biosorption of lead using immobilized aeromonas hydrophila biomass in up flow column system: factorial design for process and immobilized biomass of aeromonas hydrophila has been utilized for the removal of pb(ii) from aqueous solution. fitness of langmuir sorption model to the sorption data indicated the sorption was monolayer and uptake capacity of biomass was 163.9 and 138.88 mg/g for the free and immobilized biomass respectively. 85.38% pb(ii) removal was achieved at bed height of 19 cm and flow rate of 2 ml/min and bdst model was in a good agreement with the experimental results (r(2)>0.997). an attempt h ...201020036460
evaluation of dairy-yeast prebiotic supplementation in the diet of juvenile goldfish in the presence or absence of phytoplankton and zooplankton.prebiotics recently have been shown to increase immune responses and disease resistance in certain fish species; therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the commercially available dairy-yeast prebiotic, grobiotic-a, for use with juvenile goldfish carassius auratus. the study consisted of two 10-week feeding trials in which juvenile goldfish were fed practical diets that were either unsupplemented or supplemented with the dairy-yeast prebiotic at 2% by dry weight. juvenile fish wer ...200920043400
concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific dna vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.vaccines are commonly used in salmonid aquaculture as a method of disease prevention. although there is a substantial amount of published research regarding the immunological and physiological effects following the injection of different polyvalent vaccines and dna vaccines, there are no published reports examining the physiological and immunological effects of concurrent vaccine injection, which is the situation encountered in aquaculture. using key immunological parameters such as lysozyme act ...201020045062
full resistance and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from an outbreak. 201020047915
lysozyme inhibitor conferring bacterial tolerance to invertebrate type lysozyme.invertebrate (i-) type lysozymes, like all other known lysozymes, are dedicated to the hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, thereby contributing to the innate immune system and/or digestive system of invertebrate organisms. bacteria on the other hand have developed several protective strategies against lysozymes, including the production of periplasmic and/or membrane-bound lysozyme inhibitors. the latter have until now only been described for chicken (c-) type lys ...201020049505
rapid identification and characterization of vibrio species using whole-cell maldi-tof mass spectrometry.vibrio identification by means of traditional microbiological methods is time consuming because of the many biochemical tests that have to be performed to distinguish closely related species. this work aimed at evaluating the use of maldi-tof mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of vibrio (v.) spp. as an advantageous application to rapidly discriminate the most important vibrio spp. and distinguish vibrio spp. from closely related bacterial species like photobacterium damselae and grim ...201020059616
diversity of extracellular proteases among aeromonas determined by zymogram analysis.the current research was aimed at comparing extracellular proteolytic activities and zymogram profiles among aeromonas spp.201020059617
in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas hydrophila in artificially infected cyprinus carpio l.this study investigated the possible in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and a. hydrophila inhabiting two different organs of cyprinus carpio l. to distinguish transconjugants from naturally occurring antibiotic resistant bacteria, twelve luminescent transposon-tagged a. hydrophila strains using mini tn5luxcdabekm2 transposon were generated. in conjugal transfer experiments, fish were conditioned with the donor bacteria and subsequently immersed in water containing th ...201020059637
expression of immune-related genes in one phase of embryonic development of freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus.crayfish do not have larval stage as other crustacean such as penaeid shrimp they spawn their eggs until hatching and what hatches out from the eggs are miniature crayfish known as juveniles. in order to address the question whether immune genes are initially expressed during the embryo development in the egg stage, the expression of some immune-related genes: prophenoloxidase (propo), peroxinectin, hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf), plcrustin, astakine-1, 2 and transglutaminase ( ...201020060476
quorum sensing regulation in aeromonas hydrophila.we present detailed results on the c4-hsl-mediated quorum sensing (qs) regulatory system of the opportunistic gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. this bacterium contains a particularly simple qs system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. in a model system (i.e., the escherichia coli monitor strain mh205), the c4-hsl production of a. hydrophila is interrupted by fusion of gfp(asv). in the present in vitro study, we measure the response of the qs regulatory ahyri locus in th ...201020064524
the genus aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.over the past decade, the genus aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. in parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, a. hydrophila atcc 7966, has been sequenced. in addition to established disease associations, aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with na ...201020065325
[isolation and identification of pathogenic aeromonas veronii isolated from infected siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii)].our study aimed at searching for the pathogenic factor causing siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii) disease.200920069873
beta-lactam resistance in variants of aeromonas spp. selected in vitro under antibiotic pressure. 200920071297
the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum strain 207.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of aeromonas bestiarum 207 lipopolysaccharide was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined by roesy and hmbc experiments. it is concluded that the o-polysaccharide is composed of branched pentasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: [structure: see the text]201020080230
the garlic component, allicin, prevents disease caused by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).allicin was fed at 0 (= control), 0.5 and 1.0 ml of allimed liquid 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), fingerlings before infection with aeromonas hydrophila with a resultant reduction in mortalities from 80% in the controls to 8% [relative percentage survival (rps) = 90%] and 0% (rps = 100%) among the treated fish. allicin was strongly antibacterial compared to the control, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of >400 microl ml(-1) of allimed ...201020082660
prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarroeal human stools from vhembe district, south the present study, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections in relation to diarrhoea in vhembe district and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial pathogens was conducted. stool samples were collected from 528 patients attending major public hospitals and 295 children attending two public primary schools and were analyzed by standard microbiological and parasitological techniques. entamoeba histolytica/e. dispar (34.2%) and cryptospori ...200920099757
peroxiredoxin iv regulates pro-inflammatory responses in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) and protects against bacterial this study, we applied a comparative proteomic approach to the analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the spleens of large yellow croaker following treatment with an inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. twenty-four altered proteins were identified by maldi-tof or maldi-tof-tof, including immune-related proteins, antioxidant proteins, signal transducers, protein biosynthesis and catabolism modulators, and carbonic anhydrases. three prx family members, namely, prx i, prx ii, and p ...201020099887
immunoproteomics of extracellular proteins of the aeromonas hydrophila china vaccine strain j-1 reveal a highly immunoreactive outer membrane protein.abstract aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals. it is essential to develop a vaccine to reduce the economic losses caused by this bacterium in aquaculture worldwide. here, an immunoproteomic assay was used to identify the immunogenic extracellular proteins of the chinese vaccine strain j-1. ten unique immunogenic proteins were identified from the two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblot profiles by matrix-assisted laser d ...201020100179
[microbial load of reprocessable trocars after gynecological videolaparoscopy].to identify the microbial charge present in reusable trocars used in gynecological laparoscopies.200920101372
use of lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).feeding rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), with 1% lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with aeromonas hydrophila. in addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient f ...201020102439
isolation and characterization of sap and crp, two pentraxins from pangasianodon (pangasius) hypophthalmus.from the serum of pangasianodon hypophthalmus, two proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on sepharose and phosphorylcholine-sepharose. their binding on the affinity matrices critically depends on the presence of ca2+ ions. n-terminal sequencing and sequencing of internal tryptic peptides identified the proteins as pentraxins and from their binding properties they are identified as sap (serum amyloid p component) and crp (c-reactive protein). per ml serum, 36 microg sap and 56 microg ...201020109557
development of an inhibitive enzyme assay for this work the development of an inhibitive assay for copper using the molybdenum-reducing enzyme assay is presented. the enzyme is assayed using 12-molybdophosphoric acid at ph 5.0 as an electron acceptor substrate and nadh as the electron donor substrate. the enzyme converts the yellowish solution into a deep blue solution. the assay is based on the ability of copper to inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme from the molybdate-reducing serratia sp. strain dry5. other heavy metals tested did ...200920112861
rosmarinus officinalis l.: chemical modifications of the essential oil and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was separated into its hydrocarbon and oxygenated fractions. the major compounds in the hydrocarbon fraction were alpha-pinene (44.2%), camphene (24.5%), and limonene (11.7%), while in the oxygenated fraction they were 1,8-cineole (37.6%), camphor (16.5%), and bornyl acetate (21.4%). the hydrocarbon fraction was submitted to a hydroformylation process and the antioxidant activity of the product was screened by the dpph and beta-carotene/linoleic acid tests. t ...200920120107
genetic and biochemical characterization of tru-1, the endogenous class c beta-lactamase from aeromonas enteropelogenes.aeromonas enteropelogenes (formerly a. tructi) was described to be an ampicillin-susceptible and cephalothin-resistant aeromonas species, which suggests the production of a cephalosporinase. strain atcc 49803 was susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem but resistant to cefazolin (mics of 2, 0.032, 0.125, and >256 microg/ml, respectively) and produced an inducible beta-lactamase. cefotaxime-resistant mutants (mic, 32 microg/ml) that showed constitutive beta-lactamase production could ...201020124004
aeromonas caviae strain induces th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract.aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (vfs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the aeromonas genus. microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 h after oral infection with an a. caviae strain, provides evidence of a th1 type immune response. a large number of gamma-interferon (gamma-ifn) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumo ...201020130691
class 1 integrons in benthic bacterial communities: abundance, association with tn402-like transposition modules and evidence for coselection with heavy-metal resistance.the integron/gene cassette system contributes to lateral gene transfer of genetic information in bacterial communities, with gene cassette-encoded proteins potentially playing an important role in adaptation to stress. class 1 integrons are a particularly important class as they themselves seem to be broadly disseminated among the proteobacteria and have an established role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. the abundance and structure of class 1 integrons in freshwater sediment bacte ...201020132306
prevalence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in turkey.a total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species. the overall incidence of listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7% ...201020132688
immunomodulatory effect of dietary saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucan and laminaran in mercuric chloride treated nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) and experimentally infected with aeromonas hydrophila.six hundred and forty nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) weighing 80-100g were randomly allocated into eight equal groups (80 each). the first group acts as control. groups s, b and l were fed on a ration supplemented with saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucans and laminaran, respectively for 21 days. groups m, ms, mb and ml were subjected throughout the experiment to sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05 ppm). gps. ms, mb and ml were fed on a ration containing s. cerevisiae, beta ...201020139003
biochemical characterization of three putative atpases from a new type iv secretion system of aeromonas veronii plasmid pac3249a.type four secretion systems (tfss) are bacterial macromolecular transport systems responsible for transfer of various substrates such as proteins, dna or protein-dna complexes. tfsss encode two or three atpases generating energy for the secretion process. these enzymes exhibit highest sequence conservation among type four secretion components.201020144229
per-6, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from aeromonas aeromonas allosaccharophila environmental isolate recovered from the seine river (paris, france) produced a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, per-6, that shared 92% amino acid identity with the closest ss-lactamase, per-2. the kinetic properties of per-6 showed a slightly increased affinity for carbapenems. the bla(per-6) gene was chromosomally located and bracketed by non-transposon-related structures.201020145085
immunoproteomic identification of polyvalent vaccine candidates from vibrio parahaemolyticus outer membrane proteins.bacterium is still a major cause of many infectious diseases and a global threat to human health, aquaculture, and animal feeding. prevention by vaccination is the most efficient and economical way of fighting bacterial diseases, but one of the persistent challenges to prevent bacterial infections and disease transmissions is the existence of multiple bacterial species, families, and genera and the lack of efficient polyvalent vaccines against them. the information on candidate immunogens for po ...201020148598
a differential proteomics study of caenorhabditis elegans infected with aeromonas hydrophila.the striking similarities between the innate defences of vertebrates and invertebrates as well as the amenability of caenorhabditis elegans for genetic analysis, have made this free-living ground nematode a popular model system in the study of bacterial pathogenesis. although genetic studies have brought new insights, showing the inducibility and pathogen-specificity of the immune response, there is still much to be discovered about the exact mechanisms underlying resistance to infection. in thi ...201020149819
distribution of virulence factors and molecular fingerprinting of aeromonas species isolates from water and clinical samples: suggestive evidence of water-to-human transmission.a total of 227 isolates of aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the united states and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. these isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the a. hydr ...201020154106
rainwater harvesting: quality assessment and utilization in the netherlands.the use of roof-collected rainwater as a freely available and sustainable alternative to drinking water produced by drinking water companies increases worldwide. initially, rainwater is free of microbial contamination, but it may become contaminated by animals and humans or, alternatively, human pathogens may grow in stored rainwater resulting in a significant human health risk from infectious diseases. this three-year study demonstrated that rainwater stored in different reservoirs in the nethe ...201020154386
phytotherapy of ulcerative dermatitis induced by aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish ( carassius auratus ).goldfish ( carassius auratus ) weighing 13 +/- 2 g were administered intramuscularly a sublethal dose (1.8 x 10 3 cfu/ml) of aeromonas hydrophila to induce ulcerative dermatitis. on day 3 and day 6 after infection the fish were dip-treated (for 5 min/day) with a tri-herbal concoction of curcuma longa, ocimum sanctum and azadirachta indica (1%). the ld 50 value was recorded at a concentration of 2.3 x 10 4 between 30 and 36 days after infection. in the infected untreated group the cumulative mort ...201020159736
proteome changes of caenorhabditis elegans upon a staphylococcus aureus infection.the success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. the aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach.201020163716
accuracy of 6 commercial systems for identifying clinical aeromonas isolates.we compared the accuracy of 6 commercial systems for aeromonas identification by testing 87 clinical isolates in routine conditions, using partial rpob gene sequencing as the reference standard. the systems were api-20e, api-32gn, the id-gn card with the vitek2 system (biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france), the identification portion of the nfc47 panel (microscan walk/away system; siemens healthcare, sacramento, ca), id69 (phoenix system; bd diagnostic systems, sparks, md), and gn2 microplates (om ...201020167449
quinolone-resistant aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a capd patient.peritonitis is a major cause of morbidity in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). aeromonas hydrophila is a rare cause of peritonitis in patients on capd. we herewith report a 44-year-old female patient on capd with aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis. peritoneal fluid grew aeromonas hydrophila. the patient reported that she had accidentally dropped her peritoneal dialysis catheter into the toilet. susceptibility testing revealed that it is susceptible to ceftazidime, but resistant to ...201020178725
effect of chemotherapy, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immunity of goldfish infected with aeromonas hydrophila.we report the effect of various chemicals, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, superoxide anion production of blood leukocytes, complement activity and plasma lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish carassius auratus (23 +/- 2 g) against aeromonas hydrophila on days 15 and 30 post-infection. in infected fish, the administration of diets supplemented with either probiotics, tri-herbal extract or azadirachtin for 30 d significantly ...200920183964
detection of type iii secretion system genes in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in nile tilapia.the goals of this study were to develop a pcr technique to detect ascv and aopb genes from the type iii secretion system (t3ss), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in nile tilapia. the pcr assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ...201020185253
aeromonas rivuli sp. nov., isolated from the upstream region of a karst water rivulet.two freshwater isolates (wb4.1-19(t) and wb4.4-101), sharing 99.9 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, were highly related to aeromonas sobria (99.7 % similarity; 6 bp differences). a phylogenetic tree derived from a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (mlpa) of the concatenated sequences of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and gyra; 3684 bp) revealed that both strains clustered as an independent phylogenetic line next to members of aeromonas molluscorum and aeromonas bivalvium. the ...201120207806
immune responses of resistant and sensitive common carp families following experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila.parameters of non-specific immune response and level of specific and natural antibodies were investigated after an experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila in genetically different common carp (cyprinus carpio) families. ten resistant and ten sensitive families were used for the experiment, which had been selected out of 96 families, based on the results of a preliminary challenge test. blood samples were collected 12 h, one week and 21 days following the challenge. phagocytic and respir ...201020211735
random amplified polymorphic dna typing of clinical and environmental aeromonas hydrophila strains from limpopo province, south africa.the aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relatedness of strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool and water specimens collected from water-storage containers from different geographical areas in the limpopo province. in total, 32 aeromonas strains isolated from stool specimens collected from hiv/aids patients suffering from gastroenteritis and their household drinking-water stored in 20-l and 25-l containers were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic dna pcr (rapd). the rapd fin ...201020214080
thiaminase activity of crucian carp carassius carassius injected with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.dietary thiaminase i is a cause of thiamine deficiency in animals. the physiological significance of thiaminase in the organisms containing this enzyme is not known, nor are the factors causing variation in their thiaminase activity. tests were performed to evaluate the effect a pathogen might have on thiaminase activity in fish, when analyzed both with a cosubstrate added (cata tests) and no cosubstrate added (ncata tests). pyridine is known as a cosubstrate specific for thiaminase i activity t ...200920218496
human isolates of aeromonas possess shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) highly similar to the most virulent gene variants of escherichia coli.strains producing shiga toxins, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, can cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome. pcr screening of 80 clinical aeromonas strains showed that 19 were stx1-positive and only one was positive for both stx1 and stx2. pcr bands were very faint for some strains and negative results were obtained after subculturing. the obtained sequences of aeromonas stx1 and stx2 genes were highly similar to those of the most virulent stx gene variants of shiga ...201020219084
probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective.probiotics are usually live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefits on host. nowadays, probiotics are also becoming an integral part of the aquaculture practices to obtain high production. the common probiotics that are used for aquaculture practices include lactobacillus, lactococcus, leuconostoc, enterococcus, carnobacterium, shewanella, bacillus, aeromonas, vibrio, enterobacter, pseudomonas, clostridium, and saccharomyces species. the involvement of ...201020219683
expression, purification and molecular characterization of elastase from aeromonas hydrophila strain j-1.the enzyme elastase is an important virulent factor of the opportunistic pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. to know better about the molecular characterization of this enzyme, we purified the elatase and investigated its property and activity.200920222447
detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.the presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aera), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat), serine protease (ser), dnases (exu), elastase (ahyb) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template dna. oligonuc ...201020227596
comparison of phenotypical and genetic identification of aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish.phenotypicaly identified aeromonas strains (n=119) recovered mainly from diseased fish were genetically re-identified and the concordance between the results was analysed. molecular characterization based on the gcat genus specific gene showed that only 90 (75.6%) strains belonged to the genus aeromonas. the 16s rdna-rflp method identified correctly most of the strains with the exception of a few that belonged to a. bestiarum, a. salmonicida or a. piscicola. separation of these 3 species was cor ...201020227844
leech therapy in cutaneous surgery and disease.over the ages, the use of leeches in medicine has evolved from haphazard bloodletting to a well-understood physiologic process with defined, rational applications.201020232587
metabolic engineering for microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates consisting of high 3-hydroxyhexanoate content by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila.polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene phac(ah) in aeromonas hydrophila strain 4ak4 was deleted and its function was replaced by phac1(ps) cloned from pseudomonas stutzeri strain 1317 which favors 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) and longer chain length monomers. genes fadd and fadl encoding escherichia coli acyl-coa synthase and pseudomonas putida kt2442 fatty acid transport protein, respectively, were introduced into the recombinant with new phac1(ps). accumulation of a series of novel medium-chain-lengt ...201020236821
changes in skin mucus of common carp, cyprinus carpio l., after exposure to water with a high bacterial load.water in aquaculture systems may contain a high load of microorganisms. reduction in overall bacterial tank water load improves fish health and growth parameters. in this study, the effect of an increase of overall bacterial load in tank water on carp skin mucus was assessed. intracellular and released high molecular weight glycoproteins (hmgs) of carp skin mucus were analysed for changes using histological, histochemical and biochemical techniques. increase of bacterial load did not induce obvi ...201020298445
first description of atypical furunculosis in freshwater farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., in chile.we report the first isolation, identification and characterization of a group of chilean strains of atypical aeromonas salmonicida isolated from freshwater farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar. affected fish showed superficial ulcers and pale liver with or without petechial haemorrhages. outbreaks of the disease occurred in two farms in the south of chile about 2200 km apart. five strains were isolated in pure culture and identified by serological assays and immunofluorescence tests as belonging ...201020298453
production and efficacy of an aeromonas hydrophila recombinant s-layer protein vaccine for fish.a recombinant protein for the s-layer protein of aeromonas hydrophila was produced and its ability to protect common carp cyprinus carpio l. against six virulent isolates of a. hydrophila was assessed. a group of 120 carp (30-40 g) were vaccinated intra-peritoneally with 0.1 ml of adjuvanted vaccine (30 microg protein per fish). another group of 120 carp were injected with 0.1 ml of pbs-adjuvant mixture to serve as controls. twenty fish from each group were challenged with each one of six virule ...201020307596
competitive exclusion as a mode of action of a novel bacillus cereus aquaculture biological determine the contribution of potential modes of action of a bacillus cereus aquaculture biological control agent in inhibition of the fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila.201020337929
emergence of ctx-m-3, tem-1 and a new plasmid-mediated mox-4 ampc in a multiresistant aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. we report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by aeromonas caviae. detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding mox-4, ctx-m-3 and tem-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. the beta-lactamase with a pi of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstra ...201020339022
diversity of microbes and potential exoelectrogenic bacteria on anode surface in microbial fuel cells.single-chamber microbial fuel cells (mfcs), inoculated with anaerobic sludge and continuously run with two kinds of organic wastewater influents, were systemically investigated. the diversity of microbes, determined by 16s rdna analysis, was analyzed on three anodes under different conditions. one anode was in a closed circuit in synthetic wastewater containing glucose. the other two anodes, in open or closed circuits, were fed effluent from an anaerobic reactor treating starch wastewater. the c ...201020339216
exea binds to peptidoglycan and forms a multimer for assembly of the type ii secretion apparatus in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila uses the type ii secretion system (t2ss) to transport protein toxins across the outer membrane. the inner membrane complex exeab is required for assembly of the exed secretion channel multimer, called the secretin, into the outer membrane. a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain (pfam number pf01471) conserved in many peptidoglycan-related proteins is present in the periplasmic region of exea (p-exea). in this study, co-sedimentation analysis revealed that p-exea was able to ...201020345654
[aeromonas-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report]. 201020346450
association between environmental microbiota and indigenous bacteria found in hemolymph, extrapallial fluid and mucus of anodonta cygnea (linnaeus, 1758).bivalves filter and accumulate large numbers of microorganisms present in the harvesting water. a complete understanding of the balance between anodonta cygnea and the microbiota present in their surrounding environment remains incomplete. therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and identify the indigenous bacteria in the biological fluids of a. cygnea collected from mira lagoon in northern portugal. the results showed vibrio metschnikovii and aeromonas sobria as the dominant groups. th ...201020349058
unmethylated cpg oligodeoxynucleotides activate head kidney leukocytes of atlantic cod, gadus morhua.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) that contain unmethylated cpg motifs are strong inducers of immune response in most mammalian organisms. the use of these synthetic cpg motifs in fish, particularly in salmonids and carp, resulted in the modulation of their immune system. however, much less is known in other species of fish such as gadoids including atlantic cod, gadus morhua. using head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod in an in vitro study, we determined the effects of some ...201020349339
[cloning and functional analysis of the collectin gene from the grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella].the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) collectin gene was cloned from mixed liver and kidney cdna library. the full length sequence of grass carp collectin was 1128 bp, contained a 5' untranslated region of 229 bp and a 3' untranslated region of 104 bp. the open reading frame of grass carp collectin was 795 bp which could code a 264 amino acids polypeptide, including a terminal codon. phylogenetic analyses showed that grass carp collectin shared the highest homology with that of zebrafish (dan ...201020353088
diagnosis of aeromonas hydrophila, mycobacterium species, and batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an african clawed frog (xenopus laevis).here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with aeromonas hydrophila, mycobacterium spp., and batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female xenopus laevis captured in chile and transported to the united states. after approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. after euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and pcr analysis for b. dendrobatidis and ranavirus. clinically significant gross lesions included cutaneou ...201020353698
a novel ttx-producing aeromonas isolated from the ovary of takifugu obscurus.puffer fish (takifugu obscurus) from the yangtze river of china were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. an aeromonas strain was isolated from the ovary of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin; this strain was denoted ne-1. the identity of tetrodotoxin produced by strain ne-1 was confirmed by mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass chromatography (lc-ms), and elisa. strain ne-1 was characterized morphologically, biochemically, and by 16 ...201020362605
characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, lota lota (l.), to ihnv, ipnv, flavobacterium psychrophilum, aeromonas salmonicida and renibacterium this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) by immersion and to aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. ihnv persisted in fish for at least 28 days, whereas a. salmonicida was not re-isolated beyond 17 days post-challenge. in contrast, burbot appeared refractory t ...201020367740
effect of dietary supplementation of inulin and vitamin c on the growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).the in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin c. the second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg(-1)), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin c (500 mg kg(-1)). the survival and growth perfo ...201020371294
aeromonas salmonicida type i pilus system contributes to host colonization but not invasion.the host-adherence strategies employed by aeromonas salmonicida subsp, salmonicida, the etiological agent of an infectious bacteremia of salmonids, are poorly understood. in addition to the outer protein coat or s-layer, a. salmonicida has both type i and type iv pili loci. the a. salmonicida type i or fim pilus is encoded by an operon with genes for a chaperone, an usher, and 3 pilus subunits and is predicted to be similar to the pap fimbriae of uropathogenic escherichia coli, which are conside ...201020377009
atlantic cod (gadus morhua) cc chemokines: diversity and expression analysis.chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the cc chemokines that are characterized by two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. cc chemokines play a pivotal role in host defense mechanisms by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. analysis of cc chemokines from teleost fishes indicates that the number of cc chemokine genes and their tissue expression patterns vary largely in thi ...201020381521
design and recombinant expression of insulin-like peptide 5 precursors and the preparation of mature human insl5.insulin-like peptide 5 (insl5) is a recently identified insulin superfamily member. although it binds to and activates the g-protein coupled receptor, rxfp4, its precise biological function remains unknown. to help determine its function, significant quantities of insl5 are required. in the present work, three single-chain insl5 precursors were designed, two of which were successfully expressed in e. coli cells. the expressed precursors were solubilized from inclusion bodies, purified almost to ...201020383778
[cloning and molecular organization of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene (phac) of ralstonia eutropha strain b5786].class i polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (pha) synthase gene (phac) of ralstonia eutropha strain b5786 was cloned and characterized. r. eutropha b5786 features the ability to synthesize multicomponent phas with short- and medium-chain-length monomers from simple carbohydrate substrate. a correlation was made between the molecular structure of pha synthase and substrate specificity and the ability of strain-producers to accumulate phas of this or that structure. a strong similarity of pha synthase of r. ...201020391757
molecular cloning and characterization of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) from the haemocytes of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) is a large protein in blood and is able to inactivate a variety of proteinases in invertebrates and vertebrates. the alpha2-m gene was obtained from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis, by the reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the alpha2-m cdna of e. sinensis contained 4851 bp with an open reading frame of 4371 bp, a 70 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 410 bp 3'-untranslated region, and thre ...201020394825
species differentiation of seafood spoilage and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria by maldi-tof mass fingerprinting.species differentiation is important for the early detection and identification of pathogenic and food-spoilage microorganisms that may be present in fish and seafood products. the main 26 species of seafood spoilage and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, including aeromonas hydrophila, acinetobacter baumanii, pseudomonas spp., and enterobacter spp. among others, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) of low molecular wei ...201020408567
pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (litoria ewingii).bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including aeromonas hydrophila, chryseobacterium indologenes, chryseobacterium meningosepticum, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and serratia liquifaciens. here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis) associated ...201020412685
the effect of ph and chemical preservatives on the growth of bacterial isolates from some nigerian packaged fruit juices.bacterial pathogens were isolated from some nigerian packaged fruit juices. the isolates were characterized and identified as bacillus licheniformis, aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus circulans, proteus morganii, pseudomonas cepacia, bacillus alvei and pseudomonas chlororaphis. the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 65% of the microorganisms isolated were resistance to the antibiotic used while 35% were sensitive. the effect of ph, benz ...201020415148
invasive bacterial infections in neonates and young infants born outside hospital admitted to a rural hospital in kenya.bacterial sepsis is thought to be a major cause of young infant deaths in low-income countries, but there are few precise estimates of its burden or causes. we studied invasive bacterial infections (ibis) in young infants, born at home or in first-level health units ("outborn") who were admitted to a kenyan rural district hospital during an 8-year period.201020418799
clinical presentations, prognostic factors, and mortality in patients with aeromonas sobria complex bacteremia in a teaching hospital: a 5-year experience.bacteremia due to aeromonas sobria complex is an uncommon clinical presentation, associated with a high mortality rate. this retrospective study reviewed the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of a. sobria complex bacteremia.200920422137
infection-induced changes in expression of antibacterial and cytokine genes in the gill epithelial cells of atlantic cod, gadus morhua during incubation with bacterial pathogens.the molecular processes of immune responses in mucosal tissues, such as the gills, during infection with bacterial pathogens are poorly understood. in the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of selected antibacterial genes and cytokines in the gills of a cold-water fish, atlantic cod, gadus morhua following in vitro infection with bacterial pathogens, vibrio anguillarum and atypical aeromonas salmonicida using semi-quantitative rt-pcr. there was significant upregulation in th ...201020430108
induction of beta-lactamase production in aeromonas hydrophila is responsive to beta-lactam-mediated changes in peptidoglycan composition.we have studied the mechanism by which beta-lactam challenge leads to beta-lactamase induction in aeromonas hydrophila through transposon-insertion mutagenesis. disruption of the dd-carboxypeptidases/endopeptidases, penicillin-binding protein 4 or blry leads to elevated monomer-disaccharide-pentapeptide levels in a. hydrophila peptidoglycan and concomitant overproduction of beta-lactamase through activation of the blrab two-component regulatory system. during beta-lactam challenge, monomer-disac ...201020430811
comonomer compositional distribution, physical properties, and enzymatic degradability of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) copolyesters.poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (p(3hb-co-3h4mv)) was synthesized by using ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 (pha-negative mutant) harboring with the n149s/d171g double mutation of pha synthase gene from aeromonas caviae (phac(ac) nsdg mutant) with 4-methylvaleric acid and fructose as the carbon sources. because the microbially synthesized p(3hb-co-3h4mv) samples were found to have broad comonomer compositional distribution, p(3hb-co-3h4mv) samples with 3h4mv content of 7, ...201020441146
induced-fit mechanism for prolyl endopeptidase.prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type ii diabetes. prolyl endopeptidase (pep) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. we now directly demonstrate from seven stru ...201020444688
regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems.a study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in california, florida, massachusetts, and new york was conducted for 1 year. the plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. the analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic ba ...201020453149
validation of a partial rpob gene sequence as a tool for phylogenetic identification of aeromonads isolated from environmental sources.a collection of 50 aeromonads isolated from environmental sources were studied, together with all known aeromonas nomenspecies, by phenotypic, amplified 16s rdna restriction analysis (16s rdna rflp) and by partial sequence alignment of both 16s rdna and rpob genes. although most of the type strain showed a unique phenotypic pattern, a database constructed on type strain phenotype allowed the identification of only 24% of the isolates. analysis of 16s rdna rflp and the rpob sequence were almost c ...201020453908
echinacea purpurea and allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).the study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echinacea (e) and garlic (g) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (oreochromis niloticus). seven treatments were designed including a control (c). fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). neutrophil adhere ...201020455962
aeromonas hydrophila pepo outer membrane endopeptidase activates human big endothelin-3 in vitro and induces skin ulcer in goldfish (carassius auratus).in aeromonas hydrophila, the gram-negative bacterial fish pathogen, pepo constitutes the thermoregulated outer membrane m13 family zinc endopeptidase, which is expressed maximally at 16 degrees c and is down-regulated above 30 degrees c. cultivation of a. hydrophila at 16 degrees c enabled it to activate big endothelin (et), the vasoconstrictor and ulcerogenic peptide naturally secreted from human vascular endothelial cell (huvec) culture. furthermore, a. hydrophila pepo in vitro shows strong en ...201020456877
effects of hot-water extract of toona sinensis on immune response and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in oreochromis mossambicus.respiratory burst, lysozyme and phagocytic activities, and immunoglobulin levels in response to the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila were examined in tilapia (oreochromis mossanbicus, 10.65 +/- 2.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of toona sinensis at 4 or 8 microg g(-1). tilapia receiving the hot-water extract of t. sinensis at either dose had significantly increased respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity towards a. hydrophila by 1 and 2 days post injection. no ...201020457260
derivation of rough attenuated variants from smooth virulent aeromonas hydrophila and their immunogenicity in fish.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacteria associated with many disease conditions of aquatic animals. two rough attenuated variants were derived from two smooth virulent types of this bacterium by continuous passage separately in laboratory over a period of 8 years in brain-heart infusion agar. these variants were checked to be rough lipopolysaccharides (lps) types and attenuated since they neither produced any disease nor mortality in the injected fishes. the immunogenic potential of the ...201020457292
immunoproteomics of extracellular proteins of the aeromonas hydrophila china vaccine strain j-1 reveal a highly immunoreactive outer membrane protein.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals. it is essential to develop a vaccine to reduce the economic losses caused by this bacterium in aquaculture worldwide. here, an immunoproteomic assay was used to identify the immunogenic extracellular proteins of the chinese vaccine strain j-1. ten unique immunogenic proteins were identified from the two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblot profiles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ...201020459508
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of gale encoding udp-galactose 4-epimerase of aeromonas hydrophila.a. hydrophila, a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium present in aquatic environments, has been implicated in illness in humans, fish and amphibians. lipopolysaccharides (lps), a surface component of the outer membrane, are one of the main virulent factors of gram-negative bacteria. udp-galactose 4-epimerase (gale) catalyses the last step in the leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and provides precursor for the biosynthesis of extracellular lps and capsule. due to its key role in lps biosynthes ...200920461162
prediction of whole-genome dna g+c content within the genus aeromonas based on housekeeping gene sequences.different methods are available to determine the g+c content (e.g. thermal denaturation temperature or high performance liquid chromatography, hplc), but obtained values may differ significantly between strains, as well as between laboratories. recently, several authors have demonstrated that the genomic dna g+c content of prokaryotes can be reliably estimated from one or several protein coding gene nucleotide sequences. few g+c content values have been published for the aeromonas species descri ...201020466501
bacteriological investigation on "mauro" sold in catania.seaweeds known as "mauro" are traditionally used fresh or to prepare omelettes in sicily (italy). twenty samples sold in catania between may 2005 and september 2007 were analyzed for escherichia coli, total enterobacteria, aeromonas spp., pseudomonas spp., vibrio spp., and salmonella spp. thirty vibrio strains were examined for the presence of the virulence genes, toxr, toxrs, tl, tdh, and trh in the genomes of the isolates. total enterobacteria ranged between 2.23 and 6.85 log cfu/g, and in six ...201020467809
necrotising fasciitis in both calves caused by aeromonas caviae following aesthetic liposuction.liposuction is the most widely performed cosmetic procedure in the world, and is considered safe and without serious complications. however, necrotising fasciitis has been documented as a rare complication following abdomen and thigh liposuction. we present a case of necrotising fasciitis in a 22-year-old female who underwent cosmetic liposuction in both calves. the diagnosis of necrotising fasciitis was delayed, leading to multi-organ dysfunction and skin necrosis with consequent massive skin l ...201020471929
impact of reattaching various aeromonas salmonicida a-layer proteins on vaccine efficacy in atlantic cod (gadus morhua).atypical aeromonas salmonicida causes atypical furunculosis in a whole range of farmed fish species. the bacterium comprises a heterogeneous group differing in surface components such as the a-layer protein and o-chain polysaccharide structures. previously, the a-layer protein was shown to contribute to protective immunity as a vaccine with a. salmonicida cells with reattached a-layer protein protecting significantly better than the corresponding a-layer deficient bacteria used in the atlantic c ...201020472024
immunostimulatory activities of bacillus simplex dr-834 to carp (cyprinus carpio).a bacterial strain, designated dr-834 and producing immunostimulatory activities to carp (cyprinus carpio), was isolated from qinghai-tibetan plateau permafrost soil. cultural characteristic studies suggested that this strain belongs to the genus bacillus. the nucleotide sequence of the 16s rrna gene of strain dr-834 exhibited close similarity (99%) with the 16s rrna gene of bacillus simplex. two compounds showing potent activity were isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bio ...201020472068
effect of conjugated linoleic acid on cyprinus carpio var. jian regarding growth, immunity, and disease resistance to aeromonas hydrophila.the present study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (cla) on the growth performance, immune parameters and disease resistance to aeromonas hydrophila of juvenile jian carp. a total of 900 juvenile jian carp (10.71 +/- 0.02 g) were randomly allocated into six groups of each three replicates, feeding isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isolipidic (7.8% crude fat) diets containing graded amounts of cla (0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0%) for 60 days. after ...201020473720
considerations on infectious complications using a drowned lung for transplantation.recently, the applicability of lungs from drowned victims for transplantation has been anecdotically described in literature. however, no data exist about hazards or limitations. herein, we describe a case of lung transplantation from a submersion victim and the subsequent development of an aeromonas hydrophila infection in the implanted organ. based on this case we propose standard procedures, which should be followed when considering drowned donor lungs, in order to minimize risks for infectio ...201020477998
high yield expression of an ahl-lactonase from bacillus sp. b546 in pichia pastoris and its application to reduce aeromonas hydrophila mortality in aquaculture.aeromonas hydrophila is a serious pathogen and can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. to control this disease, antibiotics and chemicals are widely used which can consequently result in "superbugs" and chemical accumulation in the food chain. though vaccine against a. hydrophila is available, its use is limited due to multiple serotypes of this pathogen and problems of safety and efficacy. another problem with vaccination is the ability to apply it to small fish especially in high numbers. in ...201020492673
virulence properties and characterization of aeromonads isolated from foods of animal origin and environmental sources.aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens, and they possess several virulence factors that may contribute to illness. in this work, the biochemical, enzymatic, and some virulence properties of 73 potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonas spp. isolated from food and environmental sources were investigated to compare strains from different sources and establish the possible relationships between some phenotypic characters and pathogenicity. virulence factors (hemolysin a ...201020501036
high gene expression of inflammatory markers and il-17a correlates with severity of injection site reactions of atlantic salmon vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted vaccines.two decades after the introduction of oil-based vaccines in the control of bacterial and viral diseases in farmed salmonids, the mechanisms of induced side effects manifested as intra-abdominal granulomas remain unresolved. side effects have been associated with generation of auto-antibodies and autoimmunity but the underlying profile of inflammatory and immune response has not been characterized. this study was undertaken with the aim to elucidate the inflammatory and immune mechanisms of granu ...201020507624
qnrvc-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the iscr1 element in an aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in shandong province, china.a qnrvc-like gene, qnrvc4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the iscr1 element and bla(per-1) in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium aeromonas punctata. the deduced qnrvc4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants qnrb6, qnra1, qnrs1, qnrc, qnrvc1, and qnrvc3. a ser-83 to ile amino acid substitution in gyrase a may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain.201020516288
endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of phragmites australis in constructed beijing cuihu wetland (china).the community structure and diversity of endophytic bacteria in reed (phragmites australis) roots growing in the beijing cuihu wetland, china was investigated using the 16s rrna library technique. primers 799f and 1492r were used to amplify the specific bacterial 16s rrna fragments successfully and construct the clone library. in total, 166 individual sequences were verified by colony pcr and used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria in reed roots. phylogenetic analysis revealed that 7 ...201020528944
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