Publications

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antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms.the aims of this study were: (i) to determine the proportions of aeromonas spp. resistant to florfenicol (fc), oxolinic acid (oa) and oxytetracycline (otc) along a river receiving effluents from fish farms, and (ii) to assess the relevance of using this bacterial group as an indicator for studying the consequences of the use and release of these aquacultural antimicrobials in the freshwater environment, as compared with performing antimicrobial measurements in sediments.200717381761
serum antibody response of indian major carp, labeo rohita to three species of pathogenic bacteria; aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens.the immune response to mixed whole cell antigens of aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens, the common gram negative bacterial pathogens associated with diseases of indian major carps were evaluated for their efficacy in triggering antibody responses in rohu, labeo rohita (ham.). the rohu yearlings were either immunized with antigens from single bacterial strain, a. hydrophila, e. tarda and p. fluorescens or a combination of all three. an antibody response was detec ...200717383016
contribution of ahyr to virulence of aeromonas hydrophila j-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a broad-host-range pathogen and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. a regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing has been found to be involved in the regulation of virulence in many bacteria. in a. hydrophila the ahyr gene encodes luxr-type response regulator. here we describe the inactivation of the ahyr gene of a. hydrophila j-1 by the insertion of a dna fragment containing a kanamycin resistance determinant and reintroduced by allelic exchange into the chromosome of ...200717383694
bacterial-binding activity and plasma concentration of ladderlectin in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).soluble, defense lectins bind conserved microbial patterns leading to pathogen opsonization, enhanced phagocytosis and activation of complement. these immune functions, however, vary widely among individuals due to genetic and acquired differences affecting binding capacity or plasma concentration. most evidence for the defensive function of soluble lectins is based on mammals, but several functionally homologous, but less well-characterized, lectins have been identified in fish. in this study, ...200717383895
immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles due to dietary gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch.a 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (g) and non-gelatinized (ng) starch on immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles. two hundred and thirty four juveniles (av. wt. 2.53+/-0.04) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. six semi-purified diets containing ng and g corn starch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100) were prepared viz., t(1) (100% ng, 0% g starch), t(2) (80% ng, 20% g starch), t(3) ( ...200717383896
[extraintestinal infection due to aeromonas spp.: review of 38 cases].aeromonas spp. typically cause gastroenteritis, but can occasionally produce extraintestinal infections. the aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of extraintestinal infections caused by aeromonas spp. in our area.200717386217
insertion of a homing endonuclease creates a genes-in-pieces ribonucleotide reductase that retains function.in bacterial and phage genomes, coding regions are sometimes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins, which can encode mobility-promoting homing endonucleases. homing endonuclease genes are also found free-standing (not intron- or intein-encoded) in phage genomes where they are inserted in intergenic regions. one example is the hnh family endonuclease, mobe, inserted between the large (nrda) and small (nrdb) subunit genes of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) of t-even phages t4, rb2 ...200717395719
induction of apoptosis in vero cells by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria vacuolating cytotoxic factor.recently, a cytotoxin named vacuolating cytotoxic factor (vcf) in aeromonas sobria and aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was described. we have now purified this factor using ion metallic affinity chromatography. the vcf is a nonhemolytic enterotoxin that acts as a serine protease. the toxin can be partially neutralized by serum antiaerolysin and it induced not only cytoplasmatic vacuole formation, but also mitochondrial disorders that must be signaling the apoptotic pathways, leading to vero (afr ...200717286562
gamma study of ph, nitrite, and salt inhibition of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis states that there are no interactions between antimicrobial environmental factors. the time to growth of aeromonas hydrophila challenged with ph, nano(2), and salt combinations at 30 degrees c was investigated. data were examined using a model based on the gamma hypothesis (the gamma model), which takes into account variance-stabilizing transformations and which gives biologically relevant parameters. at high concentrations of nano(2) and at phs of >6.0, the antimicrobial ac ...200717293519
construction of pha-operon-defined knockout mutants of pseudomonas putida kt2442 and their applications in poly(hydroxyalkanoate) production.pseudomonas putida kt2442 could accumulate medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (pha) consisting of 3-hydroxyhexanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate from a wide range of carbon sources. in this study, the pha synthase pha operon (phac1-phaz-phac2) was knocked out and the vgb gene encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin protein (vhb), which could enhance oxygen uptake rate especially at low oxygen concentration, was integrated into the p. putida kt2442 genome t ...200717295412
a stochastic modelling approach to describing the dynamics of an experimental furunculosis epidemic in chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).a susceptible-infected-removed (sir) stochastic model was compared to a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed (slir) stochastic model in terms of describing and capturing the variation observed in replicated experimental furunculosis epidemics, caused by aeromonas salmonicida. the epidemics had been created by releasing a single infectious fish into a group of susceptible fish (n = 43) and progress of the epidemic was observed for 10 days. this process was replicated in 70 independent groups. th ...200717298564
poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] formation in escherichia coli from glucose through an enoyl-coa hydratase-mediated pathway.in this study, a new metabolic pathway for the synthesis of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [p(3hb)] was constructed in a recombinant escherichia coli strain that utilized forward and reverse reactions catalyzed by two substrate-specific enoyl-coa hydratases, r-hydratase (phaj) and s-hydratase (fadb), to epimerize (s)-3hb-coa to (r)-3hb-coa via a crotonyl-coa intermediate. the r-hydratase gene (phaj(ac)) from aeromonas caviae was coexpressed with the pha synthase gene (phac(re)) and 3-ketothiolase g ...200717298899
evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.an enzyme immunoassay-based antigen test (ridascreen campylobacter; r-biopharm, darmstadt, germany) was evaluated for the detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in 1050 clinical stool samples as compared with culture on selective medium. after routine inoculation for salmonella, shigella, yersinia, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and campylobacter, the same swab specimens were used for the antigen test. the positivity rate for campylobacter was 9.3% in culture, and the antigen test gav ...200717300899
aeromonas hemolytic uremic syndrome. a case and a review of the literature.although rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome can be induced by aeromonas. we report a case in a 40-year-old spanish female produced by aeromonas veronii bv. sobria and review the previous cases described in the literature. this is the 2nd case described in adults.200717300902
microbial and sensory changes during refrigerated storage of desalted cod (gadus morhua) preserved by combined methods.water blanching and the use of additives (potassium sorbate and citric acid) combined with different types of packaging (air, vacuum "vp" and modified atmosphere packaging "map": 60% co(2), 30% n(2) and 10% o(2)), were studied as new methods of preservation of chilled desalted cod. microbial counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (tvb-n) analyses were carried out during a period of 42 days on all samples stored at 4 degrees c. no aeromonas or sulphite-reducing clostridium were isolated from an ...200717303277
competitive inhibitors of the cpha metallo-beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophila.various inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases have been reported; however, none are effective for all subgroups. those that have been found to inhibit the enzymes of subclass b2 (catalytically active with one zinc) either contain a thiol (and show less inhibition towards this subgroup than towards the dizinc members of b1 and b3) or are inactivators behaving as substrates for the dizinc family members. the present work reveals that certain pyridine carboxylates are competitive inhibitors of cpha ...200717307979
characterization of cytotoxin-producing aeromonas caviae (strain ht10) isolated from a sulfur spring in orissa, india.during a study of microbial diversity, a bacterial strain designated ht10, was isolated from sediment collected from an unexplored sulfur spring at athamallik, orissa, india. various biochemical tests and 16s rdna sequence analysis revealed that strain ht10 is aeromonas caviae. the growth temperature of this strain ranged from 12 to 43 degrees c and the optimum temperature was 30 degrees c. the strain ht10 showed cytotoxic and alpha-hemolytic activity. this is the first report on the isolation o ...200717309514
screening of genes involved in chitinase production in aeromonas caviae cb101 via transposon mutagenesis.to find genes involved in chitinase production in chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas caviae cb101.200717309612
quantitative detection of aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time pcr using self-quenched, fluorogenic primers.in this study a real-time pcr assay using self-quenched primers labelled with a single fluorophore for the detection of aeromonas salmonicida was developed. probe specificity was confirmed by amplification of 16 a. salmonicida strain templates and by the lack of a pcr product with 26 non-a. salmonicida strains. with a pure culture of a. salmonicida, the assay was linear over a range of 0.5 pg to 50 ng and was able to detect 16 c.f.u. per reaction. a similar sensitivity was observed in dna extrac ...200717314361
aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs.a polyphasic study was performed to determine the taxonomic position of two aeromonas strains, 665n and 868e(t), isolated from bivalve molluscs, that could not be identified at the species level in a previous numerical taxonomy study. the dna g+c content of these isolates was 62.3 and 62.6 mol%, respectively. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene showed that the two new strains were closely related to members of the genus aeromonas. fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprin ...200717329789
necrotizing soft-tissue infections and sepsis caused by vibrio vulnificus compared with those caused by aeromonas species.vibrio and aeromonas species, which can cause necrotizing fasciitis and primary septicemia, are members of the vibrionaceae family and thrive in aquatic environments. because the clinical symptoms and signs of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by these two bacteria are similar, the purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of vibrio vulnificus and aeromonas infections, to analyze the risk factors for death, and to compare the effects of surgical treatment on the ...200717332113
studies on synonymous codon and amino acid usages in aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1: architecture of protein-coding genes and therapeutic implications.codon and amino acid usage biases determined in numerous organisms have deciphered the architectures of their protein-coding genes to some extent. to understand the architecture of protein-coding genes of aeromonas phages, codon and amino acid usage biases have been investigated in the protein-coding genes of the aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1.200717332903
protective efficacy of recombinant ompts protein of aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp. 200717113689
novel role for aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the north american medicinal leech.the gut bacteria of the north american medicinal leech, macrobdella decora, were characterized. biochemical tests and dna sequences indicated that aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. in this work we identified a new habitat for a. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and aeromonas species.200717114316
histological changes in intestine of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains.furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. the foregut of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, carnobacterium divergens, at 6 x 10(4) or 6 x 10(6) viable bacteria per milliliter. histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and ...200717120052
a microbial diagnostic microarray technique for the sensitive detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in a background of nonpathogens.a major challenge in microbial diagnostics is the parallel detection and identification of low-bundance pathogens within a complex microbial community. in addition, a high specificity providing robust, reliable identification at least at the species level is required. a microbial diagnostic microarray approach, using single nucleotide extension labeling with gyrb as the marker gene, was developed. we present a novel concept applying competitive oligonucleotide probes to improve the specificity o ...200717123456
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives.several 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by reacting substituted 3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-1-thiocarbamoyl-2-pyrazolines with phenacyl bromides in ethanol. the structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, and eims spectral data. their antimicrobial activities against escherichia coli (nrrl b-3704), staphylococcus aureus (nrll b-767), salmonella typhimurium (nrrl b-4420), bacillus cereus (nrrl b-3711), streptococcus ...200717125888
probiotic properties of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.one strain of lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of lactobacillus reuteri and lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at ph 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. there was a large variation in the survival of the iso ...200717136367
identification of an antibacterial protein as l-amino acid oxidase in the skin mucus of rockfish sebastes schlegeli.fish skin mucus contains a variety of antimicrobial proteins and peptides that seem to play a role in self defense. we previously reported an antibacterial protein in the skin secretion of the rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, which showed selective antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. this study aimed to isolate and structurally and functionally characterize this protein. the antibacterial protein, termed ssap (s. schlegeli antibacterial protein), was purified to homogeneity by le ...200717140417
an investigation of the gamma hypothesis: a predictive modelling study of the effect of combined inhibitors (salt, ph and weak acids) on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis, that multiple inhibitory factors combine independently, is the underlying hypothesis for the quantification of the hurdle concept used in food manufacture. the literature, however, is confused as to whether interactive effects exist and under which circumstances they occur, if at all. using the method of time to detection (ttd), the inhibitory effect of ph, salt and specific weak acids (acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic) and combinations of these with respect to the gro ...200717140685
role of gne and gale in the virulence of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o34.the mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) strain shows two different udp-hexose epimerases in its genome: gale (ec 3.1.5.2) and gne (ec 3.1.5.7). similar homologues were detected in the different mesophilic aeromonas strains tested. gale shows only udp-galactose 4-epimerase activity, while gne is able to perform a dual activity (mainly udp-n-acetyl galactosamine 4-epimerase and also udp-galactose 4-epimerase). we studied the activities in vitro of both epimerases and also in vivo t ...200717098903
dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (cyprinus carpio) juveniles.a preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on cyprinus carpio juveniles. five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (t(1)) 0.1% levan, (t(2)) 0.2% levan, (t(3)) 0.5% levan, (t(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. the total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the t(3) group, ...200717158064
effect of mangifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in labeo rohita fingerlings.the study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of mangifera indica (mango) kernel on the immune response and disease resistance of labeo rohita fingerlings against the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila infections in. l. rohita fingerlings fed diet containing 0 (control), 1g, 5 g, 10 g mango kernel kg(-1) dry diet for 60 days. biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, blood glucose), haematological (wbc, rbc, haemoglobin content) and immunological (supe ...200717161956
antibacterial activity of plant extracts from brazilian southeast region.a screening was conducted with 26 plants collected in the brazilian southeast region, to identify plant extracts with antibacterial properties against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. initially, the agar diffusion method was employed. then, those extracts presenting activity were submitted to a broth microdilution assay to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc). it was observed th ...200717169500
new consensus guidelines from the clinical and laboratory standards institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous clsi publications. the organisms include aeromonas species, bacillus species, and vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include abiotrophia and granulicatella species; ...200717173232
characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. isolated from south african aquaculture systems.an increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. this can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. the plasmid content of each isolate was ex ...200717173998
emerging epidemic diseases of frogs in britain are dependent on the source of ranavirus agent and the route of exposure.a series of transmission studies was conducted to investigate the aetiology, or aetiologies, of emerging fatal epidemic disease syndromes affecting the common frog (rana temporaria) in britain. the syndromes, characterized by skin ulceration or systemic haemorrhages, were induced upon exposure to lesion homogenates or cultured ranavirus. the re-isolation of ranavirus from experimentally affected frogs fulfilled koch's postulates. aeromonas hydrophila, previously associated with similar lesions, ...200717181914
long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of clarias batrachus.the present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (hk) and ensuing humoral immune responses in clarias batrachus l. long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 microm) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in hk cell number eventually affecting the hk somatic index. prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed hk-b cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels ...200717182119
synthesis, spectral, catalytic and antimicrobial studies of pph3/asph3 complexes of ru(ii) with dibasic tridentate o, n, s donor ligands.complexes of the type [ru(co)(eph(3))(b)(l)] (e = p or as; b = pph(3), asph(3), py or pip; l=dianion of the schiff bases derived from thiosemicarbazone with acetoacetanilide, acetoacet-o-toluidide and o-chloro acetoacetanilide) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar amounts of [ruhcl(co)(eph(3))(2)(b)] and schiff bases in benzene. the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (ir, electronic, nmr) data. the arrangement of pph(3) groups around ruthenium metal ...200717182271
culturable and vbnc vibrio cholerae: interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population.vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. recently, it was found that chironomid (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible windborne carriers of v. cholerae non-o1 non-o139. chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. females deposit egg masses at the water's edge, and each egg mass contains eggs embedded in a gelatinous matrix. hemagglu ...200717186156
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water samples in istanbul, turkey.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the resistance patterns of aeromonas spp. in drinking water in istanbul, turkey. we investigated a total of 1,680 drinking water samples (840 tap water and 840 domestic water tank samples) for aeromonas strains between june 2002 and october 2005. a total of 147 aeromonas strains were isolated from 49 (6%) of 840 tap water samples and from 98 (12%) of 840 domestic water tank samples. antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonas strains was deter ...200717191011
combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. immune and antioxidant effects.goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (asdi) at a cumulative concentration of 50microg/l for 12 weeks. control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of immunity and antioxidant defenses. the antioxidant defenses were evaluated in haemopoietic organs and liver. asdi-induced stress was reflected as a si ...200717194491
persistence, transmission, and virulence characteristics of aeromonas strains in a duckweed aquaculture-based hospital sewage water recycling plant in bangladesh.the persistence and transmission of aeromonas in a duckweed aquaculture-based hospital sewage water treatment plant in bangladesh was studied. a total of 670 samples from different sites of the hospital sewage water treatment plant, from feces of hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea, from environmental control ponds, and from feces of healthy humans were collected over a period of three years. in total, 1,315 presumptive aeromonas isolates were biochemically typed by the pheneplate rapi ...200717194839
in vivo humoral and cellular reactions, and fate of injected bacteria aeromonas hydrophila in freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.live non-opsonized and opsonized aeromonas hydrophila were injected into juveniles of freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii to study the cells involved in phagocytosis, distribution of bacteria, cellular reactions and clearance of both forms of bacteria from the system. the bacteria were rapidly distributed to various tissues viz., gills, heart, hepatopancreas within 1h, and the tissues revealed haemocytic nodule formation after 3 h of injection. there was rapid clearance of both the forms ...200717200030
characterization of extracellular proteins produced by aeromonas hydrophila ah-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which can cause motile aeromonad septicemia in both fish and humans. a. hydrophila secretes many extracellular proteins associated with pathogenicity and environmental adaptability. in this study, an extracellular proteome map of a. hydrophila ah-1 was constructed. the major extracellular virulence factors were characterized by comparing the proteomes of various deletion mutants with that of the wild type. the results suggested that se ...200717203509
occurrence of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones in extracts of some gram-negative bacteria evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.acylated homoserine lactones (ahls) are self-generated signal molecules that mediate population density-dependent gene expression (quorum sensing) in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. these signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the medium as a function of cell growth. in selected foods ahls contribute to product spoilage. as different bacterial species produce ahl analogs that differ in length of the n-acyl chain, ranging from 4 to 14 carbons and in the substitution ...200717207763
an attenuated plasmid-cured strain of aeromonas hydrophila elicits protective immunity in clarias batrachus l.wild type aeromonas hydrophila (strain ao1) isolated from the lesions of ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) affected fish bears a 21 kb virulence plasmid. with plasmid curing the isolates became attenuated and failed to induce fatal haemorrhagic ulcers in fish. the objective of the present work was to check the immunogenicity of these plasmid-cured derivatives and determine whether such strains could be used as candidate antigens for eliciting protective immunity to a. hydrophila infections in th ...200717208455
immune response in the tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to tannery effluent.the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent (te) on the specific immune response and nonspecific immunity in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. the effluent from the tannery was collected directly from a chrome-tanning factory situated in dindigul district, tamil nadu, india. apart from chromium (88.2 ppm), the effluent contained appreciable amount of calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. groups of fish (45-50 g) we ...200717261332
differentiation of aeromonas isolated from drinking water distribution systems using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry.the genus aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. in this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) was used to analyze the whole cells of both reference strains and unknown aeromonas isolates obtained from water distribution systems. a library of over 45 unique m/z signatures was created from 40 strains that are representative of the 17 reco ...200717269751
assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.a new aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, roundup, in the albufera lake, a protected area near valencia. viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between a. caviae counts of viability m ...200717270238
spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech.the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, is one of the simplest naturally occurring models for digestive-tract symbioses, where only two bacterial species, aeromonas veronii bv. sobria (gamma-proteobacteria) and a rikenella-like bacterium (bacteroidetes), colonize the crop, the largest compartment of the leech digestive tract. in this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes of the localization and microcolony structure of the native symbionts in the crop, after ingestion of a sterile blo ...200717277211
characterization of aeromonas virulence using an immunocompromised mouse model.an immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. a total of 34 isolates of aeromonas (a. hydrophila [n = 12]), a. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], a. caviae [n = 4], a. enchelia [n = 4], a. allosaccharophila [n = 2], a. salmonicida (n = 4), and a. bestiarum [n = 1]) were introduced by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompetent or chemically compromised (using cyclophosphamide) mice. the ability of ...200717277907
bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila. 200717627288
the immune response and protective efficacy of oral alginate microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine in soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis).aeromonas sobria is an important bacterial pathogen of soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). the effect of an oral alginate microparticle a. sobria vaccine (mav) on immune response and protection efficacy of soft-shelled turtles was investigated. the formalin-killed cultures of a. sobria strain z-1 (fkc) were incorporated into alginate microparticles, and the encapsulated vaccine was orally used for immunizing turtles. the serum agglutinating antibody titers, bactericidal activity of blood le ...200717628697
the immune response and protective efficacy of vaccination with oral microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine in mice.the effect of an oral alginate microparticle aeromonas sobria vaccine on immune response and protection of mice was investigated. the formalin-killed cultures (fkc) of a. sobria strain z-1 treated with three methods were incorporated into alginate microparticles, and the encapsulated vaccines were orally used for immunizing mice. four weeks after immunization, the serum agglutinating antibody titers, bactericidal activity of leucocytes and relative percent survival (rps) of mice immunized orally ...200717630205
recombinant prostate-specific antigen proaerolysin shows selective protease sensitivity and cell cytotoxicity.native proaerolysin is a channel-forming bacterial protoxin that binds to cell-surface receptors and then is activated by furin or furin-like proteases. we genetically engineered proaerolysin by replacing the furin-cleavage sequence with a prostate-specific antigen-selective sequence. the recombinant modified proaerolysin was expressed and purified from aeromonas salmonicida in good yields and purity. recombinant modified proaerolysin had no furin sensitivity and markedly increased prostate-spec ...200717581303
biological characterization of a new type iii secretion system effector from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila-part ii.we recently identified a novel type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector, aexu, from a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, and demonstrated that mice infected with the deltaaexu mutant were significantly protected from mortality. although the nh(2)-terminal domain of this toxin exhibits homology to aext of a. salmonicida, a fish pathogen, and exot/s of pseudomonas aeruginosa, the cooh-terminal domain of aexu is unique, with no homology to any known proteins in the ncbi database. in th ...200717582731
convenient test using a combination of chelating agents for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases in the clinical laboratory.although transmissible metallo-beta-lactamases (mbls) are a serious threat to beta-lactam antibiotic therapy, the clsi currently does not recommend testing methods for the detection of mbls. the aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of double-disk tests (ddts) by using disks containing a combination of the chelators 2-mercaptopropionic acid (mpa) and tris-edta (te) to detect mbls. sixteen isolates (4 acinetobacter baumannii isolates, 6 pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 1 serratia marce ...200717596358
specificity and durability of antibody responses in atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) immunised with vibrio anguillarum o2b. 200717604648
pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of brazil.oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from june 1998 to march 1999, in the cananéia estuary, on the south coast of são paulo, brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio cholerae o1, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (mpn) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. the ...200717613090
identification of aeromonas veronii genes required for colonization of the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana.most digestive tracts contain a complex consortium of beneficial microorganisms, making it challenging to tease apart the molecular interactions between symbiont and host. the digestive tract of hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, is an ideal model system because it harbors a simple microbial community in the crop, comprising the genetically amenable aeromonas veronii and a rikenella-like bacterium. signature-tagged mutagenesis (stm) was used to identify genes required for digestive tract colon ...200717616592
alternative host model to evaluate aeromonas virulence.bacterial virulence can only be assessed by confronting bacteria with a host. here, we present a new simple assay to evaluate aeromonas virulence, making use of dictyostelium amoebae as an alternative host model. this assay can be modulated to assess virulence of very different aeromonas species.200717616616
protonation state and substrate binding to b2 metallo-beta-lactamase cpha from aeromonas hydrofila.the zinc enzymes metallo beta-lactamases counteract the beneficial action of beta-lactam antibiotics against bacterial infections, by hydrolyzing their beta-lactam rings. to understand structure/function relationships on a representative member of this class, the b2 m beta l cpha, we have investigated the h-bond pattern at the zn enzymatic active site and substrate binding mode by molecular simulation methods. extensive qm calculations at the dft-blyp level on eleven models of the protein active ...200717623844
a case of aeromonas hydrophila enteritis in the course of ulcerative colitis.a 24-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of ulcerative pancolitis presented with severe malabsorption with watery diarrhea, malaise, and weight loss. physical examination revealed paleness, hypotension, tachycardia, edema, ascites, and left-sided pleural effusion. laboratory analysis revealed hypoalbuminemia and hypocalcemia. further examination revealed that malabsorption was related to aeromanas hydrophila infection. clinical improvement was observed upon oral ciprofloxacin treatment. no cl ...200717693233
function and molecular architecture of the yersinia injectisome tip complex.by quantitative immunoblot analyses and scanning transmission electron microscopy (stem), we determined that the needle of the yersinia enterocolitica e40 injectisome consists of 139 +/- 19 yscf subunits and that the tip complex is formed by three to five lcrv monomers. a pentamer represented the best fit for an atomic model of this complex. the n-terminal globular domain of lcrv forms the base of the tip complex, while the central globular domain forms the head. hybrids between lcrv and its ort ...200717697254
replication of legionella pneumophila in floating biofilms.biofilms are a major source of human pathogenic legionella pneumophila in aquatic systems. in this study, we investigated the capacity of l. pneumophila to colonize floating biofilms and the impact of acanthamoeba castellanii on the replication of biofilm-associated legionella. biofilms were grown in petri dishes and consisted of aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, flavobacterium breve, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. six hours following inoculation, legionella were detected in floating biofilms ...200717713816
aeromonas hydrophilia colitis mimicking ischaemic colitis in an elderly woman. 200717716361
antimicrobial properties of moderately halotolerant bacteria from cenotes of the yucatan peninsula.isolation and antimicrobial evaluation of aquatic bacterial strains from two cenotes.200717718841
aeromonas veronii, a tributyltin (tbt)-degrading bacterium isolated from an estuarine environment, ria de aveiro in portugal.organotin compounds are used in a variety of industrial processes therefore their subsequent discharge into the environment is widespread. bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical transformations acting as natural decontamination agents. therefore, screening for tributyltin (tbt)-resistant and -degrading bacteria is relevant for the selection of isolates with decontamination ability of these polluted areas. with this purpose, 50 strains were isolated from sediment and water from ria de ...200717719084
identification of a new hemolysin from diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila.a clinical strain ssu of aeromonas hydrophila produces a potent cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. a new gene, which encoded a hemolysin of 439-amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 49 kda, was identified. this hemolysin (hlya) was detected based on the observation that the act gene minus mutant of a. hydrophila ssu still had residual hemolytic activity. the new hemolysin gene (hlya) was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in escherichia co ...200717725618
enhancement of the immune response and protection induced by probiotic lactic acid bacteria against furunculosis in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).we analysed the effect of probiotic strains on the cellular and humoral immune responses of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), and their capacity to prevent furunculosis during a challenge trial. probiotic strains (lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis clfp 100, leuconostoc mesenteroides clfp 196, and lactobacillus sakei clfp 202) were administered orally to fish for 2 weeks at 10(6) cfu g(-1) of feed. in comparison to untreated control fish, the phagocytic activity of head kidney leukocytes and the ...200717645738
bacterial communities of leachate from tire monofill disposal sites.the disposal of used automobile tires is problematic due to the large number generated each year. newer methods of tire disposal have been developed in which tires are shredded and used for construction materials or buried in dedicated tire monofill sites. in this study, the bacterial assemblage associated with aqueous leachate collected from tire monofill sites was examined and compared to the bacterial assemblage of reference streams. leachate from two tire monofill sites in ohio (usa) was col ...200717651788
aeromonas exoenzyme t of aeromonas salmonicida is a bifunctional protein that targets the host cytoskeleton.type iii protein secretion has been shown recently to be important in the virulence of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. the adp-ribosylating toxin aeromonas exoenzyme t (aext) is one effector protein targeted for secretion via this system. in this study, we identified muscular and nonmuscular actin as substrates of the adp-ribosylating activity of aext. furthermore, we show that aext also functions as a gtpase-activating protein (gap), displaying gap activity against monomeric gtpases of ...200717656370
aeromonas salmonicida toxin aext has a rho family gtpase-activating protein domain.the n terminus of the aeromonas salmonicida adp-ribosylating toxin aext displays in vitro gtpase-activating protein (gap) activity for rac1, cdc42, and rhoa. hela cells transfected with the aext n terminus exhibit rounding and actin disordering. we propose that the aeromonas salmonicida aext toxin is a novel member of the growing family of bacterial rhogaps.200717237181
further characterization of a type iii secretion system (t3ss) and of a new effector protein from a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila--part i.a type iii secretion system (t3ss)-associated cytotoxin, aext, with adp-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins exot/s, was recently identified from a fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. in this study, we reported the molecular characterization of an aext-like toxin gene (designated as aexu) from a diarrheal isolate ssu of a. hydrophila. the aexu gene was 1539bp in length and encoded a protein of 512 amino acid (aa) residues. the nh(2)-terminus of ...200717644303
cytokine expression in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) during infection with aeromonas salmonicida.gene expression of a number of cytokines in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of aeromonas salmonicida. fish were exposed to a. salmonicida by immersion in a bacterial suspension (bath challenge) and tissue samples of the distal and proximal intestine were collected at days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 post-exposure. head kidney tissue was also collected to assess the effect in a systemic immune tissue. a classic profile of pro-inf ...200717434320
phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria and their adhesive capability in relation to the intestinal mucus of carp.the aims of the present study are to characterize the intestinal microbial community displaying a high-adhesive capability in fish, and to evaluate the relationship between mucosal adhesion of intestinal bacteria and fish health and disease.200717448166
enhancement of nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus by solanum trilobatum leaf fractions.the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water and hexane soluble fractions of the indian medicinal plant, solanum trilobatum on the nonspecific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus. fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 4, 40 or 400 mg kg(-1) body weight of water or hexane soluble fraction. the nonspecific immune mechanisms were assessed in terms of serum lysozyme activity, reactive oxygen species production and reactive n ...200717448687
multiple controls regulate the expression of mobe, an hnh homing endonuclease gene embedded within a ribonucleotide reductase gene of phage aeh1.mobile genetic elements have the potential to influence the expression of genes surrounding their insertion site upon invasion of a genome. here, we examine the transcriptional organization of a ribonucleotide reductase operon (nrd) that has been invaded by an hnh family homing endonuclease, mobe. in aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1, mobe has inserted into the large-subunit gene (nrda) of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr), splitting it into two smaller genes, nrda-a and nrda-b. this gene org ...200717449612
species identification of clinically important aeromonas spp. by restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s rdna.the aim of the study was to characterize 16s rdna of aeromonas spp. to rapidly identify clinically important species of these bacteria.200717451524
issues for microbial regulation: aeromonas as a model.the decision by public health agencies to regulate specific microorganisms that may be found in drinking water can only be made if specific criteria find that a microorganism poses a health risk. these criteria should include: (1) there is a clinical history of an organism causing disease from the ingestion of drinking water; (2) there is epidemiological evidence that drinking water rather than food or other vectors is a major source of disease; (3) there is sufficient evidence that the target o ...200717453931
cpg oligodeoxynucleotides up-regulate antibacterial systems and induce protection against bacterial challenge in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the effects of unmethylated cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) on the mammalian immune system are relatively well studied but much less is known of their effects on the immune systems of different fish species. here we show that cpg odns significantly enhance the survival of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) following bacterial challenge when used both as stand-alone prophylactic agents, or as adjuvants to a commercially available vaccine. they are also capable of increasing serum lysozyme activi ...200717459727
endogenous aeromonas hydrophila endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised patient.to report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to aeromonas hydrophila in a patient with distal common bile duct carcinoma and biliary sepsis.200717460432
application of real-time quantitative pcr for the detection of selected bacterial pathogens during municipal wastewater treatment.bacteria were detected at five stages of municipal wastewater treatment using taqman(r) real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). thirteen probe and primer sets were tested for diverse pathogens that may be present in wastewater, including aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, clostridium perfringens, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, e. coli o157:h7, helicobacter pylori, klebsiella pneumoniae, legionella pneumophila, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella sp., and staphyloc ...200717462712
multiplex-pcr for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, flavobacterium columnare, edwardsiella ictaluri, and aeromonas hydrophila.a multiplex pcr (m-pcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. the m-pcr to amplify target dna fragments from flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. the lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-pcr reaction mixture. the sensitivity ...200717465305
construction of a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs and its effects on the innate immune responses of aquatic animals.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) containing unmethylated cpg dinucleotides (cpg motifs) have been shown to induce potential immune responses. in this study, we designed a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs, and observed its effects on innate immune responses of fish and prawn. the results showed that such plasmid dna, compared to the vacant vector, can highly induce the activation of head kidney macrophages and the proliferation of peripheral blood leuko ...200717475508
wound infection and septic shock due to aeromonas trota in a patient with liver cirrhosis. 200717479957
association of bacteria with metacercarial cysts of echinostoma caproni.echinostoma caproni metacercarial cysts often need to be stored for several months to a year to meet laboratory requirements. this study examined the bacteria associated with encysted metacercariae stored at 4 degrees c. bacterial assemblages from the kidney-pericardial region of uninfected snails and assemblages from the site of metacercarial infection in biomphalaria glabrata were determined. four species of gram-negative rods were isolated and identified from the stored cysts to species or ge ...200717483963
microbial and clinical determinants of time-to-positivity in patients with bacteraemia.time-to-positivity is useful in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteraemia and as a predictor of an endovascular source in patients with staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. however, this parameter has been evaluated for only a limited number of microorganisms. in the present study, time-to-positivity was recorded for 1872 episodes of significant monomicrobial bacteraemia diagnosed at a teaching hospital during a 2-year period, and the associated microbial and clinical variables were investigat ...200717484763
global trade in ornamental fish from an australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into australia alone. compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the sanitary and phytosanitary ( ...200717485126
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (cyprinus carpio l.) by oral administration of humus extract.humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. in the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection. mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treat ...200717485929
sampling bias created by ampicillin in isolation media for aeromonas.members of the bacterial genus aeromonas are widely isolated from aquatic environments and studied in part for their ability to act as opportunistic pathogens in a variety of animals. all aeromonads, with the exception of aeromonas trota, are generally thought to be resistant to ampicillin, so the antibiotic is frequently added to isolation medium as a selective agent. in this study, 282 aeromonads from environmental sources were isolated on a medium without ampicillin and their resistance to am ...200717496948
importance of flagella and enterotoxins for aeromonas virulence in a mouse model.a genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaa/flab, flag), lateral flagella (lafa), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. when 16 aeromonas hydrophila strains, seven aeromonas veronii strains, and seven aeromonas caviae strains exhibiting different combinations of virulence factor genes were tested in immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal inj ...200717496975
[hirudo medicinalis-leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery--a literature review].medical leech therapy has enjoyed a renaissance in the world of reconstructive microsurgery during recent years. especially venous congestion is decreased using hirudo medicinalis application such as following replantation of amputated fingers or congested flaps. they provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. living in symbiosis with aeromonas hydrophila, who can digest the sixfold blood meal related to their body weight, and a broad number of ant ...200717497605
[infection with aeromonas hydrophila after use of leeches (hirudo medicinalis) in a free microvascular osteo-(myo-)cutaneous flap--suggestions for successful management].medical leeches (hirudo medicinalis) are an important therapeutic option in the treatment of venous congestion of flaps. in a case report an infection with aeromonas hydrophila of a free microvascular osteo-(myo)-cutaneous flap after leech application for venous congestion is described and the current literature reviewed. infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20 %. in some cases an infection of the ...200717497606
gene structure of an antimicrobial peptide from mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi (basilewsky), suggests that moronecidins and pleurocidins belong in one family: the piscidins.the gene of piscidin, an antimicrobial peptide, has been cloned from the mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi. from the first transcription initiation site, the mandarin fish piscidin gene extends 1693 nucleotides to the end of the 3' untranslated region and contains four exons and three introns. a predicted 79-residue prepropeptide consists of three domains: a signal peptide (22 aa), a mature peptide (22 aa) and a c-terminal prodomain (35 aa). the shortage of xqq motif in the prodomain of mandarin ...200717498177
oral administration of eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus.immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. for this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing e. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. after each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against aero ...200717499515
antimicrobial properties of two purified skin peptides from the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) against bacteria isolated from the natural habitat.numerous peptides exhibiting antimicrobial properties have been isolated from the skins of many amphibian species. these peptides offer an innate chemical defense system against various microbial agents that exist in the amphibian's environment. amphibian skin peptides are typically tested for antimicrobial activity against microbial strains that are pathogenic to humans, but not on potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria that exist in the organism's habitat. two peptides, a brevinin-2-re ...200717499556
dominant pathogenic species of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from diseased and healthy fish cultured in poland.aeromonas isolates were collected from cultured fish, characterized phenotypically and identified to species using 16s rdna. the pathogenicity of all isolates was assayed on the basis of haemolytic and proteolytic activity and challenge tests were performed for isolates from healthy fish. a total of 131 aeromonas isolates were obtained and identified as follows: a. hydrophila (13), a. bestiarum (23), a. salmonicida (motile biogroup) (19), a. caviae (2), a. sobria (18), a. veronii bt. sobria (42) ...200717501739
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in naturally- and laboratory-challenged farmed haddock, melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.). 200717501741
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