glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase complexed with lipopolysaccharide (lps) is a major lethal exotoxin and cytolysin of aeromonas salmonicida: lps stabilizes and enhances toxicity of the extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas salmonicida was purified by fast-protein liquid ion-exchange chromatography. the toxin is composed of glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) (molecular mass, 25 kilodaltons) aggregated with lipopolysaccharide (lps), the gcat/lps complex having a molecular mass of about 2,000 kilodaltons, estimated by gel filtration chromatography. the toxin is lethal for atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) at a concentration of 0.045 micrograms of ...19902394687
cytotoxin and enterotoxin production as factors delineating enteropathogenicity of aeromonas caviae.twenty-one stool and environmental aeromonas caviae isolates were studied for cytopathogenicity for cultured hep-2 cells. cytotoxic activity was demonstrated by the 21 a. caviae strains and by a. caviae atcc 15468 after challenging hep-2 cells with filtrates from a 24-h-old broth shake culture composed of double-strength, glucose-free trypticase soy broth, incubated at 35 degrees c. heat-stable cytotoxicity was observed 5 h after the addition of 1/5 and 1/10 concentrations of filtrates and consi ...19902394803
transient intestinal colonization by multiple phenotypes of aeromonas species during the first week of life.the intestinal colonization rate of aeromonas spp. was determined for 52 cesarean-born peruvian neonates. rectal swabs were obtained daily from newborns during their postdelivery hospitalization (mean = 5.5 days), and the gross appearances of their feces (blind determinations) were recorded. aeromonas spp. were recovered from rectal swabs of 12 of 52 (23.1%) infants during their first week of life; the isolates were obtained from 5 of 9 (55.6%) infants with at least one stool with a watery consi ...19902394805
aquatically acquired aeromonas hydrophila wound infection. a report of 3 cases.the occurrence of aeromonas hydrophila wound infections in healthy hosts after water-associated injury is being reported more frequently. this paper reports our experience with 3 such cases and outlines the importance of recognising the association between a water-related injury and this organism.19902396158
growth characteristics of motile aeromonas spp. isolated from different environments.the growth of 80 strains of motile aeromonas spp. derived from environments with temperatures above 25 degrees c and below 15 degrees c, respectively, were examined at five temperatures (5 degrees c, 10 degrees c, 25 degrees c, 37 degrees c and 44 degrees c) and four salt levels (0.05%, 2%, 4% and 6% nacl). sixty-one strains were further examined at two ph levels (ph 7.3 and ph 5.3). all strains grew at 25 degrees c and 10 degrees c with the majority of the isolates proliferating from approx. 10 ...19902397155
the bacteriology of fresh and spoiling lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus).a total of 177 bacterial cultures isolated from lake victorian nile perch (lates niloticus) were investigated. the flora on newly caught nile perch consisted of organisms belonging to the genera moraxella, alcaligenes, acinetobacter, pseudomonas, aeromonas, micrococcus and other gram-positive organisms. 39% were identified as gram-positive species and 61% were negative in the gram-reaction. three cultures out of 53 investigated caused weak rotten off-odours in sterile fish broth and one culture, ...19902397157
distribution and characteristics of aeromonas in food and drinking water in denmark.a total of 970 danish commercial foods and drinking water samples were examined for the presence of motile aeromonas spp. with a detection limit of 10(2)/g the frequent prevalence in raw foods was confirmed. aeromonas occurred in 7% of 779 samples of prepared foods; most frequently in whipped cream from ice cream parlors (28%) and mayonnaise salads (10%) with numbers occasionally exceeding 10(5)/g. the prevalence in drinking water was 28% with a detection limit of 1/100 ml. a hydrophila was the ...19902397158
aeromonas species in human septicaemia & increase was observed in the isolation of aeromonas sp. from clinical specimens, especially faeces, from patients with diarrhoeal disease and blood cultures from patients with suspected septicaemias. the isolation rate from diarrhoeal patients was 0.2 per cent in 1978-79 and this increased to 5.0 per cent in 1986-87. it is noteworthy that 13 patients of septicaemia due to aeromonas species were encountered, predominantly in adults with lowered resistance due to underlying disease states inclu ...19902397936
characterization of 22 vibrio species by gas chromatography analysis of their cellular fatty acids.the cellular fatty acid compositions of 51 vibrio strains belonging to 22 species as well as five aeromonas strains were determined by using capillary gas-liquid chromatography (glc). the major fatty acids were most often hexadecenoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids. heptadecenoic acid was present in significant amounts in v. alginolyticus, v. natriegens, v. parahaemolyticus and "vibrio navarrensis". twenty fatty acids including branched and hydroxy acids were detected in the genus vibrio. ...19902399366
type i and iv collagen and fibrinogen binding to aeromonas species isolated from various infections.collagen binding is a common property of strains of aeromonas species. however, agglutination of latex beads coated with types i and iv collagen and fibrinogen with aeromonas cells varied among strains of aeromonas species and their source of isolation. culture media and growth conditions greatly influenced expression of aeromonas cell surface receptors to bind collagen (types i and iv) and fibrinogen immobilized on the latex particles as suggested by the particle agglutination assay (paa). aero ...19902400535
[resistance to antimicrobial agents, hemolytic activity and plasmids in aeromonas species].a total of 174 aeromonas isolates consisting of 100 strains from patients with diarrhea being mainly overseas travellers nd healthy subjects, and 74 strains from environmental sources including foods, fish, fresh water, sea water and river soil collected in the area of tokyo metropolis and kanagawa prefecture was examined for the antimicrobial resistance, presence of plasmids and hemolytic activity. almost all the isolates (99.4%) were resistant to aminobenzyl penicillin. the isolation frequency ...19902401817
epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea and relative importance of various pathogens.each year 12 million persons travel from an industrialized country to a developing country in the tropics or subtropics. these travelers experience a high rate of diarrhea caused by a wide variety of enteric pathogens acquired by ingestion of contaminated food or water. one or more pathogens can be found in the stool of a majority of ill individuals. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli generally are the most frequently identified pathogens, having been found in a median of 42% of travelers' diarrhe ...19902406860
use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. bacteria affected include vibrio cholerae, aeromonas hydrophila, shigella sonnei, salmonella typhimurium and escherichia coli. with vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h w ...19852409896
eosinophilic granular cells (egc) and histamine responses to aeromonas salmonicida toxins in rainbow trout.the function of eosinophilic granular cells (egcs) in salmonids is unknown. in a previous study of the pathogenesis of a. salmonicida, injection of crude exotoxins into rainbow trout were shown to reproduce the lesions associated with furunculosis and an accompanying lesion, the dispersion and degranulation of egcs in the intestinal wall was reported. the present study investigated this phenomenon in relationship to the histamine content of the gut. in fish injected i/p with a. salmonicida exoto ...19852410306
electrophoretic and immunochemical analyses of the lipopolysaccharides from various strains of aeromonas hydrophila.sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the lipopolysaccharides isolated from strains of aeromonas hydrophila which exhibit virulence for fish and which autoaggregate during growth in static broth culture. the lipopolysaccharides contained o-polysaccharide chains of homogeneous chain length. two of the strains produced a surface protein array, and immunofluorescence and phage-binding studies revealed that a number of these o-polysaccharide chains of homogene ...19852413008
differential partition of virulent aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems.two-polymer aqueous-phase systems were used to compare via partitioning the surface properties of strains of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida which differed in their ability to produce the surface protein array known as the a layer and in their ability to produce smooth lipopolysaccharide. in these two-phase systems, biological particles are known to partition between the phases in a manner related to a variety of surface properties, including hydrophobicity, charge, and lipid composition ...19862425736
effects of direct immersion in antigen on immunological memory in young carp, cyprinus carpio.the study asks whether, in fish, antigens encountered early in life can prime the immune system to yield memory responses on subsequent challenge with the same antigen and, if so, whether positive immunity or immunological tolerance is induced. the direct immersion method of vaccination was used to prime 4 week old carp, cyprinus carpio, and was compared with priming by injection. three different forms of antigen were used: the thymus dependent antigen, human gamma globulin (hgg) in soluble and ...19862429432
the ontogeny of humoral immunity in rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri.the ontogeny of the humoral immune response to a 'thymus dependent' and a 'thymus independent' antigen, human gamma globulin (hgg) and aeromonas salmonicida (as) respectively, was investigated in the fry of rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri, by direct immersion vaccination in the antigens (dose 5 mg/l hgg; 10(8) cells/ml as; 30 minutes) at known ages/weights from 7 days post hatch, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months post hatch. half the fry in each group were tested for antibodies 4 weeks after vaccinati ...19862429433
protection of rats against cholera toxin and cholera-like enterotoxins by immunization with enteric-coated cholera toxin.pure cholera toxin (ct) given as a booster in enteric-coated tablets to rats produced a humoral and intestinal immune response similar to the result of instilling the boosting dose of ct directly into the duodenum. this method protects the antigen against gastric acid and allows delivery of the immunogen to intestinal mucosa, an essential step in producing intestinal secretory iga. immunization gave protection against pure ct during intestinal perfusion but also significantly protected against t ...19862430511
sodium-channel inhibitors produced by enteropathogenic vibrio cholerae and aeromonas hydrophila. 19872436014
research on aeromonas and plesiomonas. i. taxonomy, ecology, isolation and identification. 19872436939
[accelerated method for differentiating bacteria of the genera vibrio and aeromonas]. 19872437386
serotyping of aeromonas species using passive haemagglutination.antisera were raised with heat-killed vaccines prepared from 25 aeromonas hydrophila strains, 4 a. sobria strains and one a. caviae strain. twenty-seven of these 30 antisera gave high titers when tested in the microtiter tray agglutination (mta) test with their homologous antigen heated at 100 degrees c for 30 min. three o antisera gave low titers in the mta test but reacted to high titers in the haemagglutination (ha) test with conserved sheep red blood cells coated with alkali-treated heat ext ...19872445126
molecular cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of an extracellular amylase gene from aeromonas hydrophila.the structural gene for excreted amylase from aeromonas hydrophila jmp636 has been cloned within a 2.1-kilobase smai fragment of dna. the amylase gene is transcribed from its own promoter in escherichia coli, producing a gene product of mr 49,000. the amylase gene product is secreted to the periplasm of e. coli; however, it is not excreted. nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,392 base pairs corresponding to a protein of 464 amino acid residues. a potential signal peptide of ...19882449422
comparison of four hemolysin-producing organisms (escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, aeromonas hydrophila, and listeria monocytogenes) for release of inflammatory mediators from various cells.we investigated the role of various hemolysin-producing strains (escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, aeromonas hydrophila, and listeria monocytogenes) in induction of inflammatory mediators, e.g., histamine release from rat mast cells as well as the chemiluminescence response and the release of lipoxygenase transformation products from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. our data show that the hemolysin-positive bacteria as well as the hemolysin-positive culture supernatants were active in i ...19882451679
gastro-enteritis in australian children: studies on the aetiology of acute diarrhoea.a prospective, year-long study of the microbiology of childhood gastro-enteritis in perth showed that (i) aeromonas-associated diarrhoea was the commonest recognized bacterial cause for acute diarrhoea, especially in summer, (ii) campylobacter infections were the next most common bacterial cause, (iii) rotavirus and parasites were not significant causes of sporadic acute childhood diarrhoea, and (iv) enteric bacterial pathogens and intestinal parasites were often isolated from aboriginal childre ...19882456732
shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigens b and c: epitope location and characterization with monoclonal antibodies.invasion plasmid antigens b (ipab) and c (ipac) are associated with the ability of shigellae to invade cultured mammalian cells. monoclonal antibodies against ipab and ipac polypeptides were produced and used in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to show that both ipab and ipac polypeptides were exposed on the surface of virulent shigellae. moreover, these surface epitopes were shown to be highly conserved among different serotypes of shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli ...19882459066
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the aercaera region of aeromonas sobria encoding aerolysin and its regulatory region.the nucleotide sequence of a 2510 base pair chromosomal fragment containing the aerolysin gene aera, and its regulatory region aerc, from a clinical isolate of aeromonas sobria was determined. the aerolysin gene coded for a 54.5 kd polypeptide and had a g + c content of 59%, indicating that it is endogenous to the genus aeromonas. in contrast, the aerc region was characterized by its high a + t content (61%) and the presence of a core motif, aataaaa, repeated eight times within 300 base pairs. a ...19882459581
inhibition of the aeromonas salmonicida extracellular protease by alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum of rainbow of the major pathogenic factors of aeromonas salmonicida, the bacterium causing furunculosis in fish, is considered to be a protease secreted in the extracellular products. this protease can be inhibited by normal trout and rabbit serum but the factor responsible has not hitherto been identified. the present results demonstrate that the a. salmonicida protease is inhibited by the alpha 2-macroglobulin of rainbow trout serum. this inhibitor accounts for about 9% of the total trypsin inhibitin ...19872461505
simple, rapid method for direct isolation of nucleic acids from aquatic isolation of nucleic acids from the environment may be useful in several respects, including the estimation of total biomass, detection of specific organisms and genes, estimations of species diversity, and cloning applications. we have developed a method that facilitates the concentration of microorganisms from aquatic samples and the extraction of their nucleic acids. natural water samples of 350 to greater than 1,000 ml are concentrated on a single cylindrical filter membrane (type svg ...19892467621
virulence factors from aeromonas species.isolates (116) of aeromonas were obtained from various sources and subjected to tests to establish their virulence factors. a high number of the isolates (69.8%) were found to be enterotoxigenic. the isolates from snails had more enterotoxigenic strains (73.3%), while those from cattle faeces had the lowest (33.3%). haemolysin production was found to be high (60.3%) amongst the isolates, and human isolates gave the highest number of haemolysin producing strains (70.6%), while the least number (3 ...19882468071
typing of aeromonas species by protein fingerprinting: comparison of radiolabelling and silver staining for visualising proteins.a method for typing aeromonas species by silver staining of total soluble proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. there was good agreement with the results obtained by autoradiography of whole-cell proteins for isolates examined by both methods.19892470906
typing of aeromonas strains by dna restriction endonuclease analysis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell envelopes.the outer membrane protein (omp) composition (omp typing) of 46 fecal aeromonas strains from hybridization groups (hgs) 1 (a. hydrophila; n = 10), 4 (a. caviae; n = 16), and 8 (a. veronii; n = 20) were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a phenotypic typing method. almost every isolate of hg-1 and hg-8 had a unique omp profile, in contrast to isolates of hg-4, which were separated into five different omp types. it was possible to recognize hgs 1, 4, and 8 by ...19892473993
s-layer of high-virulence aeromonas hydrophila. 19882479668
serogrouping of the aeromonas hydrophila group. 19882479669
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to aeromonas sobria surface antigens.a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was raised against the surface antigens of aeromonas sobria isolated from a patient with diarrhoea. antibodies to the lps core and o-antigen and to protein antigens were generated. three mabs of the igm isotype against either protein or lps agglutinated 34/75 aeromonas isolates from clinical and environmental sources. similar numbers of a. hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae isolates were agglutinated. the mabs were screened for their ability ...19892483346
ribosomal rna phylogenies for the vibrio-enteric group of eubacteria.comparisons between the ribonucleotide sequences of 5s rrnas of the gram-negative eubacteria indicate that several families, namely enterobacteriaceae, vibrionaceae and aeromonadaceae possess remarkably similar evolutionary histories. a study of the phylogenetic relationships among these groups, through cluster analysis and construction of evolutionary trees, suggests the existence of dissimilar rates of evolution along the several lineages. these dissimilarities are most evident in comparisons ...19862484672
[aeromonas hydrophila. infection in xenopus laevis].aeromonas hydrophila caused severe disease in a group of 50 xenopus leavis three weeks after being transferred from their laboratory conditions. the first clinical signs observed were marked pallor, petechiae, lethargy, anorexia, and edema. the duration of the disease was about 48 days, during which 4 animals acquired the disease and 10 died. the study of the bacteriology of the skin and skeletal muscles showed at necropsy subcutaneous edema, hemorrhage, and ascitis. aeromonas hydrophila was iso ...19892486216
aeromonas hydrophila infection complicating digital replantation and revascularization.two cases of thumb replantation and one of finger revascularization complicated by aeromonas hydrophila infection are reported. two digits were lost because of infection in soft tissue and osteomyelitis. one thumb had extensive necrosis. in all cases the infection was difficult to eradicate, probably because of ischemia. all three patients sustained their injuries while cutting meat or fish. these infection sources have not been previously reported. note is made of aeromonas hydrophila in medici ...19892490149
[yersinia and infantile gastroenteritis].fecal samples and intestinal mucosal biopsies of 16 patients in paediatric age, with protracted diarrhoea with blood and mucus, were examined for intestinal pathogens including yersinia. yersinia enterocolitica 1/5/xz and yersinia intermedia 1/18/xz were isolated from fecal samples of two patients. in another child, yersinia enterocolitica, 1/5/xz was isolated from fecal sample, while yersinia enterocolitica 1/self-agglutinable/xz from colon biopsy. the other intestinal pathogens were absent; ae ...19892490392
[aeromonas bacteremia]. 19892490659
[spontaneous peritonitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 19892490661
[pleural empyema caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 19892490662
[endocarditis caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 19892490663
[acute salpingitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 19892490664
[aeromonas]. 19892490668
[intestinal infections caused by aeromonas].we have identified 38 instances of intestinal infection by aeromonas and 4 by plesiomonas in 16,184 coprocultures carried out during a 4 year period in the hcu of zaragoza. the low prevalence can be related with the fact that specific media for the recovery of these organisms were not used. the species aeromonas sobria (47.36%) and a. caviae (39.47%) were more common than a. hydrophila (13.15%). aeromonas were isolated from patients with and without intestinal disease. the occurrence of gastroin ...19892490673
[application of the heiberg biotypes in the diagnosis of species in the mesophilic aeromonas group]. 19892490869
[bacterial etiologies of acute infantile diarrhea in dakar].systematic research into all the bacterial etiological agents responsible for acute diarrhoea was undertaken on 276 diarrhoea stools collected from children aged 0-5 years. particular attention was given to finding bacterial agents usually overlooked during routine checks: campylobacter, vibrionaceae and yersinia enterocolitica.19892491376
in-vitro activity of lomefloxacin in comparison with pefloxacin and ofloxacin.the in-vitro activity of lomefloxacin (sc 47111, ny-198) was investigated by the determination of mics in agar and in broth, of mbcs in broth, of killing curves and of the duration of the post-antibiotic effect. mics measured in broth and in agar were almost identical. lomefloxacin was two- to eight-fold less active against gram-positive bacteria than ofloxacin. its activity against staphylococcus aureus was independent of resistance to penicillin and oxacillin. the activity of lomefloxacin, ofl ...19892496071
antimicrobial susceptibility of sixty human fecal isolates of aeromonas species.the mics of 21 antimicrobial agents were determined for 60 strains of aeromonas spp. isolated from human feces. all isolates tested were susceptible to aztreonam, tetracycline, imipenem, moxalactam, pipemidic acid, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin. resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin was observed in all 60 strains. aeromonas caviae was less susceptible to cefamandole, cefotaxime, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trime ...19892496995
isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against alkaline phosphatase of pseudomonas aeruginosa.monoclonal antibodies against the alkaline phosphatase of pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from spleen cells of balb/c mice primed with purified alkaline phosphatase of p. aeruginosa atcc 10145 and sp20/ag-14 myeloma cells. the eight stable clones established produced antibodies that reacted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays with all bacterial strains of p. aeruginosa, including the 17 serotypes and two nontypable strains. three of the clones cross-reacted ...19892501343
aeromonas: the forgotten pathogen. 19892504945
lomefloxacin (sc 47111 or ny-198), a new difluorinated quinolone: comparison of the in vitro activity with other broad spectrum antimicrobials against enterobacteriaceae, acinetobacter spp, aeromonas spp, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.using a broth microdilution method, we compared the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin to other broad spectrum antimicrobials against clinical strains of enterobacteriaceae, acinetobacter spp, aeromonas spp, and p. aeruginosa. against the enterobacteriaceae and a. hydrophila, lomefloxacin showed excellent activity with mic50 values ranging from 0.12-0.5 micrograms/ml and mic90 values ranging from 0.12-1.0 micrograms/ml. by comparison, lomefloxacin had superior activity to nalidixic acid and diflo ...19892507219
complexing of copper in drinking water samples to enhance recovery of aeromonas and other bacteria.the presence of copper in drinking water samples at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms/l resulted in a rapid die-off of aeromonads. coliform bacteria, heterotrophic plate count bacteria and faecal streptococci were also sensitive to copper but to a lesser degree than aeromonads. the effect was particularly noticeable in soft water (less than 3 meq/l ca + mg) and at ph-values below 8.0. the toxic effect of copper concentrations up to 500 micrograms/l could be neutralized for a period of up to ...19892512276
influence of modified-atmosphere storage on the growth of uninjured and heat-injured aeromonas hydrophila.the growth of uninjured and heat-injured aeromonas hydrophila incubated at 5 degrees c (22 days) and 30 degrees c (31 h) under air, n2, and co2 was investigated. at 30 degrees c, the growth patterns of cells on brain heart infusion agar incubated under air and n2 were similar, although slight differences in the lengths of the lag phases and the final populations were detected. the lag phases of cells incubated under air and n2 were substantially longer at 5 degrees c than at 30 degrees c. the po ...19892516434
evolutionary relationships among bacterial immunological approach was used for the study of ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otcase) evolution in bacteria. antisera were prepared against the anabolic and catabolic otcases of pseudomonas aeruginosa and aeromonas formicans as well as against otcase and putrescine carbamoyltransferases from streptococcus faecalis; these antisera were then tested against the unpurified otcases, either anabolic or catabolic, of 34 bacterial strains. extensive cross-reactions were observed between the antise ...19892516870
purification and characterization of aeromonas hydrophila beta-hemolysin.aeromonas hydrophila hemolysin was excreted in our culture conditions during the stationary growth phase. the toxin was purified to homogeneity by a three-step method: ultrafiltration, acid precipitation in the presence of rna and anion exchange chromatography with fplc apparatus. beta-hemolysin is a protein not associated with lipids, carbohydrates or nucleic acids whose subunit mol. wt is 51,000. the mol. wt determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests that the molecule is in a tr ...19892516922
[bacterial isolation in infants hospitalized for acute diarrhea].bacteria were investigated in stools of 156 children under two years of age admitted to the pediatric wards of a general hospital at the western metropolitan area of santiago, chile, because of acute diarrhea with only one stool sample. a known pathogenic agent was isolated from 115 cases (73.7%), this being a bacteria in 87/115 (75.6%). most prevalent microorganisms were enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec). (65.5%), specially serogroups 0111, 0119 and 055, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli ...19892520838
amonabactin, a novel tryptophan- or phenylalanine-containing phenolate siderophore in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila 495a2 excreted two forms of amonabactin, a new phenolate siderophore composed of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, lysine, glycine, and either tryptophan (amonabactin t) or phenylalanine (amonabactin p). supplementing cultures with l-tryptophan (0.3 mm) caused exclusive synthesis of amonabactin t, whereas supplements of l-phenylalanine (0.3 to 30 mm) gave predominant production of amonabactin p. the two forms of amonabactin were separately purified by a combination of production an ...19892522922
cutaneous manifestations of bacterial short, bacterial sepsis is associated with a number of peripheral manifestations involving the skin and soft tissues. the pathogenesis of the lesions observed is not fully understood and is almost certainly multifactorial. in ecthyma gangrenosum, the presence of large numbers of gram-negative bacilli in the walls of small blood vessels without a substantial inflammatory response suggests that either the bacteria themselves or bacterial products are responsible for tissue damage. endotoxin pro ...19892523895
genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria.the possession of specialized iron transport systems may be crucial for bacteria to override the iron limitation imposed by the host or the environment. one of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. thus, siderophores act as extracellular solubilizing agents for iron from minerals or organic compounds, such as transferrin and lac ...19892531838
physiological control of amonabactin biosynthesis in aeromonas hydrophila.amonabactin is a siderophore from aeromonas hydrophila which is produced in two biologically active forms composed of the phenolate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (dhb), lysine, glycine, and either trytophan (amonabactin t) or phenylalanine (amonabactin p). amonabactin biosynthetic mutants (generated by chemical mutagenesis) that either produced no amonabactin or overproduced the siderophore were isolated and identified on chrome azurol s siderophore detection agar. amonabactin-negative mutants were ...19892535179
[infectious gastroenteritis in the immunocompetent child. significance of cryptosporidium spp. and aeromonas ssp].over a one-year period we have examined 390 stool specimens from 210 children hospitalized for infectious gastroenteritis or in whom infectious gastroenteritis occurred during hospitalization. the most prevalent pathogens were rotaviruses (22.4%), followed by enteric salmonella (8.1%), campylobacter jejuni/coli (2.4%), cryptosporidium spp. (2.4%) and aeromonas spp. (1.9%). both cryptosporidium spp. and aeromonas spp. are important pathogens of infectious gastroenteritis in immunocompetent childr ...19892540525
[the occurrence of escherichia coli, aeromonas hydrophila, plesiomonas shigelloides and clostridium perfringens in the intestinal flora of gray herons (ardea cinerea)].the flora of the large intestine of 92 grey herons was examined for the frequency of aerobic and microaerobic growing bacteria. clostridium perfringens, aeromonas hydrophila, plesiomonas shigelloides and e. coli were isolated from 55%, 48%, 14% and 35% of the birds, respectively. it could be demonstrated that the findings of these bacteria in the intestinal flora are depending on the age of the birds. the percentage of carriers of clostridium perfringens, aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas shi ...19892548355
protection of rainbow trout against vibriosis and furunculosis by the use of attenuated strains of vibrio anguillarum.the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum causes a lethal infection in rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri). three different avirulent mutants, constructed by transposon insertion mutagenesis (van20 and van70) or as antibiotic-resistant mutants (van1000), were isolated by screening 200 individual isolated mutants for avirulence. when used as live vaccines, all three avirulent mutants were able to induce protective immunity against the homologous as well as a heterologous strain of v. anguillarum. when van ...19892548446
comparative in vitro activities of piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanate.the in vitro activities of ticarcillin, piperacillin, clavulanic acid, tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam against 819 bacterial isolates were compared. the two beta-lactamase inhibitors, clavulanic acid and tazobactam, had little useful antibacterial activity but enhanced the activities of the penicillins against beta-lactamase-producing strains of haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis, and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus; all strains were su ...19892552904
relation between aeromonas and faecal coliforms in fresh waters.a possible correlation between the presence of mesophilic aeromonads and the number of faecal coliforms present in three fresh-water habitats subject to differing levels of faecal pollution was investigated. concentration of aeromonas spp. between 10(2)-10(9) cfu/100 ml and faecal coliforms of between 9-10(7) cfu/100 ml were found in the waters. in water free from faecal pollution there was no correlation but in polluted waters there was a significant relationship between the numbers of aeromona ...19892553653
enterotoxin induced diarrhoea--an update.the pathogenic personality or the criteria required to be a successful pathogen, of enteric bacteria includes, among others, the ability to produce potent proteins which by different intracellular mechanisms elicit what we overtly see as diarrhoea. enteropathogens belonging to several genera like vibrio, escherichia, shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, aeromonas and yersinia include species capable of elaborating strikingly similar exotoxins which seem to share common mechanisms of action invol ...19892554547
recovery of viruses and bacteria in waters off bondi beach: a pilot study.a pilot study was conducted between february and april, 1989, on the occurrence of sewage-derived viruses and bacteria in the beach and nearshore waters off bondi, sydney. enteroviruses were isolated from 41% of a total of 66 sewage, sea-water, grease and sediment samples. poliovirus vaccine strains accounted for 78% of the isolates. adenoviruses were isolated four times and coxsackievirus b was isolated twice in samples that were collected away from the bathing area. rotavirus and hepatitis a v ...19892556634
aeromonas species in aquaria: a reservoir of gastrointestinal infections?to assess the role of aquaria in the epidemiology of aeromonas associated gastroenteritis, the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonads in ornamental aquaria were determined and compared to that of isolates obtained from patients with gastroenteritis. thirty-eight (76%) of 50 aquaria, including those located in our hospital, yielded 61 isolates: 24 (39.3%) aeromonas sorbria, 18 (29.0%) a. hydrophila, 15 (24.6%) a. caviae, and four (6.5%) which could not be speciated. in comparison, ...19892567310
characterization of a pilus produced by aeromonas hydrophila.a pilus produced by aeromonas hydrophila was purified and partially characterized. the pilin monomers had an apparent molecular weight of 17,000. agglutination studies indicated serological cross-reactivity in the pili of a. hydrophila strains. presence of pili did not correlate with hydrophobicity or haemagglutinating ability of the bacteria.19892569431
motile aeromonas infection of striped (grey) mullet mugil cephalus.infection of striped mullet (mugil cephalus) with aeromonas hydrophila results in an acute septicemic disease. the disease can be experimentally induced by intramuscular injection, skin or gill scarification or by the oral route using pellets purposely seeded with bacteria. the organism was isolated from the blood 1-2 days after infection and from all organs 24 hr or longer after infection. the disease is characterized by early inflammatory and proliferative changes and later necrotic changes. e ...19892575883
conjugation system of incc plasmid ra1, and the interaction of ra1 pili with specific rna phage c-1.ra1 was the only incc plasmid that was slightly temperature-sensitive for replication and transfer. at 30 degrees c, ra1 determined constitutive synthesis of conjugative pili and yet was transfer-repressed. attachment of shaft-adsorbing rna phage c-1 virions prevented the probable retraction of pili under heat stimulus (55 degrees c). electron microscopy showed single adsorbed virions at pilus bases where they were thought to have stopped retraction.19892576151
bombesin: an activator of specific aeromonas antibody secretion in rat intestine.the effect of bombesin (bbs) in modulating the secretion of specific aeromonas antibodies in rat intestine was determined. rats were immunized with the culture supernatant of aeromonas hydrophila, isolate ssu. this culture supernatant contained a number of toxins that may be considered virulence factors. after 24 days of immunization, rats were anesthetized and a 10-cm intestinal segment was perfused with phosphate-buffered saline. the effluents were collected for measurement of iga and igg by t ...19892582984
chronic colitis after aeromonas infection. 19892583575
hygienic status of food handlers.the study demonstrated bacterial species on hands and nails of food-handlers before and after hand-washing. those were staphylococcus spp., streptococcus spp., micrococcus spp., bacillus spp., diphtheroid, aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella pneumoniae, acinetobacter, enterobacter cloacae, escherichia coli, pseudomonas spp., proteus mirabilis, serratia spp., citrobacter freundii. before hand washing, each food-handler harboured one to eight bacterial species. after hand-washing (eight with water fr ...19892584903
aeromonas hydrophila strains with moderate virulence.a group of aeromonas hydrophila strains was obtained from very different origins which showed very similar characteristics (lipopolysaccharide, outer-membrane protein profile, toxin production, bacteriophage sensitivity and moderate virulence), besides the heterogenicity observed among the a. hydrophila strains. this group of a. hydrophila strains with moderate virulence can be easily recognized by their bacteriophage sensitivity pattern.19892593869
the germ-spectrum problem and antibiotic-resistance in bida and minna the present paper the occurrence of different species of pseudomonas, of acinetobacter calcoaceticum var. anitratum and aeromonas hydrophila in hospitals is described. the possible human pathogenic significance is discussed.19892599385
[infectious diarrhea in the adult].infectious diarrhoeas are usually divided into two types; toxinogenic and invasive. invasive diarrhoeas are copious and responsible for dehydration which is the principal clinical sign; mucosal lesions and bacteraemia are absent. the most typical of toxinogenic diarrhoeas is cholera, but enterotoxicogenic e. coli and aeromonas infections have similar clinical features. in invasive diarrhoeas the responsible microorganisms penetrate into the epithelial cells of the intestine, producing fever and ...19892602888
mixed infections in childhood diarrhoea: results of a community study in kiambu district, thousand four hundred and twenty diarrhoea specimens from 846 children aged 0 to 60 months were collected and analysed for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus over a 16 month period, from june 1985 to september 1986 inclusive. the study was conducted in 4 villages situated in kiambu district, kenya. all the specimens were analysed for rotavirus and parasites, including cryptosporidium. the majority of the specimens were analysed for enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), shigella, salmonell ...19892606013
some observations on the faecal carriage of mesophilic aeromonas species in cows and pigs.replicate faecal samples from healthy individual pigs and cows were examined for the presence of aeromonas sp. over a 12-month period. aeromonads were found to be minor components of the faecal flora, only 8.8% of 520 samples from pigs and 4.6% of 481 samples from cows proving positive. isolation rates in both groups of animals were seasonal. a hydrophila (62% of the isolates) was the predominant species in cows, followed by a. caviae (32%) and a. sobria (15%). this pattern was also recorded in ...19892606161
serogroups of aeromonas species from clinical and environmental sources in calcutta, india.using a recently developed somatic o-antigen serogrouping scheme, 118 isolates of aeromonas spp. were serogrouped, 68 of which were isolated from diarrhoea patients admitted to the infectious diseases hospital and b.c. roy children's hospital, calcutta, from march 1987 to february 1988 and 50 randomly selected from an environmental study conducted during the same period. the isolates were typed into 23 different serogroups which represent 35.9% of the total 64 o-serogroups in the typing scheme. ...19892607101
isolation of medically significant vibrio species from riverine sources in south east queensland.vibrio and vibrio-like bacteria were isolated from water, sediments, plants and faeces from eight riverine sites in south east queensland, australia, using filtrations, enrichments and selective growth on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (tcbs) and simidu agars. isolates (402 in toto) were classified by numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics and comparison with fifteen reference cultures. of the isolates 41 (10.2%) were identified as vibrio cholerae, 33 (8.2%) as v. fluvialis an ...19892607994
[are aeromonas species a cause of diarrheal diseases in yugoslavia?].isolation and identification of aeromonas spp. have been performed in 1,610 stools in the period from january 1987 to april 1988. of 1300 stool specimens taken from the patients with diarrheal syndrome (540 stools of children and 760 stools of adults) aeromonas spp. were isolated only in 4 patients (0.30%, p less than 0.001). positive stools were found in 3 adult patients and one child. in 310 examined stools of healthy adult persons aeromonas spp. were not isolated. a significantly higher incid ...19892609506
purification of igg from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.immunoglobulin g (igg) from bovine serum raised against aeromonas salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (asp) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (caas). purity of igg samples prepared by both methods were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. results suggest that igg prepared by asp is better than that obtained by caas method in terms of the yield of the igg monomers and t ...19892612135
incidence of aeromonads in samples from an abattoir processing lambs.two hundred and thirty three samples of lamb carcasses, livers, kidneys and faeces, collected at a local abattoir, were examined to determine the incidence of motile aeromonas spp. wash water from the abattoir was also tested. direct plating on starch ampicillin agar and enrichment in alkaline peptone water were used. the incidence of aeromonads was low. they were detected only after enrichment in 5/47 faecal samples and 11/50 carcass samples. the 41 strains of aeromonas isolated were identified ...19892613594
[studies on bacterial agents in acute diarrheal disease (1985-1987)].a three-year epidemiological study (from january 1985 to december 1987) was carried out on sporadic cases of acute diarrhea. a total of 2889 fecal specimens in cary-blair transport medium were examined for bacterial enteric pathogens, and 832 strains of fifteen species were isolated from 739 specimens, 73 patients having two or more pathogens. c. jejuni shared 51.7%, salmonella spp. 18.3%, v. parahaemolyticus 10.3%, and aeromonas spp. 15.7% of total fecal specimens. isolation rates of c. jejuni ...19892614097
aeromonas endocarditis in a patient with chronic hepatitis-b infection.aeromonas, a genus of gram-negative bacteria normally found in water and soil, is well established as a pathogen in the animal kingdom. often considered as a pathogen of low virulence, its role in human infections has recently been recognised. aeromonas infections in humans range from cellulitis to septicaemia. endocarditis is rare. we describe here a patient with a chronic liver disease with aeromonas bacteremia and endocarditis.19892617304
[long-term cryopreservation of microbial strains relevant to food hygiene].experiments on long-time cryopreservation at -20 degrees c were conducted, using 42 microbial strains of relevance to food hygiene. blood slant agar was coated with 10% glycerol solution, so that all strains were in re-culturing conditions, following 12 months of storage. re-culturing of 18 in 20 of the microbial genera used in the experiment was possible after 24 months of storage, if strains had been kept only in 10% glycerol solution. the method proved suitable particularly for strain keeping ...19892619482
bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea in children in kuwait.bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea were studied prospectively for one year in 343 hospitalised young children in kuwait. in 288 (84%) patients, one or more pathogens were identified compared with 12 of 86 (13.9%) children admitted with diseases other than diarrhoea (p less than 0.01). forty-four (12.9%) of the patients were infected with two or more pathogens. viral agents detected in the stools were rotaviruses (40.2%), enteric adenoviruses (1.7%), and enteroviruses (1.5%). enterobac ...19892632640
aeromonas spp. in foods: a significant cause of food poisoning?from a total of 563 samples of various foodstuffs purchased from retail outlets in the reading area 287 were found to contain mesophilic aeromonas spp. the types of sample which were most frequently contaminated were poultry (79.3%) and offal (84.3%). of three media compared for their efficiency in recovering aeromonas spp. after enrichment in alkaline peptone water, difco aeromonas was the most efficient. cytotoxin was produced by approximately 50% of the a. hydrophila and a. sobria strains but ...19892641273
[significance of the occurrence of aeromonas of various biotypes in the third world].in investigations carried out in the refugee camps of the polisario (south algeria), in the neighbourhood of the inhabitants of the waste disposal sites of cairo and in the ayoun el atrous and nema (mauritania) regions also in the bida and minna hospitals. aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas spec. were repeatedly found in the investigated material. therefore, it was of particular interest for us to investigate this type of organism.19892641444
[water studies of inhabitants of refuse disposal sites in cairo. 1].in two waste disposal sites in cairo, drinking water samples from springs, drinking vessels and kitchens were investigated. total germ count lay seldom below one thousand and ten million pro ml. apart from various faecal germs, aeromonas hydrophila was also found. the high occurrence of diarrhoeal diseases among the inhabitants of the waste disposal sites can be traced with certainty to the extremely bad drinking water quality.19892641445
toxin production by strains of aeromonas hydrophila grown in laboratory media and prawn purée.toxin production by four strains of aeromonas hydrophila grown at 30 and 37 degrees c in two laboratory media and prawn purée was studied. three different cell lines were used to test for cytotoxic activity, haemolytic activity was tested against rabbit and guinea pig erythrocytes, proteolytic activity was assayed with azo-casein and enterotoxic activity using the suckling mouse assay. results showed reduced cytotoxic and haemolytic activities in prawn purée compared with the two media, but in m ...19892641490
effect of temperature on hemolysin production in aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold environments.the effect of growth temperature on the hemolysin production in 97 aeromonas isolates was studied. only 9% of the isolates obtained from low-temperature sources such as refrigerated foods, drinking water and trout aquaculture were able to produce high hemolysin titers (titer greater than 128) at 37 degrees c compared with 65% of the isolates from warm sources such as human clinical cases and warm water aquaculture (p less than 0.001). in contrast, 61% of the low-temperature isolates were produci ...19892641493
enterotoxigenicity and drug sensitivity of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from well water in sweden: a case study.a large number of aeromonas spp. have been found in drinking water from a drilled well in sweden. isolates identified as a. hydrophila were tested for production of enterotoxin, hemolysin, enzymes and for resistant patterns to different antibiotics. the enterotoxin-producing a. hydrophila could be responsible for the long-term diarrhoeal case of a 1 1/2 year old child who consumed the contaminated water.19892641888
automated biochemical identification of bacterial fish pathogens using the abbott quantum ii.the quantum ii, originally designed by abbott diagnostics for automated rapid identification of members of enterobacteriaceae, was adapted for the identification of bacterial fish pathogens. the instrument operates as a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 492.600 nm. a sample cartridge containing 20 inoculated biochemical chambers is inserted in the path of the analyzing beam. reactions are converted into a 7-digit octal biocode, relayed via a sensor to the memory module, and compared to biocod ...19892644450
aeromonas as a human pathogen.although the first aeromonas strain was described by zimmermann as early as in 1890, it took 60 years until caselitz established human pathogenicity of strains then called "vibrio jamaicensis". since then, and especially in the last 10 years, there have been increasing numbers of reports on different infections caused by members of the genus aeromonas. these include sepsis; meningitis; cellulitis; necrotizing fasciitis; ecthyma gangrenosum; pneumonia; peritonitis; conjunctivitis; corneal ulcer; ...19892649316
haemagglutinating activity of aeromonas spp. from different sources; attempted use as a typing system.the haemagglutinating ability of 141 isolates of aeromonas spp. for human, horse and guinea-pig erythrocytes was examined. although the majority of isolates (136/141) agglutinated human group o erythrocytes, all the eight possible patterns of agglutination were observed. haemagglutination of human group o erythrocytes, but not horse or guinea-pig, was associated with the ability to agglutinate yeast cells (saccharomyces) and with aggregation in a low concentration of ammonium sulphate. haemagglu ...19892649385
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