapd pattern group (g) that was associated only with strains from environmental sources. cytotoxic activity, adhesion to epithelial cells and exoenzyme secretions of a. hydrophila were also investigated. a comparison o ...200717883013
disruption of the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene in aeromonas hydrophila reduces its survival ability under stress conditions.aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produces phbhhx copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate. in this paper, the physiological functions of phbhhx on the bacterial survival ability were systematically studied using a phbhhx synthase phac-disrupted mutant termed a. hydrophila cq4 and its wild type a. hydrophila 4ak4. it was found that phbhhx synthesis in a. hydrophila 4ak4 provided improved resistance against environmental stress factors including heat and cold treatments, hydrog ...200717888005
analysis of type iii effector genes in typical and atypical aeromonas salmonicida. 200717958615
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