TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
endosulfan increases seric interleukin-2 like (il-2l) factor and immunoglobulin m (igm) of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) challenged with aeromona hydrophila.endosulfan is a persistent organochlorine insecticide which is extremely toxic to fish. it is known to induce immunological alterations in juvenile nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) such as increases in phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production of spleen macrophages. the purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan (7 ppb, 96 h) on parameters of the adaptive humoral immune response of the aforemention ...201019944172
comparative study on characteristics of azo dye decolorization by indigenous decolorizers.this study provides a first attempt to explore indigenous strains with excellent decolorization capability from the most biodiverse region in taiwan for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. bacterial isolates were obtained via serial selections under selection pressure of the fungicide nystatin and model textile dye(s). according to profiles of protein expression and pcr-augmented 16s rrna gene analyses for strain identification, >99% of nucleotide sequences in isolated strains were identical to ty ...201019944603
transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.zebrafish (danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (lfb), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. we constructed an expression plasmid in which lfb was fused with green fluorescent protein (gfp) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. after microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of gfp appearance. among them, a stable zbl-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of gfp. using pcr and western blot analysis, w ...201019944764
molecular cloning and expression analysis of the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) gene in grass carp.liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is a novel antimicrobial peptide (amp) recently found in vertebrates, and exhibits distinct amino acid sequence, secondary structure and expression pattern from other peptides. in this study, the leap-2 gene and its full-length cdna were cloned from grass carp. grass carp leap-2 gene consists of two introns and three exons. the translated product contains 92 amino acids, including a 26 amino acids signal peptide and a mature peptide of 41 amino ac ...201019716607
use of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) as an immunostimulant for the control of aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (lps) for the prevention of infection by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) fingerlings.201019674184
[leech-borne infection on a tram flap: a case report].leeches are used worldwide to treat venous congestion of flaps. aeromonas hydrophila infections are recognized complications of leech use. we report a new case of delayed leech-borne infection in mammary reconstruction by a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (tram), which caused the flap loss. the use of prophylactic antibiotics is a way to prevent a.hydrophila infection (third generation cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin). this antibioprophylaxy must be followed until wound closure of the ...201019674823
pcr-dgge-based methodologies to assess diversity and dynamics of aeromonas communities.aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may cause infectious diseases in fish and humans. however, reliable and specific methods to evaluate the diversity and dynamics of aeromonas populations are currently unavailable. this study aimed to develop pcr-dgge methodologies for culture-independent analysis of aeromonas populations in water systems.201019659697
aeromonas and pseudomonas: antibiotic and heavy metal resistance species from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea).we studied the susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and six heavy metals in aeromonas spp. and pseudomonas spp. isolated from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea). a high percentage of aeromonas isolates showed resistance to cefazolin (66.6%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (66.6%). amongst the pseudomonas isolates, there was a high incidence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (86.2%), cefazolin (84.8%) and cefuroxime (71.7%). most isolates showed tolerance to diff ...201019551480
an experimental vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a candidate vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. to test the strength of protection, a. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (ip) cavity and the dorsal sinus (ds) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. unlike the ip route, injection into the ds with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and ...201019732266
isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the american alligator (alligator mississippiensis).to determine whether american alligators (alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in south carolina's coastal waters.201019735329
characterization of a serine proteinase homologous (sph) in chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.the serine protease homologous (sph) is an important cofactor of prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae). the gene of sph of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis (essph) in hemocytes was cloned and characterized using reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the sph cdna consisted of 1386 bp with an open reading frame (orf) encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, 154 bp 5'-untranslated region, and 95 bp 3'-untranslated region. sequence ...201019720078
mechanisms of quinolone resistance in aeromonas species isolated from humans, water and eels.mechanisms of resistance were determined in 33 quinolone-resistant isolates of the species aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, aeromonas media, aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas popoffii and aeromonas veronii, recovered from humans, freshwater and eels. the quinolone resistance-determining regions (qrdrs) of gyra and parc genes were sequenced in these resistant strains, as well as in 8 quinolone-sensitive aeromonas used as controls. all quinolone-resistant aeromonas carried point mutations in ...201019900538
analysis of the vaccine potential of a laboratory escherichia coli strain in a japanese flounder model.escherichia coli dh5alpha is a genetically tailored laboratory strain that is commonly used for general cloning. in this study, the vaccine potential of dh5alpha was investigated. it was found that when used as a live vaccine, dh5alpha could afford effective protection upon japanese flounder against aeromonas hydrophila infection. vaccination with purified outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides of dh5alpha failed to induce protective immunity against a. hydrophila. specific antibody pro ...201019900558
antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (cyprinus carpio).the aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. the isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. in all isolates, pcr was used to detect the presence of tet(a-e) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. from the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to o ...201019900770
cellular components of probiotics control yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).subcellular components of the probiotics aeromonas sobria gc2 and bacillus subtilis jb-1, when administered to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, conferred protection against a new biogroup of yersinia ruckeri. thus, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection of rainbow trout with cell wall proteins (cwps), outer membrane proteins (omps), lipopolysaccharides (lps), whole cell proteins (wcps) and live cells followed by challenge on day 8 with y. ruckeri led to 80-100% survival compared with 10% ...201019912460
gene cloning, characterization, and heterologous expression of levansucrase from bacillus amyloliquefaciens.although levan produced by bacillus amyloliquefaciens is known to have efficient immunostimulant property which gives 100% survival of common carp when infected with aeromonas hydrophila, no detailed reports are available describing kinetic studies of d: -glucose production and levan formation. in this study, we cloned and characterized the enzymatic kinetics using levansucrase expressed in escherichia coli. optimum ph for d: -glucose production and levan formation was 6.0 and 8.0, respectively, ...201019916084
parenteral immunization of fish, labeo rohita with poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) encapsulated antigen microparticles promotes innate and adaptive immune responses.immunogenicity of different antigen preparations of outer membrane proteins (omp) of aeromonas hydrophila such as poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) microparticles, oil emulsion, neat omp and bacterial whole cells were compared through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, labeo rohita. among these preparations, plga encapsulated antigen stimulated both innate and adaptive immune parameters and the immunogenicity exhibited by plga microparticles was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at both 2 ...201019922799
characterization and expression analyses of anti-apoptotic bcl-2-like genes nr-13, mcl-1, bcl-x1, and bcl-x2 in atlantic cod (gadus morhua).nr-13, mcl-1, and bcl-x(l), are conserved anti-apoptotic proteins that belong to the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 sub-family, which inhibits cell death by preventing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (mmp). given the anti-apoptotic functions of these proteins in vertebrates (e.g. human, mouse, and zebrafish) and the involvement of apoptotic regulation in immune responses, we studied the sequences of these genes and their transcript expression in atlantic cod (gadus morhua) during innate immune res ...201019923001
multiplex pcr method for detection of three aeromonas enterotoxin genes.a novel multiplex pcr method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in aeromonas spp. this assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. a total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. the alt gene was detected with 34 reference st ...201019933350
a type vi secretion system effector protein, vgrg1, from aeromonas hydrophila that induces host cell toxicity by adp ribosylation of actin.we recently delineated the importance of a type vi secretion system (t6ss) gene cluster in the virulence of diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila and showed that vash, a sigma(54) activator and t6ss component, was involved in the production of its associated effectors, e.g., hemolysin-coregulated protein. to identify additional t6ss effectors and/or secreted proteins, we subjected culture supernatants from deletion mutants of a. hydrophila, namely, a delta act mutant (a t2ss-associated c ...201019880608
characterization of polysaccharides using mass spectrometry for bacterial serotyping.mass spectrometry provides a rapid and reliable method for characterization of bacterial polysaccharides. application of the in-source fragmentation technique to promote the formation of structurally relevant repeating units of heterogeneous capsular polysaccharides and o-chain polysaccharides has proven to be particularly useful for detection of non-carbohydrate functionalities and subtle differences arising across bacterial serotypes. here we discuss application of these methods to the direct ...201019882133
homology modelling of a sensor histidine kinase from aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in extra-intestinal infection and diarrhoea in humans. targetting unique effectors of bacterial pathogens is considered a powerful strategy for drug design against bacterial variations to drug resistance. the two-component bacterial system involving sensor histidine kinase (shk) and its response regulators is considered a lucrative target for drug design. this is the first report describing a three-dimensional (3d) structure for shk of a. hydrophila. the ...201019882182
aeromonas taiwanensis sp. nov. and aeromonas sanarellii sp. nov., clinical species from taiwan.two clinical aeromonas strains (a2-50(t) and a2-67(t)) recovered from the wounds of two patients in taiwan could not be assigned to any known species of this genus based on their 16s rrna gene sequences, which showed similarities of 99.6-99.8 % to those of the type strains of aeromonas caviae, a. trota and a. aquariorum. the rpod phylogenetic tree allocated these strains to two novel and independent phylogenetic lines, the neighbouring species being a. caviae, the type strain of which showed 93. ...201019819994
salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium can detect acyl homoserine lactone production by yersinia enterocolitica in mice.luxr-type transcription factors detect acyl homoserine lactones (ahls) and are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species. escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cannot synthesize ahls but can detect the ahls produced by other bacterial species using the luxr homolog, sdia. previously we determined that s. typhimurium did not detect ahls during transit through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pig ...201019820103
[necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila in an immunocompetent patient]. 201019822313
effect of oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts on protection against experimental fish investigate whether oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts (ahg) vaccine can elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses of carp (carassius auratus gibelio) compared to conventional formalin-killed bacteria (fkc).201019843213
design and performance of a turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray based on ests from immune expressed sequence tag database from immune tissues was used to design the first high-density turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray with the aim of identifying candidate genes for tolerance to pathogens. specific oligonucleotides (60 mers) were successfully designed for 2,716 out of 3,482 unique sequences of the database. an agilent custom oligo-microarray 8 x 15 k (five replicates/gene; eight microarrays/slide) was constructed. the performance of the microarray and the sources of va ...201019844759
responses of atlantic cod gadus morhua head kidney leukocytes to phytase produced by gastrointestinal-derived bacteria.this study identified phytase-producing bacteria that were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of atlantic cod, gadus morhua and determined its effect on head kidney leukocytes. out of the 216 bacterial strains tested, the two phytase producers were identified as pseudomonas sp. and psychrobacter sp. based on their 16s rdna sequence. crude phytase from these two bacterial strains was produced employing the shake flask method. even though the total protein of the crude phytase was ...201019844802
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas simiae from a pig, first isolate since species description.the species aeromonas simiae was first described on the basis of two strains (cip 107798(t) and cip 107797) isolated from faeces of healthy monkeys (m. fascicularis) from mauritius, which were kept in quarantine in the centre for primatology, louis pasteur university, strasbourg, france. in the present study, during a survey to determine the prevalence of aeromonas at three different pig slaughterhouses at north of portugal, a single strain mdc2374 (out of 703 isolates) was identified as a. simi ...201019853388
plasmid-mediated qnrs2 determinant in an aeromonas caviae isolate recovered from a patient with diarrhoea.a qnrs2 gene was identified in an aeromonas caviae isolate (mics of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin >32 mg/l) from a stool sample collected from a patient with gastroenteritis. the analysis of the gyra and parc genes revealed amino acid substitutions ser83-ile and ser80-thr, respectively. in addition, five out of 41 nalidixic acid-resistant aeromonas isolates studied (26 identified as aeromonas veronii bv sobria and 15 identified as a. caviae) showed ciprofloxacin resistance. the identi ...201019863591
in vitro effects on bacterial growth of phenoloxidase reaction active phenoloxidase preparation from the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus exhibited a strong antibacterial effect in vitro on the bacteria aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumoniae whereas a weaker but still significant effect against bacillus cereus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. in most cases reduction of bacterial growth was stronger when dopamine was used as substrate as compared to l-dopa. the effect on bacteria was abolished if no ...201019808037
gene cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila.aerolysin is a significant virulent toxin protein secreted by aeromonas hydrophila; it produces deep wound infections and hemorrhagic septicemia. the complete aerolysin gene (1,482 bp) was amplified from a. hydrophila. furthermore, it was cloned and expressed into escherichia coli bl21(de3) codon plus rp cells using 0.5 mm iptg for induction. the protein size was 54 kda as estimated by sds-page, and it was purified by ni-nta affinity chromatography. anti-his antibodies were used to characterize ...201019763901
identification and characterization of the first reptilian cd9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial this study, a cd9 homologue in a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle, has been cloned and identified for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle cd9 was 1146bp and contained a 672bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 224 amino acids. four transmembrane domains (tms) divided the turtle cd9 into several parts: short n-, c-termini, an intracellular loop and two (small and large) extracellular loops (sel and lel). a ccg motif, a potential n-linked glycosylation site and 10 c ...201019747940
diversity and impact of prokaryotic toxins on aquatic environments: a review.microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. as a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. these t ...201022069558
microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant pseudomonas putida.polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthesis genes phapcj(ac) cloned from aeromonas caviae were transformed into pseudomonas putida ktoy06δc, a mutant of p. putida kt2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant p. putida ktoy06δc (phapcj(a.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length pha block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (phb) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3hhp) as another block. the novel block polymer was st ...201021181145
opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.household water in oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of muscat. the tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (grp), polyethylene or galvanised iron (gi). heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal colifor ...201121942202
bacterial community associated with the intestinal tract of p. monodon in commercial farms.the potentially important roles of intestinal bacteria on immune response, disease resistance, and nutrition for the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon have been increasingly investigated. however, so far, little is known about the intestinal bacterial community of the shrimp in the commercial aquaculture settings. in this study, the intestinal bacterial communities of juvenile p. monodon (70 individuals) from eight commercial farms in thailand were examined using 16s rdna pcr-dgge, and seven 16 ...201121915632
dose dependence specific and non-specific immune responses of indian major carp (l. rohita ham) to intraperitoneal injection of formalin killed aeromonas hydrophila whole cell vaccine.specific and non-specific immune response to different doses of formalin killed whole cell vaccine of aeromonas hydrophila to indian major carp (labeo rohita) was evaluated in laboratory condition. three different doses (10(5) cfu/ml, 10(7) cfu/ml, 10(10) cfu/ml) were administered (0.2 ml/fish) intraperitoneally for 1 month. among the three doses, 10(10) cfu/ml elicited the highest antibody and protective response followed by the doses 10(7) cfu/ml and 10(5) cfu/ml. upon challenge with the virul ...201121901335
Molecular detection and cloning of thermostable hemolysin gene from Aeromonas hydrophila.Aeromonas hydrophila is a major bacterial pathogen associated with hemorrhagic septicemia in aquatic and terrestrial animals including humans. There is an urgent need to develop molecular and immunological assays for rapid, specific and sensitive diagnosis. A new set of primers has been designed for detection of thermostable hemolysin (TH) gene (645 bp) from A. hydrophila, and sensitivity limit for detection of TH gene was 5 pg. The TH gene was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The G+C content was ...201121954591
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish.To evaluate the feasibility of using an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants.201121895899
Development and validation of an HPLC-based screening method to acquire polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase mutants with altered substrate specificity.A rapid and convenient method for the compositional analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and alkaline sample pretreatment in a 96-well plate format. The reliability of this system was confirmed by the fact that a mutant with a D171G mutation of Aeromonas caviae PHA synthase (PhaC(Ac)), which gained higher reactivity toward 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), was selected from the D171X mutant library. Together with D171G mutant, several ...201122088761
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases and antimicrobial resistance in dhaka, bangladesh, 2005-2008.summaryinfectious diarrhoea caused by bacterial pathogens contributes to the high level of mortality in developing countries like bangladesh. following standard bacteriological procedures, a total of 14 428 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 56 132 stool samples and rectal swabs collected from diarrhoeal patients between 2005 and 2008. the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility data were retrospectively analysed for these isolates and among them vibrio spp. (42·9%) were the most ...201122040529
[outer membrane nanovesicles of gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas salmonicida ]. 201122073553
[fatal aeromonas sobria infection in liver cirrhosis].aeromonas sobria infection is known to be very serious in immunocompromised hosts. we report a case of a. sobria infection fatal in a subject with decompensated liver cirrhosis. a 63-year-old man with liver cirrhosis admitted for fever and vomiting developed a necrotizing soft-tissue infection in the right lower leg. despite a decompression incision in the affected limb and intensive care, he died of sepsis one day after surgery. a. sobria was detected afterward in a blood culture.201122117380
Identification of the Midgut Microbiota of An. stephensi and An. maculipennis for Their Application as a Paratransgenic Tool against Malaria.The midgut microbiota associated with Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles maculipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated for development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Here, we present the results of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and biochemical-based approaches to identify the female adult and larvae mosquitoe microbiota of these two major malaria vectors, originated from South Eastern and North of Iran. Plating ...201122163022
a chitinase from aeromonas veronii cd3 with the potential to control myxozoan disease.the class myxosporea encompasses about 2,400 species, most of which are parasites of fish and cause serious damage in aquaculture. due to the concerns about food safety issues and limited knowledge of myxozoa life cycle and fish immune system, no chemicals, antibiotics or immune modulators are available to control myxozoa infection. therefore, little can be done once myxozoa establishment has occurred.201122205999
Do alternate bacterial indicators and pathogens increase after centrifuge dewatering of anaerobically digested biosolids?The objectives of this research were to evaluate the potential for sudden increase and/or regrowth of alternative bacteria as either indicators or pathogens after dewatering of thermophilic and mesophilically digested biosolids. The results showed that, in general, for thermophilic processes, even when a statistically significant (p < 0.05) sudden increase and regrowth occurred for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci, it did not occur for Salmonella or Aeromonas. For the mesophili ...201122195428
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (musca domestica l.).house flies (musca domestica l.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. to fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harbored by natural fly populations. this study aimed to identify the diversity of house fly gut bacteria by both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. a total of 102 bacterial strains wer ...201122092755
In-vitro antimicrobial activity and synergistic/antagonistic effect of interactions between antibiotics and some spice essential oils.Spices and herbs have been used for many years by different cultures. The aim of the present study is (1) to investigate in-vitro antimicrobial effects of different spices and herbs (5 species: Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. Brachycalyx P.H. Davis (White micromeria), Cumium cyminum (cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) against different bacteria and fungi species, and (2) to discuss the in-vitro possible effects between t ...201121888227
culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community structure from the intestinal tracts of earthworms(eisenia fetida).the bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and - independent approaches. in total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. aerobic bacteria were classified as aeromonas (40%), bacillus (37%), photobacterium (10%), pseudomonas (7%), and shewanella (6%). anaerobic bacteria were classified as aeromonas (52%), bacillus (27%), shewanella (12%), paeni ...201121952364
Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Farmed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica).The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from farmed Nile Tilapia. A total of 50 A. hydrophila isolates from clinical cases were screened for the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and all the strains resistant to enrofloxacin and/or ciprofloxacin (n=19) examined for mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC. The intI1 gene was detected in 23 A. hydrophila strains (46%) but no intl2 and intl3 were ...201122123307
Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for ...201122041547
the structural diversity of carbohydrate antigens of selected gram-negative marine bacteria.marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. among these biologically active molecules, t ...201122073003
Quantification of polyphenols during retting and characterization of bacteria from the Kadinamkulam Backwaters, Kerala.The retting environment which provides a competitive niche for specialized microbes is speculated to harbour a variety of microbes with high biodegradation potential. In this context, an effort has been made to isolate and identify bacterial species having high tolerance to phenol In vitro. Maximum polyphenol (1.897 mg l(-1)) as observed during the initial period of retting, which decreased as retting proceeded. Based on biochemical characterization, the isolated bacterial strains were identifie ...201121888245
synergies of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables.this study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole against bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables using the determination of fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index, time-kill assay in vegetable broth and application in vegetable matrices. their effects, individually and in combination, on the sensory characteristics of the vegetables were also determined. carvacrol and 1,8-cineole displayed minim ...201122273461
complete genome sequence and characterization of a broad-host range t4-like bacteriophage phias5 infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. this study, we report one lytic myoviridae bacteriophage (phage) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. the phage (named as phias5) was isolated from environmental river waters in korea, and showed broad infectivity to other bacterial species in the family aeromonadaceae as well as antibiotic-resistant a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains. the biological properties and complete genome of phias5 were simultaneously investigated. the complete genome of phias5 composed of linea ...201122226819
Structural and Functional Analysis of the Serine Protease from Aeromonas sobria.Aeromonas species are Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria found ubiquitously in a variety of aquatic environments and most commonly implicated as causative agents of gastroenteritis. Sepsis is a fatal complication of Aeromonas infectious diseases, particularly in immune-compromised patients. Two species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, are associated with human disease. Feasible virulence factors of Aeromonas include fimbrial and afimbrial adhesion molecules, hemolysins, ente ...201122129876
recombinant aexu effector protein of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by downregulation of rac1 and induces direct cytotoxicity to β4-integrin expressing cell lines.aexu is a type three secretion system (ttss) effector of aeromonas hydrophila which has an in vitro adp-ribosyltransferase (art) and gtpase-activating protein (gap) activities on rac1, rhoa and cdc42. here we show that, aexu of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria aeg1 strain disrupts actin cytoskeleton of hela cells during aeg1 infection, aexu transfection or direct application of aexu protein. such cellular disruption was rescued by either inactivation of aexu-gap activity by substitution of arginine ...201121963679
aeromonas diarrhea and behçet's disease: more than a mere association. 201122138675
Bacterial skin flora variation and in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica in brown and rainbow trout.Variations in the number and diversity of bacteria from the skin of brown trout Salmo trutta L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum were surveyed from different rivers and fish farms in northern Spain. In addition to determining bacterial populations in skin samples of healthy fish, bacterial populations were determined from skin lesions (of brown trout only) infected with Saprolegnia parasitica, the causal agent of saprolegniosis. Mean bacterial counts from skin lesions of brown trout ...201122013752
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
Colonization of turbot tissues by virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains during infection.Preventing disease outbreaks in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (ASS) requires a better understanding of how this pathogen colonizes its host. Distribution of 1 virulent and 2 avirulent ASS strains in turbot tissues was investigated during early and late stages of infection following an immersion challenge. To track bacteria within the turbot, the ASS strains were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Both virulent and avirulent strains ...201121848125
Detection of a unique fibrinolytic enzyme in Aeromonas sp. JH1.A fibrinolytic enzyme was found in a Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas sp. JH1. SDS-PAGE and fibrinzymography showed that it was a 36 kDa, monomeric protein. Of note, the enzyme was highly specific for fibrinogen molecules and the hydrolysis rate of fibrinogen subunits was highest for a, ß, and ? chains in that order. The first 15 amino acids of N-terminal sequence were X-D-A-T-G-P-G-G-N-V-X-T-G-K-Y, which was distinguishable from other fibrinolytic enzymes. The optimum pH and temperature of th ...201122203567
virulence genes of aeromonas isolates, bacterial endotoxins and cyanobacterial toxins from recreational water samples associated with human health symptoms.exposure to cyanobacterial water blooms has been associated with various kinds of adverse health effects. in addition to cyanobacteria and their toxins, the bacteria associated with cyanobacteria could also be the etiological agents. we isolated aeromonas strains (n = 176) from water samples (n = 38) taken from sites where cyanobacteria were suspected to have caused human health symptoms, of which fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common. the isolates were screened by pcr for six ...201122048427
antibody-coated gold nanoparticles immunoassay for direct detection of aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues.aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a disease that affects both salmonid and non-salmonid fish. detection of a. salmonicida can be labour intensive and time consuming because of the difficulties in distinguishing the bacterium from other species given the wide variety of existing biochemical profiles and the slow growth characteristics which allow other organisms to overgrow the a. salmonicida. herein, we report the development of a specific immunoassay using gold-conju ...201121988356
QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).Interactions between fish and pathogens, that may be harmless under natural conditions, often result in serious diseases in aquaculture systems. This is especially important due to the fact that the strains used in aquaculture are derived from wild strains that may not have had enough time to adapt to new disease pressures. The turbot is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, produces important losses to turbot industr ...201122047500
structural determination of the o-specific polysaccharide from aeromonas hydrophila strain a19 (serogroup o:14) with s-layer.bacteria belonging to the genus aeromonas are gram-negative mesophilic and essentially ubiquitous in the microbial biosphere; moreover they are considered very important pathogens in fish and responsible for a great variety of human infections. the virulence of gram-negative bacteria is often associated with the structure of lipopolysaccharides, which consist of three regions covalently linked: the glycolipid (lipid a), the oligosaccharide region (core region) and the o-specific polysaccharide ( ...201121920513
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis mimicking vibrio vulnificus infection.aeromonas hydrophila is a facultatively anaerobic, asporogenous gram-negative rod that has often been regarded as an opportunistic pathogen in hosts with impairment of a local or general defense mechanism. a 68-year-old alcoholic woman presented with shock and gangrene on the right arm. at first, her clinical presentations were severe painful erythematous swelling that worsened within a few hours with development of gangrene, edema, and blisters. bullous fluid and blood cultures yielded a. hydro ...201122028565
polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial community structure in the food, intestines, and feces of earthworms.the bacterial communities in the food, intestines, and feces of earthworms were investigated by pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge). in this study, pcr-dgge was optimized by testing 6 universal primer sets for microbial 16s rrna in 6 pure culture strains of intestinal microbes in earthworms. one primer set effectively amplified 16s rrna from bacterial populations that were found in the food, intestines, and feces of earthworms. compared with the reference markers from the pure cul ...201121887635
Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii pr ...201121907383
Quality assessment of roof-harvested rainwater in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority.Rain harvesting is becoming more common in the Palestinian Territories as a result of drinking water scarcity. Although it might pose serious human health risk, this water is being consumed without treatment in many areas of the West Bank. The present study evaluates the physicochemical and microbial quality of harvested rainwater that is used as potable water in the West Bank. Samples from roof-harvested rainwater storage tanks (n = 42) were collected in summer (SS) 2006/winter (WS) 2007. Physi ...201121976199
severe sepsis caused by aeromonas hydrophila in a patient using tocilizumab: a case report.abstract:201121970314
production of 3-hydroxypropionate homopolymer and poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by recombinant escherichia coli.conversion of 3-hydroxypropionate (3hp) from 1,3-propanediol (pdo) was improved by expressing dehydratase gene (dhat) and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldd) of pseudomonas putida kt2442 under the promoter of phacab operon from ralstonia eutropha h16. expression of these genes in aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produced up to 21 g/l 3hp in a fermentation process. to synthesize homopolymer poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (p3hp), and copolymer poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) (p3hp4hb), dhat and ...201122024131
the impact of cyanobacteria on growth and death of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e., whether increased occurrence of cyanobacteria and algae may stimulate the growth rate of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. laboratory experiments were performed to investigate if the presence of the cyanobacteria anabanea lemmermannii and microcystis aeruginosa affected the survival and growth rate of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria a ...201122097011
complete genome sequence of tolumonas auensis type strain (ta 4).tolumonas auensis fischer-romero et al. 1996 is currently the only validly named species of the genus tolumonas in the family aeromonadaceae. the strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. this is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but t. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. other than aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hyd ...201122180815
transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated aeromonas hydrophila.a total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cdna library at 12 h post vaccination with an attenuated aeromonas hydrophila (al09-71 n+r). of the 22 ests, six were confirmed to be significantly (p < 0.05) induced by the vaccination. of 88 channel catfish genes selected from literature, 14 were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated by the vaccination. the transcriptional levels of the total 20 genes induced by the ...201122019831
[preparation and identification of ompw monoclonal antibodies].to prepare and characterize the mouse monoclonal antibodies against vibrio parahaemolyticus ompw.201121906472
nonspecific immune responses of cathranthus roseus in oreochromis mossambicus.the present study was performed to determine the efficacy and immune stimulatory effects of crude and water-soluble leaf fraction of cathranthus roseus in oreochromis mossambicus. intraperitoneal injection method was used to administrate the drugs and sheep red blood cells (srbc) which is used as an antigen. lysozyme assay, plate hole diffusion assay, phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity screening methods was used to confirm the drug immune responses. in vivo experiments show the si ...201121861775
salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta.the present study describes pathological and microbiological findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis. histological lesions ranged from the presence of abundant eosinophilic material associated with bacterial colonies in the lumen of the central ducts of the glandular lobules to the destruction of the glandular tissue and presence of abundant eosinophilic material composed of heterophils and cell debris, ...201121848124
virulence of aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish ictaluras punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products.we investigated the virulence of three 2009 west alabama isolates of aeromonas hydrophila (al09-71, al09-72 and al09-73) to channel catfish ictalurus punctatus fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3 g) in the presence and absence of extracellular products (ecps) from overnight bacterial culture using both bath immersion and intraperitoneal injection routes. at a concentration of 1.65 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ml(-1), al09-73 without its ecps killed 100% of the catfish fingerlings within 2 h by bath i ...201121932532
Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then charact ...201122071643
complete genomic sequence of a t4-like bacteriophage, phias4, infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.a newly identified virulent phage (named phias4) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated from river water in korea. morphological analysis of phias4 by transmission electron microscopy revealed that it belonged to the family myoviridae. the genome of phias4 comprised a linear double-stranded dna of 163,875 bp with a g + c content of 41.3%, and genomic analysis revealed 271 putative orfs, 67 putative promoters, 25 putative terminator regions, and 16 trna-encoding genes. mo ...201122116495
evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic ozark hellbender salamanders.investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. however, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. we cultured and i ...201122205979
optimized production of scygonadin in pichia pastoris and analysis of its antimicrobial and antiviral activities.the crab antimicrobial peptide scygonadin is confirmed to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and it is probably associated with the reproductive immunity in scylla paramamosain. to obtain large quantity of scygonadin for further biological assays, a 306bp cdna sequence encoding the mature peptide of scygonadin was cloned into a secretion vector of ppic9k, and a high-level of the recombinant scygonadin was achieved in pichia pastoris. the optimal expression condition was determined as i ...201122108619
aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila perturbs tight junction integrity and cell lesion repair in intestinal epithelial ht-29/b6 cells.aeromonads cause a variety of infections, including gastroenteritis, sepsis, and wound necrosis. pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila and its hemolysin has been characterized, but the mechanism of the epithelial barrier dysfunction is currently poorly understood.201121917902
Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of re ...201121888977
induction of toll-like receptor (tlr) 2, and myd88-dependent tlr- signaling in response to ligand stimulation and bacterial infections in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) is a member of tlr family. it recognizes a wide range of bacteria and their products, and is involved in inducing innate immune responses. in this article, we reported inductive expression of tlr2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. ontogeny analysis of tlr2, myd88 and traf6 (tnf receptor asso ...201122207179
molecular cloning, characterization and expression patterns of hsp60 in the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).hsp60 is a highly immunogenic molecule, which is able to activate a large number of t cell types and is implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases. the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater fish species of the family cyprinidae, accounts for the third biggest value (usd 4.8 billion) at single species level of major cultured fish species in the world. here, we isolated and characterized the hsp60 cdna from grass carp (designated as cihsp60). its cdna was 2434 bp in length and enc ...201121854854
characterization of a vii-like phage specific to escherichia coli o157:h7.phage vb_ecom_cba120 (cba120), isolated against escherichia coli o157:h7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi. until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the vii-like phages, and none targeting e. coli have been described in the literature. the genome of cba120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both vii and the shigella phage ag3. the core set of structural and repl ...201121899740
effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian).the present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. this improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (tor) and eif4e-binding protein (4e-bp). a total of 1200 juvenile jian carp, cyprinus carpio var. jian, with an average initial weight of 6·33 (se 0·03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9·8 (control), 12·7, 16·1, 18·5, 21·9 and 24·5 g argini ...201122013925
Bactericidal activity of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella C9-deficient serum against Aeromonas hydrophila.Neutralizing complement C9 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella sera with rabbit anti-C9 sera against fish complement C9, demonstrated that bactericidal activity against Aeromonas hydrophila of the C9-deficient fish sera was greatly impaired. These results indicated that the fish complement C9 plays a key role in pathogen killing through the lytic pathway.201122141908
site-specific dota/europium-labeling of recombinant human relaxin-3 for receptor-ligand interaction studies.relaxin-3 (also known as insl7) is a recently identified neuropeptide belonging to the insulin/relaxin superfamily. it has putative roles in the regulation of stress responses, food intake, and reproduction by activation of its cognate g-protein-coupled receptor rxfp3. it also binds and activates the relaxin family peptide receptors rxfp1 and rxfp4 in vitro. to obtain a europium-labeled relaxin-3 as tracer for studying the interaction of these receptors with various ligands, in the present work ...201122187146
a novel in vivo inducible expression system in edwardsiella tarda for potential application in bacterial polyvalence vaccine.recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce the immune response to a carried protective antigen, and the main concern of bacterial vector vaccine is to establish a stable antigen expression system in vector bacteria. edwardsiella tarda is an important facultative intracellular pathogen of both animals and humans, and its attenuated derivates are excellent bacterial vectors for use in recombinant vaccine design. in this study, we design an in vivo inducibl ...201121964456
Two novel homologs of simple C-type lectin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): potential role in immune response to bacteria.C-type lectins play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups which possess different physiological functions. In this study, two novel simple C-type lectins were identified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), an important cultured fish in China. GcCL1 and gcCL2 share an essentially identical gene structure, a conserved promoter region shorter than 300 bp and an a ...201121855640
Study of the microbial ecology of wild and aquacultured Tunisian fresh fish.Eighty samples of fresh fish were collected in Tunisia and analyzed for microbial load. Quality and hygienic safety of the meat and intestines of wild and aquacultured fresh fish were determined. The mesophilic aerobic plate count and populations of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and other psychrotrophic bacteria ranged from 5.67 to 7.29, 4.51 to 6, and 5.07 to 6.21 log CFU/g, respectively. For all microbiological determinations, bacterial counts were lower in meat than in the intest ...201122004828
cloning and expression analysis of the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of nf-κb (mulan) in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).nuclear factor-κb (nf-κb) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including many involved in bacterial and viral infections. nf-κb is normally sequestered by inhibitory proteins (iκbs) in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells. the degradation of iκbs by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway leads to the rapid translocation of nf-κb to the nucleous where it regulates gene transcription. the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of nf-κb, (mulan), is an e3 ubi ...201122056942
Application of artificial photoperiod in fish: a factor that increases susceptibility to infectious diseases?This paper describes and evaluates the mortality associated with the potential stressor effect induced by application of artificial photoperiods in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After application of artificial photoperiods, high mortalities of trout subjected to this management were recorded (36% in LD 14:10 and 25% in LD 24:0) as compared to controls (7%). The recorded signology related to diseased trout included darkening, lethargy and erratic swimming. Among the morphological changes, ...201122160663
arborescent organ necrosis syndrome in catfish, clarias gariepinus (burchell): a case report. 201121916905
[cloning and expression of a outer membrance protein gene(omps(2);) of edwardsiella tarda hb01 and its immunogenicity].to construct a recombinant strain bl21(de3)(pet-28a-omps(2);), and obtain a genetic engineering vaccine to provide protective immunity against diseases caused by edwardsiella tarda.201121968306
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