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isolation and partial characterization of a virulent bacteriophage ihq1 specific for aeromonas punctata from stream water.aeromonas punctata is the causative agent of septicemia, diarrhea, wound infections, meningitis, peritonitis, and infections of the joints, bones and eyes. bacteriophages are often considered alternative agents for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. in this study, we described the isolation and preliminary characterization of bacteriophage ihq1 (family myoviridae) active against the gram-negative bacterial strain a. punctata. this virulent bacteriophage was isolated from stream w ...201121947462
incidence and etiology of omphalitis in pakistan: a community-based cohort study.although omphalitis (umbilical infections) among newborns is common and a major cause of neonatal deaths in developing countries, information on its burden and etiology from community settings is lacking. this study aimed to determine the incidence and etiology of omphalitis in newborns in high neonatal mortality settings in karachi, pakistan.201122169780
parasitism by protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish.protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich) and bacterium aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish, which cause high fish mortality. currently there is no information available for the effect of parasitism by ich on survival of channel catfish and invasion of a. hydrophila in fish tissues following exposure to a. hydrophila. a trial was conducted in this study to: (1) determine whether a. hydrophila increased fish mortality in ich-parasitized channel catfish; and ( ...201122033433
development of an antibody elisa for potency testing of furunculosis (aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida) vaccines in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l).the study was conducted in atlantic salmon to establish the initial and basic scientific documentation for an alternative batch potency test for salmon furuculosis vaccines. we assessed the antibody response development for aeromonas salmonicida vaccines at different immunisation temperatures (3, 12 and 18 °c), by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post vaccination, and the correlation between antibody response and protection in cohabitation challenge experiments p ...201122000732
antigen adsorbed calcium phosphate nanoparticles stimulate both innate and adaptive immune response in fish, labeo rohita h.calcium phosphate nanoparticles as an antigen/protein delivery was explored in a fish model labeo rohita h. s-layer protein (of aeromonas hydrophila) adsorbed on nano sized calcium phosphate particles elicited both innate and adaptive immune parameters which persisted up to 63 days of post immunization through parenteral immunization and gave cross protections.201121889128
Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then charact ...201122071643
complete genomic sequence of a t4-like bacteriophage, phias4, infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.a newly identified virulent phage (named phias4) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated from river water in korea. morphological analysis of phias4 by transmission electron microscopy revealed that it belonged to the family myoviridae. the genome of phias4 comprised a linear double-stranded dna of 163,875 bp with a g + c content of 41.3%, and genomic analysis revealed 271 putative orfs, 67 putative promoters, 25 putative terminator regions, and 16 trna-encoding genes. mo ...201122116495
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas from pigs slaughtered for consumption in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal.in the present study, 710 isolates of aeromonas spp. have been collected from pig carcasses, diaphragm muscle, faeces, dehairing equipment and water in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal. the isolates were obtained from a total of 154 samples. all presumptive aeromonas isolates were subjected to eric-pcr analysis and those which presented a different pattern were taken and the species classified by gyrb gene sequencing. we have found the species a. hydrophila, a. salmonicida, a. bestiarum, ...201121402427
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
purification and characterization of enterocin mc13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont enterococcus faecium mc13 isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus.a bacteriocin producer strain mc13 was isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as enterococcus faecium. the bacteriocin of e. faecium mc13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (maldi-tof) mass spectro ...201122112158
Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a potential environmental vector for the transmission of food-borne and opportunistic pathogens.The endosymbiotic relationship could represent for many bacteria an important condition favouring their spread in the environment and in foods. For this purpose we studied the behaviour of some food-borne and opportunistic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica) when internalized in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Our results confirm the capability of the bacteria tested to gr ...201121953544
development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and nile tilapia.three attenuated aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 west alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. when channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) were ip injected with 4×105 colony-forming unit (cfu) of the mutants, no fish died. however, when the same age and size matched channel catfish were ip injected with similar amount of their virulent parents, 80-100% fish died. similarly, when nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) we ...201121872628
Effective cohorting and "superisolation" in a single intensive care unit in response to an outbreak of diverse multi-drug-resistant organisms.Cohorting patients in dedicated hospital wards or wings during infection outbreaks reduces transmission of organisms, yet frequently, this may not be feasible because of inadequate capacity, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that cohorting isolation patients in one geographic location in a single ICU and using enhanced isolation procedures ("superisolation") can prevent the further spread of highly multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO).201121936667
preparation and evaluation of oleoyl-carboxymethy-chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles as oral protein carriers.oleoyl-carboxymethy chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles based on chitosan with different molecular weights (50, 170 and 820 kda) were prepared by self-assembled method. the nanoparticles had spherical shape, positive surface charges and the mean diameters were 157.4, 274.1 and 396.7 nm, respectively. fitc-labeled ocmcs nanoparticles were internalized via the intestinal mucosa and observed in liver, spleen, intestine and heart following oral deliverance to carps (cyprinus carpio). extracellular produc ...201122139537
Occurrence of enterotoxigenic Aeromonas species in foods of animal origin in North East India.The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify Aeromonas (A.) species and assess their toxin producing ability in foods of animal origin from North East India.201121845798
Bacteriophages with potential for inactivation of fish pathogenic bacteria: survival, host specificity and effect on bacterial community structure.Phage therapy may represent a viable alternative to antibiotics to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. Its use, however, requires the awareness of novel kinetics phenomena not applied to conventional drug treatments. The main objective of this work was to isolate bacteriophages with potential to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria, without major effects on the structure of natural bacterial communities of aquaculture waters. The survival was determined in marine water, through quantification by ...201122163184
Over-expression, purification and immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 flagellar proteins.Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and causes many diseases in fish as well as human. Recent outbreaks of aeromonad diseases in channel catfish prompted us to investigate catfish immune responses during infection of A. hydrophila. In this communication, we report to amplify, over-express, purify and characterize 19 A. hydrophila flagellar proteins. All recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of expression plasmids, SDS-PAGE analysis and His ...201121963857
Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdomin ...201122204074
Clinical characteristics of seven patients with Aeromonas septicemia in a Japanese hospital.The genus Aeromonas comprises flagellated gram-negative rods widely distributed in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Aeromonas species may cause a variety of illnesses in humans, such as enterocolitis and septicemia, especially in warmer tropical or subtropical environments. To recognize the characteristics of Aeromonas septicemia in Japan, we reviewed laboratory data and medical records in our hospital. During 11 years (from 2000 to 2010), Aeromonas septicemia was observed in seven ...201121892001
Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic bac ...201122196148
the effect of metals on condition and pathologies of european eel (anguilla anguilla): in situ and laboratory experiments.forty-nine wild eels (anguilla anguilla) caught in the albufera lake (spain), measuring 24.0-75.0cm in length and 25.0-637.7g in weight, were examined for metals (cd, co, cr, cu, fe, hg, mn, pb, se and zn), condition (ci and hsi indices), as well as for diseases (anguillicola infestation; bacterial infections). total metal load significantly increased in eel liver tissue parallel to total length and body weight (log), while silvering females (w(b)>200g; l≥500mm) exhibited the highest amounts of ...201122030412
occurrence of aeromonas spp. in a random sample of drinking water distribution systems in the usa.aeromonads are aquatic bacteria found in drinking water supplies worldwide. some species, such as aeromonas hydrophila, can cause disease in humans. for this survey, 293 united states public water systems were selected using random sampling, stratified by water source and system type. water samples were collected during one year from three sites (six samples per site) in each system. temperature, ph, turbidity, total and free chlorine were measured using standard methods. aeromonads were detecte ...201122048437
immunomodulatory and protective roles of quorum sensing signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones during infection of mice with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila leads to both intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in animals and humans, and the underlying mechanisms leading to mortality are largely unknown. by using a septicemic mouse model of infection, we showed that animals challenged with a. hydrophila die because of kidney and liver damage, hypoglycemia, and thrombocytopenia. pretreatment of animals with quorum sensing-associated signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones (ahls), such as butanoyl and hexanoyl homoserine ...201121536794
iron-regulated lysis of recombinant escherichia coli in host to release protective antigen and confer biological containment.recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce immune response to a carried protective antigen. the superiorities of live bacterial vectors include mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and the potential for administration by mucosal routes. escherichia coli is a simple and efficient vector system for production of exogenous proteins. in addition, many strains are nonpathogenic and avirulent making it a good candidate for use in recom ...201121536797
involvement of peroxinectin in the defence of red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii against pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.cell adhesion factors are important immune components for invertebrate to immobilize, phagocytose or encapsulate invasive microorganisms and foreign particles. in this study, a new cell adhesion factor, peroxinectin (refered as pcpxin) was isolated from hemocytes of red swamp crayfish (procambarus clarkii). the full-length cdna of pcpxin was 3014 bp encoding a protein of 819 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 89.0 kda and a calculational isoelectric point of 6.93. the putat ...201121539922
osteomyelitis associated to ctx-m-15-producing aeromonas hydrophila: first description in the literature. 201121546197
identification and epidemiological relationships of aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.a collection of aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (león, nw of spain) was characterized by (gtg)(5)-pcr fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis and gyrb gene sequence analysis. the isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). the distribution of aeromonas species varied with the strain source. aeromonas caviae hg4 and ...201121550680
complete genome sequence of aeromonas veronii strain b565.aeromonas veronii strain b565 was isolated from aquaculture pond sediment in china. we present here the complete genome sequence of b565 and compare it with 2 published genome sequences of pathogenic strains in aeromonas genus. the result represents an independent step-wise acquisition of virulence factors of pathogenic strains in this genus.201121551296
isolation and characterization of virulent aeromonas veronii from ascitic fluid of oscar astronotus ocellatus showing signs of infectious dropsy.the cichlid oscar astronotus ocellatus has worldwide commercial value in the pet fish industry because of its early maturation, relatively high fecundity, ability to identify its caretaker and also to alter colouration amongst conspecifics. pathogenic strains of aeromonas veronii resistant to multiple antibiotics were isolated from a. ocellatus individuals showing signs of infectious abdominal dropsy. the moribund fish showed haemorrhage in all internal organs, and pure cultures could be obtaine ...201121553566
crystal structure of the heteromolecular chaperone, asce-ascg, from the type iii secretion system in aeromonas hydrophila.the putative needle complex subunit ascf forms a ternary complex with the chaperones asce and ascg in the type iii secretion system of aeromonas hydrophila so as to avoid premature assembly. previously, we demonstrated that the c-terminal region of ascg (residues 62-116) in the hetero-molecular chaperone, asce-ascg, is disordered and susceptible to limited protease digestion.201121559439
identification of unique dna sequences present in highly virulent 2009 alabama isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.in 2009, a disease outbreak caused by aeromonas hydrophila occurred in 48 catfish farms in west alabama, causing an estimated loss of more than 3 million pounds of food size channel catfish. virulence studies have revealed that the 2009 isolates of a. hydrophila are at least 200-fold more virulent than a 1998 alabama isolate al98-c1b. however, up to now, no molecular markers have been identified to differentiate the highly virulent 2009 isolates from other isolates of a. hydrophila. to understan ...201121561726
aeromonas aquariorum is widely distributed in clinical and environmental specimens and can be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila.genotypic characterization of 215 aeromonas strains (143 clinical, 52 environmental, and 20 reference strains) showed that aeromonas aquariorum (60 strains, 30.4%) was the most frequently isolated species in clinical and water samples and could be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila by phenotypic methods.201121697316
a novel amino-benzosuberone derivative is a picomolar inhibitor of mammalian aminopeptidase n/cd13.a new class of low molecular weight, highly potent and selective non peptidic inhibitors of aminopeptidase n (apn/cd13) is described. we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of racemic substituted analogues of 7-amino-benzocyclohepten-6-one 1a. we investigated various substitutions on the aromatic ring with phenyl and halogen groups. in vitro kinetic studies revealed that these compounds are among the most effective apn/cd13 inhibitors found so far. hydrophobic substituents placed at pos ...201121843945
extending the aerolysin family: from bacteria to vertebrates.a number of bacterial virulence factors have been observed to adopt structures similar to that of aerolysin, the principal toxin of aeromonas species. however, a comprehensive description of architecture and structure of the aerolysin-like superfamily has not been determined. in this study, we define a more compact aerolysin-like domain--or aerolysin fold--and show that this domain is far more widely spread than anticipated since it can be found throughout kingdoms. the aerolysin-fold could be f ...201121687664
[role of aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the volga-caspian area].the paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the volga and caspian sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (acipenseridae), pike perch (stizostedion), carp (cyprinus carpio), silurus (silurus glanis), etc.). it provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. the findings suggest that aeromonas is a causative agent of ...201121842729
metabolic engineering of aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 for production of copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoate.a mutant termed aeromonas hydrophila aklf was constructed by deleting acetic acid pathway related genes pta and acka in a. hydrophila 4ak4. accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) in a. hydrophila aklf was increased by 47% from 2.11 to 3.10g/l associated with a reduction on acetic acid formation compared with a. hydrophila 4ak4 when lauric acid was used as carbon resource. a. hydrophila aklf harboring pvgab encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin, +¦-ketothiolase and acet ...201121680176
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp, cyprinus carpio l., by oral administration of a mixed microbial culture of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae.a microbial culture was prepared by co-cultivation of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae for 48 hr at 30 c in rice bran extract medium, supplemented with dextrose. oral administration of the resulting non-viable heat-inactivated microbial culture to common carp, cyprinus carpio l., delivered in feed for four weeks, induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection which causes "ulcer disease". after challenge of t ...201121685718
independent predictors of mortality for necrotizing fasciitis: a retrospective analysis in a single institution.necrotizing fasciitis (nf), a life-threatening soft tissue infection, requires early diagnosis, prompt and repeated surgical intervention, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. the aim of this study was to identify the independent predictors of mortality among patients with nf in taiwan.201121825948
[Phenotypic characteristics and virulence factors in Aeromonas strains isolated from patients with diarrheic disease in Cuba].Fifty four strains of Aeromonas spp were isolated from patients with acute diarrheic episodes by using Aerokey II and Aeroesquema methods. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors were analyzed. The most frequently isolated specie was Aeromonas caviae. Over 75% of strains exhibited resistance to penicillins and ce-phalosporins; for the other antibiotic groups resistance was under 20%. Twenty six strains (48.1 %) were multiresist-ant. At least one virulence factor among those e ...201121720696
silent spread of imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa belonging to sequence type 621 in belgium. 201121693463
a putative g protein-coupled receptor involved in innate immune defense of procambarus clarkii against bacterial infection.the immune functions of g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) were widely investigated in mammals. however, limited researches on immune function of gpcrs were reported in invertebrates. in the present study, the immune functions of hp1r gene, a putative gpcr identified from red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii were reported. expression of hp1r gene was significant up-regulated in response to heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila challenge. hp1r gene silencing mediated by rna interference significantly ...201121964155
leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila. 201121339408
evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological w ...201121344093
cloning and characterization of timp-2b gene in grass carp.tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (timps) are the primary inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) in tissues. in this study, a timp-2 gene was isolated from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella (citimp-2b) and characterized. this cdna sequence encoded a signal peptide, n- and c-terminal domains. citimp-2b is highly homologous to the orthologous in zebrafish and other teleosts, suggesting timp-2b is highly conserved during teleost evolution. citimp-2b gene is expressed in a wide range ...201121377537
structural characterization of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of the fish pathogen aeromonas bestiarum strain p1s.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum p1s was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined using (1)h,(1)h noesy and (1)h,(13)c hmbc experiments. the o-specific polysaccharide was found to be a high-molecular-mass polysaccharide composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the structure [formula in text]. since small amounts of a term ...201121377659
common key acidogen populations in anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters: molecular identification and quantitative monitoring.bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) and real-time pcr techniques. the dgge results showed that bacterial populations related to aeromonas spp. and clostridium sticklandii emerged as common and prominent acidogens in all reactors. two real-time pcr prim ...201121377710
regulation of type vi secretion gene clusters by sigma54 and cognate enhancer binding proteins.type vi secretion systems (t6ss) are bacteriophage-derived macromolecular machines responsible for the release of at least two proteins in the milieu, which are thought to form an extracellular appendage. although several t6ss have been shown to be involved in the virulence of animal and plant pathogens, clusters encoding these machines are found in the genomes of most species of gram-negative bacteria, including soil, marine, and environmental isolates. t6ss have been associated with several ph ...201121378190
involvement of the gspab complex in assembly of the type ii secretion system secretin of aeromonas and vibrio species.the type ii secretion system (t2ss) functions as a transport mechanism to translocate proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular environment. the exea homologue in aeromonas hydrophila, gspa(ah), is an atpase that interacts with peptidoglycan and forms an inner membrane complex with the exeb homologue (gspb(ah)). the complex may be required to generate space in the peptidoglycan mesh that is necessary for the transport and assembly of the megadalton-sized exed homologue (gspd(ah)) secretin ...201121378198
dietary administration of bacillus thuringiensis on the cellular innate immune response of african catfish (clarias gariepinus) against aeromonas hydrophila.an experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) as a probiotic to enhance the cellular innate immune response of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus) challenged with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila.201121381499
painful purple plaques on the thighs of an immunosuppressed patient. 201121418277
application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. a successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. after an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. the performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of cod rates up to 95%. the residual tota ...201121419572
immunomodulatory effects of secondary metabolites from thermophilic anoxybacillus kamchatkensis xa-1 on carp, cyprinus carpio.a bacterial strain with putative immunomodulatory properties was isolated from xi'an hot springs in china. comparison of 16s rrna gene revealed a 97% similarity between the tested strain (designated xa-1) and anoxybacillus kamchatkensis. two compounds isolated from the secondary metabolites of xa-1 were identified by spectral data (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry) as: (1) cyclo (gly-l-pro) and (2) cyclo (l-ala-4-hydroxyl-l-pro). two cyclic dipeptides showed stimulatory ...201121421057
effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.we analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. fifty-seven bacterial 16s rdna clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) analysis. entomoplasma somnilux and bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included aeromonas, bacillus, clostr ...201121421302
occurrence, abundance and elimination of class 1 integrons in one municipal sewage treatment plant.integrons are elements that encode a site-specific recombination system that recognizes and captures mobile gene cassettes and are closely related to multiple resistances of environmental microorganisms. this study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of an activated sludge process to remove integrons. the prevalence and characteristics of class 1 integrons were investigated for bacterial species isolated from the activated sludge of nanjing jiangxinzhou sewage treatment plant (stp, china) ...201121431316
aeromonas spp. induce apoptosis of epithelial cells through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.we investigated interactions of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from faecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis, with ht29 intestinal epithelial cells. all strains were found to be cytotoxic to the cells. bacterial infection caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and nitric oxide radical (no(-à)). the maximal levels of ros and no(-à) were 14 and 35 times, respectively, greater in cells infected with aeromonas spp. tha ...201121436367
directed culturing of microorganisms using metatranscriptomics.the vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, metabolic capabilities, and role in the environment. high-throughput sequencing of rna transcripts (rna-seq) allows the investigation of the diverse physiologies from uncultured microorganisms in their natural habitat. here, we report the use of rna-seq for characterizing the metatranscriptome of the simple gut microbiome from the medicinal leech hirudo verbana and for utiliz ...201121467263
distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.we report on the mrna levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. the mrna levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida a449 or trypanosoma carassii. spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expressi ...201121474183
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.new gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were isolated from poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. the six gram-positive strains belong to bacillus, lysinibacillus and rhodococcus genera. the eight gram-negative strains belong to shewanella, aeromonas, pseudomonas and klebsiella genera. isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, e ...201121478643
k+ efflux, is required for histone-h3 dephosphorylation by listeria llo and other pore forming toxins.chromatin modification triggered by bacteria is a newly described mechanism by which pathogens impact host transcription. listeria monocytogenes dephosphorylates histone h3 through the action of listeriolysin o (llo), however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. here we show that an unrelated pore forming toxin, aeromonas aerolysin also provokes h3 dephosphorylation. as reported for aerolysin, we show that llo, and related toxins induce a pore-dependent k(+) efflux, and that this efflux is the ...201121482680
diversity of culturable chitinolytic bacteria from rhizospheres of agronomic plants in japan.a total of 100 isolates of chitinolytic bacteria were obtained from the rhizospheres of various agronomic plants, and the 16s rrna gene sequences of these isolates were determined. phylogenetic analyses revealed that 81 isolates belonged to the classes betaproteobacteria (39 isolates) and gammaproteobacteria (42 isolates). of the remaining 19 isolates, 16 belonged to the phylum firmicutes. clustering analysis identified 6 and 3 operational taxonomic units (otus) in gammaproteobacteria and betapr ...201121487197
structural modification of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their antibacterial activity.in this study, five derivatives of sanguinarine (1) and chelerythrine (2) were prepared, with 1 and 2 as starting materials, by reduction, oxidation and nucleophilic addition to the iminium bond c=n(+). the structures of all compounds were elucidated on account of their ms, (1)h-nmr and (13)c-nmr data. the antibacterial activities of all compounds were screened, using staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, aeromonas hydrophila and pasteurella multocida as test bacteria. the minimum bacteriosta ...201121491327
microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
in silico analysis of 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing based methods for identification of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria.the study is the first one that provides guidelines on the usefulness of full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing and microseq databases for identifying medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria. overall, full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing can identify 26.1% and 32.6% of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria confidently to the species level, whereas the full-microseq and 500-microseq databases can identify 15.2% and 26.1% of medically important aerobic gram-negative b ...201121498652
an in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish.aims:  to develop an in vitro screening method to be used for identifying potential effective chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infections. methods and results:  using catfish gill cells g1b and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and d-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. in vitro screening results revealed that, at concentration of 1 ...201121501349
pyrosequencing demonstrated complex microbial communities in a membrane filtration system for a drinking water treatment plant.microbial community composition in a pilot-scale microfiltration plant for drinking water treatment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology. sequences of 16s rrna gene fragments were recovered from raw water, membrane tank particulate matter, and membrane biofilm, and used for taxonomic assignments, estimations of diversity, and the identification of potential pathogens. greater bacterial diversity was observed in each sample (1,133-1,731 operational taxonomic units) tha ...201121502735
gene expression profiles of the spleen, liver, and head kidney in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) along the infection process with aeromonas salmonicida using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.we evaluated the expression profiles of turbot in the spleen, liver, and head kidney across five temporal points of the aeromonas salmonicida infection process using an 8 × 15 k agilent oligo-microarray. the microarray included 2,176 different fivefold replicated gene probes designed from a turbot 3' sequenced est database. we were able to identify 471 differentially expressed (de) genes (17.3% of the whole microarray), 223 in the spleen, 246 in the liver, and 125 in the head kidney, in at least ...201121503602
[effect of heavy metal salts on the growth and pathogenicity factors of opportunistic bacteria].the paper presents experimental data on the effect of different concentrations of the salts of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the adaptive potentialities of the most common opportunistic microflora in the volga-caspian region. the findings suggest that natural microorganisms (aeromonas and citrobacter) show a high metal resistance that seems to be associated with steadily increased background levels of these metals in the waters of the volga-caspian basin.201121510046
aeromonas pneumonia in a trauma patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome: case report and literature review.abstract background: aeromonas species, particularly aeromonas hydrophila, cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human being such as gastroenteritis; soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis, meningitis, peritonitis, and bacteremia; but pneumonia and respiratory tract infections are uncommon. methods: case report and literature review. results: a 30-year-old victim of a motor vehicle crash sustained pelvic fractures and splenic injury. delayed splenic rupture caused sudden cardiores ...201121510774
molecular basis of toxicity of clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.clostridium perfringensε-toxin is produced by toxinotypes b and d strains. the toxin is the aetiological agent of dysentery in newborn lambs but is also associated with enteritis and enterotoxaemia in goats, calves and foals. it is considered to be a potential biowarfare or bioterrorism agent by the us government centers for disease control and prevention. the relatively inactive 32.9 kda prototoxin is converted to active mature toxin by proteolytic cleavage, either by digestive proteases of the ...201121518257
phenotypic characteristics of human clinical and environmental aeromonas in western australia.: to determine the phenotypic characteristics of 199 aeromonas strains comprising 146 clinical and 53 environmental isolates.201121519288
medicinal leeches and the microsurgeon: a four-year study, clinical series and risk benefit review.background: there are case reports and small series in the literature relating to the use of medicinal leeches by plastic surgeons; however, larger series from individual units are rare. the aim of this article is to present a comprehensive 4-year case series of the use of medicinal leeches, discuss the current evidence regarding indications, risks, and benefits and highlight the recent updates regarding leech speciation. methods: patients prescribed leeches in a 4-year period (july 2004-2008) w ...201121520265
production and properties of keratinolytic proteases from three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils.the keratinolytic potential and protease properties of three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils was described. aeromonas hydrophila k12, chryseobacterium indologenes a22 and serratia marcescens p3 were able to degrade feather meal, producing high amounts of soluble proteins and forming thiol groups. the proteases of strains k12, a22 and p3 had optimal ph of 8.0, 7.5 and 6.0, respectively; this last is an uncommon feature for bacterial keratinases. the op ...201121526391
phosvitin plays a critical role in the immunity of zebrafish embryos via acting as a pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector.how fish embryos that develop externally survive microbial attacks is poorly understood. here we clearly demonstrated that the embryo extract of zebrafish and its early embryo both displayed antimicrobial activity against microbes including pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, and phosvitn (pv), a nutritional protein abundant in eggs, was related to this antimicrobial activity. we also showed that recombinant pv (rpv) acted as a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing the microbial signa ...201121531722
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and structure modeling of ompr, the response regulator of aeromonas hydrophila.the ability of bacteria to survive and proliferate in changing environmental conditions, and during host cell invasion is the key to their pathogenicity. in order to achieve this, the bacteria use a signal transduction system, the two component regulatory system, which consists of a sensor kinase and a response regulator. the envz/ompr system regulates the porin genes ompf/ompc in response to changes in osmolarity. in the present study, the ompr gene of aeromonas hydrophila (isolate ah17) was cl ...201121533905
high catalytic efficiency and resistance to denaturing in bacterial rho gtpase-activating proteins.abstract several major bacterial pathogens use the type iii secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. bacterial rho gtpase activating proteins (rhogaps) comprise a remarkable family of type iii secreted toxins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics and manipulate cellular signaling pathways. we show that the rhogap activity of salmonella sptp and pseudomonas exos toxins is resistant to variations in the concentration of nacl or mgcl(2), unlike the known salt dependant na ...201121534865
genome-level homology and phylogeny of shewanella (gammaproteobacteria: lteromonadales: shewanellaceae).abstract:201121569439
comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar cm1046 and mfc agar for detection of e. coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from water samples.aims:  the equivalence of oxoid (cm 1046) brilliance((tm)) e. coli/coliform selective agar to mfc agar, as used in the australian/new zealand standard method to detect thermotolerant coliforms and escherichia coli in water samples, was assessed. methods and results:  a total of 244 water samples were analysed in parallel over a 5-month period. sewage effluent samples (n = 131, sites = 43), freshwater (n = 62, sites = 18) and marine/brackish water samples (n = 51, sites = 23) were analysed. the w ...201121585405
application of polyhydroxyalkanoate binding protein phap as a bio-surfactant.phap or phasin is an amphiphilic protein located on surfaces of microbial storage polyhydroxyalkanoates granules. this study aimed to explore amphiphilic properties of phap for possible application as a protein surfactant. following agents were used to conduct this study as controls including bovine serum albumin, sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), tween 20, sodium oleate, a commercial liquefied detergent together with the same amount of phap. among all these tested control surfactants, phap showed t ...201121590291
occurrence of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus in the german bight over a seasonal cycle.bacteria of the genus vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. the genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in asia and the usa. pathogenic v. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of v. parahaemolyticus especially in northern european waters. this study focuses on v. parahaemolyticus and its close relati ...201121598011
two novel ficolin-like proteins act as pattern recognition receptors for invading pathogens in the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus.to isolate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps)-binding molecules, the bacterium, staphylococcus aureus was used as an affinity matrix to find bacteria-binding proteins in the plasma of the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus. two new bacteria-binding ficolin-like proteins (flps) were identified by 2-de and ms analysis. the flps have a fibrinogen-related domain (fred) in their c-terminal and a repeat region in their n-terminal regions with putative structural similarities to ...201121598394
alteration of virulence factors and rearrangement of pasa5 plasmid caused by the growth of aeromonas salmonicida in stressful conditions.aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, is the causative agent of furunculosis. it was already shown that growing this bacterium in stressful conditions such as temperature above 22°c might lead to virulence attenuation. unfortunately, many veterinary microbiology services and reference centers still routinely cultivate a. salmonicida at 25°c. here we tested the presence of virulence factors by growth on specific medium as well as the integrity of the pasa5 plasmid, which bears an important viru ...201121621930
gut cavp is an innate immune protein against bacterial challenge in amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri.the importance of calcium-binding proteins in immune response of vertebrates is determined, but whether they have the role in invertebrates is largely unknown. in the present study, phylogenetic analysis indicated that calcium vector protein (cavp), a protein unique to amphioxus, shared 68% similarity in amino acid sequence with human and mouse calmodulin (cam). cavp cdna was cloned into a bacterial vector pet-32a, and its his-tagged fusion protein was produced in eschherichia coli cells (bl21). ...201121624472
erratum: purification of a toxic cysteine protease produced by pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout.an extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila strain rt860715k originally isolated from diseased rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was purified by using fast protein liquid chromatography system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange columns. the toxin was a cysteine protease, inhibited by l-cysteine, iodoacetic acid, n-ethylamleimide, p-chloromercuibenzene-sulfonic acid and n-α-p-tosyl-1-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (tlck), and showed maximal activity at ...201121630504
enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in tripoli-libya.abstract. stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (n = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); salmonella, aden ...201121633024
post-traumatic skin and soft tissue infection due to aeromonas hydrophila.we report a case of posttraumatic skin and soft tissue infection in a patient who sustained laceration after being hit by a water tanker. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from pus and was identified to the species level by vitek 2 and a battery of biochemical tests. the patient responded to thorough drainage, debridement of wound and 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. the patient was taken up for split skin grafting of the raw area. she was discharged with satisfactory graft uptake after 1 wee ...201121633548
the influence of environmental bacteria in freshwater stingray wound-healing.invasion by bacteria can influence the course of healing of wounds acquired in aquatic environment. in this study, the bacteria present in potamotrygonmotoro stingray mucus and in the alto paraná river water were identified, and their ability to induce tissue injury and resist antibiotics was determined. biochemical identification analysis showed that 97% of all bacterial isolates were gram negative, aeromonas spp., enterobacter cloacae and citrobacter freundii being the species most prevalent. ...201121635911
pathophysiology of experimental aeromonas hydrophila infection in puntius sarana: early changes in blood and aspects of the innate immune-related gene expression in survivors.a decline in production of puntius sarana worldwide and subsequent intensification of its culture as a measure for conservation and increase food fish production have led to emergence of diseases. investigations on innate immunological changes in fish that survives an acute bacterial infection are a few or lacking. an attempt was made to study the detailed changes in innate immune responses in p. sarana following an intraperitoneal challenge with aeromonas hydrophila at 2.24×10(7)colony-forming ...201121640390
definition of microbial diversity in aeromonas strains based on multilocus sequence typing, phenotype and presence of putative genes of virulence.the genus aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment that represents their principal reservoir. aeromonas is commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. the primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. with the aim of clarifying ...201121642403
diversity of protease-producing marine bacteria from sub-antarctic environments.from seawater and the intestines of benthonic organisms collected from the beagle channel, argentina, 230 marine bacteria were isolated. cultivable bacteria were characterized and classified as psychrotolerant, whereas few isolates were psychrophiles. these isolates were capable of producing proteases at 4 and 15 °c under neutral (ph 7.0), alkaline (ph 10.0) and acidic (ph 4.5) conditions on different media, revealing 62, 33 and 22% producers at cold and 84, 47 and 33% producers at low temperatu ...201121656810
biocatalysed halogenation of nucleobase analogues.the synthesis of halogenated nucleosides and nucleobases is of interest due to their chemical and pharmacological applications. herein, the enzymatic halogenation of nucleobases and analogues catalysed by microorganisms and by chloroperoxidase from caldariomyces fumago has been studied. this latter enzyme catalysed the chlorination and bromination of indoline and uracil. pseudomonas, citrobacter, aeromonas, streptomyces, xanthomonas, and bacillus genera catalysed the chlorination and/or brominat ...201121660577
complete nucleotide sequence of a quinolone resistance gene (qnrs2) carrying plasmid of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.aeromonas hydrophila strain ao1 isolated from an infected fish was found to be resistant to several quinolones. a plasmid isolated from the strain ao1, termed pbrst7.6, was cloned and sequenced and shown to be 7621bp in length with a gc content of 60%. further analysis confirmed that it contained a gene with 100% identity to qnrs2 genes described in plasmids associated with other aeromonas species, the product of which usually confers increased resistance to quinolones. the plasmid backbone cont ...201121664930
molecular cloning, characterization and expression of a c-type lectin cdna in chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis.c-type lectins are pattern-recognition proteins which are functionally important for pathogen recognition and immune regulation in vertebrates and invertebrates. in this study, a lectin cdna named as es-lectin was cloned and characterized from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis. the full-length sequence of this es-lectin cdna was 651 bp, including an open reading frame of 483 bp encoding 160 amino acids. the predicted molecular weight of the es-lectin was 11.8 kda. a typical signal pept ...201121669290
antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern vietnam.the ubiquitous application and release of antibiotics to the environment can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which in turn can be a serious risk to humans and other animals. southeast asian countries commonly apply an integrated recycling farm system called vac (vegetable, aquaculture and caged animal). in the vac environment, antibiotics are released from animal and human origins, which would cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria (arb). this study evaluated occurrence of arb in the vac ...201121669325
aeromonas spp.-mediated cell-contact cytotoxicity is associated with the presence of type iii secretion system.in the study we examined the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of a type iii secretion system (ttss) in 64 aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fecal specimens of patients with gastroenteritis. we observed that contact of the bacteria with host epithelial cells is a prerequisite for their cytotoxicity at 3 h incubation. cell-contact cytotoxic activity of the strains was strongly associated with the presence of the ttss. culture supernatants of the strains induced low ...201121809027
bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by aeromonas hydrophila isolated from industrial effluent.economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. in this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in greece. the bacterial isolate was identified as aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a func ...201121808740
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health implications.ice used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
characterization of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (gcsfr) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. in this study we report on the cloning and molecular characterization of goldfish gcsfr. the identified goldfish gcsfr sequence possesses the conserved ig-like domain, the cytokine receptor homology domain (crh), three fibronectin domains as well a ...201121801744
biochemical and hematological reference intervals for krefft's turtles emydura macquarii krefftii from the burnett river catchment, australia.biochemical and hematological reference intervals have not previously been reported for emydura macquarii krefftii. in 2009, 56 e. m. krefftii were captured by hand from the burnett catchment, clinically assessed to determine health status and blood sampled. reference intervals were calculated from the 35 clinically healthy turtles using techniques established in other chelonid species. aberrant blood results were identified from the 21 clinically unhealthy turtles. low numbers of observed cases ...201121797034
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