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bacterial enteric pathogens in children with acute dysentery in thailand: increasing importance of quinolone-resistant campylobacter.current data on pathogen prevalence and drug resistance patterns are important for treatment and vaccine-development strategies. an etiologic study of acute bacterial dysentery was conducted in children up to 12 years of age in 2 major hospitals in and around bangkok. stool samples or rectal swabs and clinical data were collected. standard microbiological methods were used to detect salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, vibrio, aeromonas and plesiomonas. pathogenic e. coli (etec, eiec, stec) was ...200212757222
the efficacy of a single intraperitoneal injection of oxolinic acid in the treatment of bacterial infections in goldsinny wrasse (ctenolabrus rupestris) and corkwing wrasse (symphodus melops) studied under field and laboratory conditions.the efficacy of a single intraperitoneal injection of oxolinic acid to control an outbreak of atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in goldsinny wrasse (ctenolabrus rupestris) and in the treatment of systemic vibriosis in corkwing wrasse (symphodus melops) was examined. in addition a field study was performed to examine the effect of medication on the survival rate of goldsinny wrasse in atlantic salmon cages. four groups of wild caught goldsinny wrasse, each of 50 fish, were treated with an ...200312755901
a novel type of family 19 chitinase from aeromonas sp. no.10s-24. cloning, sequence, expression, and the enzymatic properties.a family 19 chitinase gene from aeromonas sp. no.10s-24 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in escherichia coli. from the deduced amino acid sequence, the enzyme was found to possess two repeated n-terminal chitin-binding domains, which are separated by two proline-threonine rich linkers. the calculated molecular mass was 70 391 da. the catalytic domain is homologous to those of plant family 19 chitinases by about 47%. the enzyme produced alpha-anomer by hydrolyzing beta-1,4-glycosidic linkage ...200312755707
removal of fish pathogenic bacteria in biological sand filters.documentation is required to evaluate the use of infiltration systems as an alternative method for removal of fish pathogenic bacteria in wastewater from fish-farms. this study was performed to investigate the removal of bacterial fish pathogens in biological sand filters. a second aim of the study was to evaluate the bacteria used in the study in order to find a suitable model organism for future experiments. low-strength wastewater from an inland freshwater salmonid farm was intermittently loa ...200312753839
factors associated with the adherence and biofilm formation by aeromonas caviae on glass surfaces.knowledge on factors of aeromonas caviae promoting the formation of biofilms on surfaces.200312752817
development of sensitive, high-throughput one-tube rt-pcr-enzyme hybridisation assay to detect selected bacterial fish pathogens.bacterial monitoring and surveillance is critical for the early detection of pathogens to avoid the spread of disease. to facilitate this, an efficient, high-performance and high-throughput method to detect the presence of femotgram amounts of ribosomal rna from 4 bacterial fish pathogens: aeromonas salmonicida; tenacibaculum maritimum (formerly flexibacter maritimus); lactococcus garvieae; and yersinia ruckeri was developed. the system uses nucleolink strips for liquid- and solid-phase pcr in 1 ...200312747638
genetic linkage of the penicillinase gene, amp, and blrab, encoding the regulator of beta-lactamase expression in aeromonas spp.aeromonas hydrophila t429125, a human clinical isolate, possesses three coordinately inducible beta-lactamases encoded by amph (class d beta-lactamase), ceph (class c beta-lactamase) and imih (class b beta-lactamase). we report that upstream of amph there are two genes, blra and blrb, encoding a putative two-component regulatory system. pcr studies revealed the same blrab-amp gene arrangement in all aeromonas spp. isolates tested; namely, aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, aeromonas jandaei, aeromona ...200312746371
the bacterial flora of fresh and chill-stored pork: analysis by cloning and sequencing of 16s rrna genes.the composition of the initial bacterial flora of pork and the development of the flora after storage at +4 degrees c for 4 days were analysed by amplification, cloning and sequencing of 16s rdna. a total of 122 clones were obtained, with lengths of > or =400 nucleotides and > or =95% similarity to database sequences. nineteen clones were similar to sequences in database not assigned to any genera. fourteen different genera were represented in clones from fresh meat, with 36.5% of the clones mos ...200312745230
[aeromonas septicemia complicated with liver cirrhosis in tokyo women's medical university]. 200312739377
aeromonas spp. and traveler's diarrhea: clinical features and antimicrobial resistance.traveler's diarrhea is the most common health problem of international travelers. we determined the prevalence of aeromonas spp. associated with traveler's diarrhea and analyzed the geographic distribution, clinical features, and antimicrobial susceptibility. aeromonas spp. were isolated as a cause of traveler's diarrhea in 18 (2%) of 863 patients. a. veronii biotype sobria was isolated in nine patients, a. caviae in seven patients, and a. jandaei and a. hydrophila in one patient each. aeromonas ...200312737738
incidence and characterisation of aeromonas spp. in environmental and human samples in southern italy.the incidence and characterisation of aeromonas species in human and environmental samples in southern italy were investigated. the results emphasize that 12.3% of the 210 examined patients carried aeromonas spp. in their faeces. these results underline the need to include aeromonas spp. in the list of routinely analysed enteropathogens in all diarrhoeal stool samples, especially in children below 10 years of age, elderly persons and immunocompromised patients.200312737206
screening toxicity study in young carp (cyprinus carpio l.) on feed amended with fumonisin b1.fumonisin b1 (fb1) is one of several mycotoxins produced by fusarium moniliforme, a major fungal pathogen of corn and widely spread throughout the world. fb1 produces a wide range of biological effects, some of which are specific for particular organs or species and some are common to all investigated animals. in this study we have evaluated subchronic toxicosis features in young carp (cyprinus carpio l.) exposed to 0.5 and 5.0 mg fb1 kg(-1) body weight for 42 days through nutritionally balanced ...200312733635
development of a plating medium for selection of helicobacter pylori from water samples.the goal of this study was to develop a simple plating medium to allow large-scale screening of water samples for the presence of helicobacter pylori. five conventional plating media (brain heart infusion, brucella agar, columbia blood agar base, campylobacter agar kit skirrow, and hpspa medium), each containing a commercial antibiotic supplement, were initially evaluated. eight strains selected as common waterborne organisms (acinetobacter, aeromonas, bacillus, escherichia coli, enterobacter, e ...200312732566
a polar flagella operon (flg) of aeromonas hydrophila contains genes required for lateral flagella expression.aeromonas spp. are pathogens of both humans and poikilothermic animals, causing a variety of diseases. certain strains are able to produce two distinct types of flagella; polar flagella for swimming in liquid and lateral flagella for swarming over surfaces. although, both types of flagella have been associated as colonisation factors, little is known about their organisation and expression. here we characterised a complete flagellar locus of aeromonas hydrophila (flg) containing 16 genes, this w ...200312732473
incidence of haemolysin-positive and drug-resistant aeromonas hydrophila in freshly caught finfish and prawn collected from major commercial fishes of coastal south india.the incidence of aeromonas hydrophila in freshly caught finfish and prawns from four major commercial fish landing sites of coastal south india was studied for a period of one year. among 514 analysed samples of seafood (410 finfish and 104 prawn), 37% of them (37.3% of finfish and 35.6% of prawn) were contaminated with a. hydrophila. a total of 255 strains of a. hydrophila were isolated. of the total isolates, about 78.4% of them were producers of haemolysin. all strains were resistant to bacit ...200312727364
[genetic diagnoses for bacterial pathogeneses and antimicrobiol susceptibilities]. 200312718005
acute gastroenteritis in children : what role for antibacterials?the aim of this article is to define the currently accepted role of antibacterials in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. most cases of acute gastroenteritis in children are viral, self-limited, and need only supportive treatment. appropriate fluid and electrolyte therapy, with close attention to nutrition, remain central to therapy.antibacterial therapy serves as an adjunct, to shorten the clinical course, eradicate causative organisms, reduce transmission, and prevent invasive ...200312716215
co-catalytic metallopeptidases as pharmaceutical targets.understanding the reaction mechanism of co-catalytic metallopeptidases provides a starting point for the design and synthesis of new molecules that can be screened as potential pharmaceuticals. many of the enzymes that contain co-catalytic metallo-active sites play important roles in cellular processes such as tissue repair, protein maturation, hormone level regulation, cell-cycle control and protein degradation. therefore, these enzymes play central roles in several disease states including can ...200312714052
a 5-year study of the bacterial pathogens associated with acute diarrhoea on the island of crete, greece, and their resistance to antibiotics.during a 5-year period (1995-1999) a total of 7090 stool samples obtained from patients with acute diarrhoea, mostly community-acquired, were examined for bacterial pathogens, in the greek island of crete. one or more enteric pathogens were isolated from 987 patients (14%). salmonella enterica were the most commonly isolated bacteria (6%), followed by campylobacter spp. (4.2%), and enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) (1.8%). yersinia enterocolitica (0.6%), shigella spp. (0.3%), and aeromona ...200312705628
transferrin and the innate immune response of fish: identification of a novel mechanism of macrophage activation.we have previously demonstrated that a non-cytokine serum protein called transferrin was a primary activating molecule of the goldfish (carassius auratus) macrophage antimicrobial response. the ability of the enzymatically cleaved forms of this protein to modulate fish macrophage function is novel and may represent a primitive and evolutionary conserved mechanism for the induction of no response of macrophages. in the present study we confirm our earlier findings using immunoaffinity purified go ...200312697311
enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) via manipulating the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway in e. coli.acyl-coa dehydrogenase gene (yafh) of escherichia coli was expressed together with polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene (phac(ac)) and (r)-enoyl-coa hydratase gene (phaj(ac)) from aeromonas caviae. the expression plasmids were introduced into e. coli jm109, dh5 alpha and xl1-blue, respectively. compared with the strains harboring only phac(ac) and phaj(ac), all recombinant e. coli strains harboring yafh, phac(ac) and phaj(ac) accumulated at least four times more poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy ...200312694916
molecular cloning, sequencing and characterization of omp48, the gene encoding for an antigenic outer membrane protein from aeromonas veronii.to clone, sequence and characterize the gene encoding the omp48, a major outer membrane protein from aeromonas veronii.200312694457
study of the effect of the midgut bacterial flora of culex quinquefasciatus on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to japanese encephalitis virus.culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected from the field and microbial flora was isolated from their midgut. isolates belonging to 13 different genera were obtained. four most abundant isolates viz. pseudomonas sp., acinetobacterjunii, staphylococcus epidermis and aeromonas culicicola were used to study their effect on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to japanese encephalitis virus (jev). incorporation of individual isolates in the mosquito bloodmeal resulted in an increased susceptibilit ...200212693864
rotavirus type a and other enteric pathogens in stool samples from children with acute diarrhea on the colombian northern coast.the present study, conducted from march 1998 to july 2000, determined the etiology of acute diarrhea in 253 young children and infants from cartagena and sincelejo, colombia. in 253 stool samples, the following enteric pathogens were recovered: rotavirus type a (36.6%) as the major agent, salmonella spp (9.0%), shigella spp (8.0%), enteric pathogenic escherichia coli (6.0%), enteric hemorragic esc. coli (2.8%), providencia alcalifaciens (2.8%), aeromonas hydrophila (2.0%), yersinia enterocolitic ...200312687410
detection and genetic analysis of group ii capsules in aeromonas hydrophila.the genetic organization and sequences of the group ii capsule gene cluster of aeromonas hydrophila ppd134/91 have been determined previously. the purified capsular polysaccharides can increase the ability of avirulent strain ppd35/85 to survive in naive tilapia serum but have no inhibitory effect on the adhesion of ppd134/91 to carp epithelial cells. in this study, the presence of group ii capsules among 33 randomly chosen a. hydrophila strains was examined by electron microscopy and genetic an ...200312686647
influence of polarisation and differentiation on interaction of 43-kda outer-membrane protein of aeromonas caviae with human enterocyte-like caco-2 cell line.it has been recognised that adherence and invasion to host cells are important steps in the pathogenesis of entero-pathogenic bacteria, including aeromonas caviae. however, the virulence factors of a. caviae remain, for the most part, poorly known. this study examined the interaction of a. caviae isolates to caco-2 cells in different polarisation and differentiation conditions. the adherence of a. caviae may be related to accessibility of host cell basolateral receptors. aggregative a. caviae is ...200312684708
coordination geometries of metal ions in d- or l-captopril-inhibited metallo-beta-lactamases.d- and l-captopril are competitive inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases. for the enzymes from bacillus cereus (bcii) and aeromonas hydrophila (cpha), we found that the mononuclear enzymes are the favored targets for inhibition. by combining results from extended x-ray absorption fine structure, perturbed angular correlation of gamma-rays spectroscopy, and a study of metal ion binding, we derived that for cd(ii)1-bcii, the thiolate sulfur of d-captopril binds to the metal ion located at the site ...200312668674
differential expression of the enolase gene under in vivo versus in vitro growth conditions of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is an emerging human pathogen that leads to gastroenteritis and other invasive diseases. by using a murine peritoneal culture (mpc) model, we identified via restriction fragment differential display pcr (rfddpcr) five genes of a. hydrophila that were differentially expressed under in vivo versus in vitro growth conditions. the gene encoding enolase was among those five genes that were differentially up regulated. enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and its surface expression was ...200312668143
effect of diuron on aquatic bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds with special reference to aeromonas species studied by colony hybridization.six laboratory-scale wastewater treatment ponds were filled with sediment and water obtained from a reference pond (a wastewater treatment plant located in a rural environment at montel-de-gelat, puy-de-dôme, france). they were kept at 20 degrees c, with alternative light and dark periods (12 h-12 h), and fed with raw effluent supplied weekly. three of them were treated with diuron (dissolved in dmso) at a final concentration 10 mg/l, while the other three received only dmso. physico-chemical pa ...200312656266
integron-containing incu r plasmids pras1 and par-32 from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida.a 45-kb r plasmid, pras1, that confers resistance to tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides was isolated in 1989 from an atypical strain of the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. this plasmid could be transferred by conjugation to escherichia coli with a high degree of efficiency (frequency, 0.48). the following year pras1 was isolated from a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in the same area. incompatibility group u plasmid pras1 contained a drug resistance-determining region of 12 kb co ...200312654659
bacteraemia in high-risk patients.in this study, we noticed a high incidence of bacteraemia in high-risk patients especially due to nonfermenter gram negative bacilli (nfgnb) and coagulase negative staphylococci (cons). bacteraemia caused by some rare bacteria such as moraxella spp., aeromonas spp., flavobacterium meningosepticum was also noted during the study. antibiotic resistance pattern showed that many isolates were multi drug resistant (mdr). this can be attributed to nosocomial-infection, which may occur due to more and ...200212645165
bacteriocin-like substance (bls) production in aeromonas hydrophila water isolates.30 aeromonas hydrophila water isolates were tested for bacteriocin-like substance (bls) production using a target panel of closely related microorganisms and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. a. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more indicator microorganisms, but the activity emerged only with non-phylogenetically related genera or species. in particular all a. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more of the ...200312644237
scope of potential bacterial agents of diarrhoea and microbial assessment of quality of river water sources in rural venda communities in south africa.the microbial quality of several, usually untreated, surface domestic water sources, used by rural communities in the venda region of south africa, was assessed to gauge their fitness for human consumption and to highlight the possible impact of waterborne diseases. the water sources studied were six points on the levubu river and the rivers mutale, ngwedi, tshinane, makonde, mutshindudi and mudaswali. total and faecal coliform, heterotrophic bacteria, enterococci and coliphage counts were used ...200312639006
niche-specific association of aeromonas ribotypes from human and environmental origin.a total of 88 aeromonas isolates from distinct locations and sources (39 from extraintestinal infections, 31 from diarrhoeic, ten from non-diarrhoeic faeces, all human, and eight from fresh water) were subjected to phenospecies identification, serotyping, ribotyping and detection of some virulence markers. the strains belonged to four different phenospecies marked by 19 o serogroups and 38 ribotypes. no strong correlation between these parameters was found, and no group, as defined by the typing ...200312636248
detection and characterization of the hemolysin genes in aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria by multiplex pcr.a multiplex pcr assay was designed to amplify the aeromonas hydrophila and a. veronii bv. sobria hemolysin and aerolysin genes. the assay was evaluated by using 121 clinical isolates and 7 reference strains of aeromonas spp., and these were divided into five genotypes on the basis of the results of the multiplex pcr. the five genotypes were characterized as type 1 for those carrying the ahh1 gene only (36% of isolates), type 2 for those carrying the asa1 gene only (8.5% of isolates), type 3 for ...200312624028
detection of erythrocytes deficient in glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchored membrane proteins in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by the toxin hec secreted by aeromonas hydrophila j-1.to study the feasibility of diagnosing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) with toxin hec, the abbreviation of hemolytic, entreotoxigenicity and cytotoxity secreted by aeromonas hydrophila j-1.200312623426
characterization of microbial communities from coastal waters using microarrays.molecular methods, including dna probes, were used to identify and enumerate pathogenic vibrio species in the chesapeake bay; our data indicated that vibrio vulnificus exhibits seasonal fluctuations in number. our work included a characterization of total microbial communities from the bay; development of microarrays that identify and quantify the diversity of those communities; and observation of temporal changes in those communities. to identify members of the microbial community, we amplified ...200312620025
[presence and meaning of aeromonas in drinkable water]many species of aeromonas are thought to be the cause of diarrhoeal syndromes, bactaeremia and eye infections. recent studies have shown that the presence of aeromonas in drinkable water is not associated with that of feacal indicators. the authors have tested 62 samples of drinkable water from various wells, as well as 14 samples of two mineral waters collected in eastern sicily from 1996 to 1999. aeromonas were found in 14 (18%) out of 76 samples. also, biochemical detection of the strains sho ...200212616271
cloning, dna sequence, and expression of aeromonas caviae ws7b chitinase gene.a chitinase-producing bacterium, designated ws7b, was isolated from a soil sample obtained from a black-pepper plantation on bangka island, indonesia. fatty-acid methyl-ester analysis indicated that the isolate was aeromonas caviae. a chitinase gene from ws7b was cloned in a puc19-based plasmid vector, but without its natural promoter. the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined, and the structural gene consisted of a 2748-bp region encoding 864 amino acids. dna sequence analysis ...200312611264
aeromonas isolates from human diarrheic stool and groundwater compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.gastrointestinal infections of aeromonas species are generally considered waterborne; for this reason, aeromonas hydrophila has been placed on the united states environmental protection agency contaminant candidate list of emerging pathogens in drinking water. in this study, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of aeromonas isolates from stool specimens of patients with diarrhea with aeromonas isolates from patients' drinking water. among 2,565 diarrheic stool specimens submitte ...200312603994
immunomodulation by dietary vitamin c in healthy and aflatoxin b1-induced immunocompromised rohu (labeo rohita).the aim of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory effect of high levels of dietary vitamin c in healthy and immunocompromised rohu (labeo rohita) treated with aflatoxin b1 (afb1). four groups of rohu were fed experimental diets containing either no vitamin c or supplemented with vitamin c at 500 ppm for 60 days. on the first day of feeding, one group fed the high vitamin c diet and one fed the vitamin c deficient diet, were injected intraperitoneally with a single doses of afb1 at 1.25 m ...200312602688
distribution of aeromonas hydrophila serogroups in different clinical samples and the development of polyclonal antibodies for rapid identification of the genus aeromonas by direct agglutination.we characterized a collection of 256 aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from blood, discharge and stool for their serogroup designation. of these, 2.3% were untypable and 15.2% were rough strains. among the typable strains, about 50% comprised serogroups o:11, o:16, o:18, o:34 and o:83. to develop rapid differentiation of aeromonas from other oxidase-positive bacteria, antisera against aeromonas were produced to establish a direct, genus-specific, agglutination test. it was found that among 1 ...200212597362
studies of the mechanism of action of the aerolysin-like hemolysin of aeromonas sobria in stimulating t84 cells to produce cyclic amp.we previously reported that the aerolysin-like hemolysin of aeromonas sobria stimulates t84 cells to produce cyclic amp, which then emerges in the culture medium. in order to clarify the mechanism of action of the hemolysin, we examined the involvement of adenosine nucleotide. the results show that the hemolysin stimulates t84 cells to release atp, which is then converted to adenosine by ectonucleotidase. the adenosine generated might stimulate the p1 adenosine receptors of t84 cells to produce ...200312595476
general function of n-terminal propeptide on assisting protein folding and inhibiting catalytic activity based on observations with a chimeric thermolysin-like protease.pro-aminopeptidase processing protease (pa protease) is a thermolysin-like metalloprotease produced by aeromonas caviae t-64. the n-terminal propeptide acts as an intramolecular chaperone to assist the folding of pa protease and shows inhibitory activity toward its cognate mature enzyme. moreover, the n-terminal propeptide strongly inhibits the autoprocessing of the c-terminal propeptide by forming a complex with the folded intermediate pro-pa protease containing the c-terminal propeptide (mc). ...200312589825
solar inactivation of mesophilic aeromonas by exogenous photooxidation in high-rate algal pond treating waste water.investigations were carried out to observe the effect of sunlight on the survival of mesophilic aeromonas (a. caviae, a. hydrophila and a. sobria) in high-rate algal pond.200312588563
the genetics of glycosylation in gram-negative bacteria.in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in reports of glycosylation of proteins in various gram-negative systems including neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, campylobacter jejuni, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, caulobacter crescentus, aeromonas caviae and helicobacter pylori. although this growing list contains many important pathogens (reviewed by benz and schmidt [mol. microbiol. 45 (2002) 267-276]) and the glycosylations are found on proteins important in pat ...200312586395
high antigenic cross-reaction among the bacterial species responsible for diseases of cultured freshwater fishes and strategies to overcome it for specific serodiagnosis.antigenic sharing among the most commonly bacterial pathogens such as aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens of indian major carps has been studied using immunological reactions such as cross-agglutination, disc diffusion and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the data were analysed using statistical analysis (sas), version 6.12. the results showed high antigenic similarities among the bacterial whole cells, whole cell lysates, somatic 'o' antigens, ...200312581749
aeromonas sobria corneal ulcer. 200312579184
inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria.this study was designed to evaluate "in vitro" the inhibitory effects of spices and essential oils on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria: aeromonas hydrophila, listeria monocytogenes and yersinia enterocolitica. the sensitivity to nine spices and their oils (chilli, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme) was studied. antibacterial activity was evaluated on liquid and solid medium. spices: 1% concentration of each spice was added separately to triptic soy b ...200312578319
[gene cloning and expression of prolyl endopeptidase from aeromonas punctata].prolyl endopeptidase gene was cloned from aeromonas punctata subsp. punctata(st-78-3-3) using activity screening method and the 3.3 kb dna fragment containing pep gene was sequenced. dna sequence from 20-2092 bp was orf region coding 690 amino acids of prolyl endopeptidase. it was a new pep gene through gene search. the genetic engineered e. coli bl21/pgem-pep overexpressing recombinant aeromonas punctata prolyl endopeptidase(appep) was constructed. cultured in yh medium, the expressed appep was ...200012548992
[purification and identification of siderophore from aeromonas hydrophila].siderophore of aeromonas hydrophila(ah) j-1 was purified from culture supernatant by polyamide column chromatography, eluted by double-distilled water, ethyl acetate precipitated, lyophilized, then the white powder was collected, and demonstrated by cas and arnow assay. the siderophore was phenolate, composed of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-dhb), lysine, glycine and tryptophan by hplc. being cultured iniron-deficient medium, the purified siderophore could stimulated the growth of ah n9a which ...200012548885
[production, partial purification and characterization of methamidophos-degrading enzyme from methylotroph wb-1].after cultivation for 20 h in the inorganic salt medium with methamidophos as sole carbon and nitrogen source, methylotroph wb-1 could produce methamidophos-degrading enzyme in larger amounts. the enzyme was partially purified by sonication disruption, tween-20 extraction, heat treatment(9 min at 60 degrees c), deae-cellulose 32 and cm-cellulose32 chromatography with 22.8 times purification and 78.8% recovery. activity staining showed single violate band corresponding to that of protein staining ...200012548765
microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases.many classes of pathogens excreted in feces are able to initiate waterborne infections. there are bacterial pathogens, including enteric and aquatic bacteria, enteric viruses, and enteric protozoa, which are strongly resistant in the water environment and to most disinfectants. the infection dose of viral and protozoan agents is lower than bacteria, in the range of one to ten infectious units or oocysts. waterborne outbreaks of bacterial origin (particularly typhoid fever) in the developing coun ...200212546197
sensitivity of polarized epithelial cells to the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.aerolysin is one of the major virulence factors produced by aeromonas hydrophila, a human pathogen that produces deep wound infection and gastroenteritis. the toxin interacts with target mammalian cells by binding to the glycan core of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (gpi)-anchored proteins and subsequently forms a pore in the plasma membrane. since epithelial cells of the intestine are the primary targets of aerolysin, we investigated its effect on three types of polarized epithelial cells: caco- ...200312540553
degradation of benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride by aeromonas hydrophila sp. k.the aim of this work was to study the biodegradation of benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (bac) by aeromonas hydrophila sp. k, an organism isolated from polluted soil and capable of utilizing bac as sole source of carbon and energy.200312534818
a comparative study of carboxyfluorescein diacetate and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester as indicators of bacterial activity.staining bacteria with esterified fluorogenic substrates followed by flow cytometric analysis offers a means for rapid detection of metabolically active bacteria. flow cytometry (fcm) was used to assess carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cfda) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (cfda/se) as indicators of bacterial activity for cultured bacteria, including aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus epidermidis and bacteria from en ...200312531507
decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains.six bacterial strains with the capability of degrading textile dyes were isolated from sludge samples and mud lakes. aeromonas hydrophila was selected and identified because it exhibited the greatest color removal from various dyes. although a. hydrophila displayed good growth in aerobic or agitation culture (agi culture), color removal was the best in anoxic or anaerobic culture (ana culture). for color removal, the most suitable ph and temperature were ph 5.5-10.0 and 20-35 degrees c under ano ...200312523970
resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria.microbial resistance to antimicrobial agents continues to be a major problem. the frequent use and misuse of disinfectants based on quaternary ammonium compounds (qacs) in food-processing industries have imposed a selective pressure and may contribute to the emergence of disinfectant-resistant microorganisms. a total number of 1,325 gram-negative isolates (escherichia coli, other coliforms vibrio spp., and aeromonas spp.) and 500 enterococcus spp. from food and food-processing industries and fis ...200212523638
isolation and characterization of aeromonas species from an eutrophic tropical estuary.isolation and characterization of aeromonas species were undertaken in the ebrié lagoon (abidjan, côte d'ivoire) over a one year period. overall 63% of 501 water samples were identified as positive for aeromonas spp. a. sobria, a. hydrophila and a. caviae represent respectively 49.20%, 20.63% and 30.15% of the positive samples. thirty nine of the positive samples were recovered from surface water samples; while 24 bottom water samples were positive for aeromonas. aeromonas species are most frequ ...200212523537
temperature effect on the immune defense functions of arctic charr salvelinus alpinus.the arctic charr salvelinus alpinus is an endangered fish species in finland, and thus farming is carried out mainly for stocking purposes. farmed charr are susceptible to infection with atypical aeromonas salmonicida (aas). losses of valuable brood stock will severely reduce the genetic diversity of stocked charr. no commercial vaccines are available to prevent aas infection, and vaccines against furunculosis (caused by typical a. salmonicida, tas) do not protect the charr against aas infection ...200212517005
molecular typing of aeromonas isolates in natural mineral waters.a total of 103 isolates of aeromonas spp. were obtained over a 3-year period from a natural mineral water and from surface streams located within the boundaries of the watershed of the natural mineral water wells and were typed by macrorestriction analysis of genomic dna with xbai and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. all aeromonas caviae isolates from the natural mineral water belonged to the same clone, and an analogous clonal identity was found among aeromonas hydrophila isolates. these tw ...200312514065
a colonization factor (production of lateral flagella) of mesophilic aeromonas spp. is inactive in aeromonas salmonicida strains.the nine laf (lateral flagellum) genes of mesophilic aeromonads are in the aeromonas salmonicida genome. the laf genes are functional, except for lafa (flagellin gene), which was inactivated by transposase 8 (is3 family). a pathogenic characteristic of mesophilic aeromonads (lateral flagella) is abolished in this specialized pathogen with a narrow host range.200312514057
differential growth response of colony-forming alpha- and gamma-proteobacteria in dilution culture and nutrient addition experiments from lake kinneret (israel), the eastern mediterranean sea, and the gulf of eilat.even though it is widely accepted that bacterioplankton growth in lakes and marine ecosystems is determined by the trophic status of the systems, knowledge of the relationship between nutrient concentrations and growth of particular bacterial species is almost nonexistent. to address this question, we performed a series of culture experiments with water from lake kinneret (israel), the eastern mediterranean sea, and the gulf of eilat (northern red sea). in the initial water samples, the proporti ...200312513996
[a colorimetric method of hec toxin hemolysis test for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria].the purpose of the study is to establish a colorimetric method of hec toxin hemolysis test for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh). rbcs from normal persons and patients with pnh and non-pnh anemia were treated with hec toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila j-1 strain and the absorbance at 630 nm was measured to quantitate the extent of hemolysis. the results demonstrated that the rbcs from pnh patients showed resistance to the toxin hemolysis, which was in accord with the pe ...200212513727
dna-dna reassociation and phenotypic data indicate synonymy between aeromonas enteropelogenes schubert et al. 1990 and aeromonas trota carnahan et al. 1991.mainly on the basis of phylogenetic and genotypic evidence, it has been suggested previously that the species aeromonas enteropelogenes schubert et al. 1990 is identical to the species aeromonas trota carnahan et al. 1991. probably because the description of a. enteropelogenes preceded the proposal of a. trota by only a few months, dna-dna hybridizations were never performed between representative strains of these two taxa. in the present study, new dna-dna hybridizations between the type strain ...200212508855
specific probiotic characterization of weissella hellenica ds-12 isolated from flounder intestine.a total of 199 microorganisms were isolated from the intestinal contents of flounder (paralichthys olivaceus) in a fish farm in seoul, korea. among these strains, ds-12 was selected as a candidate for flounder probiotics because of its excellent exhibition of antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens such as edwardsiella, pasteurella, aeromonas, and vibrio, and initiate growth in 10% nacl, 10% bile, and in broth at ph 3 for 90 min. this strain was gram-positive, and catalase-negative coccoid ...199812501410
polyamine distribution patterns within the families aeromonadaceae, vibrionaceae, pasteurellaceae, and halomonadaceae, and related genera of the gamma subclass of the proteobacteria.polyamines of the four families and the five related genera within the gamma subclass of the class proteobacteria were analyzed by hplc with the objective of developing a chemotaxonomic system. the production of putrescine, diaminopropane, cadaverine, and agmatine are not exactly correlated to the phylogenetic genospecies within 36 strains of the genus aeromonas (the family aeromonadaceae) lacking in triamines. the occurrence of norspermidine was limited but not ubiquitous within the family vibr ...199712501353
lipase activity and gene cloning of acinetobacter calcoaceticus lp009.the production of lipase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus lp009, a bacterium isolated from raw milk, was found to be best induced by tween-80 at 1.0% concentration. it was efficiently secreted, and only a minute amount of activity was detected at the cell surface and intracellularly. a. calcoaceticus lp009 lipase exhibited maximum activity at ph 7.0 and 50 degrees c, and was relatively stable upon storage at ph 5.0 to 7.0 and at 4, 30, or 37 degrees c. the enzyme was found to be inactivated by e ...199812501281
[clinical and microbiological characteristics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) in a recent five year period].recently, treatment failure with the third generation of cephalosporin was increasingly noted in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp). we therefore were to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic resistance and its clinical significance.200212499818
a dna probe specific for aeromonas colonies.members of the genus aeromonas are important enteropathogens. commercial identification systems are often unable to correctly identify aeromonas strains and misidentification as vibrio spp. is common. a digoxigenin-dna probe based on a 237 bp of the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase gene has been tested in a colony hybridization assay. the probe hybridized with all aeromonas species tested (n = 16) but not with strains of other enteropathogenic bacteria (n = 20). the probe allowed ...200212493167
antibacterial activity of mappia foetida leaves and stem.successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of mappia foetida leaves and stem were tested for their antibacterial activity. the methanol fractions were found to be most effective against all the tested organisms.200212490245
phylogenetic study and identification of human pathogenic vibrio species based on partial hsp60 gene sequences.the use of hsp60 gene sequences for phylogenetic study and identification of pathogenic marine vibrios was investigated. a 600-bp partial hsp60 gene was amplified by pcr and sequenced from 29 strains representing 15 vibrio species within the family vibrionaceae. sequence comparison of the amplified partial hsp60 gene revealed 71-82% sequence identity among different vibrio species and 96-100% sequence identity among epidemiologically distinct strains with the same species designation. this degre ...200212489780
prevalence and resistance to antibiotics for aeromonas species from retail fish in malaysia.a total of 87 market fish samples representing five types of fish were evaluated for the presence of aeromonas spp. of the samples examined, 69%, 55%, 11.5% and 2.3% harbored aeromonas spp., a. veronii biovar sobria, a. hydrophila and a. caviae, respectively. the 60 isolated aeromonas spp. strains were further examined for hemolytic activity, resistance to antimicrobial agents and presence of plasmids. hemolytic activity varied widely among the isolated strains. though all the isolates demonstra ...200312485753
induced colistin resistance as an identifying marker for aeromonas phenospecies groups.to investigate the taxonomic interest of colistin resistance as an identifying marker for aeromonas phenospecies groups.200312485337
isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing cr-tolerant facultative anaerobes from tannery effluent.several facultative anaerobes tolerant to high levels of chromate (>400 mg/ml) were isolated from tannery effluents. these isolates displayed varying degrees of cr(vi) reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at room temperature (24+/-2 degrees c). interestingly, eight isolates were efficient in reducing 70% cr(vi) anaerobically. this includes 5 isolates of genus aerococcus, two isolates of micrococcus and single isolate of genus aeromonas. these isolates were subjected to further charac ...200112483605
an unwanted import to the uk: a carbapenem-resistant clinical isolate of acinetobacter baumannii producing metallo-beta-lactamase. 200212461042
rapid detection of columnaris disease in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) with a new species-specific 16-s rrna gene-based pcr primer for flavobacterium columnare.a 16-s rrna gene from the chromosomal dna of the fish-pathogenic bacterium flavobacterium columnare (formerly flexibacter columnaris), strain ars-i, was cloned, sequenced and used to design a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primer set. the primer set amplified a specific 1193-bp dna fragment from f. columnare strains but not from related bacteria, f. psychrophilum, f. aquatile, f. branchiophilum, or other bacterial pathogens of fish, flexibacter maritimus, cytophaga johnsonae, edwardsiella ictal ...200312459241
the catalytic domains of thiamine triphosphatase and cyab-like adenylyl cyclase define a novel superfamily of domains that bind organic phosphates.the cyab protein from aeromonas hydrophila has been shown to possess adenylyl cyclase activity. while orthologs of this enzyme have been found in some bacteria and archaea, it shows no detectable relationship to the classical nucleotide cyclases. furthermore, the actual biological functions of these proteins are not clearly understood because they are also present in organisms in which there is no evidence for cyclic nucleotide signaling.200212456267
phenotypic characteristics and pathogenicity of aeromonas genomospecies isolated from common carp (cyprinus carpio l.).to evaluate the relationship between the genomospecies, phenotypic profile and pathogenicity for carp of 37 motile aeromonas strains.200212452960
distribution of aeromonas spp. as identified by 16s rdna restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in a trout farm.this study used restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) with aeromonas-specific primers to identify species of aeromonas and to investigate their distribution in a trout farm and stream.200212452953
[persistent properties of protozoa-associated bacteria].the species structure and persistent properties (antilysozyme and antihistone activity) of bacteria forming associations with protozoa is revealed. among them, 68.9% of the isolates were enterobacteria, the remaining organisms belonged to the families aeromonas, alcaligenes, pseudomonas, vibrio, etc. within the family enterobacteriaceae bacteria of the escherichia group prevailed. 50.4% of the isolates were found to have antilysozyme activity and 97%--antihistone activity. the level of persisten ...200212449703
the protein encoded at the 3' end of the serine protease gene of aeromonas sobria functions as a chaperone in the production of the protease.for the successful production of aeromonas sobria serine protease (asp), open reading frame 2 (orf2) protein, encoded at the 3' end of the protease operon, is required. in this study, we examined the action of orf2 protein. the results showed that the protein associated with asp in the periplasm and helped asp to form an active structure.200212446656
a chemical switch regulates fibrate specificity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparalpha ) versus liver x receptor.fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver x receptors alpha and beta (lxralpha and lxrbeta). here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an lxr antagonist by dir ...200312441342
chain stiffness of heteropolysaccharide from aeromonas gum in dilute solution by dynamic light scattering.dynamic light scattering measurements have been made on 15 fractions of aeromonas (a) gum, an extracellular heteropolysaccharide produced by the strain aeromonas nichidenii, with dimethylsulfoxide containing 0.2m lithium chloride as the solvent at 25 degrees c. data for the translational diffusion coefficient d covering a molecular weight range from 4.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) and ratios of the z-average radius of gyration <s(2)>(z) (1/2) to the hydrodynamic radius r(h) (calculated with previous ...200212434427
diarrhoeagenic bacterial pathogens in hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea in rural communities of limpopo province, south africa.potential enteric bacterial pathogens in 60 hiv-positive patients with chronic diarrhoea in rural communities of the limpopo province, south africa, were identified using standard microbiological methods. the kirby-bauer disk-diffusion method was employed to determine antibiograms of isolated bacteria. results revealed that diarrhoeagenic bacterial agents were isolated from 48 (80%) of the 60 hiv-positive patients with diarrhoea. forty-four (73.3%) and 16 (26.7%) of the 60 patients were female a ...200212430759
antibacterial activity of chitosan against aeromonas hydrophila.the effect of chitosan on growth and production of haemolysin by aeromonas hydrophila was investigated as well as the effects of temperature, ph, salts and irradiation on the antibacterial activity of chitosan. it was found that chitosan affected growth and haemolysin production of a. hydrophila in varying degrees compared to the control. growth and haemolysin production were clearly suppressed at 0.04% of chitosan. suppression was more effective at ph 6.0 than at ph 7.0. the bactericidal effect ...200212428449
crystal structure of the (r)-specific enoyl-coa hydratase from aeromonas caviae involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.the (r)-specific enoyl coenzyme a hydratase ((r)-hydratase) from aeromonas caviae catalyzes the addition of a water molecule to trans-2-enoyl coenzyme a (coa), with a chain-length of 4-6 carbons, to produce the corresponding (r)-3-hydroxyacyl-coa. it forms a dimer of identical subunits with a molecular weight of about 14,000 and is involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) biosynthesis. the crystal structure of the enzyme has been determined at 1.5-a resolution. the structure of the monomer consist ...200312409309
granulocyte responses to experimental injection of live and formalin-killed bacteria in carp (cyprinus carpio).the objective of the study was to investigate the dynamics of changes in number of granulocytes in bacterial infections of carp (cyprinus carpio). carp were inoculated with non-pathogenic or pathogenic bacteria and changes in type i (neutrophils) and type ii granulocyte (basophils/eosinophils) counts in kidney, circulating blood and peritoneal cavity were assessed. after the injection of non-pathogenic bacteria (escherichia coli), the number of type i and ii cells in blood increased after 6-12h, ...200212406659
structurally distinct active sites in the copper(ii)-substituted aminopeptidases from aeromonas proteolytica and escherichia coli.the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) was titrated with copper, which bound sequentially at two distinct sites. both the mono- and disubstituted forms of aap exhibited catalytic hyperactivity relative to the native dizinc enzyme. monosubstituted aap exhibited an axial cu(ii) epr spectrum with slight ph dependence: at ph 6.0 g(parallel) = 2.249, g( perpendicular ) = 2.055, and a(parallel)((63/65)cu) = 1.77 x 10(-)(2) cm(-)(1), whereas at ph 9.65 g(parallel) = 2.245, g( perpendicula ...200212405829
natural antibodies and their significance in active immunization and protection against a defined pathogen in fish.natural antibody activity against aeromonas salmonicida extracellular a-layer protein (a-protein) showed large individual variations in a farmed group of 101 goldfish (carassius auratus l.). statistical analyses of these variations led us to divide this group into homogeneous high and low naturally active (hna and lna) subgroups. the hna fish were largely protected against experimental infection with a virulent atypical a. salmonicida strain, while 100% morbidity was recorded in the lna group. i ...200212399194
experimental evidence for major histocompatibility complex-allele-specific resistance to a bacterial infection.the extreme polymorphism found at some major histocompatibility complex (mhc) loci is believed to be maintained by balancing selection caused by infectious pathogens. experimental support for this is inconclusive. we have studied the interaction between certain mhc alleles and the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, which causes the severe disease furunculosis, in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.). we designed full-sibling broods consisting of combinations of homozygote and heterozygote genotypes wi ...200212396502
a rifampicin resistance mutation in the rpob gene confers ppgpp-independent antibiotic production in streptomyces coelicolor a3(2).in streptomyces coelicolor a3(2), deletion of rela or a specific mutation in rplk ( relc) results in an inability to synthesize ppgpp (guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate) and impairs production of actinorhodin. we have found that certain rifampicin-resistant ( rif) mutants isolated from either rela or relc strains regain the ability to produce actinorhodin at the same level as the wild-type strain, although their capacity to synthesize ppgpp is unchanged. these rif mutants were found to hav ...200212395192
the identification of the transcriptional regulator crp in aeromonas hydrophila jmp636 and its involvement in amylase production and the 'acidic toxicity' effect.the physiological examination of amylase production by aeromonas hydrophila jmp636 and identification of the mechanism of regulation.200212392524
microbiological investigations of rainwater and graywater collected for toilet flushing.seven danish rainwater systems were investigated with respect to the microbial water quality. the general microbiological quality (total numbers of bacteria (aodc)), and heterotrophic plate counts on r2a and plate count agar in the toilets supplied with rainwater were approximately the same as in the reference toilets supplied with drinking water. however, in 12 of the 27 analysed samples one or more pathogens were observed (aeromonas sp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, legionella non-pneumophila, camp ...200212381006
effect of superatmospheric oxygen packaging on sensorial quality, spoilage, and listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas caviae growth in fresh processed mixed salads.atmospheres with o2 levels higher than 70 kpa have recently been suggested as an innovation to modified atmosphere packaging (map) for fresh processed vegetables to maintain sensory quality and safety. in the present work, mixed vegetable salad collected from a commercial processing plant and stored with the map technique was studied. two gas mixtures were actively generated by using an initial o2 concentration of 95 kpa and combined with two plastic films. the low-barrier film permeability for ...200212380740
evidence for a type iii secretion system in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis, is an important fish pathogen. we have screened this bacterium with a broad-host-range probe directed against yscv, the gene that encodes the archetype of a highly conserved family of inner membrane proteins found in every known type iii secretion system. this has led to the identification of seven open reading frames that encode homologues to proteins functioning within the type iii secretion systems of yersinia sp ...200212374830
staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome in an adult due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.we report a case of a 71-year-old man with staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (ssss). the patient, with a chronic history of diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our hospital with lumbago, and a diagnosis of renal-cell carcinoma with bone metastasis was made. in hospital he had sudden onset of high fever and erythema, followed by the formation of flaccid bullae and exfoliation, with a positive nikolsky sign. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), producing exfoliative toxin b, was i ...200212373491
aeromonas culicicola sp. nov., from the midgut of culex quinquefasciatus.the taxonomic position was examined of three isolates, mtcc 3249t, sh and slh, from the midgut of female culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegyptii mosquitoes. numbers of cells of these isolates increased 2000-fold after a blood meal of the mosquitoes. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis of the novel strains showed that they were highly homologous to strains of aeromonas. dna-dna hybridization studies showed that dna of strain mtcc 3249t was 96 and 88% similar to that of strains sh and slh, respectiv ...200212361279
cloning of the class d beta-lactamase gene from burkholderia pseudomallei and studies on its expression in ceftazidime-susceptible and -resistant strains.ceftazidime is the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of melioidosis. ceftazidime-resistant burkholderia pseudomallei have been identified and beta-lactamase production implicated in resistance. in this study, 25 strains of b. pseudomallei (15 clinical and 10 environmental strains) were examined for their ability to yield mutants that overexpress beta-lactamase. ceftazidime-resistant mutants were selected readily at high frequency and displayed four- to eight-fold increases in the mics of ce ...200212356787
requirement of n-glycan on gpi-anchored proteins for efficient binding of aerolysin but not clostridium septicum alpha-toxin.aerolysin of the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila consists of small (sl) and large (ll) lobes. the alpha-toxin of gram-positive clostridium septicum has a single lobe homologous to ll. these toxins bind to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins and generate pores in the cell's plasma membrane. we isolated cho cells resistant to aerolysin, with the aim of obtaining gpi biosynthesis mutants. one mutant unexpectedly expressed gpi-anchored proteins, but nevertheless bound a ...200212356721
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