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production and characterization of homopolymer poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (phv) accumulated by wild type and recombinant aeromonas hydrophila strain 4ak4.aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 normally produces copolyesters (phbhhx) consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (c4) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (c6). wild type and recombinant a. hydrophila 4ak4 (psxw02) expressing vgb and fadd genes encoding vitreoscilla haemoglobin and escherichia coli acyl-coa synthase respectively, were found able to produce homopolyester poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (phv) (c5) on undecanoic acid as a single carbon source. the recombinant grew to 5.59 g/l cell dry weight (cdw) containing 47.74 wt% ...200919395256
post-traumatic osteomyelitis due to aeromonas species.we report a case of aeromonas osteomyelitis due to injury in a sewage worker. he presented with cellulitis of the left foot. radiographs showed evidence of osteomyelitis involving the head and neck of the fifth metatarsal. aeromonas species was isolated from the tissue and swab from the foot. the head and neck of the fifth metatarsal were excised and the patient improved on 4 weeks of intravenous meropenem followed by 4 weeks of oral clindamycin and ciprofloxacin.200919384045
comparative metagenomics of daphnia symbionts.shotgun sequences of dna extracts from whole organisms allow a comprehensive assessment of possible symbionts. the current project makes use of four shotgun datasets from three species of the planktonic freshwater crustaceans daphnia: one dataset from clones of d. pulex and d. pulicaria and two datasets from one clone of d. magna. we analyzed these datasets with three aims: first, we search for bacterial symbionts, which are present in all three species. second, we search for evidence for cyanob ...200919383155
water quality and ecological status of the alcantara river estuary (italy).the alcantara river estuary was studied to obtain the first data on both water quality and ecological status of the only river park in sicily (italy). water samples were seasonally collected from three selected stations in the estuarine area and from one station at the mouth of the estuary in the marine coastal zone. picoplankton and picophytoplankton counts were among the highest observed in estuarine environments and in other coastal waters of the mediterranean sea. the contribution of picophy ...200919382672
antibiotic susceptibility profile of aeromonas spp. isolates from food in abu dhabi, united arab emirates.a total of 57 aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from abu dahbi, uae were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofuranto ...200919382665
pathogenesis of aeromonas hydrophila strain kj99 infection and its extracellular products in two species of fish.the distribution of antigen and pathological changes induced by an experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila strain kj99, and its extracellular products, were studied in two species of fish. the microorganism was disseminated systemically and the haemodynamic and tissue changes were similar to those observed in septicaemia of mammals. intussusception, degeneration and necrosis of the nervous plexus and muscular layers of the gastrointestinal tract were common findings.200919377089
ingestion of bacteria overproducing dnak attenuates vibrio infection of artemia franciscana larvae.feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit vibrio infection. as an example, ingestion of escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic vibrio campbellii. the relationship between hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve dnak, the prokaryotic equivalent to hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic c ...200919373565
aeromonas spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a highly fatal infectious disease in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.aeromonas infections, rarely reported in western countries, are not uncommon infectious diseases in taiwan. the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of aeromonas spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) in patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated.200919369176
micrococcus luteus and pseudomonas species as probiotics for promoting the growth performance and health of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus.micrococcus luteus and pseudomonas species were isolated from the gonads and intestine of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus. m. luteus and ps. species antagonized aeromonas hydrophila with inhibition zone of 4 and 9 cm diameter, respectively. both microorganisms were added to artificial basal diet with 30% crude protein to evaluate their efficacy on the growth-performance and survival rate, besides some blood-parameters and chemistry. two hundred and forty o. niloticus with average body-weight ...200919361560
bacterial indicators of pollution of the douala lagoon, cameroon: public health implications.indiscriminate disposal of untreated wastes which are often heavily laden with sewage microorganisms some of which are pathogenic to humans into aquatic environments near cities could serve as potential dangers to human health.200819357756
quantitative analysis of bacterial adhesion to fish tissue.adhesion to host tissue represents a first crucial step in most bacterial infections. both specific adhesion-ligand as well as hydrophobic interactions may be involved. the adhesion of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, lactococcus garvieae, and yersinia ruckeri strains to fish tissue cells was assessed. to determine whether the observed bacterial adhesion to fish tissue cells was caused by non-specific interactions, adhesion to bovine serum albumin (bsa) and polystyrene was also tested. ...200919349152
high frequency of hemolytic and cytotoxic activity in aeromonas spp. isolated from clinical, food and environmental in rio de janeiro, brazil.molecular study of aerolysin and cytotonic enterotoxin genes by pcr and colony blot hybridization was performed in 117 strains of aeromonas spp. isolated from different sources. homogeneous distribution of these genes in a. hydrophila complex strains was observed. for a. caviae and a. sobria complex strains, aerolysin genes were more frequent than cytotonic enterotoxins genes. of 64 a. caviae complex strains, only one (1.5%) amplified the 451 bp product for the aer gene, however, the same primer ...200919347601
global etiology of travelers' diarrhea: systematic review from 1973 to the present.fifty-one published studies of travelers' diarrhea (td) were examined to look for regional differences in pathogens identified. enterotoxigenic e. coli was detected in 1,678/5,518 (30.4%) of td cases overall, with rates in latin america/caribbean (l. america), africa, south asia, and southeast asia of 1,109/3,302 (33.6%), 389/1,217 (31.2%), 153/499 (30.6%), and 36/500 (7.2%), respectively (p < 0.001). enteroaggregative e. coli was the second most common agent in l. america, found in 166/689 (24. ...200919346386
the effect of euglena viridis on immune response of rohu, labeo rohita (ham.).the study evaluated the effect of dietary doses of euglena viridis on the immune response and disease resistance of labeo rohita fingerlings against infection with the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. l. rohita fingerlings were fed with diet containing 0 (control), 0.1 g, 0.5 g, 1.0 g euglena powder kg(-1) dry diet for 90 days. biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio), haematological (wbc, rbc, haemoglobin content) and immunological (superoxide anion p ...200919345266
biosorption of pb(ii) from water using biomass of aeromonas hydrophila: central composite design for optimization of process variables.biomass of aeromonas hydrophila was successfully utilized for the removal of lead from aqueous solution. the effect of process variables such as ph, initial pb(ii) concentration, biomass dose and temperature on the uptake of lead were investigated using two level four factor (2(4)) full factorial central composite design with the help of minitab version 15 software. the predicted results thus obtained were found to be in good agreement (r(2)=98.6%) with the results obtained by performing experim ...200919345004
fermentation and growth kinetic study of aeromonas caviae under anaerobic conditions.although aeromonas caviae is pathogenic to a broad range of invertebrates including human, frequent in aquatic environments, and potentially vital for acidogenesis in anaerobic digestion, virtually no biokinetic information on its anaerobic growth is at hand. therefore, this study focused on evaluating its anaerobic growth kinetics on glucose. to provide a set of relevant biokinetic coefficients for modeling, a combination of curve fitting and numerical modeling was used. microcultivations were ...200919343339
increased liver protein and mrna expression of natural killer cell-enhancing factor b (nkef-b) in ayu (plecoglossus altivelis) after aeromonas hydrophila infection.natural killer cell-enhancing factor (nkef) may mediate cellular responses to proinflammatory molecules. the liver proteins of aeromonas hydrophila-infected ayu (plecoglossus altivelis) and healthy control fish were analyzed by 2de. a protein, which increased significantly in diseased fish, was identified as nkef-b by maldi-tof-ms. a full-length cdna clone of this proteinwas subsequently isolated. it contains 1092 bp with an open reading frame of 591 bp, coding for 197 amino acids with mw 21.9 k ...200919340957
appendicitis associated with travelers' diarrhea caused by aeromonas sobria.aeromonas species is an infrequent pathogen causing travelers' diarrhea and gastroenteritis. no human case of appendicitis has been reported as a complication of aeromonas infection until now. we describe a case of acute appendicitis associated with aeromonas sobria infection acquired in cebu, philippines.200919335814
characterization and application of a native lactic acid bacterium isolated from tannery fleshings for fermentative bioconversion of tannery fleshings.lactic acid bacteria (lab) species isolated from limed and delimed tannery fleshings (tf) were evaluated for their fermentation efficiency and antibacterial property. the native lab isolates efficiently fermented tf and resulted in a fermented mass with antioxidant properties, indicating their potential for effective eco-friendly bioconversion of tf. from among the lab isolated, a proteolytic isolate showing better antimicrobial spectrum and reasonably good fermentation efficiency was identified ...200919333593
biosorption of cr(vi) from aqueous solution using a. hydrophila in up-flow column: optimization of process variables.in the present study, continuous up-flow fixed-bed column study was carried out using immobilized dead biomass of aeromonas hydrophila for the removal of cr(vi) from aqueous solution. different polymeric matrices were used to immobilized biomass and polysulfone-immobilized biomass has shown to give maximum removal. the sorption capacity of immobilized biomass for the removal of cr(vi) evaluating the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rate and bed height. a maximum of 78.58% cr(vi) re ...200919333592
myxinidin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the epidermal mucus of hagfish, myxine glutinosa l.fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components that provide a first line of defense against various infectious pathogens. this study reports the bioassay-guided fractionation and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide, myxinidin, from the acidic epidermal mucus extract of hagfish (myxine glutinosa l.). edman sequencing and mass spectrometry revealed that myxinidin consists of 12 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 1,327.68 da. myxinidin showed activity against a broad rang ...200919330556
predicting virulence of aeromonas isolates based on changes in transcription of c-jun and c-fos in human tissue culture cells.to screen for the virulence potential of aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line caco-2.200919320953
in vitro potency of doripenem tested against an international collection of rarely isolated bacterial pathogens.doripenem, a new 1beta-methyl parenteral carbapenem, has very broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria. as noted here, the spectrum and potency extended to many rarely isolated species sampled by the doripenem global surveillance program. among the species or species groups with <or=0.14% prevalence (1959 strains tested), doripenem was active against 98.9% of enterobacteriaceae at <or=0.5 microg/ml. similarly, more than 90% of other rarely isolated gram-ne ...200919302927
quantitative detection of helicobacter pylori in water samples by real-time pcr amplification of the cag pathogenicity island gene, cage.a new real-time pcr assay that simultaneously amplifies a 102-bp fragment of the cage gene from helicobacter pylori and a new internal positive control containing a specific sequence of the gyrb gene from aeromonas hydrophila, was developed and validated for the detection of h. pylori in environmental samples.200919302298
aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers.aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of northern india, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. cell culture infectivity test performed on hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. this case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of a. caviae in a very large population of india, as se ...200819287850
development of imipenem resistance in an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria clinical isolate recovered from a patient with cholangitis.several imipenem-susceptible and -resistant aeromonas veronii biovar sobria isolates with different morphologies and antimicrobial susceptibilities recovered from bile samples of a patient with cholangitis were analysed. these isolates belonged to the same clone and the imipenem-resistant strains showed overexpression of the imis gene, encoding a chromosomal carbapenemase. these results should make clinicians aware of the possible emergence of multidrug-resistant a. veronii biovar sobria, perhap ...200919273640
surface-expressed enolase contributes to the pathogenesis of clinical isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila.in this study, we demonstrated that the surface-expressed enolase from diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila bound to human plasminogen and facilitated the latter's tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated activation to plasmin. the bacterial surface-bound plasmin was more resistant to the action of its specific physiological inhibitor, the antiprotease alpha(2)-antiplasmin. we found that immunization of mice with purified recombinant enolase significantly protected the animals against ...200919270100
cost-effective biostimulation strategy for wastewater decolorization using immobilized-cell systems.this study tended to evaluate threshold operation criteria of biostimulation for optimal biodecolorization in immobilized-cell systems (icss) using porites corals as packing matrices. indigenous aeromonas hydrophila with high efficiency for decolorization isolated from northeast taiwan was used for study. as maximal treatment performance of ics could only be achieved with maximal absorbed biomass with highest color removal capability. maintaining optimal attached cells for cost-effective color r ...200919269169
pcr detection of bacterial genes provides evidence of death by drowning.we have developed a sensitive and specific pcr method for detecting plankton dna in cases of death by drowning. however, this pcr method could not be used for cases of drowning in water containing no plankton. bacteria species are normally localized in the throat and trachea and they may invade into blood through the respiratory tract in people who have drowned as well as species localized in water. the aim of this study was to establish a novel and expedient pcr method for detecting bacterial g ...200919264526
morphological changes of aeromonas hydrophila in response to osmotic stress.the adaptive response of bacteria to stressful environmental situations may lead to a modification of physiological and phenotypical characteristics, including morphology. the aim of this study was the analysis of the ultrastructural changes in aeromonas hydrophila exposed to different nacl concentrations (1.7%, 3.4%, 6%) at 4 and 24 degrees c for 188 days. bacterial cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and specimens were analysed at different times during o ...200919264494
toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway can be triggered by grass carp reovirus and aeromonas hydrophila infection in rare minnow gobiocypris rarus.toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) is critical for lps recognition and cellular responses. it also recognizes some viral envelope proteins. detection mostly results in the inflammation rather than specific antiviral responses. however, it's unclear in fish. in this report, a tlr4 gene (named as grtlr4b) was cloned and characterized from rare minnow gobiocypris rarus. the full length of grtlr4b cdna consists of 2766 nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 818 amino acids with an estimated molecular mas ...200919264133
detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.we measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% nacl. homology analyses of the 16s rrna gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: photobacterium, vi ...200919261520
emerging infections of the gastrointestinal tract.infections account for significant gi morbidity and mortality worldwide. new organisms are being identified, associated with diarrhoeal illness and some with other gastrointestinal illness as well. among gi viruses, sapovirus is now recognised to cause diarrhoea, especially in children. a hypervirulent strain of clostridium difficile has caused epidemics in many countries. newly identified bacterial species that may cause diarrhoea include campylobacter concisus, arcobacteria, edwardsiella tarda ...200919258189
antimicrobial activities of doripenem and other carbapenems against pseudomonas aeruginosa, other nonfermentative bacilli, and aeromonas spp.the in vitro activity of doripenem against prevalent nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli and aeromonas spp. was evaluated. the collection comprised 14979 nonduplicate clinical isolates submitted during a global doripenem surveillance program conducted from 2003 through 2007. susceptibility tests were performed using the clinical and laboratory standards institute reference broth microdilution method and the susceptibility criteria of the us food and drug administration. doripenem (mic(90), 8 a ...200919249180
purification, virulence and characterization of an extracellular peptidase produced by aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from cultured sea cucumber apostichopus japonicus.strain h1, aeromonas salmonicida ssp. masoucida isolated from an ulcer on the sea cucumber apostichopus japonicus proved to be virulent toward this holothurian at 12 degrees c. extracellular products (ecp) of strain h1 were prepared, and an extracellular peptidase of 42 kda was purified from the ecp using sephadex g-100 gel filtration chromatography and diethylaminoethyl sepharose ion exchange chromatography. stepwise virulence tests on sea cucumbers indicated that the 42 kda peptidase was the v ...200819244974
assessment of safety, nutritional, and spoilage characteristics of different lagoon grey mullets (liza ramada, liza aurata, and liza saliens).different lagoon grey mullets such as liza ramada (thinlip mullet), liza aurata (golden grey mullet), and liza saliens (leaping grey mullet) were analyzed for their nutritional, microbiological, and safety parameters. the microbiological values never exceeded the lower limits stipulated by the italian higher institute of health. the pathogenic species frequently associated with seafood (salmonella, listeria monocytogenes, vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and aeromonas hydrophila) were n ...200819244917
prospective nationwide study of aeromonas infections in france.we report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical aeromonas infections in france. during 6 months (may to october 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. they included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections.200919244464
dna-based real-time detection and quantification of aeromonads from fresh water beaches on lake ontario.the present study was designed to develop a novel, rapid, direct dna-based protocol to enumerate aeromonads in recreational waters. an aeromonas genus-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-pcr) protocol was developed and optimized using newly designed genus-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from the gyrase b subunit (gyrb) gene. a standard curve was developed based on the pcr protocol with a minimum quantification limit of 10 cell equivalents ml(-1) achieved using a ...200919240357
identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in immune tissues of atlantic cod stimulated with formalin-killed, atypical aeromonas salmonicida.physiological changes, elicited in animal immune tissues by exposure to pathogens, may be studied using functional genomics approaches. we created and characterized reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) cdna libraries to identify differentially expressed genes in spleen and head kidney tissues of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) challenged with intraperitoneal injections of formalin-killed, atypical aeromonas salmonicida. of 4,154 ests from four cdna libraries, 10 genes with immune-r ...200919240301
understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by aeromonas hydrophila.this novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes--reactive black 5 (rb 5), reactive blue 171 (rb 171), reactive green 19 (rg19), reactive red 198 (rr198), reactive red 141 (rr141), and non-naphthol type azo dyes--direct yellow 86 (dy86), reactive yellow 84 (ry84)) affected color removal capability of aeromonas hydrophila. generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type ...200919237244
chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to clarias batrachus.the present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (hk) of clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (hkm) activity in response to arsenic exposure. chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (as(2)o(3), 0.50 microm) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the hk accompanied by reduction in both hkm number and head kidney somatic index (hksi). arsenic induced hk hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macr ...200919237206
development and characterization of cell lines derived from rohu, labeo rohita (hamilton), and catla, catla catla (hamilton).two new cell lines, designated re and cb, were derived from the eye of rohu, labeo rohita, and the brain of catla, catla catla, respectively. the cell lines were maintained in leibovitz's l-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. the re cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the cb cell line for more than 35 passages. the re cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. the cb cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. both cell lines ...200919236559
microbiology of the external ear canal in six african elephants (loxodonta africana).samples collected from both external ear canals of six adult female african elephants (loxodonta africana) were cultured for fungi, yeasts and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. all the samples produced heavy growths of several aerobic bacteria, but anaerobic bacteria were rare and no fungi or yeasts were isolated. the most common bacterium isolated was staphylococcus epidermidis, which was cultured from 11 of the 12 ears. acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and coryn ...200919234325
heterologous expression and purification of vibrio proteolyticus (aeromonas proteolytica) aminopeptidase: a rapid protocol.metalloaminopeptidases (maps) are enzymes that are involved in hiv infectivity, tumor growth and metastasis, angiogenesis, and bacterial infection. investigation of structure-function relationships in maps is a prerequisite to rational design of anti-map chemotherapeutics. the most intensively studied member of the biomedically important dinuclear maps is the prototypical secreted vibrio proteolyticus di-zinc aminopeptidase (vpap). the wild-type enzyme is readily purified from the supernatant of ...200919233285
a highly virulent pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila, from the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus.aeromonas spp. are characteristic bacteria of freshwaters and many of them can be components of the bacterial flora of aquatic animals and may become pathogens on animals including humans. in this study aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus, and was found to be a highly pathogenic bacterium among many isolated bacteria. mortality reached 100% within 6h when 200 microl of 1.24 x 10(7)cfu/ml was applied by injection. histopathological studies of m ...200919233188
beta-glucan administration enhances disease resistance and some innate immune responses in zebrafish (danio rerio).the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of beta-glucan (derived from saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the immune response and its protection against an infection of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila in zebrafish (danio rerio). zebrafish received beta-glucan by intraperitoneal injection at three different concentrations (5, 2 and 0.5 mgml(-1)) at 6, 4 and 2 days prior the challenge. on challenge day the control and beta-glucan pretreated zebrafish were intraperitoneally in ...200919232393
chimeric enzyme composed of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases from ralstonia eutropha and aeromonas caviae enhances production of phas in recombinant escherichia coli.chimeric enzymes composed of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases from ralstonia eutropha (cupriavidus necator) (phac(re)) and aeromonas caviae (phac(ac)) were constructed. phac(re) is known for its potent enzymatic activity among the characterized pha synthases. phacac has broad substrate specificity and synthesizes short-chain-length (scl)/medium-chain-length (mcl) pha. we attempted to create chimeric enzymes inheriting both of the advantageous properties. among eight chimeras, acre12, with 26 ...200919226108
maternal transfer and protective role of the alternative complement components in zebrafish danio rerio.embryos of most fish develop externally and are exposed to an aquatic environment full of potential pathogens, whereas they have little or only limited ability to mount an efficient and protective response. how fish embryos survive pathogenic attacks remains poorly defined. here we demonstrate that the maternal immunization of female zebrafish with formalin-killed aeromonas hydrophila causes a significant increase in c3 and bf contents in the mother, a corresponding rise in the offspring, and in ...200919223977
first organisms with acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (imp-13, imp-22, and vim-2) reported in austria. 200919223629
an aeromonas caviae genomic island is required for both o-antigen lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and flagellin glycosylation.aeromonas caviae sch3n possesses a small genomic island that is involved in both flagellin glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigen biosynthesis. this island appears to have been laterally acquired as it is flanked by insertion element-like sequences and has a much lower g+c content than the average aeromonad g+c content. most of the gene products encoded by the island are orthologues of proteins that have been shown to be involved in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis and flagellin glyco ...200919218387
[diarrhea from the infectologist's point of view].gastroenteritis is a nonspecific term for various pathologic states of the gastrointestinal tract. gastroenteritis causing pathogens are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. in the developed countries diarrhea is the most common reason for missing work, while in the developing world, it is a leading cause of death. internationally, the mortality rate is 5-10 million deaths each year. "traveller's diarrhea" is a polyetiologic common health problem of international travel ...200919218145
isolation, phylogenetic analysis and screening of marine mollusc-associated bacteria for antimicrobial, hemolytic and surface activities.this study was undertaken to survey culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the marine ark shell anadara broughtoni inhabiting in the sea of japan, and to test isolates for their antimicrobial, hemolytic and surface activities with an emphasis on low-molecular-weight metabolites search. a total of 149 strains were isolated and identified phenotypically. a total of 27 strains were selected to be investigated phylogenetically by 165 rrna gene sequence analysis. the most bacteria were aff ...200819216104
temporal and spatial fate of gfp-expressing motile and nonmotile aeromonas hydrophila in the house fly digestive tract.to gain insight into the transmissibility of bacteria by house flies, the temporal and spatial fate of green fluorescent protein (gfp)-expressing motile and nonmotile strains of aeromonas hydrophila was examined within the alimentary canal. liquid food consumed by house flies is first stored in the crop and then is regurgitated and/or passed into the midgut. once within the midgut, food is contained inside a double-layered peritrophic matrix (pm), with the inner layer enveloping digested materia ...200919198526
[taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (esox lucius)].the taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (lucius lucius) has been studied. microorgansism of the families enterobacteriaceae, aeromonadaceae, and vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. the result ...200819198074
isolation and identification of two novel sds-resistant secreted chitinases from aeromonas schubertii.two sds-resistant endochitinases, designated as aschi53 and aschi61, were isolated from aeromonas schubertii in a soil sample from southern taiwan. maldi-tof mass measurement indicates the molecular weights of 53,527 for aschi53 and 61,202 for aschi61. n-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were obtained, and blast analysis of the sequences and ms/ms peptide sequencing showed that they were novel proteins. degradation of chitin by these two endochitinases gave rise to hexameric chitin olig ...200919197977
a review of necrotising fasciitis in the extremities.to review currently available evidence on the epidemiology and methods of management for necrotising fasciitis, with particular reference to hong kong.200919197096
development of a bacterial challenge test for gnotobiotic sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.the use of probiotic microorganisms in aquaculture is gaining a lot of interest. gnotobiotic model systems are required in order to fully understand the effects and modes-of-action of these microorganisms, as the native microbial communities present in non-sterile animals can lead to false conclusions. in this study, a gnotobiotic sea bass larvae (dicentrarchus labrax) test system was developed. in order to obtain bacteria-free animals, the eggs were disinfected with glutaraldehyde and subsequen ...200919196282
genetic characterization of pasa6, a new plasmid from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida that encodes a type iii effector protein aoph homolog.a new plasmid designated pasa6 from an aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain isolated from diseased turbot has been characterized. pasa6 consists of 18536bp, has a g+c content of 53.8% and encodes 20 predicted open-reading frames (orfs). eight orfs showed homology to transposases, of which six are complete and two are partial is sequences. two orfs showed homology to replication proteins, and six orfs showed homology to hypothetical proteins. two orfs are truncated homologs of putative ...200919195484
evaluation of a digoxigenin-labelled probe for detection of aeromonas spp.an outer membrane protein-based digoxigenin (dig)-labelled dna probe was developed for the specific detection of aeromonas sp. from food/environmental/clinical samples. dot blot reaction answered for all the aeromonas isolates and was negative for escherichia coli, pseudomonas sp., klebsiella sp., vibrio parahaemolyticus, v. harveyi, v. alginolyticus, v. vulnificus. edwardsiella tarda and staphylococcus sp. as this protein is highly conserved in various aeromonas species, the probe has the poten ...200919187505
[selection and kinetic mechanism of psychrotrophs in low temperature wastewater treatment].a study was carried out taking low temperature domestic wastewater as target in laboratory, the composition of bacteria in activated sludge was analyzed and the degradation kinetics of organics was investigated. six preponderant psychrotrophs were selected out, belonging to zoogloea, aeromonas, flavobacterium, micrococcus, bacillus and pseudomonaus, respectively. results show that ttc-dehydrogenase activity of the psychrotroph is 25.44 mg/(l x h) which is 20.5 times more than that of ordinary ac ...200819186826
propolis and herba epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of chinese sucker, myxocyprinus asiaticus.the effect of traditional chinese medicine (tcm) formulated from propolis and herba epimedii extracts at the ratio of 3:1 (w/w) on non-specific immune response of chinese sucker (myxocyprinus asiaticus) was investigated. fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% tcm extracts for five weeks. the respiratory burst and phagocytic activities of blood leukocytes, lysozyme and natural haemolytic complement activities in plasma were measured weekly. after five weeks of feeding, fis ...200919185611
two redundant sodium-driven stator motor proteins are involved in aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum rotation.motility is an essential characteristic for mesophilic aeromonas strains. we identified a new polar flagellum region (region 6) in the a. hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) chromosome that contained two additional polar stator genes, named poma2 and pomb2. a. hydrophila poma2 and pomb2 are highly homologous to other sodium-conducting polar flagellum stator motors as well as to the previously described a. hydrophila ah-3 poma and pomb. pomab and poma2b2 were present in all the mesophilic aeromonas st ...200919181813
an rna hairpin sequesters the ribosome binding site of the homing endonuclease mobe gene.previous transcript mapping of the bacteriophage aeh1 nrd operon revealed a predicted rna hairpin upstream of the homing endonuclease mobe gene. we enzymatically mapped the hairpin, showing that the mobe ribosome binding site is sequestered. cloning of the hairpin upstream of lacz resulted in reduced beta-galactosidase activity, consistent with translational regulation.200919181807
expression of aeromonas caviae st pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in escherichia coli.potassium tellurite (k(2)teo(3)) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. we previously reported that the lpda gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate aeromonas caviae st is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. in this work, we show that expression of a. caviae st acee, acef, and lpda genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrog ...200919168030
genetics and proteomics of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis.comparison between the lipopolysaccharide (lps) core structures of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida a450 and aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 shows great similarity in the inner lps core and part of the outer lps core but some differences in the distal part of the outer lps core (residues ld-hep, d-gal, and d-galnac). the three genomic regions encoding lps core biosynthetic genes in a. salmonicida a450, of which regions 2 and 3 have genes identical to those of a. hydrophila ah-3, were fully seq ...200919151135
cloning and expression of a hepcidin gene from a marine fish (pseudosciaena crocea) and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic peptide.hepcidin gene is widely expressed in various fish, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide is a very important component in the innate immune system. large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the important economic species of marine-cultured fish but knowledge of its innate immune mechanism is lacking. in this study, we characterize a p. crocea hepcidin gene named as pc-hepc. it consists of an open reading frame of 258 bases encoding 85 amino acids and has a conserved sequence in ...200919150638
use of whole cell culture of aeromonas sp. as enantioselective scavenger: a facile preparation of l-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric excess.the bacterium aeromonas sp. (cgmcc 2226) can enantioselectively scavenge d-isomer, making l-amino acid derivatives (aads) in high ee. the enantioselective scavenger (es) has shown a broad substrate scope. eleven l-aads, phe derivatives substituted with methyl-, mono- and dichloro-, bromo-, and nitro-group, were produced in high ee from corresponding racemates.200919150596
improvement in detection of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in patients with travelers' diarrhea by increasing the number of e. coli colonies tested.no cause of one-third of travelers' diarrhea (td) cases can be detected despite microbiologic assessment. we propose that these pathogen-negative td cases include undetected enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec). as a standard in diagnostic microbiology, samples of five e. coli colonies were tested to detect etec from stool cultures. we compared the sensitivities and the number of etec detected by 20 colonies with those of 5, 10, and 15 colonies. the percent detection of etec with five e. coli ...200919141833
giardia duodenalis assemblages associated with diarrhea in children in south india identified by pcr-rflp.giardial diarrhea in a birth cohort of 452 children in an urban slum in south india was characterized. of the 155 episodes that occurred in 99 children, 73% were acute diarrhea. children with better educated mothers and a toilet at home had lower odds of acquiring giardial diarrhea, whereas low socioeconomic status and drinking municipal water were associated with greater risk. children with co-infections tended to have a slightly longer duration of diarrhea (p = 0.061) and showed significantly ...200919141832
gene cloning, expression and homology modeling of hemolysin gene from aeromonas hydrophila.hemolysin is a significant toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila, which contributes pathogenicity of fish to humans. the complete orf of hemolysin gene (1886 bp) was amplified using pcr. it was cloned in ta and sub-cloned in pet28a vector then transformed into escherichia coli bl21(de3) codon plus rp cells expressed by the induction with 1.0 mm of iptg. the expected size of expressed protein was 68.0 kda estimated by migration in 12% sds-page. anti-his monoclonal antibodies were used to substan ...200919136063
a mouse model for characterization of gastrointestinal colonization rates among environmental aeromonas isolates.the colonization rates of 10 different environmental aeromonas isolates were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pretreatment method. as demonstrated, alterations to the colon flora of mice pretreated with streptomycin allowed transient colonization by bacterial species normally excluded by host competition. a novel procedure is described for determining the colonization abilities of aeromonas isolates under these conditions. the colonization rates of a. salmonicida, a. encheleia, and a. ...200919130126
interaction of aeromonas spp. human isolates with murine macrophages.this study aimed to evaluate phagocytic and bactericidal activity of macrophages originated from murine j774 macrophage cell line against 26 strains of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas hydrophila isolated from human fecal specimens. the analysis of phagocytic index (pi) indicated these strains were phagocytosed in low numbers, below 1.1 x l0(-3) for 65% strains of a. veronii biotype sobria and a. hydrophila. the highest pi value (0.019) was noted in murine macroph ...200819123303
toxin production by aeromonas sobria in natural environments: river water vs. seawater.aeromonas are water-borne pathogens. they are halotolerant, which means that they can survive in environments whose salt content corresponds to that of seawater (3.0% nacl). however, the presence of aeromonas in seawater is extremely rare compared with that in river water. in this study, we tested the ability of aeromonas sobria to produce toxins in river water and seawater. first, we cultured a. sobria on skim milk agar plates supplemented with either river water (sarw) or seawater (sasw). the ...200819122681
polyhydroxyalkanoates production from carbohydrates by a genetic recombinant aeromonas sp.to develop an aeromonas strain able to utilize inexpensive carbon sources such as starch for the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha).200819120931
surgical site infection due to aeromonas species: report of nine cases and literature review.gastrointestinal and wound infections are the most common clinical presentation of aeromonas. surgical site infections (ssis) due to this microorganism are rare. we studied the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 9 cases that appeared at 2 spanish hospitals and reviewed 15 cases available in the literature. all patients (including our cases) had gastrointestinal or biliary diseases. 21 patients (91.3%) developed ssis after abdominal or pelvic surgery. the mean duration from surgery t ...200919117246
antimicrobial activity of prulifloxacin tested against a worldwide collection of gastroenteritis-producing pathogens, including those causing traveler's diarrhea.prulifloxacin, the prodrug of ulifloxacin (active component), is a newer fluoroquinolone with broad activity against enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli. ulifloxacin and other oral comparator agents were tested for activity against 582 gastroenteritis strains from global surveillance studies. ulifloxacin was highly active against escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia spp., vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., and plesiomonas spp. (mic(50)s and mic(90)s, <or=0.03 microg/ml a ...200919114678
revealing interactive toxicity of aromatic amines to azo dye decolorizer aeromonas hydrophila.this study attempted to combine chemostat pulse technique (cpt) and dose-mortality assessment in pursuit of quantitative rankings of toxicity of model aromatic amines (maas) in the presence of diazo dye reactive red 141 (or evercion red h-e7b; rr141) upon aeromonas hydrophila. as known, bacterial decolorization performance of azo dyes is directly dependent upon both the characteristics of biochemical reactivity and biotoxicity of dyes and related aromatic amines towards color removal. thus, the ...200919111981
potential of psidium guajava supplemented fish diets in controlling aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).fourteen herbs were extracted in water, 95% ethanol, and ether, and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against aeromonas hydrophila, a fish pathogen causing motile aeromonas septicemia. using swab paper disc assays and minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) determinations, we noted that the ethanol extract of psidium guajava leaf exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity. the extract allowed growth-inhibited a. hydrophila cells to regrow in fresh bhi broth indicating a bacteriosta ...200819111636
characterization and comparative analyses of zebrafish intelectins: highly conserved sequences, diversified structures and functions.intelectin family, also called the x-lectin family, is a newly discovered gene family involved in development and innate immunity. however, no research was carried out for this gene family in the model organism zebrafish. here we present the first characterization of seven zebrafish intelectins (zintls) and the first systematic comparative analysis of intelectins from various species in order to provide some clues to the function and evolution of this gene family. we examined the expression patt ...200919100836
identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at southwestern lake michigan bathing beaches.ring-billed (larus delawarensis ord, 1815) and herring (larus argentatus pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. the importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. this study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathog ...200819096455
effects of c-terminal amino acids truncation on enzyme properties of aeromonas caviae d1 chitinase.c-terminal truncation mutagenesis was used to explore the functional and structural significance of the c-terminal region of aeromonas caviae d1 chitinase (acd1chia). comparative studies between the engineered full-length acd1chia and the truncated mutant (acd1chiak606) included initial rate kinetics, fluorescence and circular dichroism (cd) spectrometric properties, and substrate binding and hydrolysis abilities. the overall catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/k(m), of acd1chiak606 with the 4mu-(glcna ...200919089411
comparison of antibody responses in atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) to vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and francisella sp.bacterial diseases such as vibriosis, atypical furunculosis and francisellosis, are registered as an increasing problem in cod farming in norway. in order to develop efficient vaccines against diseases it is of interest to investigate if the cod immune system differentiates between various serotypes of vibrio anguillarum and variants of aeromonas salmonicida associated with the diseases by raising specific antibody responses. cod of the same origin were shown to raise significant responses to v. ...200919084603
[severe pneumonia caused by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria: a case report and review of the literature].to describe the clinical features of severe pneumonitis with aeromonas veronii biovar sobria.200819080598
fishy business. 200919079348
high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of atlantic turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs 28, 31, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180, and 209) were measured in tissue samples (liver and fat) from 30 loggerhead turtles caretta caretta, 1 green turtle chelonia mydas, and 1 leatherback dermochelys coriacea stranded on the coasts of the canary islands, trying to establish a possible relation between pcb concentrations and the lesions and causes of death. tissues from these turtles contained higher levels of pcbs than those reported in turtles from other geographical r ...200919062067
characterization of aeromonas encheleia strains isolated from aquatic environments in the czech republic.characterization and identification of aeromonas strains isolated from surface and underground waters using phenotypic and genotyping methods.200919055626
isolation and functional characterization of neutrophil-like cells, from goldfish (carassius auratus l.) kidney.neutrophils are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of inflammation and are central cells of innate immunity of vertebrates. upon activation, neutrophils are capable of producing an intense respiratory burst response, they rapidly degranulate in the presence of pathogens, and deploy neutrophil extracellular traps that efficiently remove infections agents. we report on the isolation, cultivation and characterization of neutrophil-like cells isolated from the goldfish kidney. neutrophil-l ...200919046985
immunohistochemical localization of rainbow trout ladderlectin and intelectin in healthy and infected rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).in the present study, the pattern of immuno-reactive ladderlectin and intelectin in healthy rainbow trout is compared to rainbow trout infected with a variety of infectious agents. in healthy rainbow trout, both proteins were localized to individual epithelial cells of the gill and intestine and both proteins were clearly demonstrated within cytoplasmic granules of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and macrophages/monocytes found in blood vessels, hepatic sinusoids, renal interstitium, mucosal epithe ...200919046637
virulence plasmid of aeromonas hydrophila induces macrophage apoptosis and helps in developing systemic infection in mice.pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila strain ao1 bears a 21kb plasmid encoding several virulence determinants. infection studies revealed that this isolate induced cytotoxicity in balb/c mice splenic macrophages involving reactive oxygen species generation. dna gel, hoechst 33342, annexin-v and tunel assay documented macrophage death induced by 21kb plasmid bearing isolates to be apoptotic in nature. apoptosis induced by the plasmid bearing isolates involved initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9 and execu ...200919041935
in silico identification of putative drug targets from different metabolic pathways of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a major pathogen both of aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. infection with a. hydrophila results in severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry. in humans, aeromonas hydrophila infections are known to cause gastroenteritis and wound infections. investigations for developing a potential vaccine for its control are underway. the availability of the complete sequence information of a. hydrophila strain atcc 7966t genome has made it possible to carry ...200819032165
biosorption of cr(vi) from water using biomass of aeromonas hydrophila: central composite design for optimization of process variables.the potential use of biomass of aeromonas hydrophila for biosorption of chromium from aqueous solution was investigated. the variables (ph, initial cr(vi) concentration, biomass dose, and temperature) affecting process were optimized by performing minimum number of experimental runs with the help of central composite design. the results predicted by design were found to be in good agreement (r2 = 99.1%) with those obtained by performing experiments. multiple regression analysis shows that uptake ...200919031053
high diversity of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in association with cyanobacterial water blooms.cyanobacterial mass occurrences (water blooms) cause ecological, economic and health problems worldwide. still, little is known about heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria and the interactions between those organisms. we isolated 460 bacterial strains from more than 40 lakes and rivers (151 samples), baltic sea (32 samples) and treated drinking water of seven treatment plants (29 samples). the water bodies and the raw water of the treatment plants were frequently dominated by high ...200919020559
aeromonas spp. human isolates induce apoptosis of murine macrophages.interactions of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria, and aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from fecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis on murine macrophages, j774 cells, were investigated. analyses of cellular morphology and dna fragmentation in phagocytes infected with these strains exhibited typical characteristic features of cells undergoing apoptosis. we observed the morphological changes, including condensation of nuclear chromatin, formation of apoptotic bodies a ...200919005723
biodegradation of carbendazim by epiphytic and neustonic bacteria of eutrophic chełmzyńskie lake.the paper presents a study on biodegradation of carbendazim (1 mg/l) by homogeneous cultures of epiphytic (n = 25) and neustonic (n = 25) bacteria and heterogeneous (n = 1) cultures containing a mixture of 25 bacterial strains isolated from epidermis of the common reed (phragmites australis, (cav.) trin. ex steud.) and surface microlayer (sm approximately 250 microm) of eutrophic lake chełmzyńskie. results indicate that epiphytic bacteria are characterized by higher average capacity to decompose ...200819004243
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the acetone extract of the lichen ramalina farinacea and its (+)-usnic acid, norstictic acid, and protocetraric acid constituents.the acetone extract of the lichen ramalina farinacea and its (+)-usnic acid constituent showed antimicrobial activity against bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, yersinia enterocolitica, candida albicans, and candida glabrata. norstictic acid was active against aeromonas hydrophila as well as the above microorganisms except yersinia enterocolitica. protocetraric acid showed activity only against the tested yeasts candida alb ...200418998406
routine phenotypic identification of bacterial species of the family pasteurellaceae isolated from animals.pasteurellaceae are bacteria with an important role as primary or opportunistic, mainly respiratory, pathogens in domestic and wild animals. some species of pasteurellaceae cause severe diseases with high economic losses in commercial animal husbandry and are of great diagnostic concern. because of new data on the phylogeny of pasteurellaceae, their taxonomy has recently been revised profoundly, thus requiring an improved phenotypic differentiation procedure to identify the individual species of ...200818987220
aeromonas sobria sepsis complicated by rhabdomyolysis in an hiv-positive patient: case report and evaluation of traits associated with bacterial virulence.human infection with aeromonas species is uncommon and most often due to trauma with exposure to contaminated water or soil. a 43-year-old hiv- and hepatitis c virus (hcv)-infected male, after a two-week course of corticosteroid therapy for an autoimmune anemia, developed diarrhea, dermatologic manifestations and a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, resulting in death. although stool samples were repeatedly negative, two sets of blood cultures obtained during a single peak of fever yielded the ...200918977680
biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.as a new member of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) family, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbvhhx) was produced by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4. phbvhhx showed a rougher surface and had higher hydrophobicity than the well-studied polymers poly(l-lactic acid) (pla) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx). human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mscs) adhered better on phbvhhx film than on tissue culture plates (tcps), pla film and ...200918976972
the asap1 peptidase of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes is a highly conserved deuterolysin metalloprotease (family m35) and a major virulence factor.infections by the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes cause significant disease in a number of fish species. in this study, we showed that asap1, a toxic 19-kda metallopeptidase produced by a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, belongs to the group of extracellular peptidases (aeromonas type) (merops id m35.003) of the deuterolysin family of zinc-dependent aspzincin endopeptidases. the structural gene of asap1 was sequenced and found to be highly conserved among gram-negative bacte ...200918952802
expression profiles of cytokines released in intestinal epithelial cells of the rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, in response to bacterial infection.to determine whether fish intestinal epithelial cells (iecs) contribute to mucosal immunity, we established a method for isolating iecs from the rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss and examined cytokine production in these cells. components of the intestinal epithelium were released by incubation of intestinal pieces with 1mm dithiothreitol (dtt)/ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (edta). the iec-rich fraction (purity >90%; survival rate approximately 95%) was obtained by centrifugation on a 35%/40% ...200918952122
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