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bacteria associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs in a natural environment (ría de vigo, galicia, northwestern spain).abstract the present study was undertaken to describe the epiflora of the eggs of an important fishing species collected in a coastal zone. microflora associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs collected in the ría de vigo was examined from january to june 2000. the count was carried out in three different ways: a total direct count by epifluorescence, a heterotrophic bacteria count on marine agar (ma) and a total vibrio count on thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose (tcbs). it was observed th ...200319719614
diversity of activated sludge bacteria receiving the 3-chloroaniline-degradative plasmid pc1gfp.plasmid pc1 of delftia acidovorans ca28, encoding the oxidative deamination of 3-chloroaniline (3-ca), was tagged with a mini-tn5 transposon containing the gfp gene. the labelled plasmid, designated pc1gfp, was subsequently transferred to pseudomonas putida uwc3 and the plasmid transfer from this donor to the bacterial community in activated sludge was studied. mating experiments were performed on both luria-bertani agar plates and directly in liquid activated sludge. green fluorescent colonies ...200319719576
virulence factor-activity relationships (vfar) with specific emphasis on aeromonas species (spp.).the human population most commonly inflicted with aeromonas infection includes young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. importantly, the isolation rate of aeromonas species from children suffering from diarrhea is similar in developing and developed countries. it is becoming clear that only a small subset of aeromonas species belonging to a particular hybridization group causes disease in humans. human infections with this pathogen occur by consuming contaminated food and w ...200919717930
molecular cloning and expression analysis of the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) gene in grass carp.liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is a novel antimicrobial peptide (amp) recently found in vertebrates, and exhibits distinct amino acid sequence, secondary structure and expression pattern from other peptides. in this study, the leap-2 gene and its full-length cdna were cloned from grass carp. grass carp leap-2 gene consists of two introns and three exons. the translated product contains 92 amino acids, including a 26 amino acids signal peptide and a mature peptide of 41 amino ac ...201019716607
interleukin-17d in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): molecular characterization, 3d modelling and promoter analysis.il-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the clearance of extracellular bacteria and contributes to the pathology of many autoimmune and allergic conditions. much work on il-17 has been done in humans and higher vertebrates while little work has been conducted in lower vertebrates including fish. in this study, we have cloned and characterized the full-length cdna and genomic sequence of il-17d from atlantic salmon. the atlantic salmon il-17d (asil-17d) cdna possessed ...200919716422
pathogenic potential of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from surface waters in kolkata, india.members of the genus aeromonas (family aeromonadaceae) are medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped micro-organisms and are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens; they possess several virulence factors associated with human disease, and represent a serious public health concern. in the present study, putative virulence traits of aeromonas hydrophila isolates collected from different natural surface waters of kolkata, india, w ...200919713362
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro gene transfer in bacteria isolated from the ulcers of eus-affected fish in india.the occurrence of drug resistance and plasmid-mediated transferability was investigated in 15 aeromonas isolates collected from the ulcers of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected fishes katla (catla catla), mrigel (cirrhinus mrigala) and punti (puntius sp.).200919709369
comparison study of membrane filtration direct count and an automated coliform and escherichia coli detection system for on-site water quality testing.this study compared an automated escherichia coli and coliform detection system with the membrane filtration direct count technique for water testing. the automated instrument performed equal to or better than the membrane filtration test in analyzing e. coli-spiked samples and blind samples with interference from proteus vulgaris or aeromonas hydrophila.200919703500
bacteria isolated from 25 hydatid cysts in sheep, cattle and goats.bacteria were isolated from 12 of 25 hydatid cysts collected from the lungs and livers of cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in the province of messina, sicily, italy. citrobacter freundii was isolated from seven of the cysts, aeromonas hydrophila from three, staphylococcus species from two, salmonella species from two and escherichia coli and proteus vulgaris from one.200919700784
effect of beta-glucan on immunity and survival of early stage of anabas testudineus (bloch).the present experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of beta-glucan suspension derived from barley on the innate immune response and disease resistance of anabas testudineus spawns against infection caused by aeromonas hydrophila. four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg l(-1) were taken and 8 days old spawn were exposed for 2 h and 3 h. the cell suspension of spawn was assayed for total protein, acid ...200919699803
management of human and animal bite wound infection: an overview.animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. the organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, pasteurella multocida in animal bites, eikenella corrodens in animal and human, capnocytophaga spp, neisseria weaveri, weeksella zoohelcum, neisseria canis, staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxid ...200919698283
atypical furunculosis vaccines for atlantic cod gadhus morhua: impact of reattached aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein on vaccine efficacy.atypical furunculosis caused by atypical aeromonas salmonicida bacteria is reported as an increasing problem in farmed atlantic cod gadus morhua in norway. at present, furunculosis vaccines adapted for cod or other marine fish species are not available. to identify bacterial components important for inducing protection in cod, we compared oil-adjuvanted vaccines based on a. salmonicida isolates phenotypically differing in their major cell surface constituents, such as the a-layer protein and lip ...200919694171
aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. with the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, w ...200919692919
magnetic circular dichroism study of a dicobalt(ii) complex with mixed 5- and 6-coordination: a spectroscopic model for dicobalt(ii) hydrolases.the magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) study of [co(2)(mu-oh)(mu-ph(4)dba)(tmeda)(2)(otf)], in which ph(4)dba is the dinucleating bis(carboxylate) ligand dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(diphenylacetate) and tmeda is n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine, is presented. this complex serves as an excellent spectroscopic model for a number of dicobalt(ii) enzymes and proteins that have both the mu-hydroxo, mu-carboxylato bridging and asymmetric 6- and 5-coordination. the low-temperature mcd spectrum of the model ...200919691327
tri-trophic linkages in disease: pathogen transmission to rainbow trout through stonefly prey.relationships between macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in aquatic environments are only poorly understood despite the fact that many aquatic macroinvertebrates feed on microbial biofilms during some life stage. better understanding of trophic interactions between microbial biofilms, macroinvertebrates, and fish may also help control fish diseases and loss of natural resources. it has also been suggested that pollution, habitat fragmentation, and poor water quality may contribute to increase ...200919689880
aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 type iii secretion system expression and regulatory network.the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system (t3ss) has been shown to play a crucial role in this pathogen's interactions with its host. we previously described the genetic organization of the t3ss cluster and the existence of at least one effector, called aext, in a. hydrophila strain ah-3. in this study, we analyzed the expression of the t3ss regulon by analyzing the activity of the aopn-aopd and aext promoters (t3ss machinery components and effector, respectively) by means of two differ ...200919684162
comparative biology of two natural variants of the incq-2 family plasmids, pras3.1 and pras3.2.plasmids pras3.1 and pras3.2 are two closely related, natural variants of the incq-2 plasmid family that have identical plasmid backbones except for two differences. plasmid pras3.1 has five 6-bp repeat sequences in the promoter region of the mobb gene and four 22-bp iterons in its oriv region, whereas pras3.2 has only four 6-bp repeats and three 22-bp iterons. plasmid pras3.1 was found to have a higher copy number than pras3.2, and we show that the extra 6-bp repeat results in an increase in mo ...200919684126
identification, biosynthesis, and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate.in this study, we found that ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase 1 (phac1(ps)) from pseudomonas sp. 61-3 synthesized a pha copolymer containing a 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and small amounts of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) from fructose as a sole carbon source. 3h4mv is a monomer unit that has hitherto not been reported as a naturally occurring component of phas. to increase the 3h4mv fraction in pha copolymers, the ...200919681605
foodborne and indicator bacteria in farmed molluscan shellfish before and after depuration.galicia's coast (northwestern spain) is a major producer of bivalve molluscs. over an 18-month period, the presence of salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and clostridium botulinum was determined by pcr methods in mussels (22 batches) and infaunal bivalves (31 batches of clams and cockles) before and after depuration. all batches were harvested from galician class b harvesting areas where bivalve molluscs must not exceed 4,600 escherichia coli per 100 g of f ...200919681267
synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antibacterial studies of new ru(iii) schiff base complexes containing chloride/bromide and triphenylphosphine/arsine as co-ligands.a new ru(iii) schiff base complexes of the type [rux(eph(3))l] (x = cl/br; e = p/as; l = dianion of the schiff bases were derived by the condensation of 1,4-diformylbenzene with o-aminobenzoic acid/o-aminophenol/o-aminothiophenol in the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio) have been synthesized from the reactions of [rux(3)(eph(3))(3)] with appropriate schiff base ligands in benzene in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. the new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (ir, electronic, (1)h, (13 ...200919679508
[leech-borne infection on a tram flap: a case report].leeches are used worldwide to treat venous congestion of flaps. aeromonas hydrophila infections are recognized complications of leech use. we report a new case of delayed leech-borne infection in mammary reconstruction by a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (tram), which caused the flap loss. the use of prophylactic antibiotics is a way to prevent a.hydrophila infection (third generation cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin). this antibioprophylaxy must be followed until wound closure of the ...201019674823
use of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) as an immunostimulant for the control of aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (lps) for the prevention of infection by aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum) fingerlings.201019674184
common mechanistic features among metallo-beta-lactamases: a computational study of aeromonas hydrophila cpha enzyme.metallo-beta-lactamases (mbetals) constitute an increasingly serious clinical threat by giving rise to beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. they accommodate in their catalytic pocket one or two zinc ions, which are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactams. recent x-ray studies on a member of the mono-zinc b2 mbetals, cpha from aeromonas hydrophila, have paved the way to mechanistic studies of this important subclass, which is selective for carbapenems. here we have used hybrid quantum mechan ...200919671702
evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.the sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of piper betle leaves were determined. betel leaves artificially inoculated with aeromonas, salmonella and yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees c, indicating a residual antimi ...200919670009
pcr-dgge-based methodologies to assess diversity and dynamics of aeromonas communities.aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may cause infectious diseases in fish and humans. however, reliable and specific methods to evaluate the diversity and dynamics of aeromonas populations are currently unavailable. this study aimed to develop pcr-dgge methodologies for culture-independent analysis of aeromonas populations in water systems.201019659697
structural basis for the kexin-like serine protease from aeromonas sobria as sepsis-causing factor.the anaerobic bacterium aeromonas sobria is known to cause potentially lethal septic shock. we recently proposed that a. sobria serine protease (asp) is a sepsis-related factor that induces vascular leakage, reductions in blood pressure via kinin release, and clotting via activation of prothrombin. asp preferentially cleaves peptide bonds that follow dibasic amino acid residues, as do kex2 (saccharomyces cerevisiae serine protease) and furin, which are representative kexin family proteases. here ...200919654332
the structure of the dizinc subclass b2 metallo-beta-lactamase cpha reveals that the second inhibitory zinc ion binds in the histidine site.bacteria can defend themselves against beta-lactam antibiotics through the expression of class b beta-lactamases, which cleave the beta-lactam amide bond and render the molecule harmless. there are three subclasses of class b beta-lactamases (b1, b2, and b3), all of which require zn2+ for activity and can bind either one or two zinc ions. whereas the b1 and b3 metallo-beta-lactamases are most active as dizinc enzymes, subclass b2 enzymes, such as aeromonas hydrophila cpha, are inhibited by the b ...200919651913
aeromonas fluvialis sp. nov., isolated from a spanish river.a gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated 717(t), was isolated from a water sample collected from the muga river, girona, north-east spain. preliminary analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence showed that this strain belonged to the genus aeromonas, the nearest species being aeromonas veronii (99.5 % similarity, with seven different nucleotides). a polyphasic study based on a multilocus phylogenetic analysis of five housekeeping genes (gyrb, rpod, reca, dnaj and g ...201019648345
identification of broad cross-protective immunogens using heterogeneous antiserum-based immunoproteomic approach.bacterium is still one of the major causes of life-threatening microbial infections. the most effective way to control bacterial infections is probably vaccine prevention. however, development of bacterial vaccine, especially polyvalent vaccines that could be used to fight against a variety of bacterial serotypes and species, is challenging due to the difficulty in identifying broad cross-protective antigens for different serotypes and species of pathogenic bacteria. in the present study, we dev ...200919640004
inhibition of gamma-thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation by histone h1subtypes and h1.3 fragments.human platelets are differentially activated by varying concentrations of alpha-thrombin or by beta- and gamma-thrombin via three thrombin receptors, par-1, par-4 and gpibalpha.it is likely that the development of a normal or abnormal hemostatic event in humans is dictated, in part, by the selective activation of these receptors. the ability to differentially inhibit these thrombin receptors could, therefore, have clinical significance. we have previously demonstrated that histone h1 selectively ...200919637099
aeromonas species associated with necrotizing enteritis and septicemia in an adult male ostrich (struthio camelus).a deceased 10-yr-old male ostrich was diagnosed with severe necrotizing enteritis and septicemia. the bird was inappetent for 3 wk and had neurologic signs 2 days prior to death. macroscopically, no significant lesions were noted aside from congestion of the liver, kidneys, and spleen. histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis,associated with large numbers of gram-negative bacteria, multifocal fibrinoid necrosis in portal arteries, accumulation of fibrin in hepatic sinusoids, myoc ...200919630242
exploring threshold operation criteria of biostimulation for azo dye decolorization using immobilized cell systems.this follow-up study provided an evaluation on threshold operation criteria of biostimulation in immobilized cell systems (icss) with aeromonas hydrophila onto packing materials porites corals. essential nutrients in appropriate flow rate for biostimulation were inevitably required to maintain maximum attached cell population for cost-effective biodecolorization. with the method of "graphical reconstruction", the most economically feasible strategy of medium stimulation for color removal was qua ...200919628386
typing of clinical and environmental strains of aeromonas spp. using two pcr based methods and whole cell protein analysis.two pcr based typing methods i.e. random amplified polymorphic dna analysis (rapd) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (eric)-pcr were evaluated for typing of 42 aeromonas isolates from clinical and environmental sources and whole cell protein (wcp) profiles were analyzed. both rapd and eric-pcr showed a high level of genetic diversity. numerical index of the discriminatory (d) values were 0.94 and 0.96 (>0.90) for rapd and eric-pcr, respectively. no correlation in bandi ...200919622374
variations in the expressed antimicrobial peptide repertoire of northern leopard frog (rana pipiens) populations suggest intraspecies differences in resistance to pathogens.the northern leopard frog (rana pipiens or lithobates pipiens) is historically found in most of the provinces of canada and the northern and southwest states of the united states. in the last 50 years, populations have suffered significant losses, especially in the western regions of the species range. using a peptidomics approach, we show that the pattern of expressed antimicrobial skin peptides of frogs from three geographically separated populations are distinct, and we report the presence of ...200919622371
divergent evolution and purifying selection of the flaa gene sequences in aeromonas.the bacterial flagellum is the most important organelle of motility in bacteria and plays a key role in many bacterial lifestyles, including virulence. the flagellum also provides a paradigm of how hierarchical gene regulation, intricate protein-protein interactions and controlled protein secretion can result in the assembly of a complex multi-protein structure tightly orchestrated in time and space. as if to stress its importance, plants and animals produce receptors specifically dedicated to t ...200919622168
antimicrobial therapy for water-associated wound infections in a disaster setting: gram-negative bacilli in an aquatic environment and lessons from banda aceh.as members of the japan disaster relief (jdr) team in banda aceh, three of the authors treated 1,891 patients following the tsunami of 2004. of the 367 cases with traumatic injuries, 216 cases required antimicrobial therapy. the medical services were continued by the japan self-defense (jsd) medical team until mid-march 2005. of the 216 cases initially treated by jdr, 54 required prolonged antimicrobial therapy for persistent symptoms despite repeated debridement. the aim of this study is to rec ...200919618353
dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a study was conducted to investigate the effect of mannan oligosaccharide (mos) on the gut microbiota and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout under commercial farming conditions. juvenile (mean initial bw 38.2 +/- 1.7 g) and subadult (111.7 +/- 11.6 g) trout were fed 2 dietary treatments for 111 and 58 d, respectively. the control treatment consisted of a standard commercial diet, and the mos treatment consisted of the control diet supplemented with 0.2% mos. morphology of the anterior and th ...200919617514
investigation of shell disease in map turtles (graptemys spp.).nineteen map turtles (graptemys spp.) maintained under natural conditions were investigated because of chronic shell abnormalities. animals were evaluated using a novel shell scoring system that divided the 54 scutes into six regions, with each region scored for lesion extent and severity, and summated to produce a total shell disease score (tsds). complete blood counts and various biochemistry analytes (total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, uric acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, phosphorus, an ...200919617474
innate immune response and disease resistance in carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts.this study reports the effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract from azadirachta indica, ocimum sanctum and curcuma longa on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish (carassius auratus) against aeromonas hydrophila. fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight of each triherbal solvent e ...200919616631
identification and pathogenicity to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), of some aeromonads.twelve strains of fish pathogenic aeromonads were identified by 16s rrna sequencing as aeromonas bestiarum, a. hydrophila, a. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis, a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a. sobria biovar sobria and a. veronii biovar sobria. following intramuscular injection, a. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis caused dark liquefying, raised furuncle-like lesions in rainbow trout within 48 h. extracellular products of all cultures contained gelatinase and lecithinase, and most revealed lipase. cong ...200919602093
in vivo modulation of immune response and antioxidant defense in atlantic cod, gadus morhua following oral administration of oxolinic acid and florfenicol.oxolinic acid and florfenicol are the commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in atlantic cod, gadus morhua. the changes in selected innate humoral immune response of the fish, bacterial proliferation in serum and transcriptional activity of selected immune and antioxidant defense-related genes following oral administration of these antimicrobial compounds were evaluated. juvenile cod (75-100 g) were fed commercial feed coated with either florfenicol (10 mg kg(-1) fish, ...200919596082
molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas jandaei.aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlya/aer complex and alt genes. primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. eighty-seven strains previously ...200919590136
transcription factor gata-3 in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): molecular characterization, promoter activity and expression analysis.gata-3 is a t cell-specific transcription factor and is essential for the development of the t cell lineage and differentiation of t helper type 2 cells. we have identified and characterized the full-length atlantic salmon gata-3 cdna (3074bp), having two zinc finger domains which are fully conserved within teleosts and higher vertebrates. rt-pcr analysis revealed that the atlantic salmon gata-3 (asgata-3) is strongly expressed in gills, thymus, and brain. moreover, the involvement of gata-3 in ...200919576635
characterization of electrochemical activity of a strain iso2-3 phylogenetically related to aeromonas sp. isolated from a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.the microbial communities associated with electrodes in closed and open circuit microbial fuel cells (mfcs) fed with glucose were analyzed by 16s rrna approach and compared. the comparison revealed that bacteria affiliated with the aeromonas sp. within the gammaproteobacteria constituted the major population in the closed circuit mfc (harvesting electricity) and considered to play important roles in current generation. we, therefore, attempted to isolate the dominant bacteria from the anode biof ...200919575435
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of asap1_e294a and asap1_e294q, two inactive mutants of the toxic zinc metallopeptidase asap1 from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes.two mutants of the toxic extracellular zinc endopeptidase asap1 (asap1_e294q and asap1_e294a) of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes were expressed in escherichia coli and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. crystals were obtained using several precipitants and different protein concentrations. protein crystals were found in a monoclinic (c2) as well as an orthorhombic (p2(1)2(1)2(1)) space group. the crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group c2 had unit-cell parameters a = ...200919574642
arsenic binding to iron(ii) minerals produced by an iron(iii)-reducing aeromonas strain isolated from paddy soil.an iron reducing bacterial strain was isolated from a paddy soil and identified as a member of the aeromonas group by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. when the cells were growing with dissolved fe(iii) as electron acceptor in the presence of as(v), fe(ii) minerals (siderite and vivianite) were formed and dissolved as was removed efficiently from solution. when the cells were growing with the fe(iii) hydroxide mineral (ferrihydrite) as electron acceptor in the presence of as(v), ferrihydrite was ...200919572768
aeromonas piscicola sp. nov., isolated from diseased fish.four aeromonas strains (s1.2(t), eo-0505, tc1 and ti 1.1) isolated from moribund fish in spain showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) pattern related to strains of aeromonas salmonicida and aeromonas bestiarum but their specific taxonomic position was unclear. multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa) of housekeeping genes rpod, gyrb, reca and dnaj confirmed the allocation of these isolates to an unknown genetic lineage within the genus aeromonas with a. salmonicida, a. bestiarum and ...200919570633
phylogenetic analysis and identification of aeromonas species based on sequencing of the cpn60 universal target.an analysis of the universal target (ut) sequence from the cpn60 gene was performed in order to evaluate its usefulness in phylogenetic and taxonomic studies and as an identification marker for the genus aeromonas. sequences of 555 bp, corresponding to the ut region, were obtained from a collection of 35 strains representing all of the species and subspecies of aeromonas. from the analysis of these sequences, a range of divergence of 0-23.3% was obtained, with a mean of 11.2+/-0.9%. comparative ...200919567585
environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in fish from the zambezi floodplains, zambia.this study was conducted to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in fish in the zambezi floodplains. eus is a fish disease that causes economic loses to the fishing industry. streambed colour in affected water was rusty-, reddish- or yellowish- brown and ph 4.5-6.0 while ph of non affected water was 7.2. the rusty-brown precipitate on fish gills was positive for prussian blue iron stain. therefore, predisposing factors for eus in the za ...200919565173
systemic adenovirus infection in sulawesi tortoises (indotestudo forsteni) caused by a novel siadenovirus.a novel siadenovirus was identified in the sulawesi tortoise (indotestudo forsteni). a group of 105 sulawesi tortoises was obtained by the turtle survival alliance. many of the tortoises were in poor health. clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, mucosal ulcerations and palatine erosions of the oral cavity, nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea. initial diagnostic tests included fecal testing for parasites, complete blood count and plasma biochemical analysis, mycoplasma serology, and po ...200919564489
identification of (l)-fucose-binding proteins from the nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.) serum.lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with many biological functions including cellular recognition and innate immunity. in this study, a major l-fucose-binding lectin from the serum of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus l.), designated as tfbp, was isolated by l-fucose-bsa sepharose cl6b affinity chromatography. the sds-page (10%) analysis of tfbp revealed a major band of approximately 23 kda with an n-terminal amino acid sequence of dqtetagqqsxpqdihavlrel which did not give significant si ...200919563899
edwardsiella tarda t6ss component evpp is regulated by esrb and iron, and plays essential roles in the invasion of fish.edwardsiella tarda is a gram-negative pathogen for hemorrhagic septicemia in a broad range of hosts. the type vi secretion system (t6ss) has recently been dissected in e. tarda to secrete evpc, evpi and a novel effector protein evpp. in this study, sequencing and genetic alignments showed that evpp genes from different e. tarda isolates were highly similar and an evpp homolog was also found in aeromonas hydrophila 0865 isolated from a diseased eel, suggesting the possible lateral gene transfer o ...200919563898
antagonism of aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus.propolis, a resinous substance collected by apis mellifera bees from various plant sources and mixed with secreted beeswax, is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction, maintenance, and protection of their hives. the collected propolis sample, from high egypt, was dark-green with olive-odor. the minimal inhibition concentration (mic) of propolis-ethanolic-extract, against aeromonas hydrophila, was 80 microg propolis-ethanolic-extract and crude propolis (1%) were added to artif ...200919563896
effect of lactococcus lactis clfp 100 and leuconostoc mesenteroides clfp 196 on aeromonas salmonicida infection in brown trout (salmo trutta).aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. this pathogen is important from an epizootic perspective because fish surviving an outbreak can remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers, serving as reservoirs of infection. as a result, the early detection and the control of infection are essential to prevent the spread of new furunculosis outbreaks. we have thus analyzed the effect of probiotic administration on the incidence of a. salmonicida in brown trout (salmo t ...200919556745
aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type strain does not possess a type iii secretion system. 200919553573
characterization of probiotic carnobacteria isolated from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine.to characterize two probiotic carnobacterial isolates, carnobacterium maltaromaticum (b26) and c. divergens (b33), derived from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine.200819552776
aeromonas and pseudomonas: antibiotic and heavy metal resistance species from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea).we studied the susceptibility patterns to 15 different antibiotics and six heavy metals in aeromonas spp. and pseudomonas spp. isolated from iskenderun bay, turkey (northeast mediterranean sea). a high percentage of aeromonas isolates showed resistance to cefazolin (66.6%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (66.6%). amongst the pseudomonas isolates, there was a high incidence of resistance to nitrofurantoin (86.2%), cefazolin (84.8%) and cefuroxime (71.7%). most isolates showed tolerance to diff ...201019551480
infections in patients with aplastic anemia.infection is a major cause of death in patients with aplastic anemia (aa). there are differences between the immunocompromised state of a patient with aa and the patient who is neutropenic due to chemotherapy and this leads to a difference in the infections that they incur. prolonged neutropenia is one of the largest risk factors for the development of infections with the invasive mycoses and bacteria. recovery from neutropenia is directly related to survival, and supportive care plays a large r ...200919549579
arsenic detoxification potential of aox genes in arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural and constructed wetlands in the republic of korea.arsenic is subject to microbial interactions, which support a wide range of biogeochemical transformations of elements in natural environments such as wetlands. the arsenic detoxification potential of the bacterial strains was investigated with the arsenite oxidation gene, aox genotype, which were isolated from the natural and constructed wetlands. the isolates were able to grow in the presence of 10 mm of sodium arsenite (as(iii) as naaso(2)) and 1 mm of d: +glucose. phylogenetic analysis based ...201019548094
epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea in thailand.current data on risk of travelers' diarrhea (td) among visitors to thailand largely comes from us military personnel, peace corps volunteers, or expatriates. we performed a 14-month systematic study of the incidence rate and characteristics of td and a smaller study of etiology of the disease among visitors to phuket and chiang mai.200919538578
plasma ladderlectin concentration following sterile inflammation and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection.plasma samples obtained from rainbow trout either experimentally infected with aeromonas salmonicida or injected with either a. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide (lps) or a commercial a. salmonicida vaccine (lipogen) were analysed by enzyme immunoassay to evaluate changes in rainbow trout ladderlectin (rtll) concentrations during the acute phase response (apr). plasma rtll concentrations in fish injected with a. salmonicida lps, vaccine or live a. salmonicida varied over a 10 day period, but did no ...200919538251
prevalence of genes encoding the type three secretion system and the effectors aext and aexu in the aeromonas veronii group.the prevalence of important virulence factors, the type iii secretion system (t3ss) and two t3ss-dependent toxins, aext and aexu, was evaluated in the aeromonas veronii group (avg). members of the avg have a broad host range, including vertebrates and invertebrates, and form a variety of associations, spanning from pathogenic to mutualistic. our avg strain collection consists of human, duck, eel, and leech isolates. these isolates were examined for the presence of the t3ss, aext, and aexu throug ...200919534604
new structural variants of homoserine lactones in bacteria.n-acylhomoserine lactones (ahls) are used by a wide variety of bacteria for cell-cell communication in "quorum-sensing". these compounds are derived from l-homoserine lactone and a fatty acid, which varies in chain-length, degree of saturation, and the presence or absence of an oxygen atom at c-3. in this study we describe for the first time the occurrence of acyl chains carrying a methyl branch, and present a gc-ms-based method that can be used to distinguish these compounds from unbranched iso ...200919533714
study on acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance determinants in poultry litter.antibiotic resistance and the mode of transmission were investigated in bacteria isolated from poultry litter. total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were screened and identified for their resistance to different antibiotics such as ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tobramycin, and rifampicin. the distribution of bacteria found in the litter was staphylococcus (29.1%), which was the predominant group, followed by streptococcus (25%), micrococcus (20. ...200919531707
mapping of the chaperone acrh binding regions of translocators aopb and aopd and characterization of oligomeric and metastable acrh-aopb-aopd complexes in the type iii secretion system of aeromonas hydrophila.in the type iii secretion system (t3ss) of aeromonas hydrophila, acrh acts as a chaperone for translocators aopb and aopd. acrh forms a stable 1:1 monomeric complex with aopd, whereas the 1:1 acrh-aopb complex exists mainly as a metastable oligomeric form and only in minor amounts as a stable monomeric form. limited protease digestion shows that these complexes contain highly exposed regions, thus allowing mapping of intact functional chaperone binding regions of aopb and aopd. aopd uses the tra ...200919530229
a novel packaging method with a dissolving co(2) headspace combined with organic acids prolongs the shelf life of fresh salmon.the aim of this study was to evaluate a novel packaging method for fresh fish and to determine its effect on the bacterial growth in fresh salmon. fresh salmon was packed with a small amount of 100% co(2) (gas/product ratio 0.2/1.0 v/v) and a brine solution containing various combinations of citric acid (3% w/w, ph 5), acetic acid (1% w/w, ph 5) and cinnamaldehyde (200 microg/ml). total bacterial counts, counts of sulphur reducing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteriaceae as well as ...200919523706
elimination of symbiotic aeromonas spp. from the intestinal tract of the medicinal leech, hirudo medicinalis, using ciprofloxacin feeding.the use of the medicinal leech (hirudo medicinalis) in promoting venous drainage in tissues whose vitality is threatened by venous congestion and obstruction, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery, has been complicated by infections caused by aeromonas spp. these are leech endosymbionts for which patients undergoing hirudotherapy frequently receive systemic chemoprophylaxis. in order to evaluate the possibility of rendering leeches safe for use on patients, h. medicinalis were fed art ...201019523050
synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of biodegradable elastomeric poly(ether-ester urethane)s based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and poly(ethylene glycol) via melting polymerization.poly(ether-ester urethane)s (pus) multiblock co-polymers were synthesized from telechelic hydroxylated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) and poly(ethylene glycol) (peg) via a melting polymerization (mp) process using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (hdi) as a non-toxic coupling agent for the first time. the phbhhx segments and peg segments in the multiblock co-polymers behaved as a hard, hydrophobic and a soft, hydrophilic part, respectively. their chemical structures and mol ...200919520007
biosynthesis and characterization of 3-hydroxyalkanoate terpolyesters with adjustable properties by aeromonas hydrophila.polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) terployesters p(3hb-co-3hv-co-3hhx) consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv), and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) were produced by wild-type aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4, its recombinant harboring pha synthesis genes phapcj encoding pha binding protein phasin, pha synthase, and enoyl-coa hydratase, and another its recombinant harboring phaab encoding beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-coa reductase, respectively, when grown in lauric acid and/or valerate. ...200919517520
burn wounds infected by contaminated water: case reports, review of the literature and recommendations for treatment.first-aid education for the management of burns advocates cool running water over burnt skin to limit soft tissue damage. however, the water used may itself constitute a risk. we report three cases of severe invasive and necrotizing infection in patients who used or immersed themselves in contaminated water in an attempt to extinguish the fire following acute major burns. wound cultures from all patients yielded aeromonas hydrophila and two yielded bacillus cereus. one patient had a complex poly ...201019501977
construction of an attenuated pseudomonas fluorescens strain and evaluation of its potential as a cross-protective vaccine.ferric uptake regulator (fur) is a global transcription regulator that is ubiquitous to gram-negative bacteria and regulates diverse biological processes, including iron uptake, cellular metabolism, stress response, and production of virulence determinants. as a result, for many pathogenic bacteria, fur plays a crucial role in the course of infection and disease development. in this study, the fur gene was cloned from a pathogenic pseudomonas fluorescens strain, tss, isolated from diseased japan ...200919501788
the effect of hyperoxygenation and reduced flow in fresh water and subsequent infectious pancreatic necrosis virus challenge in sea water, on the intestinal barrier integrity in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.in high intensive fish production systems, hyperoxygenation and reduced flow are often used to save water and increase the holding capacity. this commonly used husbandry practice has been shown to be stressful to fish and increase mortality after infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) challenge, but the cause and effect relationship is not known. salmonids are particularly sensitive to stress during smoltification and the first weeks after seawater (sw) transfer. this work aimed at investig ...200919500205
oral bacterial flora of the chinese cobra (naja atra) and bamboo pit viper (trimeresurus albolabris) in hong kong sar, china.to determine the oral bacterial flora associated with two common local venomous snakes in hong kong, namely the chinese cobra (naja atra) and the bamboo pit viper (trimeresurus albolabris).200919494373
soybean meal alters autochthonous microbial populations, microvilli morphology and compromises intestinal enterocyte integrity of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).abstract rainbow trout were fed either a diet containing fishmeal (fm) as the crude protein source or a diet containing 50% replacement with soybean meal (sbm) for 16 weeks. an enteritis-like effect was observed in the sbm group; villi, enterocytes and microvilli were noticeably damaged compared with the fm group. the posterior intestine microvilli of sbm-fed fish were significantly shorter and the anterior intestine microvilli significantly less dense than the fm-fed fish. electron microscopy c ...200919490393
isolation of bdellovibrio as biological therapeutic agents used for the treatment of aeromonas hydrophila infection in fish.fourteen strains of bdellovibrio-like organisms were isolated from cultured fish ponds using aeromonas hydrophila j-1 as host, one of them formed large plaques after 48 h of incubation at 28 degrees c on a double layer plate, designated as bdellovibrio c-1. the bdellovibrio was confirmed by electron microscopy and pcr amplification of bdellovibrio-specific 16s rdna. the optimum temperature for the growth of bdc-1 was between 15-37 degrees c and with optimal activity at temperatures of 25-30 degr ...201019486499
comparative genomics of the inca/c multidrug resistance plasmid family.multidrug resistance (mdr) plasmids belonging to the inca/c plasmid family are widely distributed among salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant yersinia pestis isolate (ip275) from madagascar. here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the inca/c reference plasmid pra1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic inca/c plasmid prax (49,763 b ...200919482926
pseudomonas chlororaphis strain jf3835 reduces mortality of juvenile perch, perca fluviatilis l., caused by aeromonas sobria.motile aeromonad septicaemia caused by aeromonas sobria is a cause of disease in farmed perch, perca fluviatilis l., in switzerland. we have evaluated the potential of a pseudomonas chlororaphis isolate, obtained from perch intestine, to control a. sobria infection. inoculation of juvenile perch with p. chlororaphis strain jf3835 prior to infection with a. sobria caused a reduction in a. sobria associated mortalities. infection of perch with xyle-labelled p. chlororaphis indicated the bacterium ...200919476558
[preliminary study of the environmental effect on aeromonas hydrophila's survival].a survival of a. hydrophila b3 has been conducted in different conditions (mineral water, seawater exposed or not to the sunlight). also, unculturable forms have been detected by using epifluorescence microscopy. thus, different kinds of microcosms were prepared using filtered and autoclaved marine water or mineral water, inoculated by a. hydrophila b3 and maintained or not in room light. further, we tested the survival of a. hydrophila b3 incubated in seawater and exposed to sunlight. our resul ...200819469413
[cloning and expression of a hemolysin gene of aeromonas hydrophila and the immunogenicity of the toxoid].according to the genbank sequences (genbank accession no. af539467), one pair of primers was designed to amplify hly gene of aeromonas hydrophila by pcr. after sequencing, homology analysis indicated that a dna fragment of 1485 bp was amplified from isolated dna from aeromonas hydrophila, and it shared more than 99% homology in nucleotide sequence compared with other reference strains in genbank. the gene was cloned in pet-28a vector to construct a recombinant plasmid pet-28a-hly, which was tran ...200919459331
prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in bangladesh.in order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting php-ae system. in these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckw ...200919459063
application of an immunoaffinity-based preconcentration method for mass spectrometric analysis of the o-chain polysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida from in vitro- and in vivo-grown cells.in this study, application of magnetic beads (dynabeads) coated with aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide-specific polyclonal antisera to ms-based characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides has been evaluated. the results showed that the affinity-based preconcentration strategy resulted in at least a 100-fold increase in the detection of sensitivity, affording direct capillary electrophoresis (ce)-ms analysis of a. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide o-chain polysaccharide from in vitro-cu ...200919456871
pioneer colonizer microorganisms in biofilm formation on galvanized steel in a simulated recirculating cooling-water system.some bacteria have a higher tendency to produce biofilm than others. especially, pseudomonas and aeromonas strains are acknowledged to be pioneer colonizers and are predominant in biofilm formation. we examined biofilm formation and first attachment maintance of biofilms of pseudomonas spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, aeromonas spp, sulphate reducing bacteria and filamentous fungi. a simulated recirculating cooling-water system was used. heterotrophic bacteria counts on galvanized steel and glass s ...200919455520
differences in the antibody response and survival of genetically different varieties of common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) vaccinated with a commercial aeromonas salmonicida/a. hydrophila vaccine and challenged with a. hydrophila.males of two strains of carp, wild duna (d), and inbred szarvas 22 (22), were selected for high and low stress response. two purebreds of d and 22, from randomly chosen parents and four crosses, 22 x 22-l (low stress response), 22 x 22-h (high stress response), 22 x d-l (low stress response) and 22 x d-h (high stress response) from selected stress response parents were produced and vaccinated with a commercial aeromonas salmonicida/aeromonas hydrophila vaccine and their circulating antibody resp ...200919449165
isolation and cdna cloning of an antibacterial l-amino acid oxidase from the skin mucus of the great sculpin myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus.the skin mucus of the great sculpin myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus showed both antibacterial and l-amino acid oxidase (lao) activities. antibacterial laos were purified from the skin mucus of the m. polyacanthocephalus by column chromatography and named mplao1, mplao2, and mplao3, based on the order of elution by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. cdna cloning of mplao3 revealed that the full-length cdnawas 2659 bp and encoded the signal peptide (met1-ala26) and the mature p ...200919447190
microbial production of 4-hydroxybutyrate, poly-4-hydroxybutyrate, and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by recombinant microorganisms.4-hydroxybutyrate (4hb) was produced by aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4, escherichia coli s17-1, or pseudomonas putida kt2442 harboring 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase gene dhat and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene aldd from p. putida kt2442 which are capable of transforming 1,4-butanediol (1,4-bd) to 4hb. 4hb containing fermentation broth was used for production of homopolymer poly-4-hydroxybutyrate [p(4hb)] and copolymers poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [p(3hb-4hb)]. recombinant a. hydrophila ...200919434404
photodynamic inactivation of aeromonas hydrophila by cationic phthalocyanines with different hydrophobicity.antibacterial photodynamic therapy is a pioneering method for the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria. four tetra alkyl-substituted cationic phthalocyanines with different hydrocarbon chains attached to the pyridyloxy group were synthesized. these photodynamic sensitizers were studied for antibacterial inactivation of a multidrug-resistant strain of gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. aeromonas species are recognized as etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and an ...200919431233
molecular characterization and expression profiles in response to bacterial infection of chinese soft-shelled turtle interleukin-8 (il-8), the first reptilian chemokine gene.in this study, an il-8 homologue has been cloned and identified from a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle il-8 was 1188bp and contained a 312bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 104 amino acids. the chemokine cxc domain, which contained glu-leu-arg (elr) motif and four cysteine residues, was well conserved in turtle il-8. the 4924bp genomic dna of turtle il-8 contained four exons and three introns. phylogenetic analysis showed t ...200919428485
molecular cloning and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and beta-1, 3-glucan binding protein in chinese mitten crab (eriocheir sinensis).the lipopolysaccharide and beta-1, 3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) is a pattern recognition protein which is fundamental for the innate immune response of crustaceans. a partial cdna produced by the random sequencing of cdna clones from a haemocyte cdna library of eriocheir sinensis showed similarity to the lgbp gene of the chinese shrimp (fenneropenaeus chinensis). the full-length cdna was subsequently cloned and sequenced by the technique of rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the e. sine ...200919426826
cloning and expression of an outer membrane protein ompw of aeromonas hydrophila and study of its distribution in aeromonas spp.the main aims of this study were to clone and express an outer membrane protein (omp), ompw, of aeromonas hydrophila and to study its distribution in aeromonas spp.200919426281
classification of brown pigmented aeromonads isolated from river water.nine aeromonas strains having a brown exopigment were isolated during the microbiological examination of river water. these brown-pigmented aeromonads were characterized by the phenotyping, fatty-acid methyl-ester analysis and ribotyping. all methods identically confirmed that the group of brown-pigmented aeromonads is quite heterogeneous. apart from the aeromonas media taxon, the brown-pigmented aeromonads in river water were represented also by strains of a. allosaccharophila and a. salmonicid ...200919418249
antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from atlantic bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of charleston, sc and indian river lagoon, fl.bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of indian river lagoon, fl (irl) and charleston, sc (chs) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins the most frequently cultured organisms were plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), escherichia coli (n = 85), and pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). in desc ...200919415386
igm, igd and igy and their expression pattern in the chinese soft-shelled turtle pelodiscus sinensis.three ig isotypes, igm, igd, and iga, were previously known in reptiles. here, in this report we describe igm, igd and a novel immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotype upsilon (igy) in chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis). the igm and igy constant domains are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. the expression of igm and igd were detected at mrna level early during embryonic development, and their expression increased during further development. ...200919414198
a qrt-pcr-based method for the measurement of rrn operon copy number.to develop a convenient and accurate method for estimating the rrn operon copy number (y(rrn)) in cells of pure prokaryotic cultures based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr).200919413774
detection of metallo-beta-lactamases-encoding genes in environmental isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas jandaei.to determine the prevalence and expression of metallo-beta-lactamases (mbl)-encoding genes in aeromonas species recovered from natural water reservoirs in southeastern brazil.200919413767
rapid aeromonas hydrophila identification by taqman pcr assay: comparison with a phenotypic method.aeromonas hydrophila is recognized as a human pathogen following wound exposure or ingestion of contaminated water and food. for rapid identification of this bacterium, a taqman-based real-time pcr assay has been developed.200919413760
immunoglobulin joining (j) chain and its expression in the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis).the immunoglobulin (ig) joining (j) chain plays an important role in the formation of polymeric igs and their transport into secretions. in the present study, the cdna sequence of j chain has been cloned from the chinese soft-shelled turtle (pelodiscus sinensis) by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the cdna sequence is 2347 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 480 bp encoding 160 aa including the signal sequence. the deduced amino acid sequ ...200919409620
continuous power generation and microbial community structure of the anode biofilms in a three-stage microbial fuel cell system.a mediator-less three-stage two-chamber microbial fuel cell (mfc) system was developed and operated continuously for more than 1.5 years to evaluate continuous power generation while treating artificial wastewater containing glucose (10 mm) concurrently. a stable power density of 28 w/m(3) was attained with an anode hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h and phosphate buffer as the cathode electrolyte. an overall dissolved organic carbon removal ratio was about 85%, and coulombic efficiency was about ...200919404637
acute effects of the antibiotic oxytetracycline on the bacterial community of the grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio.the toxicity of oxytetracycline (otc) was evaluated in adult grass shrimp, palaemonetes pugio. initially, static acute (96 h) toxicity tests were conducted with shrimp exposed from 0 to 1,000 mg/l otc. a calculated lethal concentration 50% value of 683.30 mg/l otc (95% confidence interval 610.85-764.40 mg/l) was determined from these tests, along with a lowest-observable-effect concentration of 750 mg/l and no-observable-effect concentration of 500 mg/l. moreover, chronic sublethal effects of ot ...200919400597
preventing infective complications following leech therapy: is practice keeping pace with current research?despite several publications strongly advocating prophylactic antibiotics during leech therapy, and recent primary articles shedding new light on the microbiota of leeches, many units either do not use antibiotic prophylaxis, or are continuing to use ineffective agents.200919399888
pathologic findings in larval and juvenile anurans inhabiting farm ponds in tennessee, usa.amphibian populations are declining globally, yet general pathologic surveys for free-ranging amphibians are uncommon. pathologic surveys are necessary to provide insight into the impacts of humans on emergence of pathogens in amphibian populations. during 2005, 104 american bullfrog (rana catesbeiana) and 80 green frog (rana clamitans) larvae and 40 green frog juveniles were collected from farm ponds in tennessee, and complete necropsies were performed. diagnostic testing included bacterial cul ...200919395741
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