TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. isolated from south african aquaculture increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. this can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. the plasmid content of each isolate was ex ...200717173998
cpg oligodeoxynucleotides up-regulate antibacterial systems and induce protection against bacterial challenge in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the effects of unmethylated cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) on the mammalian immune system are relatively well studied but much less is known of their effects on the immune systems of different fish species. here we show that cpg odns significantly enhance the survival of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) following bacterial challenge when used both as stand-alone prophylactic agents, or as adjuvants to a commercially available vaccine. they are also capable of increasing serum lysozyme activi ...200717459727
convenient test using a combination of chelating agents for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases in the clinical laboratory.although transmissible metallo-beta-lactamases (mbls) are a serious threat to beta-lactam antibiotic therapy, the clsi currently does not recommend testing methods for the detection of mbls. the aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of double-disk tests (ddts) by using disks containing a combination of the chelators 2-mercaptopropionic acid (mpa) and tris-edta (te) to detect mbls. sixteen isolates (4 acinetobacter baumannii isolates, 6 pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 1 serratia marce ...200717596358
issues for microbial regulation: aeromonas as a model.the decision by public health agencies to regulate specific microorganisms that may be found in drinking water can only be made if specific criteria find that a microorganism poses a health risk. these criteria should include: (1) there is a clinical history of an organism causing disease from the ingestion of drinking water; (2) there is epidemiological evidence that drinking water rather than food or other vectors is a major source of disease; (3) there is sufficient evidence that the target o ...200717453931
pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of brazil.oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from june 1998 to march 1999, in the cananéia estuary, on the south coast of são paulo, brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio cholerae o1, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (mpn) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. the ...200717613090
identification of aeromonas veronii genes required for colonization of the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana.most digestive tracts contain a complex consortium of beneficial microorganisms, making it challenging to tease apart the molecular interactions between symbiont and host. the digestive tract of hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, is an ideal model system because it harbors a simple microbial community in the crop, comprising the genetically amenable aeromonas veronii and a rikenella-like bacterium. signature-tagged mutagenesis (stm) was used to identify genes required for digestive tract colon ...200717616592
alternative host model to evaluate aeromonas virulence.bacterial virulence can only be assessed by confronting bacteria with a host. here, we present a new simple assay to evaluate aeromonas virulence, making use of dictyostelium amoebae as an alternative host model. this assay can be modulated to assess virulence of very different aeromonas species.200717616616
protonation state and substrate binding to b2 metallo-beta-lactamase cpha from aeromonas hydrofila.the zinc enzymes metallo beta-lactamases counteract the beneficial action of beta-lactam antibiotics against bacterial infections, by hydrolyzing their beta-lactam rings. to understand structure/function relationships on a representative member of this class, the b2 m beta l cpha, we have investigated the h-bond pattern at the zn enzymatic active site and substrate binding mode by molecular simulation methods. extensive qm calculations at the dft-blyp level on eleven models of the protein active ...200717623844
controversial data on the association of aeromonas with diarrhoea in a recent hong kong study. 200717577068
biological characterization of a new type iii secretion system effector from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila-part ii.we recently identified a novel type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector, aexu, from a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, and demonstrated that mice infected with the deltaaexu mutant were significantly protected from mortality. although the nh(2)-terminal domain of this toxin exhibits homology to aext of a. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, and exot/s of pseudomonas aeruginosa, the cooh-terminal domain of aexu is unique, with no homology to any known proteins in the ncbi database. in th ...200717582731
cytokine expression in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) during infection with aeromonas salmonicida.gene expression of a number of cytokines in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of aeromonas salmonicida. fish were exposed to a. salmonicida by immersion in a bacterial suspension (bath challenge) and tissue samples of the distal and proximal intestine were collected at days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 post-exposure. head kidney tissue was also collected to assess the effect in a systemic immune tissue. a classic profile of pro-inf ...200717434320
phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria and their adhesive capability in relation to the intestinal mucus of carp.the aims of the present study are to characterize the intestinal microbial community displaying a high-adhesive capability in fish, and to evaluate the relationship between mucosal adhesion of intestinal bacteria and fish health and disease.200717448166
enhancement of nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus by solanum trilobatum leaf fractions.the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water and hexane soluble fractions of the indian medicinal plant, solanum trilobatum on the nonspecific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus. fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 4, 40 or 400 mg kg(-1) body weight of water or hexane soluble fraction. the nonspecific immune mechanisms were assessed in terms of serum lysozyme activity, reactive oxygen species production and reactive n ...200717448687
multiple controls regulate the expression of mobe, an hnh homing endonuclease gene embedded within a ribonucleotide reductase gene of phage genetic elements have the potential to influence the expression of genes surrounding their insertion site upon invasion of a genome. here, we examine the transcriptional organization of a ribonucleotide reductase operon (nrd) that has been invaded by an hnh family homing endonuclease, mobe. in aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1, mobe has inserted into the large-subunit gene (nrda) of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr), splitting it into two smaller genes, nrda-a and nrda-b. this gene org ...200717449612
species identification of clinically important aeromonas spp. by restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s rdna.the aim of the study was to characterize 16s rdna of aeromonas spp. to rapidly identify clinically important species of these bacteria.200717451524
interaction between innate immune cells and a bacterial type iii secretion system in mutualistic and pathogenic associations.animals house a community of bacterial symbionts in their digestive tracts that contribute to their well being. the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, has a remarkably simple gut population carrying two extracellular microbes in the crop where the ingested blood is stored. this simplicity renders it attractive for studying colonization factors. aeromonas veronii, one of the leech symbionts, can be genetically manipulated and is a pathogen of mammals. screening transposon mutants of a. veronii for ...200717517651
cystitis caused by aeromonas caviae.aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. we report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by a. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.200717522269
characterization of a catalase gene from aeromonas veronii, the digestive-tract symbiont of the medicinal leech.the catalase gene kata of the medicinal leech symbiont aeromonas veronii bv. sobria was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. southern hybridization, using an a. veronii kata-specific hybridization probe, suggested the presence of a single gene copy in many aeromonas species. a. veronii kata consisted of 1446 nt encoding a protein with a high degree of similarity to the small-subunit group iii bacterial catalases. a catalase-null mutant (jg186) was constructed through gene-replaceme ...200717526846
site-directed mutagenesis of aeromonas hydrophila enoyl coenzyme a hydratase enhancing 3-hydroxyhexanoate fractions of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate).the aim of this study is to enhance 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) fractions of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), abbreviated as phbhhx, through site-directed mutagenesis of aeromonas hydrophila enoyl coenzyme a hydratase (phaj(ah)). two amino acids (leu-65 and val-130) were selected as a substitutional site based on the structural information of phaj(ah). the purified proteins from the wild-type enzyme and mutants were used to determine hydratase activities. hydratase activities of four ...200717534562
characterization of a broad range antibacterial substance from a new bacillus species isolated from amazon basin.a bacillus sp. strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16s rdna sequencing. the phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain has low sequence similarity with most bacillus spp., suggesting a new species was isolated. the antimicrobial activity was detected starting at the exponential growth phase, and maximum activity was observed at stationary phase. the substance was inhibitory to a broad range of indicator strains, including pathogenic ...200717534601
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of lamb encoding outer membrane maltose-inducible porin of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a significantly important pathogen causing major diseases in humans and fresh water fish. the outer membrane proteins (omp) which are strong immunogens have been reported to act as adhesins aiding in the attachment of enteropathogenic bacteria. it is of interest to investigate the role of omp in pathogenesis and their potential as vaccine candidates. in our laboratory, we cloned the gene encoding channel protein lamb porin of a. hydrophila. dna sequence analysis revealed ...200717541836
microbial and clinical determinants of time-to-positivity in patients with bacteraemia.time-to-positivity is useful in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteraemia and as a predictor of an endovascular source in patients with staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. however, this parameter has been evaluated for only a limited number of microorganisms. in the present study, time-to-positivity was recorded for 1872 episodes of significant monomicrobial bacteraemia diagnosed at a teaching hospital during a 2-year period, and the associated microbial and clinical variables were investigat ...200717484763
histological changes in intestine of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains.furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. the foregut of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, carnobacterium divergens, at 6 x 10(4) or 6 x 10(6) viable bacteria per milliliter. histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and ...200717120052
use of the novel phylogenetic marker dnaj and dna-dna hybridization to clarify interrelationships within the genus aeromonas.the interrelationships of 27 aeromonas strains were investigated using dnaj sequences and dna-dna hybridization. dnaj sequence similarities showed a stronger relationship with dna-dna relatedness values than did 16s rrna gene sequence similarities. additionally, dnaj sequence analysis, with interspecies divergence over 5.2 % in most cases, gave better resolution than 16s rrna gene sequences for the differentiation of strains at the species level. relationships among aeromonas species were theref ...200717551035
bacteriostatic effect of flavonoids isolated from leaves of psidium guajava on fish pathogens.the antimicrobial activity against fish bacterial pathogens of flavonoids (morin, morin-3-o-lyxoside, morin-3-o-arabinoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-o-arabinoside) isolated from the leaves of psidium guajava was evaluated. the flavonoids were shown to have bacteriostatic effect on all of the tested bacteria.200717553634
biochemical and functional characterization of udp-galactose 4-epimerase from aeromonas hydrophila.bacteria of genus aeromonas, responsible for a variety of pathological conditions in humans and fish, are ubiquitous waterborne bacteria. aeromonas produces several virulent factors including a complex of lipopolysaccharide and surface array protein, involved in colonization. udp-galactose 4-epimerase (gale) catalyzes the production of udp-galactose, a precursor for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and thus is an important drug target. gale exhibits interspecies variation and heterogeneity at it ...200717553760
[isolation and identification of species from the genera aeromonas, vibrio, and plesiomonas from extraintestinal samples in cuba].extraintestinal infections caused by the genera aeromonas, vibrio and plesiomonas have high morbidity and mortality rates in different areas of world. from january 2002 to december 2003, the national reference laboratory for acute diarrhoeal diseases of the pedro kourí tropical medicine institute received 95 gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, oxidase positive bacilli strains from different extraintestinal specimen (blood, ear exudates, infected wounds, conjunctive exudates, urine, and cathete ...200717554439
characterization of aeromonas caviae and a. veronii by standardized cellular protein electrophoretic patterns.aeromonas caviae and a. veronii recovered from clinical and environmental samples were characterized by sds-page of whole cell proteins. all strains were typable and showed unique banding patterns. a high intra-specific diversity within these two microorganisms was revealed. separation of the polish strains from the hong-kong isolates was observed. a. caviae and a. veronii were not distinguishable with respect to their ecological origin. however, strains with very similar protein patterns could ...200717571798
the role of c-di-gmp signaling in an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strain.aeromonas is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium that persists in the environment. it is shown that all isolates of persistent aeromonas clones show strong biofilm formation ability. c-di-gmp regulates biofilm formation in many bacteria. to investigate the impact of c-di-gmp signaling, we introduced heterologous ggdef and eal domain proteins from salmonella typhimurium to an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strain. overexpression of the ggdef domain protein adra increased c-di-gmp concentration ...200717573931
metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton bacterial communities in a hungarian shallow soda the present study, the species composition and potential metabolic activities of bacterial communities of reed phragmites australis (cav.) (trin. ex steudel) periphyton from lake velencei were studied by cultivation-based and metabolic fingerprinting methods. serially diluted spring biofilm samples were used to test the community-level physiological profiling (clpp) using biolog microplates, and for plating onto different media. on the basis of their morphological, biochemical, and physiologi ...200717406774
quorum-sensing-dependent switch to butanediol fermentation prevents lethal medium acidification in aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n.aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n shows biphasic growth in glucose containing broth at 30 degrees c. the first phase is characterized by strong acidification, while the second phase is accompanied by an increase in medium ph. disruption of ahl production by knockout of ahyi did not affect the first growth phase, but resulted in further acidification which completely blocked the second growth phase and even caused cell death. the block could be relieved by addition of 5 microm (or less) synthetic n-buta ...200717408926
immunomodulating effect of inositol hexaphosphate against aeromonas hydrophila-endotoxin.the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (ip6) administration on endotoxemia as an example of the systemic inflammatory response. mice were divided into three groups as follows: first group, remained as a naive group injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with pbs (ph 7.4; 0.2 ml/mice) at intervals parallel to the treated groups. the second group was injected i.p. with the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of aeromonas hydrophila once a week for four weeks at a dose o ...200717412285
rotavirus disease in young children from hanoi, vietnam.pathogen prevalences and antimicrobial susceptibilities are essential for the rational development of preventive strategies for diarrheal diseases, but little recent information from vietnam is available. we prospectively studied the prevalence of enteric pathogens in children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea and in nondiarrhea controls in a city hospital in hanoi, vietnam for 1 year.200717414396
[biodegradation of estrogens in stream water].estrogens of human and animal origin that reach the aquatic environment may enter human or animal organism and act as endocrine investigate the persistency of estrogens in laboratory experiments, estrone respectively 17beta-estradiol were added to stream water sampled from river spree in berlin. the concentration of estrone and 17beta-estradiol was quantified using enzyme-immuno-assay. the estrone concentration decreased to less than 5 % of the starting concentration at storage tem ...200717416137
shape and subunit organisation of the dna methyltransferase m.ahdi by small-angle neutron scattering.type i restriction-modification (r-m) systems encode multisubunit/multidomain enzymes. two genes (m and s) are required to form the methyltransferase (mtase) that methylates a specific base within the recognition sequence and protects dna from cleavage by the endonuclease. the dna methyltransferase m.ahdi is a 170 kda tetramer with the stoichiometry m(2)s(2) and has properties typical of a type i mtase. the m.ahdi enzyme has been prepared with deuterated s subunits, to allow contrast variation u ...200717418232
global transcriptional responses of wild-type aeromonas hydrophila and its virulence-deficient mutant in a murine model of infection.we previously generated a double knockout mutant (act/aopb) of a diarrheal isolate ssu of a. hydrophila, in which the genes encoding aeromonas outer membrane protein b (aopb), a structural component of the type iii secretion system (t3ss), and a type ii (t2)-secreted cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) were deleted. this mutant exhibited minimal virulence in mice, compared to animals infected with wild-type (wt) a. hydrophila. based on microarray analyses, wt a. hydrophila altered the expression of ...200717368824
effects of polyherbal formulation 'immuplus' on immunity and disease resistance of indian major carp, labeo rohita at different stages of growth.a series of experiments were performed to determine the impact of polyherbal immunomodulatory formulation 'immuplus' (aquaimmu) on growth, immunity and disease resistance of rohu (labeo rohita), one of the indian major carp at different stages of growth. rohu larvae were fed on plankton, immuplus-mixed compound feed, and plankton plus immuplus-mixed compound feed (immuplus added at three dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g/kg feed) from 4th day of hatching to 14th day. immuplus-mixed diets enh ...200717373376
quantitative analysis of organ tissue damage after septic shock.the objective of this study was to quantify end-organ damage caused by bacteremic sepsis. twelve adult swine were divided into two groups. the anesthesia control group (n = 6) received general anesthesia for 4 hours. the septic shock group (n = 6) received an infusion of aeromonas hydrophila under general anesthesia for 4 hours. swine were sacrificed at the end of the 4-hour procedure. tissues from lungs, kidneys, livers, and hearts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. images of tissues were ...200717375779
non-structural flagella genes affecting both polar and lateral flagella-mediated motility in aeromonas aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 minitn5 mutant unable to produce polar and lateral flagella was isolated, in which the transposon was inserted into a gene whose encoded protein was an orthologue of the campylobacter jejuni motility accessory factor (maf) protein. in addition to this gene, several other related genes were found in this cluster that was adjacent to the region 2 genes of the polar flagellum. mutation of the a. hydrophila ah-3 maf-2, neub-like, flmd or neua-like genes resulted in non-m ...200717379726
antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms.the aims of this study were: (i) to determine the proportions of aeromonas spp. resistant to florfenicol (fc), oxolinic acid (oa) and oxytetracycline (otc) along a river receiving effluents from fish farms, and (ii) to assess the relevance of using this bacterial group as an indicator for studying the consequences of the use and release of these aquacultural antimicrobials in the freshwater environment, as compared with performing antimicrobial measurements in sediments.200717381761
serum antibody response of indian major carp, labeo rohita to three species of pathogenic bacteria; aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens.the immune response to mixed whole cell antigens of aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens, the common gram negative bacterial pathogens associated with diseases of indian major carps were evaluated for their efficacy in triggering antibody responses in rohu, labeo rohita (ham.). the rohu yearlings were either immunized with antigens from single bacterial strain, a. hydrophila, e. tarda and p. fluorescens or a combination of all three. an antibody response was detec ...200717383016
contribution of ahyr to virulence of aeromonas hydrophila j-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a broad-host-range pathogen and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. a regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing has been found to be involved in the regulation of virulence in many bacteria. in a. hydrophila the ahyr gene encodes luxr-type response regulator. here we describe the inactivation of the ahyr gene of a. hydrophila j-1 by the insertion of a dna fragment containing a kanamycin resistance determinant and reintroduced by allelic exchange into the chromosome of ...200717383694
bacterial-binding activity and plasma concentration of ladderlectin in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).soluble, defense lectins bind conserved microbial patterns leading to pathogen opsonization, enhanced phagocytosis and activation of complement. these immune functions, however, vary widely among individuals due to genetic and acquired differences affecting binding capacity or plasma concentration. most evidence for the defensive function of soluble lectins is based on mammals, but several functionally homologous, but less well-characterized, lectins have been identified in fish. in this study, ...200717383895
immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles due to dietary gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch.a 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (g) and non-gelatinized (ng) starch on immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles. two hundred and thirty four juveniles (av. wt. 2.53+/-0.04) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. six semi-purified diets containing ng and g corn starch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100) were prepared viz., t(1) (100% ng, 0% g starch), t(2) (80% ng, 20% g starch), t(3) ( ...200717383896
[extraintestinal infection due to aeromonas spp.: review of 38 cases].aeromonas spp. typically cause gastroenteritis, but can occasionally produce extraintestinal infections. the aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of extraintestinal infections caused by aeromonas spp. in our area.200717386217
insertion of a homing endonuclease creates a genes-in-pieces ribonucleotide reductase that retains bacterial and phage genomes, coding regions are sometimes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins, which can encode mobility-promoting homing endonucleases. homing endonuclease genes are also found free-standing (not intron- or intein-encoded) in phage genomes where they are inserted in intergenic regions. one example is the hnh family endonuclease, mobe, inserted between the large (nrda) and small (nrdb) subunit genes of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) of t-even phages t4, rb2 ...200717395719
novel role for aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the north american medicinal leech.the gut bacteria of the north american medicinal leech, macrobdella decora, were characterized. biochemical tests and dna sequences indicated that aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. in this work we identified a new habitat for a. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and aeromonas species.200717114316
endogenous aeromonas hydrophila endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to aeromonas hydrophila in a patient with distal common bile duct carcinoma and biliary sepsis.200717460432
application of real-time quantitative pcr for the detection of selected bacterial pathogens during municipal wastewater treatment.bacteria were detected at five stages of municipal wastewater treatment using taqman(r) real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). thirteen probe and primer sets were tested for diverse pathogens that may be present in wastewater, including aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, clostridium perfringens, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, e. coli o157:h7, helicobacter pylori, klebsiella pneumoniae, legionella pneumophila, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella sp., and staphyloc ...200717462712
multiplex-pcr for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, flavobacterium columnare, edwardsiella ictaluri, and aeromonas hydrophila.a multiplex pcr (m-pcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. the m-pcr to amplify target dna fragments from flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. the lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-pcr reaction mixture. the sensitivity ...200717465305
construction of a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs and its effects on the innate immune responses of aquatic animals.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) containing unmethylated cpg dinucleotides (cpg motifs) have been shown to induce potential immune responses. in this study, we designed a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs, and observed its effects on innate immune responses of fish and prawn. the results showed that such plasmid dna, compared to the vacant vector, can highly induce the activation of head kidney macrophages and the proliferation of peripheral blood leuko ...200717475508
wound infection and septic shock due to aeromonas trota in a patient with liver cirrhosis. 200717479957
association of bacteria with metacercarial cysts of echinostoma caproni.echinostoma caproni metacercarial cysts often need to be stored for several months to a year to meet laboratory requirements. this study examined the bacteria associated with encysted metacercariae stored at 4 degrees c. bacterial assemblages from the kidney-pericardial region of uninfected snails and assemblages from the site of metacercarial infection in biomphalaria glabrata were determined. four species of gram-negative rods were isolated and identified from the stored cysts to species or ge ...200717483963
the role of aeromonas in diarrhea: a review.the evidence for an enteropathogenic role of aeromonas spp. is still controversial. this review examines various parameters related to a causative role of aeromonas and concludes that infraspecific subsets of strains with a particular array of enterotoxin genes are potential enteropathogens. the consequences for stool bacteriology are discussed.200717401708
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (cyprinus carpio l.) by oral administration of humus extract.humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. in the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection. mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treat ...200717485929
sampling bias created by ampicillin in isolation media for aeromonas.members of the bacterial genus aeromonas are widely isolated from aquatic environments and studied in part for their ability to act as opportunistic pathogens in a variety of animals. all aeromonads, with the exception of aeromonas trota, are generally thought to be resistant to ampicillin, so the antibiotic is frequently added to isolation medium as a selective agent. in this study, 282 aeromonads from environmental sources were isolated on a medium without ampicillin and their resistance to am ...200717496948
importance of flagella and enterotoxins for aeromonas virulence in a mouse model.a genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaa/flab, flag), lateral flagella (lafa), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. when 16 aeromonas hydrophila strains, seven aeromonas veronii strains, and seven aeromonas caviae strains exhibiting different combinations of virulence factor genes were tested in immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal inj ...200717496975
[hirudo medicinalis-leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery--a literature review].medical leech therapy has enjoyed a renaissance in the world of reconstructive microsurgery during recent years. especially venous congestion is decreased using hirudo medicinalis application such as following replantation of amputated fingers or congested flaps. they provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. living in symbiosis with aeromonas hydrophila, who can digest the sixfold blood meal related to their body weight, and a broad number of ant ...200717497605
[infection with aeromonas hydrophila after use of leeches (hirudo medicinalis) in a free microvascular osteo-(myo-)cutaneous flap--suggestions for successful management].medical leeches (hirudo medicinalis) are an important therapeutic option in the treatment of venous congestion of flaps. in a case report an infection with aeromonas hydrophila of a free microvascular osteo-(myo)-cutaneous flap after leech application for venous congestion is described and the current literature reviewed. infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20 %. in some cases an infection of the ...200717497606
gene structure of an antimicrobial peptide from mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi (basilewsky), suggests that moronecidins and pleurocidins belong in one family: the piscidins.the gene of piscidin, an antimicrobial peptide, has been cloned from the mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi. from the first transcription initiation site, the mandarin fish piscidin gene extends 1693 nucleotides to the end of the 3' untranslated region and contains four exons and three introns. a predicted 79-residue prepropeptide consists of three domains: a signal peptide (22 aa), a mature peptide (22 aa) and a c-terminal prodomain (35 aa). the shortage of xqq motif in the prodomain of mandarin ...200717498177
oral administration of eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus.immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. for this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing e. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. after each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against aero ...200717499515
the recently proposed species aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., isolate gptsa-6t, is not a member of the genus aeromonas.a new species of the genus aeromonas, aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., was recently described on the basis of a single isolate, strain gptsa-6t, obtained from a warm spring in india. the description of this new species included biochemical characterization, antibiotic susceptibility, cellular fatty-acid profiles, and 16s rrna gene sequencing, but not dnadna hybridization data. in the present article, phylogenetic analysis (branch distances in the tree and nucleotide signatures) of the 16s rrna of is ...200717407062
dominant pathogenic species of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from diseased and healthy fish cultured in poland.aeromonas isolates were collected from cultured fish, characterized phenotypically and identified to species using 16s rdna. the pathogenicity of all isolates was assayed on the basis of haemolytic and proteolytic activity and challenge tests were performed for isolates from healthy fish. a total of 131 aeromonas isolates were obtained and identified as follows: a. hydrophila (13), a. bestiarum (23), a. salmonicida (motile biogroup) (19), a. caviae (2), a. sobria (18), a. veronii bt. sobria (42) ...200717501739
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in naturally- and laboratory-challenged farmed haddock, melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.). 200717501741
characterization of twin toll-like receptors from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss): evolutionary relationship and induced expression by aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida.structure and function of factors contributing to the innate immune system of lower vertebrates, including fish are only sparsely characterized. we retrieved with rt-pcr cdna copies of two closely related toll-like receptors (tlr) from liver rna of the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). the cdna sequences are homologous to 95.6%. the phylogenetic analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences places these twin factors closely to other known tlrs from fish. the twin factors are equally expresse ...200717070576
potential use of a transposon tn916-generated mutant of aeromonas hydrophila j-1 defective in some exoproducts as a live attenuated vaccine.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of hosts due to its multifactorial virulence. here we describe the application of transposon insertion mutagenesis approach to obtain an exoenzyme mutant of a. hydrophila strain j-1. immunization of swordtail fish (xiphophorus helleri heckel) with the highly attenuated mutant provided protection (survival of 27 out of 35 fish, compared to survival of only 13 out of 35 control fish) in the fish give ...200717079040
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas strains isolated from carcasses of pig as new members of the species aeromonas allosaccharophila.the first description of the species aeromonas allosaccharophila was only based on two strains (the type strain cect4199, and a duplicate cect4200) isolated from diseased elvers (anguilla anguilla) of an eel-farm located in valencia, spain, and one stool isolate (atcc35942) from a female with diarrhoea and food poisoning in south carolina, u.s.a. in the present study, 17 aeromonas isolates obtained from carcasses of pigs and from the equipment for the cleaning process, and one strain recently is ...200717080292
aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria bacteremia: rare pathogens of infection in a burn patient. 200717084982
inactivation of type i polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in aeromonas hydrophila resulted in discovery of another potential pha synthase.aeromonas hydrophila cgmcc 0911 possessing type i polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase (phac) produced only phbhhx from lauric acid but not from glucose. medium-chain-length (mcl) pha was produced from lauric acid or glucose only when phac of a. hydrophila was inactivated, indicating the existence of another pha synthase in the wild type. using pcr cloning strategy, the potential pha synthase gene (phac (mcl)) was obtained from genomic dna of the wild type and exhibited strong homology to type ii ...200717043804
role of gne and gale in the virulence of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o34.the mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) strain shows two different udp-hexose epimerases in its genome: gale (ec and gne (ec similar homologues were detected in the different mesophilic aeromonas strains tested. gale shows only udp-galactose 4-epimerase activity, while gne is able to perform a dual activity (mainly udp-n-acetyl galactosamine 4-epimerase and also udp-galactose 4-epimerase). we studied the activities in vitro of both epimerases and also in vivo t ...200717098903
protective efficacy of recombinant ompts protein of aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp. 200717113689
a microbial diagnostic microarray technique for the sensitive detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in a background of nonpathogens.a major challenge in microbial diagnostics is the parallel detection and identification of low-bundance pathogens within a complex microbial community. in addition, a high specificity providing robust, reliable identification at least at the species level is required. a microbial diagnostic microarray approach, using single nucleotide extension labeling with gyrb as the marker gene, was developed. we present a novel concept applying competitive oligonucleotide probes to improve the specificity o ...200717123456
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives.several 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by reacting substituted 3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-1-thiocarbamoyl-2-pyrazolines with phenacyl bromides in ethanol. the structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, and eims spectral data. their antimicrobial activities against escherichia coli (nrrl b-3704), staphylococcus aureus (nrll b-767), salmonella typhimurium (nrrl b-4420), bacillus cereus (nrrl b-3711), streptococcus ...200717125888
probiotic properties of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal strain of lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of lactobacillus reuteri and lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at ph 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. there was a large variation in the survival of the iso ...200717136367
identification of an antibacterial protein as l-amino acid oxidase in the skin mucus of rockfish sebastes skin mucus contains a variety of antimicrobial proteins and peptides that seem to play a role in self defense. we previously reported an antibacterial protein in the skin secretion of the rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, which showed selective antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. this study aimed to isolate and structurally and functionally characterize this protein. the antibacterial protein, termed ssap (s. schlegeli antibacterial protein), was purified to homogeneity by le ...200717140417
an investigation of the gamma hypothesis: a predictive modelling study of the effect of combined inhibitors (salt, ph and weak acids) on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis, that multiple inhibitory factors combine independently, is the underlying hypothesis for the quantification of the hurdle concept used in food manufacture. the literature, however, is confused as to whether interactive effects exist and under which circumstances they occur, if at all. using the method of time to detection (ttd), the inhibitory effect of ph, salt and specific weak acids (acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic) and combinations of these with respect to the gro ...200717140685
dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (cyprinus carpio) juveniles.a preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on cyprinus carpio juveniles. five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (t(1)) 0.1% levan, (t(2)) 0.2% levan, (t(3)) 0.5% levan, (t(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. the total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the t(3) group, ...200717158064
effect of mangifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in labeo rohita fingerlings.the study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of mangifera indica (mango) kernel on the immune response and disease resistance of labeo rohita fingerlings against the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila infections in. l. rohita fingerlings fed diet containing 0 (control), 1g, 5 g, 10 g mango kernel kg(-1) dry diet for 60 days. biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, blood glucose), haematological (wbc, rbc, haemoglobin content) and immunological (supe ...200717161956
emerging epidemic diseases of frogs in britain are dependent on the source of ranavirus agent and the route of exposure.a series of transmission studies was conducted to investigate the aetiology, or aetiologies, of emerging fatal epidemic disease syndromes affecting the common frog (rana temporaria) in britain. the syndromes, characterized by skin ulceration or systemic haemorrhages, were induced upon exposure to lesion homogenates or cultured ranavirus. the re-isolation of ranavirus from experimentally affected frogs fulfilled koch's postulates. aeromonas hydrophila, previously associated with similar lesions, ...200717181914
long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of clarias batrachus.the present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (hk) and ensuing humoral immune responses in clarias batrachus l. long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 microm) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in hk cell number eventually affecting the hk somatic index. prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed hk-b cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels ...200717182119
synthesis, spectral, catalytic and antimicrobial studies of pph3/asph3 complexes of ru(ii) with dibasic tridentate o, n, s donor ligands.complexes of the type [ru(co)(eph(3))(b)(l)] (e = p or as; b = pph(3), asph(3), py or pip; l=dianion of the schiff bases derived from thiosemicarbazone with acetoacetanilide, acetoacet-o-toluidide and o-chloro acetoacetanilide) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar amounts of [ruhcl(co)(eph(3))(2)(b)] and schiff bases in benzene. the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (ir, electronic, nmr) data. the arrangement of pph(3) groups around ruthenium metal ...200717182271
culturable and vbnc vibrio cholerae: interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population.vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. recently, it was found that chironomid (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible windborne carriers of v. cholerae non-o1 non-o139. chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. females deposit egg masses at the water's edge, and each egg mass contains eggs embedded in a gelatinous matrix. hemagglu ...200717186156
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water samples in istanbul, turkey.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the resistance patterns of aeromonas spp. in drinking water in istanbul, turkey. we investigated a total of 1,680 drinking water samples (840 tap water and 840 domestic water tank samples) for aeromonas strains between june 2002 and october 2005. a total of 147 aeromonas strains were isolated from 49 (6%) of 840 tap water samples and from 98 (12%) of 840 domestic water tank samples. antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonas strains was deter ...200717191011
combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. immune and antioxidant effects.goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (asdi) at a cumulative concentration of 50microg/l for 12 weeks. control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of immunity and antioxidant defenses. the antioxidant defenses were evaluated in haemopoietic organs and liver. asdi-induced stress was reflected as a si ...200717194491
multiple whole bacterial antigens in polyvalent vaccine may result in inhibition of specific responses in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the goal of fish vaccination today is to protect fish against multiple bacterial fish pathogens simultaneously using polyvalent vaccines. however, many immunological processes such as antigenic cross-reaction, antigenic competition, affinity maturation and antigen-induced suppression may affect the specificity, avidity and level of antibodies. consequently, the biological function of antibodies may be markedly different from that predicted by conventional serologic tests. here, we investigated t ...200716849036
in vivo humoral and cellular reactions, and fate of injected bacteria aeromonas hydrophila in freshwater prawn macrobrachium non-opsonized and opsonized aeromonas hydrophila were injected into juveniles of freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii to study the cells involved in phagocytosis, distribution of bacteria, cellular reactions and clearance of both forms of bacteria from the system. the bacteria were rapidly distributed to various tissues viz., gills, heart, hepatopancreas within 1h, and the tissues revealed haemocytic nodule formation after 3 h of injection. there was rapid clearance of both the forms ...200717200030
characterization of extracellular proteins produced by aeromonas hydrophila ah-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which can cause motile aeromonad septicemia in both fish and humans. a. hydrophila secretes many extracellular proteins associated with pathogenicity and environmental adaptability. in this study, an extracellular proteome map of a. hydrophila ah-1 was constructed. the major extracellular virulence factors were characterized by comparing the proteomes of various deletion mutants with that of the wild type. the results suggested that se ...200717203509
antibacterial activity of plant extracts from brazilian southeast region.a screening was conducted with 26 plants collected in the brazilian southeast region, to identify plant extracts with antibacterial properties against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. initially, the agar diffusion method was employed. then, those extracts presenting activity were submitted to a broth microdilution assay to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc). it was observed th ...200717169500
new consensus guidelines from the clinical and laboratory standards institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous clsi publications. the organisms include aeromonas species, bacillus species, and vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include abiotrophia and granulicatella species; ...200717173232
occurrence of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones in extracts of some gram-negative bacteria evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.acylated homoserine lactones (ahls) are self-generated signal molecules that mediate population density-dependent gene expression (quorum sensing) in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. these signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the medium as a function of cell growth. in selected foods ahls contribute to product spoilage. as different bacterial species produce ahl analogs that differ in length of the n-acyl chain, ranging from 4 to 14 carbons and in the substitution ...200717207763
an attenuated plasmid-cured strain of aeromonas hydrophila elicits protective immunity in clarias batrachus l.wild type aeromonas hydrophila (strain ao1) isolated from the lesions of ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) affected fish bears a 21 kb virulence plasmid. with plasmid curing the isolates became attenuated and failed to induce fatal haemorrhagic ulcers in fish. the objective of the present work was to check the immunogenicity of these plasmid-cured derivatives and determine whether such strains could be used as candidate antigens for eliciting protective immunity to a. hydrophila infections in th ...200717208455
differential expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1beta-1, tnfalpha-1 and il-8 in vaccinated pink (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (oncorhynchus keta) salmon juveniles.laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (approximately 2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. relative to elongation factor-1a, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta-1 (il-1beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha-1 (tnfalpha) and interleukin-8 (il-8) in pools of kidney and liver were examined 6- and 24-h after injection. expression of il-1beta was significantly ...200716926099
immune response in the tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to tannery effluent.the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent (te) on the specific immune response and nonspecific immunity in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. the effluent from the tannery was collected directly from a chrome-tanning factory situated in dindigul district, tamil nadu, india. apart from chromium (88.2 ppm), the effluent contained appreciable amount of calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. groups of fish (45-50 g) we ...200717261332
differentiation of aeromonas isolated from drinking water distribution systems using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry.the genus aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. in this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) was used to analyze the whole cells of both reference strains and unknown aeromonas isolates obtained from water distribution systems. a library of over 45 unique m/z signatures was created from 40 strains that are representative of the 17 reco ...200717269751
spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech.the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, is one of the simplest naturally occurring models for digestive-tract symbioses, where only two bacterial species, aeromonas veronii bv. sobria (gamma-proteobacteria) and a rikenella-like bacterium (bacteroidetes), colonize the crop, the largest compartment of the leech digestive tract. in this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes of the localization and microcolony structure of the native symbionts in the crop, after ingestion of a sterile blo ...200717277211
induction of apoptosis in vero cells by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria vacuolating cytotoxic factor.recently, a cytotoxin named vacuolating cytotoxic factor (vcf) in aeromonas sobria and aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was described. we have now purified this factor using ion metallic affinity chromatography. the vcf is a nonhemolytic enterotoxin that acts as a serine protease. the toxin can be partially neutralized by serum antiaerolysin and it induced not only cytoplasmatic vacuole formation, but also mitochondrial disorders that must be signaling the apoptotic pathways, leading to vero (afr ...200717286562
gamma study of ph, nitrite, and salt inhibition of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis states that there are no interactions between antimicrobial environmental factors. the time to growth of aeromonas hydrophila challenged with ph, nano(2), and salt combinations at 30 degrees c was investigated. data were examined using a model based on the gamma hypothesis (the gamma model), which takes into account variance-stabilizing transformations and which gives biologically relevant parameters. at high concentrations of nano(2) and at phs of >6.0, the antimicrobial ac ...200717293519
construction of pha-operon-defined knockout mutants of pseudomonas putida kt2442 and their applications in poly(hydroxyalkanoate) production.pseudomonas putida kt2442 could accumulate medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (pha) consisting of 3-hydroxyhexanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate from a wide range of carbon sources. in this study, the pha synthase pha operon (phac1-phaz-phac2) was knocked out and the vgb gene encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin protein (vhb), which could enhance oxygen uptake rate especially at low oxygen concentration, was integrated into the p. putida kt2442 genome t ...200717295412
microbial and sensory changes during refrigerated storage of desalted cod (gadus morhua) preserved by combined methods.water blanching and the use of additives (potassium sorbate and citric acid) combined with different types of packaging (air, vacuum "vp" and modified atmosphere packaging "map": 60% co(2), 30% n(2) and 10% o(2)), were studied as new methods of preservation of chilled desalted cod. microbial counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (tvb-n) analyses were carried out during a period of 42 days on all samples stored at 4 degrees c. no aeromonas or sulphite-reducing clostridium were isolated from an ...200717303277
competitive inhibitors of the cpha metallo-beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophila.various inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases have been reported; however, none are effective for all subgroups. those that have been found to inhibit the enzymes of subclass b2 (catalytically active with one zinc) either contain a thiol (and show less inhibition towards this subgroup than towards the dizinc members of b1 and b3) or are inactivators behaving as substrates for the dizinc family members. the present work reveals that certain pyridine carboxylates are competitive inhibitors of cpha ...200717307979
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