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investigation of mineral water springs of miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) with cultivation-dependent microbiological methods.water samples of ten mineral water springs at miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) were examined during 2005-2006 using cultivation-dependent microbiological methods. the results of standard hygienic bacteriological tests showed that the hargita spring had perfect and five other springs had microbiologically acceptable water quality (zsögöd-, nagy-borvíz-, taploca-, szentegyháza- and lobogó springs). the water of borsáros spring was exceptionable (high germ count, presence of enterococc ...201020587384
bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in uruguayan children.diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of shigella, campylobacter, yersinia and salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. the aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine ...201020589332
structural investigation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.mass spectrometric studies are now playing a leading role in the elucidation of lipopolysaccharide (lps) structures through the characterization of antigenic polysaccharides, core oligosaccharides and lipid a components including lps genetic modifications. the conventional ms and ms/ms analyses together with cid fragmentation provide additional structural information complementary to the previous analytical experiments, and thus contribute to an integrated strategy for the simultaneous character ...201020589944
immune responses of resistant and sensitive common carp families following experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila.parameters of non-specific immune response and level of specific and natural antibodies were investigated after an experimental challenge with aeromonas hydrophila in genetically different common carp (cyprinus carpio) families. ten resistant and ten sensitive families were used for the experiment, which had been selected out of 96 families, based on the results of a preliminary challenge test. blood samples were collected 12 h, one week and 21 days following the challenge. phagocytic and respir ...201020211735
random amplified polymorphic dna typing of clinical and environmental aeromonas hydrophila strains from limpopo province, south africa.the aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relatedness of strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool and water specimens collected from water-storage containers from different geographical areas in the limpopo province. in total, 32 aeromonas strains isolated from stool specimens collected from hiv/aids patients suffering from gastroenteritis and their household drinking-water stored in 20-l and 25-l containers were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic dna pcr (rapd). the rapd fin ...201020214080
use of lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).feeding rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), with 1% lupin, lupinus perennis, mango, mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with aeromonas hydrophila. in addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient f ...201020102439
isolation and characterization of sap and crp, two pentraxins from pangasianodon (pangasius) hypophthalmus.from the serum of pangasianodon hypophthalmus, two proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography on sepharose and phosphorylcholine-sepharose. their binding on the affinity matrices critically depends on the presence of ca2+ ions. n-terminal sequencing and sequencing of internal tryptic peptides identified the proteins as pentraxins and from their binding properties they are identified as sap (serum amyloid p component) and crp (c-reactive protein). per ml serum, 36 microg sap and 56 microg ...201020109557
infection-induced changes in expression of antibacterial and cytokine genes in the gill epithelial cells of atlantic cod, gadus morhua during incubation with bacterial pathogens.the molecular processes of immune responses in mucosal tissues, such as the gills, during infection with bacterial pathogens are poorly understood. in the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of selected antibacterial genes and cytokines in the gills of a cold-water fish, atlantic cod, gadus morhua following in vitro infection with bacterial pathogens, vibrio anguillarum and atypical aeromonas salmonicida using semi-quantitative rt-pcr. there was significant upregulation in th ...201020430108
induction of beta-lactamase production in aeromonas hydrophila is responsive to beta-lactam-mediated changes in peptidoglycan composition.we have studied the mechanism by which beta-lactam challenge leads to beta-lactamase induction in aeromonas hydrophila through transposon-insertion mutagenesis. disruption of the dd-carboxypeptidases/endopeptidases, penicillin-binding protein 4 or blry leads to elevated monomer-disaccharide-pentapeptide levels in a. hydrophila peptidoglycan and concomitant overproduction of beta-lactamase through activation of the blrab two-component regulatory system. during beta-lactam challenge, monomer-disac ...201020430811
comonomer compositional distribution, physical properties, and enzymatic degradability of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) copolyesters.poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (p(3hb-co-3h4mv)) was synthesized by using ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 (pha-negative mutant) harboring with the n149s/d171g double mutation of pha synthase gene from aeromonas caviae (phac(ac) nsdg mutant) with 4-methylvaleric acid and fructose as the carbon sources. because the microbially synthesized p(3hb-co-3h4mv) samples were found to have broad comonomer compositional distribution, p(3hb-co-3h4mv) samples with 3h4mv content of 7, ...201020441146
induced-fit mechanism for prolyl endopeptidase.prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type ii diabetes. prolyl endopeptidase (pep) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. we now directly demonstrate from seven stru ...201020444688
regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems.a study of the quality of reclaimed water in treated effluent, after storage, and at three points in the distribution system of four plants in california, florida, massachusetts, and new york was conducted for 1 year. the plants had different treatment processes (conventional versus membrane bioreactor), production capacities, and methods for storage of the water, and the intended end uses of the water were different. the analysis focused on the occurrence of indicator bacteria (heterotrophic ba ...201020453149
validation of a partial rpob gene sequence as a tool for phylogenetic identification of aeromonads isolated from environmental sources.a collection of 50 aeromonads isolated from environmental sources were studied, together with all known aeromonas nomenspecies, by phenotypic, amplified 16s rdna restriction analysis (16s rdna rflp) and by partial sequence alignment of both 16s rdna and rpob genes. although most of the type strain showed a unique phenotypic pattern, a database constructed on type strain phenotype allowed the identification of only 24% of the isolates. analysis of 16s rdna rflp and the rpob sequence were almost c ...201020453908
echinacea purpurea and allium sativum as immunostimulants in fish culture using nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).the study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of echinacea (e) and garlic (g) supplemented diets as immunostimulant for tilapia (oreochromis niloticus). seven treatments were designed including a control (c). fish were fed on 35% protein diet at a rate of 3% body weight per day. echinacea (1.0 ppt) and garlic (3%) were incorporated in the feed, which was administered for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months (summer season), followed by basal diet for 4 more months (winter season). neutrophil adhere ...201020455962
aeromonas hydrophila pepo outer membrane endopeptidase activates human big endothelin-3 in vitro and induces skin ulcer in goldfish (carassius auratus).in aeromonas hydrophila, the gram-negative bacterial fish pathogen, pepo constitutes the thermoregulated outer membrane m13 family zinc endopeptidase, which is expressed maximally at 16 degrees c and is down-regulated above 30 degrees c. cultivation of a. hydrophila at 16 degrees c enabled it to activate big endothelin (et), the vasoconstrictor and ulcerogenic peptide naturally secreted from human vascular endothelial cell (huvec) culture. furthermore, a. hydrophila pepo in vitro shows strong en ...201020456877
effects of hot-water extract of toona sinensis on immune response and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in oreochromis mossambicus.respiratory burst, lysozyme and phagocytic activities, and immunoglobulin levels in response to the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila were examined in tilapia (oreochromis mossanbicus, 10.65 +/- 2.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of toona sinensis at 4 or 8 microg g(-1). tilapia receiving the hot-water extract of t. sinensis at either dose had significantly increased respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity towards a. hydrophila by 1 and 2 days post injection. no ...201020457260
derivation of rough attenuated variants from smooth virulent aeromonas hydrophila and their immunogenicity in fish.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacteria associated with many disease conditions of aquatic animals. two rough attenuated variants were derived from two smooth virulent types of this bacterium by continuous passage separately in laboratory over a period of 8 years in brain-heart infusion agar. these variants were checked to be rough lipopolysaccharides (lps) types and attenuated since they neither produced any disease nor mortality in the injected fishes. the immunogenic potential of the ...201020457292
immunoproteomics of extracellular proteins of the aeromonas hydrophila china vaccine strain j-1 reveal a highly immunoreactive outer membrane protein.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium that can infect a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals. it is essential to develop a vaccine to reduce the economic losses caused by this bacterium in aquaculture worldwide. here, an immunoproteomic assay was used to identify the immunogenic extracellular proteins of the chinese vaccine strain j-1. ten unique immunogenic proteins were identified from the two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblot profiles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ...201020459508
prediction of whole-genome dna g+c content within the genus aeromonas based on housekeeping gene sequences.different methods are available to determine the g+c content (e.g. thermal denaturation temperature or high performance liquid chromatography, hplc), but obtained values may differ significantly between strains, as well as between laboratories. recently, several authors have demonstrated that the genomic dna g+c content of prokaryotes can be reliably estimated from one or several protein coding gene nucleotide sequences. few g+c content values have been published for the aeromonas species descri ...201020466501
bacteriological investigation on "mauro" sold in catania.seaweeds known as "mauro" are traditionally used fresh or to prepare omelettes in sicily (italy). twenty samples sold in catania between may 2005 and september 2007 were analyzed for escherichia coli, total enterobacteria, aeromonas spp., pseudomonas spp., vibrio spp., and salmonella spp. thirty vibrio strains were examined for the presence of the virulence genes, toxr, toxrs, tl, tdh, and trh in the genomes of the isolates. total enterobacteria ranged between 2.23 and 6.85 log cfu/g, and in six ...201020467809
necrotising fasciitis in both calves caused by aeromonas caviae following aesthetic liposuction.liposuction is the most widely performed cosmetic procedure in the world, and is considered safe and without serious complications. however, necrotising fasciitis has been documented as a rare complication following abdomen and thigh liposuction. we present a case of necrotising fasciitis in a 22-year-old female who underwent cosmetic liposuction in both calves. the diagnosis of necrotising fasciitis was delayed, leading to multi-organ dysfunction and skin necrosis with consequent massive skin l ...201020471929
impact of reattaching various aeromonas salmonicida a-layer proteins on vaccine efficacy in atlantic cod (gadus morhua).atypical aeromonas salmonicida causes atypical furunculosis in a whole range of farmed fish species. the bacterium comprises a heterogeneous group differing in surface components such as the a-layer protein and o-chain polysaccharide structures. previously, the a-layer protein was shown to contribute to protective immunity as a vaccine with a. salmonicida cells with reattached a-layer protein protecting significantly better than the corresponding a-layer deficient bacteria used in the atlantic c ...201020472024
immunostimulatory activities of bacillus simplex dr-834 to carp (cyprinus carpio).a bacterial strain, designated dr-834 and producing immunostimulatory activities to carp (cyprinus carpio), was isolated from qinghai-tibetan plateau permafrost soil. cultural characteristic studies suggested that this strain belongs to the genus bacillus. the nucleotide sequence of the 16s rrna gene of strain dr-834 exhibited close similarity (99%) with the 16s rrna gene of bacillus simplex. two compounds showing potent activity were isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bio ...201020472068
effect of conjugated linoleic acid on cyprinus carpio var. jian regarding growth, immunity, and disease resistance to aeromonas hydrophila.the present study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (cla) on the growth performance, immune parameters and disease resistance to aeromonas hydrophila of juvenile jian carp. a total of 900 juvenile jian carp (10.71 +/- 0.02 g) were randomly allocated into six groups of each three replicates, feeding isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isolipidic (7.8% crude fat) diets containing graded amounts of cla (0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0%) for 60 days. after ...201020473720
considerations on infectious complications using a drowned lung for transplantation.recently, the applicability of lungs from drowned victims for transplantation has been anecdotically described in literature. however, no data exist about hazards or limitations. herein, we describe a case of lung transplantation from a submersion victim and the subsequent development of an aeromonas hydrophila infection in the implanted organ. based on this case we propose standard procedures, which should be followed when considering drowned donor lungs, in order to minimize risks for infectio ...201020477998
high yield expression of an ahl-lactonase from bacillus sp. b546 in pichia pastoris and its application to reduce aeromonas hydrophila mortality in aquaculture.aeromonas hydrophila is a serious pathogen and can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. to control this disease, antibiotics and chemicals are widely used which can consequently result in "superbugs" and chemical accumulation in the food chain. though vaccine against a. hydrophila is available, its use is limited due to multiple serotypes of this pathogen and problems of safety and efficacy. another problem with vaccination is the ability to apply it to small fish especially in high numbers. in ...201020492673
virulence properties and characterization of aeromonads isolated from foods of animal origin and environmental sources.aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens, and they possess several virulence factors that may contribute to illness. in this work, the biochemical, enzymatic, and some virulence properties of 73 potentially pathogenic strains of aeromonas spp. isolated from food and environmental sources were investigated to compare strains from different sources and establish the possible relationships between some phenotypic characters and pathogenicity. virulence factors (hemolysin a ...201020501036
high gene expression of inflammatory markers and il-17a correlates with severity of injection site reactions of atlantic salmon vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted vaccines.two decades after the introduction of oil-based vaccines in the control of bacterial and viral diseases in farmed salmonids, the mechanisms of induced side effects manifested as intra-abdominal granulomas remain unresolved. side effects have been associated with generation of auto-antibodies and autoimmunity but the underlying profile of inflammatory and immune response has not been characterized. this study was undertaken with the aim to elucidate the inflammatory and immune mechanisms of granu ...201020507624
qnrvc-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the iscr1 element in an aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in shandong province, china.a qnrvc-like gene, qnrvc4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the iscr1 element and bla(per-1) in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium aeromonas punctata. the deduced qnrvc4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants qnrb6, qnra1, qnrs1, qnrc, qnrvc1, and qnrvc3. a ser-83 to ile amino acid substitution in gyrase a may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain.201020516288
endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of phragmites australis in constructed beijing cuihu wetland (china).the community structure and diversity of endophytic bacteria in reed (phragmites australis) roots growing in the beijing cuihu wetland, china was investigated using the 16s rrna library technique. primers 799f and 1492r were used to amplify the specific bacterial 16s rrna fragments successfully and construct the clone library. in total, 166 individual sequences were verified by colony pcr and used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria in reed roots. phylogenetic analysis revealed that 7 ...201020528944
subunit and small-molecule interaction of ribonucleotide reductases via surface plasmon resonance biosensor analyses.ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) synthesizes deoxyribonucleotides for dna replication and repair and is controlled by sophisticated allosteric regulation involving differential affinity of nucleotides for regulatory sites. we have developed a robust and sensitive method for coupling biotinylated rnrs to surface plasmon resonance streptavidin biosensor chips via a 30.5 a linker. in comprehensive studies on three rnrs effector nucleotides strengthened holoenzyme interactions, whereas substrate had n ...201020534631
defensin of the zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha): molecular structure, in vitro expression, antimicrobial activity, and potential functions.a 409 bp full length defensin gene was cloned and sequenced based on an expressed sequence tag (est) obtained from a normalized zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha) foot cdna library developed in our laboratory. the d. polymorpha defensin (dpd) gene encoded a peptide with 76 amino acid residues. the mature dpd contains 54 amino acids with a fully functional insect defensin a domain. homologue searching against genbank database suggested that this dpd was phylogenetically close to defensins from a ...201020537393
a delta-class glutathione transferase from the chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis: cdna cloning, characterization and mrna expression.glutathione-s-transferases (gsts), a major superfamily of antioxidative enzymes, play an important role in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ros). the delta-class gst cdna was cloned and sequenced by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis. the 938 bp e. sinensis gst gene, encoding a polypeptide of 216 amino acids, showed significant similarity to homologous genes in insects. the deduced amino acid sequence of t ...201020538061
biosynthesis and mobilization of a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer produced by burkholderia sp. usm (jcm15050).we attempted to synthesize a polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) containing newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) monomer by using wild type burkholderia sp. usm (jcm15050) and its transformed strain harboring the pha synthase gene of aeromonas caviae (phac(ac)). the introduction of 3h4mv as a second monomer will improve the material properties of 3hb-based polymers. to promote the accumulation of pha containing 3h4mv monomer, isocaproic acid was provided as co-carbon source. approximately 1m ...201020541932
genetic and biochemical characterization of tru-1, the endogenous class c beta-lactamase from aeromonas enteropelogenes.aeromonas enteropelogenes (formerly a. tructi) was described to be an ampicillin-susceptible and cephalothin-resistant aeromonas species, which suggests the production of a cephalosporinase. strain atcc 49803 was susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem but resistant to cefazolin (mics of 2, 0.032, 0.125, and >256 microg/ml, respectively) and produced an inducible beta-lactamase. cefotaxime-resistant mutants (mic, 32 microg/ml) that showed constitutive beta-lactamase production could ...201020124004
aeromonas caviae strain induces th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract.aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (vfs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the aeromonas genus. microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 h after oral infection with an a. caviae strain, provides evidence of a th1 type immune response. a large number of gamma-interferon (gamma-ifn) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumo ...201020130691
class 1 integrons in benthic bacterial communities: abundance, association with tn402-like transposition modules and evidence for coselection with heavy-metal resistance.the integron/gene cassette system contributes to lateral gene transfer of genetic information in bacterial communities, with gene cassette-encoded proteins potentially playing an important role in adaptation to stress. class 1 integrons are a particularly important class as they themselves seem to be broadly disseminated among the proteobacteria and have an established role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. the abundance and structure of class 1 integrons in freshwater sediment bacte ...201020132306
prevalence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in turkey.a total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of listeria, aeromonas, and vibrio species. the overall incidence of listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7% ...201020132688
immunomodulatory effect of dietary saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucan and laminaran in mercuric chloride treated nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) and experimentally infected with aeromonas hydrophila.six hundred and forty nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) weighing 80-100g were randomly allocated into eight equal groups (80 each). the first group acts as control. groups s, b and l were fed on a ration supplemented with saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-glucans and laminaran, respectively for 21 days. groups m, ms, mb and ml were subjected throughout the experiment to sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05 ppm). gps. ms, mb and ml were fed on a ration containing s. cerevisiae, beta ...201020139003
biochemical characterization of three putative atpases from a new type iv secretion system of aeromonas veronii plasmid pac3249a.type four secretion systems (tfss) are bacterial macromolecular transport systems responsible for transfer of various substrates such as proteins, dna or protein-dna complexes. tfsss encode two or three atpases generating energy for the secretion process. these enzymes exhibit highest sequence conservation among type four secretion components.201020144229
per-6, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from aeromonas allosaccharophila.an aeromonas allosaccharophila environmental isolate recovered from the seine river (paris, france) produced a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, per-6, that shared 92% amino acid identity with the closest ss-lactamase, per-2. the kinetic properties of per-6 showed a slightly increased affinity for carbapenems. the bla(per-6) gene was chromosomally located and bracketed by non-transposon-related structures.201020145085
immunoproteomic identification of polyvalent vaccine candidates from vibrio parahaemolyticus outer membrane proteins.bacterium is still a major cause of many infectious diseases and a global threat to human health, aquaculture, and animal feeding. prevention by vaccination is the most efficient and economical way of fighting bacterial diseases, but one of the persistent challenges to prevent bacterial infections and disease transmissions is the existence of multiple bacterial species, families, and genera and the lack of efficient polyvalent vaccines against them. the information on candidate immunogens for po ...201020148598
a differential proteomics study of caenorhabditis elegans infected with aeromonas hydrophila.the striking similarities between the innate defences of vertebrates and invertebrates as well as the amenability of caenorhabditis elegans for genetic analysis, have made this free-living ground nematode a popular model system in the study of bacterial pathogenesis. although genetic studies have brought new insights, showing the inducibility and pathogen-specificity of the immune response, there is still much to be discovered about the exact mechanisms underlying resistance to infection. in thi ...201020149819
distribution of virulence factors and molecular fingerprinting of aeromonas species isolates from water and clinical samples: suggestive evidence of water-to-human transmission.a total of 227 isolates of aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the united states and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. these isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the a. hydr ...201020154106
rainwater harvesting: quality assessment and utilization in the netherlands.the use of roof-collected rainwater as a freely available and sustainable alternative to drinking water produced by drinking water companies increases worldwide. initially, rainwater is free of microbial contamination, but it may become contaminated by animals and humans or, alternatively, human pathogens may grow in stored rainwater resulting in a significant human health risk from infectious diseases. this three-year study demonstrated that rainwater stored in different reservoirs in the nethe ...201020154386
phytotherapy of ulcerative dermatitis induced by aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish ( carassius auratus ).goldfish ( carassius auratus ) weighing 13 +/- 2 g were administered intramuscularly a sublethal dose (1.8 x 10 3 cfu/ml) of aeromonas hydrophila to induce ulcerative dermatitis. on day 3 and day 6 after infection the fish were dip-treated (for 5 min/day) with a tri-herbal concoction of curcuma longa, ocimum sanctum and azadirachta indica (1%). the ld 50 value was recorded at a concentration of 2.3 x 10 4 between 30 and 36 days after infection. in the infected untreated group the cumulative mort ...201020159736
proteome changes of caenorhabditis elegans upon a staphylococcus aureus infection.the success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. the aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach.201020163716
accuracy of 6 commercial systems for identifying clinical aeromonas isolates.we compared the accuracy of 6 commercial systems for aeromonas identification by testing 87 clinical isolates in routine conditions, using partial rpob gene sequencing as the reference standard. the systems were api-20e, api-32gn, the id-gn card with the vitek2 system (biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france), the identification portion of the nfc47 panel (microscan walk/away system; siemens healthcare, sacramento, ca), id69 (phoenix system; bd diagnostic systems, sparks, md), and gn2 microplates (om ...201020167449
quinolone-resistant aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis in a capd patient.peritonitis is a major cause of morbidity in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). aeromonas hydrophila is a rare cause of peritonitis in patients on capd. we herewith report a 44-year-old female patient on capd with aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis. peritoneal fluid grew aeromonas hydrophila. the patient reported that she had accidentally dropped her peritoneal dialysis catheter into the toilet. susceptibility testing revealed that it is susceptible to ceftazidime, but resistant to ...201020178725
detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.the presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aera), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat), serine protease (ser), dnases (exu), elastase (ahyb) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template dna. oligonuc ...201020227596
comparison of phenotypical and genetic identification of aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish.phenotypicaly identified aeromonas strains (n=119) recovered mainly from diseased fish were genetically re-identified and the concordance between the results was analysed. molecular characterization based on the gcat genus specific gene showed that only 90 (75.6%) strains belonged to the genus aeromonas. the 16s rdna-rflp method identified correctly most of the strains with the exception of a few that belonged to a. bestiarum, a. salmonicida or a. piscicola. separation of these 3 species was cor ...201020227844
leech therapy in cutaneous surgery and disease.over the ages, the use of leeches in medicine has evolved from haphazard bloodletting to a well-understood physiologic process with defined, rational applications.201020232587
metabolic engineering for microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates consisting of high 3-hydroxyhexanoate content by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila.polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene phac(ah) in aeromonas hydrophila strain 4ak4 was deleted and its function was replaced by phac1(ps) cloned from pseudomonas stutzeri strain 1317 which favors 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) and longer chain length monomers. genes fadd and fadl encoding escherichia coli acyl-coa synthase and pseudomonas putida kt2442 fatty acid transport protein, respectively, were introduced into the recombinant with new phac1(ps). accumulation of a series of novel medium-chain-lengt ...201020236821
changes in skin mucus of common carp, cyprinus carpio l., after exposure to water with a high bacterial load.water in aquaculture systems may contain a high load of microorganisms. reduction in overall bacterial tank water load improves fish health and growth parameters. in this study, the effect of an increase of overall bacterial load in tank water on carp skin mucus was assessed. intracellular and released high molecular weight glycoproteins (hmgs) of carp skin mucus were analysed for changes using histological, histochemical and biochemical techniques. increase of bacterial load did not induce obvi ...201020298445
first description of atypical furunculosis in freshwater farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., in chile.we report the first isolation, identification and characterization of a group of chilean strains of atypical aeromonas salmonicida isolated from freshwater farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar. affected fish showed superficial ulcers and pale liver with or without petechial haemorrhages. outbreaks of the disease occurred in two farms in the south of chile about 2200 km apart. five strains were isolated in pure culture and identified by serological assays and immunofluorescence tests as belonging ...201020298453
production and efficacy of an aeromonas hydrophila recombinant s-layer protein vaccine for fish.a recombinant protein for the s-layer protein of aeromonas hydrophila was produced and its ability to protect common carp cyprinus carpio l. against six virulent isolates of a. hydrophila was assessed. a group of 120 carp (30-40 g) were vaccinated intra-peritoneally with 0.1 ml of adjuvanted vaccine (30 microg protein per fish). another group of 120 carp were injected with 0.1 ml of pbs-adjuvant mixture to serve as controls. twenty fish from each group were challenged with each one of six virule ...201020307596
competitive exclusion as a mode of action of a novel bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent.to determine the contribution of potential modes of action of a bacillus cereus aquaculture biological control agent in inhibition of the fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila.201020337929
emergence of ctx-m-3, tem-1 and a new plasmid-mediated mox-4 ampc in a multiresistant aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. we report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by aeromonas caviae. detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding mox-4, ctx-m-3 and tem-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. the beta-lactamase with a pi of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstra ...201020339022
diversity of microbes and potential exoelectrogenic bacteria on anode surface in microbial fuel cells.single-chamber microbial fuel cells (mfcs), inoculated with anaerobic sludge and continuously run with two kinds of organic wastewater influents, were systemically investigated. the diversity of microbes, determined by 16s rdna analysis, was analyzed on three anodes under different conditions. one anode was in a closed circuit in synthetic wastewater containing glucose. the other two anodes, in open or closed circuits, were fed effluent from an anaerobic reactor treating starch wastewater. the c ...201020339216
exea binds to peptidoglycan and forms a multimer for assembly of the type ii secretion apparatus in aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila uses the type ii secretion system (t2ss) to transport protein toxins across the outer membrane. the inner membrane complex exeab is required for assembly of the exed secretion channel multimer, called the secretin, into the outer membrane. a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain (pfam number pf01471) conserved in many peptidoglycan-related proteins is present in the periplasmic region of exea (p-exea). in this study, co-sedimentation analysis revealed that p-exea was able to ...201020345654
[aeromonas-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report]. 201020346450
association between environmental microbiota and indigenous bacteria found in hemolymph, extrapallial fluid and mucus of anodonta cygnea (linnaeus, 1758).bivalves filter and accumulate large numbers of microorganisms present in the harvesting water. a complete understanding of the balance between anodonta cygnea and the microbiota present in their surrounding environment remains incomplete. therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and identify the indigenous bacteria in the biological fluids of a. cygnea collected from mira lagoon in northern portugal. the results showed vibrio metschnikovii and aeromonas sobria as the dominant groups. th ...201020349058
unmethylated cpg oligodeoxynucleotides activate head kidney leukocytes of atlantic cod, gadus morhua.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) that contain unmethylated cpg motifs are strong inducers of immune response in most mammalian organisms. the use of these synthetic cpg motifs in fish, particularly in salmonids and carp, resulted in the modulation of their immune system. however, much less is known in other species of fish such as gadoids including atlantic cod, gadus morhua. using head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod in an in vitro study, we determined the effects of some ...201020349339
[cloning and functional analysis of the collectin gene from the grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella].the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) collectin gene was cloned from mixed liver and kidney cdna library. the full length sequence of grass carp collectin was 1128 bp, contained a 5' untranslated region of 229 bp and a 3' untranslated region of 104 bp. the open reading frame of grass carp collectin was 795 bp which could code a 264 amino acids polypeptide, including a terminal codon. phylogenetic analyses showed that grass carp collectin shared the highest homology with that of zebrafish (dan ...201020353088
diagnosis of aeromonas hydrophila, mycobacterium species, and batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an african clawed frog (xenopus laevis).here we describe diagnosis of concurrent infection with aeromonas hydrophila, mycobacterium spp., and batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a wild female xenopus laevis captured in chile and transported to the united states. after approximately 130 d in the laboratory, the frog was presented for dysecdysis and obtundation. after euthanasia, tissues were submitted for histopathologic evaluation and pcr analysis for b. dendrobatidis and ranavirus. clinically significant gross lesions included cutaneou ...201020353698
a novel ttx-producing aeromonas isolated from the ovary of takifugu obscurus.puffer fish (takifugu obscurus) from the yangtze river of china were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. an aeromonas strain was isolated from the ovary of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin; this strain was denoted ne-1. the identity of tetrodotoxin produced by strain ne-1 was confirmed by mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass chromatography (lc-ms), and elisa. strain ne-1 was characterized morphologically, biochemically, and by 16 ...201020362605
characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, lota lota (l.), to ihnv, ipnv, flavobacterium psychrophilum, aeromonas salmonicida and renibacterium salmoninarum.in this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) by immersion and to aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. ihnv persisted in fish for at least 28 days, whereas a. salmonicida was not re-isolated beyond 17 days post-challenge. in contrast, burbot appeared refractory t ...201020367740
effect of dietary supplementation of inulin and vitamin c on the growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).the in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin c. the second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg(-1)), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin c (500 mg kg(-1)). the survival and growth perfo ...201020371294
aeromonas salmonicida type i pilus system contributes to host colonization but not invasion.the host-adherence strategies employed by aeromonas salmonicida subsp, salmonicida, the etiological agent of an infectious bacteremia of salmonids, are poorly understood. in addition to the outer protein coat or s-layer, a. salmonicida has both type i and type iv pili loci. the a. salmonicida type i or fim pilus is encoded by an operon with genes for a chaperone, an usher, and 3 pilus subunits and is predicted to be similar to the pap fimbriae of uropathogenic escherichia coli, which are conside ...201020377009
atlantic cod (gadus morhua) cc chemokines: diversity and expression analysis.chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the cc chemokines that are characterized by two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. cc chemokines play a pivotal role in host defense mechanisms by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. analysis of cc chemokines from teleost fishes indicates that the number of cc chemokine genes and their tissue expression patterns vary largely in thi ...201020381521
design and recombinant expression of insulin-like peptide 5 precursors and the preparation of mature human insl5.insulin-like peptide 5 (insl5) is a recently identified insulin superfamily member. although it binds to and activates the g-protein coupled receptor, rxfp4, its precise biological function remains unknown. to help determine its function, significant quantities of insl5 are required. in the present work, three single-chain insl5 precursors were designed, two of which were successfully expressed in e. coli cells. the expressed precursors were solubilized from inclusion bodies, purified almost to ...201020383778
[cloning and molecular organization of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene (phac) of ralstonia eutropha strain b5786].class i polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (pha) synthase gene (phac) of ralstonia eutropha strain b5786 was cloned and characterized. r. eutropha b5786 features the ability to synthesize multicomponent phas with short- and medium-chain-length monomers from simple carbohydrate substrate. a correlation was made between the molecular structure of pha synthase and substrate specificity and the ability of strain-producers to accumulate phas of this or that structure. a strong similarity of pha synthase of r. ...201020391757
molecular cloning and characterization of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) from the haemocytes of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m) is a large protein in blood and is able to inactivate a variety of proteinases in invertebrates and vertebrates. the alpha2-m gene was obtained from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis, by the reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the alpha2-m cdna of e. sinensis contained 4851 bp with an open reading frame of 4371 bp, a 70 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 410 bp 3'-untranslated region, and thre ...201020394825
species differentiation of seafood spoilage and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria by maldi-tof mass fingerprinting.species differentiation is important for the early detection and identification of pathogenic and food-spoilage microorganisms that may be present in fish and seafood products. the main 26 species of seafood spoilage and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, including aeromonas hydrophila, acinetobacter baumanii, pseudomonas spp., and enterobacter spp. among others, were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) of low molecular wei ...201020408567
pathogenicity of aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (litoria ewingii).bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including aeromonas hydrophila, chryseobacterium indologenes, chryseobacterium meningosepticum, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and serratia liquifaciens. here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (aeromonas hydrophila, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis) associated ...201020412685
the effect of ph and chemical preservatives on the growth of bacterial isolates from some nigerian packaged fruit juices.bacterial pathogens were isolated from some nigerian packaged fruit juices. the isolates were characterized and identified as bacillus licheniformis, aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus circulans, proteus morganii, pseudomonas cepacia, bacillus alvei and pseudomonas chlororaphis. the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 65% of the microorganisms isolated were resistance to the antibiotic used while 35% were sensitive. the effect of ph, benz ...201020415148
invasive bacterial infections in neonates and young infants born outside hospital admitted to a rural hospital in kenya.bacterial sepsis is thought to be a major cause of young infant deaths in low-income countries, but there are few precise estimates of its burden or causes. we studied invasive bacterial infections (ibis) in young infants, born at home or in first-level health units ("outborn") who were admitted to a kenyan rural district hospital during an 8-year period.201020418799
aeromonas taiwanensis sp. nov. and aeromonas sanarellii sp. nov., clinical species from taiwan.two clinical aeromonas strains (a2-50(t) and a2-67(t)) recovered from the wounds of two patients in taiwan could not be assigned to any known species of this genus based on their 16s rrna gene sequences, which showed similarities of 99.6-99.8 % to those of the type strains of aeromonas caviae, a. trota and a. aquariorum. the rpod phylogenetic tree allocated these strains to two novel and independent phylogenetic lines, the neighbouring species being a. caviae, the type strain of which showed 93. ...201019819994
salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium can detect acyl homoserine lactone production by yersinia enterocolitica in mice.luxr-type transcription factors detect acyl homoserine lactones (ahls) and are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species. escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cannot synthesize ahls but can detect the ahls produced by other bacterial species using the luxr homolog, sdia. previously we determined that s. typhimurium did not detect ahls during transit through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pig ...201019820103
[necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila in an immunocompetent patient]. 201019822313
beta2-microglobulin is involved in the immune response of large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila: a proteomic based study.outbreaks of infectious diseases in cultured large yellow croaker have resulted in great economic losses. however, information regarding its immune defense is limited. in the present study, an approach by the combination of differential proteomics with est resource was applied for investigation of a profile of serum immune response by large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila challenge after immunization and for characterizing of one of the targeted immune molecules. of the twelve altered pro ...201019837169
effect of oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts on protection against experimental fish infection.to investigate whether oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts (ahg) vaccine can elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses of carp (carassius auratus gibelio) compared to conventional formalin-killed bacteria (fkc).201019843213
design and performance of a turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray based on ests from immune tissues.an expressed sequence tag database from immune tissues was used to design the first high-density turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray with the aim of identifying candidate genes for tolerance to pathogens. specific oligonucleotides (60 mers) were successfully designed for 2,716 out of 3,482 unique sequences of the database. an agilent custom oligo-microarray 8 x 15 k (five replicates/gene; eight microarrays/slide) was constructed. the performance of the microarray and the sources of va ...201019844759
responses of atlantic cod gadus morhua head kidney leukocytes to phytase produced by gastrointestinal-derived bacteria.this study identified phytase-producing bacteria that were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of atlantic cod, gadus morhua and determined its effect on head kidney leukocytes. out of the 216 bacterial strains tested, the two phytase producers were identified as pseudomonas sp. and psychrobacter sp. based on their 16s rdna sequence. crude phytase from these two bacterial strains was produced employing the shake flask method. even though the total protein of the crude phytase was ...201019844802
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas simiae from a pig, first isolate since species description.the species aeromonas simiae was first described on the basis of two strains (cip 107798(t) and cip 107797) isolated from faeces of healthy monkeys (m. fascicularis) from mauritius, which were kept in quarantine in the centre for primatology, louis pasteur university, strasbourg, france. in the present study, during a survey to determine the prevalence of aeromonas at three different pig slaughterhouses at north of portugal, a single strain mdc2374 (out of 703 isolates) was identified as a. simi ...201019853388
plasmid-mediated qnrs2 determinant in an aeromonas caviae isolate recovered from a patient with diarrhoea.a qnrs2 gene was identified in an aeromonas caviae isolate (mics of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin >32 mg/l) from a stool sample collected from a patient with gastroenteritis. the analysis of the gyra and parc genes revealed amino acid substitutions ser83-ile and ser80-thr, respectively. in addition, five out of 41 nalidixic acid-resistant aeromonas isolates studied (26 identified as aeromonas veronii bv sobria and 15 identified as a. caviae) showed ciprofloxacin resistance. the identi ...201019863591
a type vi secretion system effector protein, vgrg1, from aeromonas hydrophila that induces host cell toxicity by adp ribosylation of actin.we recently delineated the importance of a type vi secretion system (t6ss) gene cluster in the virulence of diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila and showed that vash, a sigma(54) activator and t6ss component, was involved in the production of its associated effectors, e.g., hemolysin-coregulated protein. to identify additional t6ss effectors and/or secreted proteins, we subjected culture supernatants from deletion mutants of a. hydrophila, namely, a delta act mutant (a t2ss-associated c ...201019880608
characterization of polysaccharides using mass spectrometry for bacterial serotyping.mass spectrometry provides a rapid and reliable method for characterization of bacterial polysaccharides. application of the in-source fragmentation technique to promote the formation of structurally relevant repeating units of heterogeneous capsular polysaccharides and o-chain polysaccharides has proven to be particularly useful for detection of non-carbohydrate functionalities and subtle differences arising across bacterial serotypes. here we discuss application of these methods to the direct ...201019882133
homology modelling of a sensor histidine kinase from aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in extra-intestinal infection and diarrhoea in humans. targetting unique effectors of bacterial pathogens is considered a powerful strategy for drug design against bacterial variations to drug resistance. the two-component bacterial system involving sensor histidine kinase (shk) and its response regulators is considered a lucrative target for drug design. this is the first report describing a three-dimensional (3d) structure for shk of a. hydrophila. the ...201019882182
simultaneous differential detection of human pathogenic and nonpathogenic vibrio species using a multiplex pcr based on gyrb and pnta genes.to develop a multiplex pcr targeting the gyrb and pnta genes for vibrio species differentiation.201019891709
growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.this paper reports the effects of changing ph (5-7) and temperature (t, 40-60 degrees c) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (som) in wastewater from food waste recycling (fwr) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at ph 5.7 and t = 44.5 degrees c. changes in short-chain volatile organic acid profiles and in acidogenic ...201019894044
genetic insertions and diversification of the polb-type dna polymerase (gp43) of t4-related phages.in escherichia coli phage t4 and many of its phylogenetic relatives, gene 43 consists of a single cistron that encodes a polb family (polb-type) dna polymerase. we describe the divergence of this phage gene and its protein product (gp43) (gene product 43) among 26 phylogenetic relatives of t4 and discuss our observations in the context of diversity among the widely distributed polb enzymes in nature. in two t4 relatives that grow in aeromonas salmonicida phages 44rr and 25, gene 43 is fragmented ...201019896487
mechanisms of quinolone resistance in aeromonas species isolated from humans, water and eels.mechanisms of resistance were determined in 33 quinolone-resistant isolates of the species aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, aeromonas media, aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas popoffii and aeromonas veronii, recovered from humans, freshwater and eels. the quinolone resistance-determining regions (qrdrs) of gyra and parc genes were sequenced in these resistant strains, as well as in 8 quinolone-sensitive aeromonas used as controls. all quinolone-resistant aeromonas carried point mutations in ...201019900538
analysis of the vaccine potential of a laboratory escherichia coli strain in a japanese flounder model.escherichia coli dh5alpha is a genetically tailored laboratory strain that is commonly used for general cloning. in this study, the vaccine potential of dh5alpha was investigated. it was found that when used as a live vaccine, dh5alpha could afford effective protection upon japanese flounder against aeromonas hydrophila infection. vaccination with purified outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides of dh5alpha failed to induce protective immunity against a. hydrophila. specific antibody pro ...201019900558
antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (cyprinus carpio).the aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. the isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. in all isolates, pcr was used to detect the presence of tet(a-e) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. from the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to o ...201019900770
cellular components of probiotics control yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).subcellular components of the probiotics aeromonas sobria gc2 and bacillus subtilis jb-1, when administered to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, conferred protection against a new biogroup of yersinia ruckeri. thus, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection of rainbow trout with cell wall proteins (cwps), outer membrane proteins (omps), lipopolysaccharides (lps), whole cell proteins (wcps) and live cells followed by challenge on day 8 with y. ruckeri led to 80-100% survival compared with 10% ...201019912460
gene cloning, characterization, and heterologous expression of levansucrase from bacillus amyloliquefaciens.although levan produced by bacillus amyloliquefaciens is known to have efficient immunostimulant property which gives 100% survival of common carp when infected with aeromonas hydrophila, no detailed reports are available describing kinetic studies of d: -glucose production and levan formation. in this study, we cloned and characterized the enzymatic kinetics using levansucrase expressed in escherichia coli. optimum ph for d: -glucose production and levan formation was 6.0 and 8.0, respectively, ...201019916084
parenteral immunization of fish, labeo rohita with poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) encapsulated antigen microparticles promotes innate and adaptive immune responses.immunogenicity of different antigen preparations of outer membrane proteins (omp) of aeromonas hydrophila such as poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) microparticles, oil emulsion, neat omp and bacterial whole cells were compared through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, labeo rohita. among these preparations, plga encapsulated antigen stimulated both innate and adaptive immune parameters and the immunogenicity exhibited by plga microparticles was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at both 2 ...201019922799
characterization and expression analyses of anti-apoptotic bcl-2-like genes nr-13, mcl-1, bcl-x1, and bcl-x2 in atlantic cod (gadus morhua).nr-13, mcl-1, and bcl-x(l), are conserved anti-apoptotic proteins that belong to the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 sub-family, which inhibits cell death by preventing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (mmp). given the anti-apoptotic functions of these proteins in vertebrates (e.g. human, mouse, and zebrafish) and the involvement of apoptotic regulation in immune responses, we studied the sequences of these genes and their transcript expression in atlantic cod (gadus morhua) during innate immune res ...201019923001
multiplex pcr method for detection of three aeromonas enterotoxin genes.a novel multiplex pcr method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in aeromonas spp. this assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. a total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. the alt gene was detected with 34 reference st ...201019933350
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