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aeromonas septicemia after medicinal leech use following replantation of severed digits.medicinal leeches are used to control venous congestion. aeromonas in the leech gut are essential for digestion of blood. this case report describes a patient who had aeromonas bacteremia develop after leeching. he had an injury to his hand that required replantation of his thumb. following the surgery, leech therapy was started with ampicillin-sulbactam prophylaxis. sepsis developed. blood cultures were positive for aeromonas that were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam. the antibiotic was chang ...201019940254
herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish against aeromonas hydrophila.goldfish, carassius auratus (47 + or - 3 g, n = 300) were inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). on the 6th day of post-infection the fishes were divided into i) control, without infection fed with normal diet (c), ii) infected fish, fed with normal diet (iu), and infected fishes treated with different doses of iii) 100 mg kg(-1), iv) 200 mg kg(-1), iv) 400 mg kg(-1) and vi) 800 mg kg(-1) mixed herbal extracts supplementation diets. hematolog ...201019941960
identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolated from stool samples of brazilian subjects with diarrhoea and healthy controls. 201019942692
molecular cloning and expression of two hsp70 genes in the wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala yih).two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cdna) clones encoding heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were isolated from the liver of wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala y.) using rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). they were named ma-hsc70 and ma-hsp70, respectively. the cdnas were 2336 and 2224 bp in length [not including poly (a)] and contained 1950 and 1932 bp open reading frames (orfs), respectively. the orfs encoded proteins of 649 and ...201019944170
endosulfan increases seric interleukin-2 like (il-2l) factor and immunoglobulin m (igm) of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) challenged with aeromona hydrophila.endosulfan is a persistent organochlorine insecticide which is extremely toxic to fish. it is known to induce immunological alterations in juvenile nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) such as increases in phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production of spleen macrophages. the purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan (7 ppb, 96 h) on parameters of the adaptive humoral immune response of the aforemention ...201019944172
comparative study on characteristics of azo dye decolorization by indigenous decolorizers.this study provides a first attempt to explore indigenous strains with excellent decolorization capability from the most biodiverse region in taiwan for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. bacterial isolates were obtained via serial selections under selection pressure of the fungicide nystatin and model textile dye(s). according to profiles of protein expression and pcr-augmented 16s rrna gene analyses for strain identification, >99% of nucleotide sequences in isolated strains were identical to ty ...201019944603
transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.zebrafish (danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (lfb), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. we constructed an expression plasmid in which lfb was fused with green fluorescent protein (gfp) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. after microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of gfp appearance. among them, a stable zbl-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of gfp. using pcr and western blot analysis, w ...201019944764
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
aeromonas caviae cb101 contains four chitinases encoded by a single gene chi1.aeromonas caviae cb101 secretes four chitinases (around 92, 82, 70, and 55 kda) into the culture supernatant. a chitinase gene chi1 (92 kda) was previously studied. to identify the genes encoding the remaining three chitinases, a cosmid library of cb101 was constructed to screen for putative chitinase genes. nine cosmid clones were shown to contain a chitinase gene on chitin plates. surprisingly, all the positive clones contained chi1. in parallel, we purified the 55-kda chitinase (chi55) from t ...201019960373
glycan flexibility: insights into nanosecond dynamics from a microsecond molecular dynamics simulation explaining an unusual nuclear overhauser effect.an atomistic all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the trisaccharide beta-d-manpnac-(1-->4)[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-l-rhap-ome with explicit solvent molecules has been carried out. the trisaccharide represents a model for the branching region of the o-chain polysaccharide of a strain from aeromonas salmonicida. the extensive md simulations having a 1-micros duration revealed a conformational dynamics process on the nanosecond time scale, that is, a 'time window' not extensively investiga ...201019962132
the 2dx robot: a membrane protein 2d crystallization swiss army knife.among the state-of-the-art techniques that provide experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins, electron crystallography, atomic force microscopy and solid state nmr make use of two-dimensional crystals. we present a cyclodextrin-driven method for detergent removal implemented in a fully automated robot. the kinetics of the reconstitution processes is precisely controlled, because the detergent complexation by cyclodextrin is of stoichiometric nature. the method requires small ...201019963066
the reference strain aeromonas hydrophicla cip 57.50 should be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50.the use of reference strains is a critical element for the quality control of different assays, from the development of molecular methods to the evaluation of antimicrobial activities. most of the strains used in these assays are not type strains and some of them are cited erroneously because of subsequent reclassifications and descriptions of novel species. in this study, we propose that the reference strain aeromonas hydrophila cip 57.50 be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50 based ...201019965992
identification of a novel allele of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (pparg) and its association with resistance to aeromonas salmonicida in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).bacterial and viral diseases are major problems in atlantic salmon aquaculture, but may be challenged through selection of brood stock with enhanced survival to diseases. today's selection strategy is based on controlled challenge tests using siblings of the breeding candidates, and is thus indirect. direct trait records on breeding candidates can potentially be provided through identification of genetic variation linked to the susceptibility to the disease. peroxisome proliferator-activated rec ...201020004720
proposal to assign aeromonas diversa sp. nov. as a novel species designation for aeromonas group 501.the aeromonas group 501, also named aeromonas sp. hg13, is taxonomically close to a. schubertii. results obtained in previous studies, including dna-dna hybridization and dna fingerprinting, suggest that aeromonas group 501 could constitute a different aeromonas species. in this work we have performed a polyphasic study with the two strains comprising the aeromonas sp. hg13 in order to propose a formal species name. they could be differentiated from a. schubertii by the indole and lysine decarbo ...201020005654
immune response and expression analysis of cathepsin k in goldfish during aeromonas hydrophila infection.the innate immunity and expression profiles of cathepsins d were determined in the goldfish (carassius auratus) tissues after challenge with a fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. the innate immunity of reactive oxygen species (ros) and reactive nitrogen species (rns) were determined by peripheral blood leucocytes. blood and tissue samples of the muscle, gills, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine were sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection for cathepsin d expression by semi-quantitati ...201020025977
a novel multivalent vaccine based on secretary antigen-delivery induces protective immunity against vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas hydrophila.in our previous work, four secretory antigen-delivery systems based on different signal peptides (sps) (sp(hlya), sp(rtxa), sp(vah3) and sp(empa)) have been successfully established in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. to investigate the potential application of the antigen-delivery systems in v. anguillarum multivalent vector vaccine, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, as a putative protective antigen, was fused to the four delivery systems, ...201020026209
concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific dna vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.vaccines are commonly used in salmonid aquaculture as a method of disease prevention. although there is a substantial amount of published research regarding the immunological and physiological effects following the injection of different polyvalent vaccines and dna vaccines, there are no published reports examining the physiological and immunological effects of concurrent vaccine injection, which is the situation encountered in aquaculture. using key immunological parameters such as lysozyme act ...201020045062
full resistance and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from an outbreak. 201020047915
lysozyme inhibitor conferring bacterial tolerance to invertebrate type lysozyme.invertebrate (i-) type lysozymes, like all other known lysozymes, are dedicated to the hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, thereby contributing to the innate immune system and/or digestive system of invertebrate organisms. bacteria on the other hand have developed several protective strategies against lysozymes, including the production of periplasmic and/or membrane-bound lysozyme inhibitors. the latter have until now only been described for chicken (c-) type lys ...201020049505
rapid identification and characterization of vibrio species using whole-cell maldi-tof mass spectrometry.vibrio identification by means of traditional microbiological methods is time consuming because of the many biochemical tests that have to be performed to distinguish closely related species. this work aimed at evaluating the use of maldi-tof mass spectrometry for the rapid identification of vibrio (v.) spp. as an advantageous application to rapidly discriminate the most important vibrio spp. and distinguish vibrio spp. from closely related bacterial species like photobacterium damselae and grim ...201020059616
diversity of extracellular proteases among aeromonas determined by zymogram analysis.the current research was aimed at comparing extracellular proteolytic activities and zymogram profiles among aeromonas spp.201020059617
in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas hydrophila in artificially infected cyprinus carpio l.this study investigated the possible in vivo transfer of plasmid pras1 between aeromonas salmonicida and a. hydrophila inhabiting two different organs of cyprinus carpio l. to distinguish transconjugants from naturally occurring antibiotic resistant bacteria, twelve luminescent transposon-tagged a. hydrophila strains using mini tn5luxcdabekm2 transposon were generated. in conjugal transfer experiments, fish were conditioned with the donor bacteria and subsequently immersed in water containing th ...201020059637
expression of immune-related genes in one phase of embryonic development of freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus.crayfish do not have larval stage as other crustacean such as penaeid shrimp they spawn their eggs until hatching and what hatches out from the eggs are miniature crayfish known as juveniles. in order to address the question whether immune genes are initially expressed during the embryo development in the egg stage, the expression of some immune-related genes: prophenoloxidase (propo), peroxinectin, hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf), plcrustin, astakine-1, 2 and transglutaminase ( ...201020060476
quorum sensing regulation in aeromonas hydrophila.we present detailed results on the c4-hsl-mediated quorum sensing (qs) regulatory system of the opportunistic gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. this bacterium contains a particularly simple qs system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. in a model system (i.e., the escherichia coli monitor strain mh205), the c4-hsl production of a. hydrophila is interrupted by fusion of gfp(asv). in the present in vitro study, we measure the response of the qs regulatory ahyri locus in th ...201020064524
the genus aeromonas: taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infection.over the past decade, the genus aeromonas has undergone a number of significant changes of practical importance to clinical microbiologists and scientists alike. in parallel with the molecular revolution in microbiology, several new species have been identified on a phylogenetic basis, and the genome of the type species, a. hydrophila atcc 7966, has been sequenced. in addition to established disease associations, aeromonas has been shown to be a significant cause of infections associated with na ...201020065325
identification and characterization of the first reptilian cd9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial infection.in this study, a cd9 homologue in a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle, has been cloned and identified for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle cd9 was 1146bp and contained a 672bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 224 amino acids. four transmembrane domains (tms) divided the turtle cd9 into several parts: short n-, c-termini, an intracellular loop and two (small and large) extracellular loops (sel and lel). a ccg motif, a potential n-linked glycosylation site and 10 c ...201019747940
identification and expression analysis of the g-type and c-type lysozymes in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus.lysozyme is an important molecule of innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infections. we identified two genes encoding g-type and c-type lysozymes from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus by the race method. the deduced amino acids of both lysozymes possessed typical structural residues and conserved catalytic sites similar to their counterparts across the species. in contrast, there was only 8.6% similarity of amino acid sequence between these two lysozymes. phylogenetic analy ...201020034515
biosorption of lead using immobilized aeromonas hydrophila biomass in up flow column system: factorial design for process optimization.free and immobilized biomass of aeromonas hydrophila has been utilized for the removal of pb(ii) from aqueous solution. fitness of langmuir sorption model to the sorption data indicated the sorption was monolayer and uptake capacity of biomass was 163.9 and 138.88 mg/g for the free and immobilized biomass respectively. 85.38% pb(ii) removal was achieved at bed height of 19 cm and flow rate of 2 ml/min and bdst model was in a good agreement with the experimental results (r(2)>0.997). an attempt h ...201020036460
the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum strain 207.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of aeromonas bestiarum 207 lipopolysaccharide was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined by roesy and hmbc experiments. it is concluded that the o-polysaccharide is composed of branched pentasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: [structure: see the text]201020080230
the garlic component, allicin, prevents disease caused by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).allicin was fed at 0 (= control), 0.5 and 1.0 ml of allimed liquid 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), fingerlings before infection with aeromonas hydrophila with a resultant reduction in mortalities from 80% in the controls to 8% [relative percentage survival (rps) = 90%] and 0% (rps = 100%) among the treated fish. allicin was strongly antibacterial compared to the control, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of >400 microl ml(-1) of allimed ...201020082660
peroxiredoxin iv regulates pro-inflammatory responses in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) and protects against bacterial challenge.in this study, we applied a comparative proteomic approach to the analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the spleens of large yellow croaker following treatment with an inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. twenty-four altered proteins were identified by maldi-tof or maldi-tof-tof, including immune-related proteins, antioxidant proteins, signal transducers, protein biosynthesis and catabolism modulators, and carbonic anhydrases. three prx family members, namely, prx i, prx ii, and p ...201020099887
immunoproteomics of extracellular proteins of the aeromonas hydrophila china vaccine strain j-1 reveal a highly immunoreactive outer membrane protein.abstract aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals. it is essential to develop a vaccine to reduce the economic losses caused by this bacterium in aquaculture worldwide. here, an immunoproteomic assay was used to identify the immunogenic extracellular proteins of the chinese vaccine strain j-1. ten unique immunogenic proteins were identified from the two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblot profiles by matrix-assisted laser d ...201020100179
production of monoclonal antibodies specific to major outer membrane protein of edwardsiella tarda.edwardsiella tarda is an important cause for hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro and extra-intestinal infections in humans. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against outer membrane proteins (omps) of e. tarda et-7, isolated from diseased snakehead (ophiocephalus punctatus). two stable hybridoma clones, designated as 3f10 and 2c3 mabs were found to be potentially specific for e. tarda by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). these mabs recognized major immunogenic omp ...201018804863
isolation of bdellovibrio as biological therapeutic agents used for the treatment of aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish.fourteen strains of bdellovibrio-like organisms were isolated from cultured fish ponds using aeromonas hydrophila j-1 as host, one of them formed large plaques after 48 h of incubation at 28 degrees c on a double layer plate, designated as bdellovibrio c-1. the bdellovibrio was confirmed by electron microscopy and pcr amplification of bdellovibrio-specific 16s rdna. the optimum temperature for the growth of bdc-1 was between 15-37 degrees c and with optimal activity at temperatures of 25-30 degr ...201019486499
elimination of symbiotic aeromonas spp. from the intestinal tract of the medicinal leech, hirudo medicinalis, using ciprofloxacin feeding.the use of the medicinal leech (hirudo medicinalis) in promoting venous drainage in tissues whose vitality is threatened by venous congestion and obstruction, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery, has been complicated by infections caused by aeromonas spp. these are leech endosymbionts for which patients undergoing hirudotherapy frequently receive systemic chemoprophylaxis. in order to evaluate the possibility of rendering leeches safe for use on patients, h. medicinalis were fed art ...201019523050
use of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) as an immunostimulant for the control of aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (lps) for the prevention of infection by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) fingerlings.201019674184
[leech-borne infection on a tram flap: a case report].leeches are used worldwide to treat venous congestion of flaps. aeromonas hydrophila infections are recognized complications of leech use. we report a new case of delayed leech-borne infection in mammary reconstruction by a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (tram), which caused the flap loss. the use of prophylactic antibiotics is a way to prevent a.hydrophila infection (third generation cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin). this antibioprophylaxy must be followed until wound closure of the ...201019674823
burn wounds infected by contaminated water: case reports, review of the literature and recommendations for treatment.first-aid education for the management of burns advocates cool running water over burnt skin to limit soft tissue damage. however, the water used may itself constitute a risk. we report three cases of severe invasive and necrotizing infection in patients who used or immersed themselves in contaminated water in an attempt to extinguish the fire following acute major burns. wound cultures from all patients yielded aeromonas hydrophila and two yielded bacillus cereus. one patient had a complex poly ...201019501977
arsenic detoxification potential of aox genes in arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural and constructed wetlands in the republic of korea.arsenic is subject to microbial interactions, which support a wide range of biogeochemical transformations of elements in natural environments such as wetlands. the arsenic detoxification potential of the bacterial strains was investigated with the arsenite oxidation gene, aox genotype, which were isolated from the natural and constructed wetlands. the isolates were able to grow in the presence of 10 mm of sodium arsenite (as(iii) as naaso(2)) and 1 mm of d: +glucose. phylogenetic analysis based ...201019548094
aeromonas and pseudomonas: antibiotic and heavy metal resistance species from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea).we studied the susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and six heavy metals in aeromonas spp. and pseudomonas spp. isolated from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea). a high percentage of aeromonas isolates showed resistance to cefazolin (66.6%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (66.6%). amongst the pseudomonas isolates, there was a high incidence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (86.2%), cefazolin (84.8%) and cefuroxime (71.7%). most isolates showed tolerance to diff ...201019551480
aeromonas fluvialis sp. nov., isolated from a spanish river.a gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated 717(t), was isolated from a water sample collected from the muga river, girona, north-east spain. preliminary analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence showed that this strain belonged to the genus aeromonas, the nearest species being aeromonas veronii (99.5 % similarity, with seven different nucleotides). a polyphasic study based on a multilocus phylogenetic analysis of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and g ...201019648345
pcr-dgge-based methodologies to assess diversity and dynamics of aeromonas communities.aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may cause infectious diseases in fish and humans. however, reliable and specific methods to evaluate the diversity and dynamics of aeromonas populations are currently unavailable. this study aimed to develop pcr-dgge methodologies for culture-independent analysis of aeromonas populations in water systems.201019659697
molecular cloning and expression analysis of the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) gene in grass carp.liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is a novel antimicrobial peptide (amp) recently found in vertebrates, and exhibits distinct amino acid sequence, secondary structure and expression pattern from other peptides. in this study, the leap-2 gene and its full-length cdna were cloned from grass carp. grass carp leap-2 gene consists of two introns and three exons. the translated product contains 92 amino acids, including a 26 amino acids signal peptide and a mature peptide of 41 amino ac ...201019716607
characterization of a serine proteinase homologous (sph) in chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.the serine protease homologous (sph) is an important cofactor of prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae). the gene of sph of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis (essph) in hemocytes was cloned and characterized using reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the sph cdna consisted of 1386 bp with an open reading frame (orf) encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, 154 bp 5'-untranslated region, and 95 bp 3'-untranslated region. sequence ...201019720078
an experimental vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a candidate vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. to test the strength of protection, a. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (ip) cavity and the dorsal sinus (ds) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. unlike the ip route, injection into the ds with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and ...201019732266
isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the american alligator (alligator mississippiensis).to determine whether american alligators (alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in south carolina's coastal waters.201019735329
gene cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila.aerolysin is a significant virulent toxin protein secreted by aeromonas hydrophila; it produces deep wound infections and hemorrhagic septicemia. the complete aerolysin gene (1,482 bp) was amplified from a. hydrophila. furthermore, it was cloned and expressed into escherichia coli bl21(de3) codon plus rp cells using 0.5 mm iptg for induction. the protein size was 54 kda as estimated by sds-page, and it was purified by ni-nta affinity chromatography. anti-his antibodies were used to characterize ...201019763901
in vitro effects on bacterial growth of phenoloxidase reaction products.an active phenoloxidase preparation from the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus exhibited a strong antibacterial effect in vitro on the bacteria aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumoniae whereas a weaker but still significant effect against bacillus cereus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. in most cases reduction of bacterial growth was stronger when dopamine was used as substrate as compared to l-dopa. the effect on bacteria was abolished if no ...201019808037
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. the aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.201021483559
application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in siliguri city of west bengal, india.sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in siliguri cityof west bengal, india. in regular surveys undertaken during june to august 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (qim) was applied to assess its quality raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samp ...201021387907
[development of rapid detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification].loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method of gene amplification with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. the method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. in the present study, according to the conservative regions of non-structural protein gene ns1, a set of four specific primers were designed, ...201021344755
[biological properties of opportunistic bacteria in aquatic ecosystems].the paper gives the results of studying the enzymatic activity of bacteria in the microbial community of the lena river in the central part of yakutia (the town of yakutsk and its adjoining areas). the study properties were found in 31.8% of the bacteria. aeromonas had the highest enzymatic activity. high (22.0%) dnaase production rates were noted in enterobactericeae.201021341499
measurement of k(on) without a rapid-mixing device.we have recently designed a biochemistry laboratory experiment for the purpose of providing students an advanced experience with enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of binding. bestatin, a well-known and commercially available general protease inhibitor, is a slow-binding inhibitor of aminopeptidase isolated from aeromonas proteolytica. the binding is on a timescale slow enough for measurement without the use of a rapid-mixing device. aminopeptidase inhibition is detected via a standard colorimetri ...201021567834
isolation and distribution of bacterial flora in farmed rainbow trout from mexico.trout farming is a growing aquaculture industry in mexico, with stock mainly supplied by the importation of eyed eggs. the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of bacterial isolations in farmed rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss from mexico. sixty-five farms distributed among seven states of mexico were included in the study. individual samples from gills, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were obtained from 563 apparently healthy fish. in total, 371 bacterial isolates were ...201021413508
diversity and impact of prokaryotic toxins on aquatic environments: a review.microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. as a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. these t ...201022069558
detection of type iii secretion system genes in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with virulence in nile tilapia.the goals of this study were to develop a pcr technique to detect ascv and aopb genes from the type iii secretion system (t3ss), to evaluate the frequency of these genes in aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from diseased fish and from aquaculture environments, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in nile tilapia. the pcr assay developed here successfully detected the target genes, showing three different profiles for the strains ...201020185253
factors affecting preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans to bacterial prey.to enhance our understanding of the factors affecting feeding selectivity of bacterivorous protists in aquatic systems, we examined the preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans towards three bacterial prey taxa, pseudomonas luteola, serratia rubidaea, and aeromonas hydrophila. potential factors influencing the predator-prey contact rate included the previous feeding history of the ciliate and physiological state of bacteria. preference indexes were obtained from multiple- ...200921462552
aetiology of diarrhoea among persons with hiv and their family members in rural uganda: a community-based study.to identify pathogens associated with diarrhoea in hiv-infected persons and their hiv-uninfected family members.200921644412
detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in mexico.we determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. species were identified as a. caviae, a. hydrophila, a. veronii and a. media using pcr-rflp of the 16s rdna. selected isolates were further characterized by eric-pcr. resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the kirby-ba ...200919810047
aeromonas sepsis as a marker of devitalized tissue in traumatic injuries. 200919811055
effects of chelators (deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox) on the growth of klebsiella pneumoniae and aeromonas hydrophila isolated from transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.infections are among the leading causes of death for thalassemia major patients. the known predisposing factors of infection include prior splenectomy, iron overload and use of iron chelator such as deferoxamine (dfo). while encapsulated organisms frequently found in splenectomized patients were readily controlled by prophylactic vaccination and vigilant antibiotic treatment, ferrophilic organisms such as yersinia and klebsiella remain common pathogens in thalassemic patients. yersinia infection ...200919814682
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the extracts of kefe cumin (laser trilobum l.) fruits from different regions.structural properties (using gas chromatographic analyses: gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of some compounds (pure chemicals, essential oils, extracts, etc.) and systematic investigation of antimicrobial activities (with agar dilution and agar diffusion disc methods) were determined in the fruits of kefe cumin (laser trilobum l.) obtained from different regions (germany, india, and turkey). the main components were established as limonene (41.03-72.24%) and perillald ...200919817640
a novel method for the diagnosis of drowning by detection of aeromonas sobria with pcr method.the acid digestion method has been widely used for the diagnosis of death by drowning, but it is not always sensitive. however, there has been no definitive method to replace acid digestion until now. we speculate that bacteria are more useful markers than plankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. in this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific dna fragments of aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using pcr. the ...200919766051
integration of microfiltration and anion-exchange nanoparticles-based magnetic separation with maldi mass spectrometry for bacterial analysis.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) is powerful in characterizing and identifying bacterial isolates. however, sufficient quantities of bacterial cells are required for generating maldi mass spectra and a procedure to isolate and enrich target bacteria from sample matrix prior to maldi-ms analysis is often necessary. in this paper, anion-exchange superparamagnetic nanoparticles (nps), i.e., fluidmag-deae and fluidmag-q, were employed to capture aeromonas, sal ...200919782231
a bifunctional enzyme in a single gene catalyzes the incorporation of glcn into the aeromonas core lipopolysaccharide.the core lipopolysaccharide (lps) of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 and aeromonas salmonicida a450 is characterized by the presence of the pentasaccharide alpha-d-glcn-(1-->7)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->2)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->3)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->5)-alpha-kdo. previously it has been suggested that the waha protein is involved in the incorporation of glcn residue to outer core lps. the waha protein contains two domains: a glycosyltransferase and a carbohydrate esterase. in this work we demonstrate that the in ...200919805547
clinical relevance of the recently described species aeromonas aquariorum.twenty-two human extraintestinal isolates (11 from blood) and three isolates recovered from patients with diarrhea were genetically characterized as aeromonas aquariorum, a novel species known only from ornamental fish. the isolates proved to bear a considerable number of virulence genes, and all were resistant to amoxicillin (amoxicilline), cephalothin (cefalotin), and cefoxitin. biochemical differentiation from the most relevant clinical species is provided.200919741075
occurrence of motile aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in león (nw of spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of aeromonas spp. samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility ...200919720415
biopreservation of refrigerated and vacuum-packed dicentrarchus labrax by lactic acid bacteria.two lactic acid bacteria (lab) were selected from 100 lab isolated from various sea products to examine their use in dicentrarchus labrax preservation. the isolates, tentatively named strain nr 3 and 7, were identified as lactobacillus plantarum and l. pentosus, respectively. they showed antagonistic activity against psychrotroph, pathogenic, and coliform bacteria. the antagonistic activity of strain 3 was suggested to be by bacteriocins since activity was abolished by protease treatment, while ...200919723220
inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular products of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila.to determine whether the extracellular products (ecps) from aeromonas hydrophila, a frog bacterial pathogen that is resistant to skin antimicrobial peptides of three different frog species xenopus laevis, litoria aurea and litoria raniformis, can modulate the activity of these peptides.200919728406
n-acylhomoserine lactones involved in quorum sensing control the type vi secretion system, biofilm formation, protease production, and in vivo virulence in a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila.in this study, we delineated the role of n-acylhomoserine lactone(s) (ahls)-mediated quorum sensing (qs) in the virulence of diarrhoeal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila by generating a double knockout delta ahyri mutant. protease production was substantially reduced in the delta ahyri mutant when compared with that in the wild-type (wt) strain. importantly, based on western blot analysis, the delta ahyri mutant was unable to secrete type vi secretion system (t6ss)-associated effectors, namely ...200919729404
virulence factor-activity relationships (vfar) with specific emphasis on aeromonas species (spp.).the human population most commonly inflicted with aeromonas infection includes young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. importantly, the isolation rate of aeromonas species from children suffering from diarrhea is similar in developing and developed countries. it is becoming clear that only a small subset of aeromonas species belonging to a particular hybridization group causes disease in humans. human infections with this pathogen occur by consuming contaminated food and w ...200919717930
evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.the sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of piper betle leaves were determined. betel leaves artificially inoculated with aeromonas, salmonella and yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees c, indicating a residual antimi ...200919670009
common mechanistic features among metallo-beta-lactamases: a computational study of aeromonas hydrophila cpha enzyme.metallo-beta-lactamases (mbetals) constitute an increasingly serious clinical threat by giving rise to beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. they accommodate in their catalytic pocket one or two zinc ions, which are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactams. recent x-ray studies on a member of the mono-zinc b2 mbetals, cpha from aeromonas hydrophila, have paved the way to mechanistic studies of this important subclass, which is selective for carbapenems. here we have used hybrid quantum mechan ...200919671702
the structure of the dizinc subclass b2 metallo-beta-lactamase cpha reveals that the second inhibitory zinc ion binds in the histidine site.bacteria can defend themselves against beta-lactam antibiotics through the expression of class b beta-lactamases, which cleave the beta-lactam amide bond and render the molecule harmless. there are three subclasses of class b beta-lactamases (b1, b2, and b3), all of which require zn2+ for activity and can bind either one or two zinc ions. whereas the b1 and b3 metallo-beta-lactamases are most active as dizinc enzymes, subclass b2 enzymes, such as aeromonas hydrophila cpha, are inhibited by the b ...200919651913
structural basis for the kexin-like serine protease from aeromonas sobria as sepsis-causing factor.the anaerobic bacterium aeromonas sobria is known to cause potentially lethal septic shock. we recently proposed that a. sobria serine protease (asp) is a sepsis-related factor that induces vascular leakage, reductions in blood pressure via kinin release, and clotting via activation of prothrombin. asp preferentially cleaves peptide bonds that follow dibasic amino acid residues, as do kex2 (saccharomyces cerevisiae serine protease) and furin, which are representative kexin family proteases. here ...200919654332
infections in patients with aplastic anemia.infection is a major cause of death in patients with aplastic anemia (aa). there are differences between the immunocompromised state of a patient with aa and the patient who is neutropenic due to chemotherapy and this leads to a difference in the infections that they incur. prolonged neutropenia is one of the largest risk factors for the development of infections with the invasive mycoses and bacteria. recovery from neutropenia is directly related to survival, and supportive care plays a large r ...200919549579
biosynthesis and characterization of 3-hydroxyalkanoate terpolyesters with adjustable properties by aeromonas hydrophila.polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) terployesters p(3hb-co-3hv-co-3hhx) consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv), and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) were produced by wild-type aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4, its recombinant harboring pha synthesis genes phapcj encoding pha binding protein phasin, pha synthase, and enoyl-coa hydratase, and another its recombinant harboring phaab encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-coa reductase, respectively, when grown in lauric acid and/or valerate. ...200919517520
synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of biodegradable elastomeric poly(ether-ester urethane)s based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly(ethylene glycol) via melting polymerization.poly(ether-ester urethane)s (pus) multiblock co-polymers were synthesized from telechelic hydroxylated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) and poly(ethylene glycol) (peg) via a melting polymerization (mp) process using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (hdi) as a non-toxic coupling agent for the first time. the phbhhx segments and peg segments in the multiblock co-polymers behaved as a hard, hydrophobic and a soft, hydrophilic part, respectively. their chemical structures and mol ...200919520007
pseudomonas chlororaphis strain jf3835 reduces mortality of juvenile perch, perca fluviatilis l., caused by aeromonas sobria.motile aeromonad septicaemia caused by aeromonas sobria is a cause of disease in farmed perch, perca fluviatilis l., in switzerland. we have evaluated the potential of a pseudomonas chlororaphis isolate, obtained from perch intestine, to control a. sobria infection. inoculation of juvenile perch with p. chlororaphis strain jf3835 prior to infection with a. sobria caused a reduction in a. sobria associated mortalities. infection of perch with xyle-labelled p. chlororaphis indicated the bacterium ...200919476558
comparative genomics of the inca/c multidrug resistance plasmid family.multidrug resistance (mdr) plasmids belonging to the inca/c plasmid family are widely distributed among salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant yersinia pestis isolate (ip275) from madagascar. here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the inca/c reference plasmid pra1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic inca/c plasmid prax (49,763 b ...200919482926
synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antibacterial studies of new ru(iii) schiff base complexes containing chloride/bromide and triphenylphosphine/arsine as co-ligands.a new ru(iii) schiff base complexes of the type [rux(eph(3))l] (x = cl/br; e = p/as; l = dianion of the schiff bases were derived by the condensation of 1,4-diformylbenzene with o-aminobenzoic acid/o-aminophenol/o-aminothiophenol in the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio) have been synthesized from the reactions of [rux(3)(eph(3))(3)] with appropriate schiff base ligands in benzene in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. the new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (ir, electronic, (1)h, (13 ...200919679508
foodborne and indicator bacteria in farmed molluscan shellfish before and after depuration.galicia's coast (northwestern spain) is a major producer of bivalve molluscs. over an 18-month period, the presence of salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and clostridium botulinum was determined by pcr methods in mussels (22 batches) and infaunal bivalves (31 batches of clams and cockles) before and after depuration. all batches were harvested from galician class b harvesting areas where bivalve molluscs must not exceed 4,600 escherichia coli per 100 g of f ...200919681267
identification, biosynthesis, and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate.in this study, we found that ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase 1 (phac1(ps)) from pseudomonas sp. 61-3 synthesized a pha copolymer containing a 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and small amounts of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) from fructose as a sole carbon source. 3h4mv is a monomer unit that has hitherto not been reported as a naturally occurring component of phas. to increase the 3h4mv fraction in pha copolymers, the ...200919681605
comparative biology of two natural variants of the incq-2 family plasmids, pras3.1 and pras3.2.plasmids pras3.1 and pras3.2 are two closely related, natural variants of the incq-2 plasmid family that have identical plasmid backbones except for two differences. plasmid pras3.1 has five 6-bp repeat sequences in the promoter region of the mobb gene and four 22-bp iterons in its oriv region, whereas pras3.2 has only four 6-bp repeats and three 22-bp iterons. plasmid pras3.1 was found to have a higher copy number than pras3.2, and we show that the extra 6-bp repeat results in an increase in mo ...200919684126
aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 type iii secretion system expression and regulatory network.the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system (t3ss) has been shown to play a crucial role in this pathogen's interactions with its host. we previously described the genetic organization of the t3ss cluster and the existence of at least one effector, called aext, in a. hydrophila strain ah-3. in this study, we analyzed the expression of the t3ss regulon by analyzing the activity of the aopn-aopd and aext promoters (t3ss machinery components and effector, respectively) by means of two differ ...200919684162
tri-trophic linkages in disease: pathogen transmission to rainbow trout through stonefly prey.relationships between macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in aquatic environments are only poorly understood despite the fact that many aquatic macroinvertebrates feed on microbial biofilms during some life stage. better understanding of trophic interactions between microbial biofilms, macroinvertebrates, and fish may also help control fish diseases and loss of natural resources. it has also been suggested that pollution, habitat fragmentation, and poor water quality may contribute to increase ...200919689880
magnetic circular dichroism study of a dicobalt(ii) complex with mixed 5- and 6-coordination: a spectroscopic model for dicobalt(ii) hydrolases.the magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) study of [co(2)(mu-oh)(mu-ph(4)dba)(tmeda)(2)(otf)], in which ph(4)dba is the dinucleating bis(carboxylate) ligand dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(diphenylacetate) and tmeda is n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine, is presented. this complex serves as an excellent spectroscopic model for a number of dicobalt(ii) enzymes and proteins that have both the mu-hydroxo, mu-carboxylato bridging and asymmetric 6- and 5-coordination. the low-temperature mcd spectrum of the model ...200919691327
aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. with the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, w ...200919692919
atypical furunculosis vaccines for atlantic cod gadhus morhua: impact of reattached aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein on vaccine efficacy.atypical furunculosis caused by atypical aeromonas salmonicida bacteria is reported as an increasing problem in farmed atlantic cod gadus morhua in norway. at present, furunculosis vaccines adapted for cod or other marine fish species are not available. to identify bacterial components important for inducing protection in cod, we compared oil-adjuvanted vaccines based on a. salmonicida isolates phenotypically differing in their major cell surface constituents, such as the a-layer protein and lip ...200919694171
management of human and animal bite wound infection: an overview.animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. the organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, pasteurella multocida in animal bites, eikenella corrodens in animal and human, capnocytophaga spp, neisseria weaveri, weeksella zoohelcum, neisseria canis, staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxid ...200919698283
effect of beta-glucan on immunity and survival of early stage of anabas testudineus (bloch).the present experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of beta-glucan suspension derived from barley on the innate immune response and disease resistance of anabas testudineus spawns against infection caused by aeromonas hydrophila. four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg l(-1) were taken and 8 days old spawn were exposed for 2 h and 3 h. the cell suspension of spawn was assayed for total protein, acid ...200919699803
bacteria isolated from 25 hydatid cysts in sheep, cattle and goats.bacteria were isolated from 12 of 25 hydatid cysts collected from the lungs and livers of cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in the province of messina, sicily, italy. citrobacter freundii was isolated from seven of the cysts, aeromonas hydrophila from three, staphylococcus species from two, salmonella species from two and escherichia coli and proteus vulgaris from one.200919700784
comparison study of membrane filtration direct count and an automated coliform and escherichia coli detection system for on-site water quality testing.this study compared an automated escherichia coli and coliform detection system with the membrane filtration direct count technique for water testing. the automated instrument performed equal to or better than the membrane filtration test in analyzing e. coli-spiked samples and blind samples with interference from proteus vulgaris or aeromonas hydrophila.200919703500
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro gene transfer in bacteria isolated from the ulcers of eus-affected fish in india.the occurrence of drug resistance and plasmid-mediated transferability was investigated in 15 aeromonas isolates collected from the ulcers of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected fishes katla (catla catla), mrigel (cirrhinus mrigala) and punti (puntius sp.).200919709369
pathogenic potential of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from surface waters in kolkata, india.members of the genus aeromonas (family aeromonadaceae) are medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped micro-organisms and are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens; they possess several virulence factors associated with human disease, and represent a serious public health concern. in the present study, putative virulence traits of aeromonas hydrophila isolates collected from different natural surface waters of kolkata, india, w ...200919713362
interleukin-17d in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): molecular characterization, 3d modelling and promoter analysis.il-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the clearance of extracellular bacteria and contributes to the pathology of many autoimmune and allergic conditions. much work on il-17 has been done in humans and higher vertebrates while little work has been conducted in lower vertebrates including fish. in this study, we have cloned and characterized the full-length cdna and genomic sequence of il-17d from atlantic salmon. the atlantic salmon il-17d (asil-17d) cdna possessed ...200919716422
aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type strain does not possess a type iii secretion system. 200919553573
effect of lactococcus lactis clfp 100 and leuconostoc mesenteroides clfp 196 on aeromonas salmonicida infection in brown trout (salmo trutta).aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. this pathogen is important from an epizootic perspective because fish surviving an outbreak can remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers, serving as reservoirs of infection. as a result, the early detection and the control of infection are essential to prevent the spread of new furunculosis outbreaks. we have thus analyzed the effect of probiotic administration on the incidence of a. salmonicida in brown trout (salmo t ...200919556745
antagonism of aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus.propolis, a resinous substance collected by apis mellifera bees from various plant sources and mixed with secreted beeswax, is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction, maintenance, and protection of their hives. the collected propolis sample, from high egypt, was dark-green with olive-odor. the minimal inhibition concentration (mic) of propolis-ethanolic-extract, against aeromonas hydrophila, was 80 microg propolis-ethanolic-extract and crude propolis (1%) were added to artif ...200919563896
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