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discovery and characterization of two types of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) genes in rainbow trout.the sequences and gene organisation of two leap-2 molecules (leap-2a and leap-2b) from rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss are presented. both genes consist of a 3 exon/2 intron structure, with exon sizes comparable to known mammalian genes. leap-2a notably differs from leap-2b in having larger introns and a larger 3' utr. the predicted proteins contain a signal peptide and prodomain, followed by a mature peptide of 41 aa containing four conserved cysteines. the rxxr cleavage site to release the ...200415350756
increasing the carbon flux toward synthesis of short-chain-length--medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate in the peroxisome of saccharomyces cerevisiae through modification of the beta-oxidation cycle.short-chain-length-medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates were synthesized in saccharomyces cerevisiae from intermediates of the beta-oxidation cycle by expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases from aeromonas caviae and ralstonia eutropha in the peroxisomes. the quantity of polymer produced was increased by using a mutant of the beta-oxidation-associated multifunctional enzyme with low dehydrogenase activity toward r-3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme a.200415345460
raw cow milk bacterial population shifts attributable to refrigeration.we monitored the dynamic changes in the bacterial population in milk associated with refrigeration. direct analyses of dna by using temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (ttge) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) allowed us to make accurate species assignments for bacteria with low-gc-content (low-gc%) (<55%) and medium- or high-gc% (>55%) genomes, respectively. we examined raw milk samples before and after 24-h conservation at 4 degrees c. bacterial identification was facilita ...200415345453
integration of microbial ecology and statistics: a test to compare gene libraries.libraries of 16s rrna genes provide insight into the membership of microbial communities. statistical methods help to determine whether differences in library composition are artifacts of sampling or are due to underlying differences in the communities from which they are derived. to contribute to a growing statistical framework for comparing 16s rrna libraries, we present a computer program, integral -libshuff, which calculates the integral form of the cramér-von mises statistic. this implement ...200415345436
[discordancies between classical and api 20e microtest biochemical identification of vibrio and aeromonas strains].the present study reveals some discordancies of diagnosis considering vibrionaceae strains when tested by comparison with api 20e (biomerieux) system and classical biochemical reactions, aspects already mentioned in the literature by other authors. if any misidentification has not an important impact (e.g. identification of aeromonas schubertii as a. sobria), others as misidentification of aeromonas as vibrio strains or the failure to recognize vibrio strains raise major epidemiological problems ...200315341329
role of ichthyophthirius multifiliis in the infection of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila and ichthyophthirius multifiliis are important fish pathogens. to clarify their relationship, two host models, goldfish with trauma and those infected with i. multifiliis, were used to study infection kinetics of a. hydrophila 4332 tagged with plasmid pgfpuv (ah4332(gfp)). the results showed that in fish suffering from ichthyophthiriosis, the bacterial infection process was accelerated and more persistent than in the other groups. it is suggested that i. multifiliis plays an ...200415330981
external decontamination of wild leeches with hypochloric acid.medicinal leech, hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. in many countries, wild leeches are still provided from local markets and utilised with antibiotic prophylaxies. in this research, results of identification of bacteria in the transport fluid is reported, oral and intestinal floras and the antibiograms of the identified microorganisms are investigated. also, to avoid possible i ...200415329153
microarray analysis of aeromonas hydrophila cytotoxic enterotoxin-treated murine primary macrophages.we performed microarray analyses of murine peritoneal macrophages to examine cellular transcriptional responses to a cytotoxic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila. while 66% of altered genes were common to both primary macrophages and the murine macrophage cell line raw 264.7, act caused expression changes of 28 genes specifically in murine peritoneal macrophages.200415322042
evaluation of a rapid polymerase chain reaction based identification technique for vibrio cholerae isolates.rapid and accurate identification of waterborne pathogens, such as vibrio cholerae, in drinking-water sources is important to enable effective resource management and public health protection. phenotypic systems currently being used for the identification of vibrio cholerae isolates are time-consuming and the need exists for the development of suitable molecular techniques that can offer both fast and reliable identification. during this study, isolates identified as vibrio cholerae by means of ...200415318514
mechanisms of quinolone resistance and clonal relationship among aeromonas salmonicida strains isolated from reared fish with furunculosis.the mechanisms of resistance to quinolone and epidemiological relationships among a. salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish in french marine farms from 1998 to 2000 were investigated. the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyra and parc genes of 12 clinical a. salmonicida isolates with different levels of quinolone susceptibility were sequenced. mics were determined in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor (epi) phe-arg beta-naphthylamide and e(max) values (mic without ...200415314197
validation of a pcr for diagnosis of typhoid fever and salmonellosis by amplification of the hila gene in clinical samples from colombian patients.validation of a pcr test to detect hila gene sequences of salmonella spp. was performed in blood and faeces samples from typhoid fever and salmonellosis patients. sensitivity (s), specificity (sp), positive predictive value (ppv) and negative predictive value (npv) of the pcr in blood samples were performed by testing: 37 patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever, 34 of them confirmed by isolation of s. typhi from blood cultures; 35 patients infected with other pathogens corroborated by ...200415314194
the effect of vaccination and sea water entry on immunocompetence and susceptibility to kudoa thyrsites in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.).the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) vaccination and sea water entry (swe) on the immunocompetence of cascade atlantic salmon was investigated. smolts were ip injected with aqua health's forte trade mark vaccine (listonella (vibrio) anguillarum, listonella ordalii, vibrio salmonicida and aeromonas salmonicida) at four times (42, 238, 433 and 630 degree days, dd) prior to swe and were examined for immunocompetence. immune response measurements included mitogen-driven proliferation of peripheral blo ...200415312664
analysis of freshwater pathogens: a guide to rational empiric antibiotic coverage.fresh water injuries are often contaminated with bacteria that are not typically encountered in other wounds. their treatment should include empiric administration of appropriate antibiotics. this study identifies the most common pathogens found in the lake of the ozarks and their antibiotic sensitivity. eleven of the twelve lake water samples (92%) had a positive culture result. sixty-seven percent of lake water samples contained at least two strains of bacteria. five different bacterial specie ...200415311576
influence of chronic exposure to treated sewage effluent on the distribution of white blood cell populations in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) spleen.impairment of immune function in aquatic animals has been proposed as a possible consequence of low-level contamination of surface waters with anthropogenic substances such as through the discharge of wastewater into rivers, lakes, and oceans. the study at hand investigated the effects of chronic (32 weeks) exposure to sewage treatment plant (stp) effluent on the prevalence and distribution of different leucocyte populations in spleen samples of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). to simulate a ...200415310861
biological characterization of aeromonas spp. isolated from the environment.cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) is a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections caused by aeromonas spp. the cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) was detected in 32 out of 69 environmental isolates of aeromonas spp. by hybridization with the act gene probe. to evaluate the pathogenic potential of the act gene probe-positive isolates, 32 act gene probe-positive and 31 randomly selected act gene probe-negative isolates were tested for enterotoxicity in a suckling mice assay (sma), for haemolyt ...200415310164
structural reinvestigation of the core oligosaccharide of a mutant form of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide containing an o-4 phosphorylated and o-5 substituted kdo reducing end group using electrospray qqtof-ms/ms.the molecular structure of the mutant form of the lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas salmonicida was determined to contain an o-4 phosphorylated and o-5 substituted kdo reducing group, and is proposed as the following: [molecular structure: see text] it was established that during the cleavage of this lps with 1% acetic acid, to release the core oligosaccharide from the lipid a portion, we obtained a degraded core oligosaccharide which eliminated its phosphate group with extreme facility. the preci ...200415302978
antimicrobial resistance in selected bacterial enteropathogens in north india.the resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as in developed countries. resistance has emerged even to newer, more potent antimicrobial agents. the present study was therefore undertaken to report the current antibiotic resistance in common bacterial enteropathogens isolated in a tertiary care hospital in north india.200415299231
effect of different temperature downshifts on protein synthesis by aeromonas hydrophila.the psychrotrophic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila 7966 was subjected to cold shocks from 30 degrees c to 20 degrees c, 15 degrees c, 10 degrees c, or 5 degrees c, or were incubated at low temperature to determine its adaptative response. the cell protein patterns analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that only a few proteins were underexpressed, whereas numerous new proteins appeared with the decrease of temperature, and some others were overexpressed. among them, a few constitute ...200415297910
a novel strategy for the expression and purification of the dna methyltransferase, m.ahdi.biochemical and structural studies of the methylase from the type 1 1/2 r-m system ahdi require the ability to purify this multi-subunit enzyme in significant quantities in a soluble and active form. several escherichia coli expression systems were tested for their ability to produce the intact methylase but this could not be achieved in a simple co-expression system. expression experiments were optimised to produce high yields of soluble m and s subunits as individual proteins. temperature and ...200415294304
epidemiological and clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by aeromonas spp. as compared with escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa.we reviewed 75 episodes of aeromonas spp. bacteraemia observed at our institution in 1979-2002, with special reference to episodes occurring in elderly patients (> or = 65 y) and to nosocomial episodes. in addition, we compared monomicrobial bacteraemic episodes caused by aeromonas spp. (n = 54) with those caused by escherichia coli (n = 108) and pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 108), to assess differences in clinical presentation and outcome. the 75 episodes of aeromonas spp. bacteraemia occurred ma ...200415287377
population patterns and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonas in urban playa lakes.bacteria belonging to the genus aeromonas are indigenous to aquatic environments. once regarded as unimportant human pathogens, reports of opportunistic infections caused by these organisms have appeared increasingly in the medical literature. to estimate the potential for human infection by aeromonas where limited water resources are being used intensively, we studied the spatial and temporal variation and incidence of antimicrobial resistance among environmental isolates of aeromonas from two ...200415284885
antimicrobial activity of reuterin in combination with nisin against food-borne pathogens.antimicrobial activity of reuterin individually or in combination with nisin against different food-borne gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens in milk was investigated. reuterin (8 au/ml) exhibited bacteriostatic activity against listeria monocytogenes, whereas its activity was slightly bactericidal against staphylococcus aureus at 37 degrees c. higher bactericidal activity was detected against escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis, yersinia enterocolitica, a ...200415282134
maintenance of pathogenicity during entry into and resuscitation from viable but nonculturable state in aeromonas hydrophila exposed to natural seawater at low temperature.to investigate the fate of aeromonas hydrophila pathogenicity when cells switch, in nutrient-poor filtered sterilized seawater, between the culturable and nonculturable state.200415281936
spectroscopic and x-ray crystallographic characterization of bestatin bound to the aminopeptidase from aeromonas (vibrio) proteolytica.binding of the competitive, slow-binding inhibitor bestatin ([(2s,3r)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoy]-leucine) to the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) was examined by both spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. electronic absorption spectra of the catalytically competent [co_(aap)], [coco(aap)], and [znco(aap)] enzymes recorded in the presence of bestatin revealed that both of the divalent metal ions in aap are involved in binding bestatin. the electron paramagnetic reson ...200415274616
aeromonas hydrophila beta-hemolysin induces active chloride secretion in colon epithelial cells (ht-29/b6).the diarrheal mechanisms in aeromonas enteritis are not completely understood. in this study we investigated the effect of aeromonads and of their secretory products on ion secretion and barrier function of monolayers of human intestinal cells (ht-29/b6). ion secretion was determined as a short-circuit current (i(sc)) of ht-29/b6 monolayers mounted in ussing-type chambers. transepithelial resistance (r(t)) served as a measure of permeability. a diarrheal strain of aeromonas hydrophila (strain sb ...200415271947
purification and characterization of a novel metalloprotease isolated from aeromonas caviae.a novel protease produced by aeromonas caviae was purified and characterized. the molecular weight of the protease (ap19) was estimated as 19 kda on sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the protease activity was not inhibited completely by heating at 100 degrees c for 15 min. the proteolytic activities were inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitor. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of ap19 was vtasvsfsgrctn. ap19 did not activate aeromonas proaerolysin, and did not show fluid accumulation in t ...200415268947
in vitro effect of a buffered chelating agent and neomycin or oxytetracycline on bacteria associated with diseases of fish.the antimicrobial agents used to treat bacterial fish diseases are archaic, and their uses may result in the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains. this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of combinations of tricide and neomycin or oxytetracycline on common disease-causing bacteria of fish and its possible use as an alternative treatment of these diseases. tricide solutions containing of 8 mm united states pharmacopeia (usp) disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dehydrate ...200415264722
a comparison of bacillus cereus and aeromonas hydrophilia zn-beta-lactamases. 199915263322
clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin shows structural similarity to the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.epsilon-toxin from clostridium perfringens is a lethal toxin. recent studies suggest that the toxin acts via an unusually potent pore-forming mechanism. here we report the crystal structure of epsilon-toxin, which reveals structural similarity to aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila. pore-forming toxins can change conformation between soluble and transmembrane states. by comparing the two toxins, we have identified regions important for this transformation.200415258571
over-expression, purification, and characterization of metallo-beta-lactamase imis from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.the gene from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria encoding the metallo-beta-lactamase imis was subcloned into pet-26b, and imis was over-expressed in bl21(de3) escherichia coli and purified using sp-sepharose chromatography. this protocol yielded over 5 mg of imis per liter of growth culture under optimum conditions. the biochemical properties of recombinant imis were compared with those of native imis. recombinant and native imis have the same n-terminus of a-g-m-s-l, and cd spectroscopy was used to s ...200415249050
influence of ph, salt concentration and temperature on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the influence of environmental factors on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila was investigated four isolates (ah 37, ah 79, ah 86 and ah 100) were exposed to various environmental factors such as ph, salt concentration and temperature in laboratory condition. all the four isolates showed more or less similar growth at ph 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 at 30 degrees c and 5 degrees c. at ph 5.0, 6.0 and 10.0, the log number of cells was found to be lesser than that of ph 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 at both 30 degrees c an ...200315248649
the acetylcholinesterase ichthyotoxin is a common component in the extracellular products of vibrionaceae strains.in previous work, it was reported that a strain of aeromonas hydrophila (b32) produces the most potent lethal toxin with neurotoxic activity described so far for fish. in the present study, the presence and distribution of this acetylcholinesterase toxin lethal for fish were determined in extracellular products (ecp) of 42 vibrionaceae strains using both immunological and colorimetric methods. this neurotoxin was shown to be present in the majority of the ecp from the aeromonas and vibrio strain ...199815244056
the development of random dna probes specific for aeromonas salmonicida.rapd-pcr has been used to produce dna probes for aeromonas salmonicida. dna hybridization studies showed that rapd-pcr fragments of the same size did not necessarily hybridize to each other and therefore these sequences were not always homologous. however, a single rapd-pcr fragment (designated 15e) was identified as being common to aer. salmonicida. subsequently, 15e was found to comprise five dna fragments of similar size which differed in their nucleotide sequences. all five fragments were ev ...199815244055
bacteriology of a bear bite wound to a human: case report.human contact with bears has become more frequent, as has the resultant bear maulings and bite injuries. we report the bacteriology of a patient bitten by a grizzly bear (ursus arctos) from the rocky mountains foothills area east of banff national park, alberta, canada. the patient received field care, including metronidazole and cefazolin. subsequent deep-wound cultures grew serratia fonticola, serratia marcescens, aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, and enterococcus durans but no anaerobes.200415243122
the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents.the antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone, petroleum ether, and ethanol extracts of the lichen cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents against 9 bacteria and fungi has been investigated. the extracts and pure compounds alone were found active against the same bacteria and the same yeasts. bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, proteus vulgaris, listeria monocytogenes, aero ...200415241936
analysis and validation of a predictive model for growth and death of aeromonas hydrophila under modified atmospheres at refrigeration temperatures.specific growth and death rates of aeromonas hydrophila were measured in laboratory media under various combinations of temperature, ph, and percent co(2) and o(2) in the atmosphere. predictive models were developed from the data and validated by means of observations obtained from (i) seafood experiments set up for this purpose and (ii) the combase database (http://www.combase.cc; http://wyndmoor.arserrc.gov/combase/). two main reasons were identified for the differences between the predicted a ...200415240265
distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria as free living and plankton associated in a marine coastal zone.to determine the abundance of faecal and nonfaecal bacteria related to human and animal health, as free living or associated with small (>64 microm) and large (>200 microm) plankton, samples were collected monthly from the coastal zone at messina (italy).200415239702
bacterial removal and protozoan grazing in biological sand filters.the objective of the study was to investigate the importance of protozoan predation as a biological removal mechanism in sand filters used for purification of bacteria from wastewater. eleven sand filter columns were seeded with a high dose of wastewater (70 mm d(-1)) and a high concentration (10(8) colony forming units [cfu] ml(-1)) of aeromonas hydrophila (american type culture collection [atcc] 14715) for a period of 30 d. water samples from three filter outlets were analyzed for the concentr ...200415224942
correlation between production of acyl homoserine lactones and proteases in an aeromonas hydrophila aroa live vaccine.aeromonas hydrophila is a pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of homeothermic and poikilothermic hosts due to its multifactorial virulence. we have previously described the characterisation and use of an auxotrophic aroa mutant of the a. hydrophila ag2 strain as a live attenuated vaccine against a. hydrophila infections in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). in this study we report the expression of extracellular proteolytic activities and of quorum-sensing molecules by this mutant gro ...200415223121
cytotoxin testing of environmental aeromonas spp. in vero cell culture.aeromonas spp. are known to cause a variety of infections in humans and this organism has been isolated from a variety of sources including environmental sources. the pathogenicity of the environmental isolates in and around vellore has not been studied. this study was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of the aeromonas spp. isolated from water bodies, soil sediments, plankton and sewers in and around vellore.200415218980
aeromonas hydrophila cytotoxic enterotoxin activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and induces apoptosis in murine macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells.a cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila possesses several biological activities, induces an inflammatory response in the host, and causes apoptosis of murine macrophages. in this study, we utilized five target cell types (a murine macrophage cell line (raw 264.7), bone marrow-derived transformed macrophages, murine peritoneal macrophages, and two human intestinal epithelial cell lines (t84 and ht-29)) to investigate the effect of act on mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathw ...200415215244
polyphasic taxonomic study of "aeromonas eucrenophila-like" isolates from clinical and environmental sources.in the current study, a group of 17 "aeromonas eucrenophila-like" isolates from clinical and environmental origins was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization including ribotyping, 16s rdna sequencing, faflp fingerprinting, and biochemical testing. genotypic, phylogenetic, and phenotypic results were consistent with the conclusion that this group of 17 isolates may represent a currently undescribed aeromonas taxon most closely related to a. eucrenophila hg6. in addition, comparison ...200415214640
studies on cultured and uncultured microbiota of wild culex quinquefasciatus mosquito midgut based on 16s ribosomal rna gene analysis.to describe the midgut microbial diversity and the candidate bacteria for the genetic manipulation for the generation of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to transmission of diseases, the microbiota of wild culex quinquefasciatus mosquito midgut was studied using a conventional culture technique and analysis of a 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequence library. the culturable microbiota was identified as acinetobacter junii, ac. calcoaceticus, aeromonas culicicola, bacillus thuringiensis, microbac ...200415210998
the usefulness of molecular techniques to assess the presence of aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in foods.a total of 78 raw and 123 processed and ready-to-eat retail food samples were used to assess the presence of motile aeromonas spp. harboring virulence genes (cytotoxic enterotoxin and hemolysin genes) using a recently described pcr method in comparison with the conventional cultivation method based on the use of ampicillin-dextrin agar (ada) medium. with the ada-based method, 65/201 (32.3%) samples showed presumptive aeromonas spp. colonies whereas the pcr method revealed the presence of aeromon ...200415193799
doripenem (s-4661), a novel carbapenem: comparative activity against contemporary pathogens including bactericidal action and preliminary in vitro methods evaluations.to investigate the potency of doripenem, a broad-spectrum carbapenem characterized by a wider spectrum of activity combining antimicrobial and bactericidal features of imipenem and meropenem.200415190031
competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus.probiotics for aquaculture are generally only selected by their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites; however, attachment to intestinal mucus is important in order to remain within the gut of its host. five candidate probiotics (ap1-ap5), isolated from the clownfish, amphiprion percula (lacepéde), were examined for their ability to attach to fish intestinal mucus and compete with two pathogens, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus. two different radioactive isotopes were used to ...200415189372
chemical structure of aeromonas gum--extracellular polysaccharide from aeromonas nichidenii 5797.aeromonas (a) gum, an extracellular heteropolysaccharide produced by the bacterium aeromonas nichidenii strain 5797, was studied by 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy including 2d cosy, tocsy, 1h, 13c hmqc, hmbc and roesy experiments after o-deacetylation and smith degradation. these investigations revealed the presence of an o-acetylated pentasaccharide repeating unit composed of mannose, glucose, xylose and glucuronic acid, and it has the following structure: [image: see text]200415183737
dual flagellar systems enable motility under different circumstances.flagella are extremely effective organelles of locomotion used by a variety of bacteria and archaea. some bacteria, including aeromonas, azospirillum, rhodospirillum, and vibrio species, possess dual flagellar systems that are suited for movement under different circumstances. swimming in liquid is promoted by a single polar flagellum. swarming over surfaces or in viscous environments is enabled by the production of numerous peritrichous, or lateral, flagella. the polar flagellum is produced con ...200415170400
purification, cloning, and sequence analysis of beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from the chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila strain suwa-9.a chitinolytic bacterium was isolated from lake suwa and identified as aeromonas hydrophila strain suwa-9. the strain grew well on a synthetic medium containing colloidal chitin as sole carbon source. chitin-degrading activity was induced by colloidal chitin or n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac). most of the activity, however, was not detected in culture fluid but was associated with cells. a beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase was purified after it was solubilized from cells by sonication. the purified enzy ...200415170113
aeromonas hydrophila with plasmid-borne class a extended-spectrum beta-lactamase tem-24 and three chromosomal class b, c, and d beta-lactamases, isolated from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. 200415155251
prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and genetic profiles of mesophilic aeromonas species isolated from hospitalized diarrhoeal cases in kolkata, india.a comprehensive study was performed to examine incidence, species distribution, drugs sensitivity, virulence genes and molecular fingerprints of aeromonas species isolated from patients with acute diarrhoea over a period of 2 years in kolkata, india. following the aerokey ii scheme, more than 95 % of strains were identified to species level. seven different species were encountered in this study, with aeromonas caviae being dominant, followed by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biovar ...200415150333
aerolysin is activated by metalloprotease in aeromonas veronii biovar sobria.aeromonas veronii is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes diarrhoea and extraintestinal infections, such as wound infection and septicaemia. an a. veronii protease (avp) from a biovar sobria strain, aeg1, was partially purified and characterized. mature avp hydrolysed casein but not elastin, and protease activity was inhibited by metalloprotease inhibitors. nucleotide sequence analysis showed that avp belongs to the thermolysin family of proteases. an avp-deficient mutant was constructed ...200415150325
potentially pathogenic features of heterotrophic plate count bacteria isolated from treated and untreated drinking water.heterotrophic plate counts (hpcs) are commonly used to assess the general microbiological quality of drinking water. drinking water quality specifications worldwide recommend hpc limits from 100 to 500 cfu ml(-1). a number of recent studies revealed evidence that these bacteria may not be as harmless as generally accepted. it appears that immuno-compromised individuals are particularly at risk. this would include the very young and very old patients with diseases such as aids and patients on the ...200415145586
enrichment and identification of bacteria capable of reducing chemical oxygen demand of anaerobically treated molasses spent wash.the aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacterial strains capable of using recalcitrant compounds of molasses spent wash as sole carbon source from the soils of abandoned sites of distillery effluent discharge and characterize their ability of reducing the chemical oxygen demand (cod) of the spent wash.200415139920
the catalytic role of glutamate 151 in the leucine aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica.glutamate 151 has been proposed to act as the general acid/base during the peptide hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by the co-catalytic metallohydrolase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap). however, to date, no direct evidence has been reported for the role of glu-151 during catalytic turnover by aap. in order to elucidate the catalytic role of glu-151, altered aap enzymes have been prepared in which glu-151 has been substituted with a glutamine, an alanine, and an aspartate. the michaelis constant ( ...200415138277
microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions.drinking water is a major source of microbial pathogens in developing regions, although poor sanitation and food sources are integral to enteric pathogen exposure. gastrointestinal disease outcomes are also more severe, due to under-nutrition and lack of intervention strategies in these regions. poor water quality, sanitation and hygiene account for some 1.7 million deaths a year world-wide (3.1% of all deaths and 3.7% of all daly's), mainly through infectious diarrhoea. nine out of 10 such deat ...200415138046
universal primer pcr with dgge for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens.a universal primer pcr (uppcr) combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) was evaluated as a method permitting the rapid detection of pathogens. the results show that this method is efficient at amplifying the conserved regions of bacterial 16s rrna genes with universal primers and can detect causative bacterial pathogens rapidly. six species of bacteria from fisheries (pseudomonas fluorescens, vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio fluvialis, providencia rettgeri and ...200415134888
identification of immune-relevant genes from atlantic salmon using suppression subtractive hybridization.in order to probe the interaction between an invading microorganism and its host, we have investigated differential gene expression in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) experimentally infected with the pathogen aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. subtractive cdna libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) from 3 immune-relevant tissues at 2 time points during the infection process. both forward- and reverse-subtracted libraries were generated, a ...200415129324
behavior of an aeromonas hydrophila aroa live vaccine in water microcosms.genetically modified auxotrophic mutants of different fish pathogens have been used as live vaccines in laboratory experiments, but the behavior of the strains after release into aquatic ecosystems has not been characterized. we previously constructed and characterized an aroa mutant of aeromonas hydrophila and studied the protection afforded by this mutant as a live vaccine in rainbow trout. in this work, we describe the survival of this strain in aquatic microcosms prepared from fish water tan ...200415128521
isolation and characterization of complement component c3 from atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) and atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.).complement component c3 was isolated from the plasma of cod (gadus morhua l.) and halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.). fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) techniques, involving ion exchange and gel filtration columns, were used. the purified proteins were analysed by sds-page which showed a two-chain structure, alpha- and beta-chains, as seen in higher vertebrates. both proteins had intra-chain thioesters located within their alpha-chains and n-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed t ...200415123326
the auxotrophic aroa mutant of aeromonas hydrophila as a live attenuated vaccine against a. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).an auxotrophic aroa mutant of the aeromonas hydrophila ag2 strain is a live attenuated vaccine against a. hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). the protection conferred by the live attenuated vaccine against a. salmonicida strains is reported here, and several parameters of the specific and non-specific immune response in vaccinated trout were characterised. vaccination with a dose of 10(7)cells/fish of the aroa mutant elicited significant protection against the hooke and ...200415123323
the effect of various aeromonas bestiarum vaccines on non-specific immune parameters and protection of carp (cyprinus carpio l.).aeromonas bestiarum is one of the causal agents of motile aeromonad infection/motile aeromonad septicemia (mai/mas) in fish. infections of the bacterium is an increasing problem in commercial carp (cyprinus carpio l.) farmed in poland. non-specific immune response of the fish, vaccinated with oil-emulsified experimental vaccines containing formalin killed whole cells (wcs), formalin killed whole culture (wct) or crude lps (50 or 1250 microg per fish) were studied on days 7 and 30 after vaccinati ...200415123310
antigen expression in biofilm cells of aeromonas hydrophila employed in oral vaccination of fish.total protein, s-layer protein and lipopolysaccharides (lps) of biofilm cells of aeromonas hydrophila were analysed by sds-page and compared with that of planktonic cells. in the whole cell lysate of biofilm cells, about 15 proteins were repressed while three new proteins were expressed compared to that in planktonic cells. interestingly, in biofilm cells the s-layer proteins were lost and lps showed an additional high molecular weight band compared to that in planktonic cells. we propose that t ...200415123309
vaccination and immune responses against atypical aeromonas salmonicida in spotted wolffish (anarhichas minor olafsen) juveniles.to study the effect of early vaccination, wolffish juveniles of size 50 and 90 mm, respectively, were vaccinated with an oil-adjuvanted atypical a. salmonicida bacterin. vaccination resulted in significant protection after challenge with the homologous bacterial strain and specific antibody responses were demonstrated against whole bacteria as well as purified a-layer protein and lps by elisa and western blotting but individual variation in immune responses was apparent. the a-protein was the mo ...200415123297
aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase: an investigation of the mode of action using a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach.the aminopeptidase of aeromonas proteolytica (aap) belongs to the group of metallo-hydrolases that require two divalent cations for full activity. such binuclear metal centers are found in several aminopeptidases, raising the question whether a common mechanism, at least partly, is likely. we have used a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (qm/mm) approach to investigate the reaction mechanism of aap. among several possibilities, one reaction path was found to be clearly the most favorable. ...200415122907
cloning, characterisation and expression of aeromonas hydrophila major adhesin.aeromonas hydrophila, an important pathogen in fish, is believed to cause diseases by adhesive and enterotoxic mechanisms. the adhesion is a prerequisite for successful invasion. in this study, the gene of a 43 kda major adhesin (designated as aha1) was cloned and expressed. nucleotide sequence analysis of aha1 revealed an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 373 amino acids with a 20-amino-acid putative signal peptide (molecular weight 40,737 da). the amino acid sequences of aha1p showe ...200415110338
sequential study of antigen persistence and concomitant inflammatory reactions relative to side-effects and growth of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following intraperitoneal injection with oil-adjuvanted vaccines.the persistence of antigens at the injection site (area around pyloric caeca and spleen), concomitant inflammatory reaction and granuloma development were monitored at 3, 6 and 12 months following intraperitoneal injection with multivalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccines in atlantic salmon. parallel assessment of side-effect profiles and growth rate were also performed. antigen persistence was examined by use of a monoclonal antibody that recognises aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide in an immuno ...200415110337
evaluation of biofilm of aeromonas hydrophila for oral vaccination of clarias batrachus--a carnivore model.biofilm of aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated for oral vaccination of walking catfish (clarias batrachus l.). fish were fed with fish paste incorporating biofilm (bf) or free cells (fc) of a. hydrophila for 20 days and monitored for serum antibody production up to 60 days post-vaccination. serum agglutinating antibody titre and relative percent survival (rps) following challenge were found to be significantly higher in catfish fed with bf vaccine compared to that with fc.200415110335
cefotaximases (ctx-m-ases), an expanding family of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.among the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, the cefotaximases (ctx-m-ases) constitute a rapidly growing cluster of enzymes that have disseminated geographically. the ctx-m-ases, which hydrolyze cefotaxime efficiently, are mostly encoded by transferable plasmids, and the enzymes have been found predominantly in enterobacteriaceae, most prevalently in escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis. isolates of vibrio cholerae, acinetobacter baumannii, and a ...200415105882
16s to 23s rdna spacer fragment length polymorphism of aeromonas sp.we analyzed polymorphism of the pcr-amplified 16s-23s rdna spacer of aeromonas species. a total of 69 isolates representing 18 dna hybridization groups were used in this study. the analysis of pcr products of 16s-23s rdna spacers revealed patterns consisting of two to eight dna fragments. the fragment sizes ranged from 730 to 1050 bp. dna patterns revealed a considerable genetic diversity between species and within a species. when a procedure to eliminate heteroduplex formation was performed, th ...200315095921
outbreak of aeromonas hydrophila wound infections associated with mud football.on 16 february 2002, a total of 26 people presented to the emergency department of the local hospital in the rural town of collie in southwest western australia with many infected scratches and pustules distributed over their bodies. all of the patients had participated in a "mud football" competition the previous day, in which there had been ~100 participants. one patient required removal of an infected thumbnail, and another required surgical debridement of an infected toe. aeromonas hydrophil ...200415095211
a secreted metallo protease from aeromonas hydrophila exhibits prothrombin activator activity.detection, purification, and partial characterization of a protease from aeromonas hydrophila capable of cleaving prothrombin into active thrombin is described. the protease has been characterized with respect to enzymatic characteristics such as optimum reaction conditions for prothrombin activation, usage of additional substrates, as well as sensitivity against inhibitors. the protease activity can reversibly be inhibited by me2+ chelating agents like ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. the enzy ...200415091004
[study of antibiotic influence on adherence capacity of gram positive and gram negative bacteria to the cellular substrate].bacterial adherence to the cellular substrate (skin and mucosa) represents a precondition of infectious pathology. it was demonstrated that bacteria which adhere and form biofilms on catheters and other inert materials used in medicine are resistant to the therapeutic antibiotic concentrations being protected by the biofilm mathrix and generating severe and hard to treat infections. there are only few studies on the influence of antibiotics on the bacterial adhesins synthesis and bacterial adher ...200215085601
bacteriology of unshelled frozen blue swimming crab (portunus pelagicus).in this study, 45 (10 whole specimens and 35 frozen claws) frozen samples of portunus pelagicus imported into sicily (italy) from the west coast of africa were examined to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for consumption. bacteriological examination was performed on two subsamples for each whole crab. the first was the body and claw muscle; the second was a pool of viscera and gills. in the case of frozen claws, each muscle claw was a sample. an aerobic plate count at ...200415083736
secretion of haemolysins and proteases by aeromonas hydrophila eo63: separation and characterization of the serine protease (caseinase) and the metalloprotease (elastase).to determine the haemolysins and proteases excreted by the virulent strain eo63 of aeromonas hydrophila grown in complex media and to then fractionate and characterize them, in particular those with elastolytic activity.200415078516
aeromonas hydrophila orbital cellulitis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.orbital cellulitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila developed in a 73-year-old male with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome. he was admitted because of fever, general malaise, pain as well as periorbital swelling in the right eye. four days later, a yellowish pustule with purulent material was noted over right lower eyelid. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the discharge. after administering intravenous cefuroxime 1,500 mg every 8 hours and topical ofloxacin eye oint, his symptoms subsided ...200415077892
simultaneous detection of marine fish pathogens by using multiplex pcr and a dna microarray.we coupled multiplex pcr and a dna microarray to construct an assay suitable for the simultaneous detection of five important marine fish pathogens (vibrio vulnificus, listonella anguillarum, photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and vibrio parahaemolyticus). the array was composed of nine short oligonucleotide probes (25-mer) complementary to seven chromosomal loci (cyt, rpon, gyrb, toxr, urec, dly, and vapa) and two plasmid-borne loci (fata and a.sa ...200415070982
diversity of kenyan soda lake alkaliphiles assessed by molecular methods.dna was extracted from water and sediment samples taken from soda lakes of the kenyan-tanzanian rift valley. dna was also extracted from microbial enrichment cultures of sediment samples. 16s rrna genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and microbial diversity was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of 16s rdna amplicons. cloning and sequencing of single dgge bands showed that they usually contained mixed amplicons. several of the amplicon sequences had hig ...200415064991
faecal contamination indicators, salmonella, vibrio and aeromonas in water used for the irrigation of agricultural products.the faecal contamination indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, escherichia coli, enterococci) and the genera salmonella, vibrio, aeromonas were investigated in water samples used for irrigation. during 4 months, 52 samples were taken. the methods used were: multiple tube fermentation method for faecal contamination indicators and membrane filtration techniques for salmonella, aeromonas and vibrio. two samples were positive for salmonella spp., fourteen for aeromonas spp. and no samples ...200415061497
isolation and characterization of arsenate-reducing bacteria from arsenic-contaminated sites in new zealand.two environmental sites in new zealand were sampled (e.g., water and sediment) for bacterial isolates that could use either arsenite as an electron donor or arsenate as an electron acceptor under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions, respectively. these two sites were subjected to widespread arsenic contamination from mine tailings generated from historic gold mining activities or from geothermal effluent. no bacteria were isolated from these sites that could utilize arsenite or arsenate unde ...200415060729
expression of chitinase-encoding genes in bacillus thuringiensis and toxicity of engineered b. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai toward lymantria dispar larvae.chitinase genes from aeromonas hydrophila and bacillus circulans no.4.1 were cloned into the plasmid phy300plk and designated as phya2 and phyb43, respectively. both plasmids were introduced into various strains of b. thuringiensis by electroporation. plasmid phyb43 was generally structurally stable, but showed lower segregrational stability than phya2 in b. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai when grown under nonselective conditions. the production of chitinase from b. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai har ...200415057461
differential proteomic analysis of aeromonas salmonicida outer membrane proteins in response to low iron and in vivo growth conditions.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a serious infectious disease of salmonids. bacterial phenotypes are known to change in vivo compared to the in vitro state. proteomic analysis of in vivo phenotypes is usually not possible due to insufficient biomass. using an in vivo growth chamber model, the pathogenic fish bacterium a. salmonicida was cultured in pure culture in vivo in its host, the atlantic salmon, to obtain sufficient biomass to allow proteo ...200415048988
aeromonas flagella (polar and lateral) are enterocyte adhesins that contribute to biofilm formation on surfaces.aeromonas spp. (gram-negative, aquatic bacteria which include enteropathogenic strains) have two distinct flagellar systems, namely a polar flagellum for swimming in liquid and multiple lateral flagella for swarming over surfaces. only approximately 60% of mesophilic strains can produce lateral flagella. to evaluate flagellar contributions to aeromonas intestinal colonization, we compared polar and lateral flagellar mutant strains of a diarrheal isolate of aeromonas caviae for the ability to adh ...200415039313
nosocomial infection of aeromonas hydrophila presenting as necrotizing fasciitis.aeromonas hydrophila is infrequently reported as a causative organism of necrotizing fasciitis. we report a case of necrotizing fasciitis due to a. hydrophila in a 44-year-old man with marfan syndrome who underwent valve replacement surgery twice. he was admitted due to a 2-day history of fever. the fever was attributed to hepatitis, and ingestion of herbal medication was suspected to be the cause. the fever relapsed on the 28th day of hospitalization with rapidly progressive erythematous patche ...200415026859
biodegradation of acid blue-15, a textile dye, by an up-flow immobilized cell bioreactor.acid blue-15, a complex and resonance-stabilized triphenylmethane (tpm) textile dye, resistant to transformation, was decolorized/degraded in an up-flow immobilized cell bioreactor. a consortium comprised of isolates belonging to bacillus sp., alcaligenes sp. and aeromonas sp. formed a multispecies biofilm on refractory brick pieces used as support material. the tpm dye was degraded to simple metabolic intermediates in the bioreactor with 94% decolorization at a flow rate of 4 ml h(-1).200415024610
aeromonas simiae sp. nov., isolated from monkey faeces.two aeromonas strains, ibs s6874(t) and ibs s6652, were isolated from the faeces of two healthy monkeys (macaca fascicularis) from mauritius that were kept in quarantine in the centre for primatology, strasbourg, france. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences showed that the two isolates formed an unknown genetic lineage within the genus aeromonas. the two isolates had nearly identical sequences (0.1 % nucleotide substitution) that were related closely to those of recognized aero ...200415023964
biochemical characterization and site-directed mutational analysis of the double chitin-binding domain from chitinase 92 of aeromonas hydrophila jp101.chitinase 92 from aeromonas hydrophila jp101 contains c-terminal repeated chitin-binding domains (chbds) which were named chbd(ci) and chbd(cii) and classified into family 5 carbohydrate-binding modules on the basis of sequence. in this work, we constructed single and double chbd by use of the pet system, which expressed as isolated chbd(cii) or chbd(cicii). polysaccharide-binding studies revealed that chbd(cicii) not only bound to chitin, but also to other insoluble polysaccharides such as cell ...200415019735
aeromonas caviae keratitis associated with contact lens wear.we report the first case of bilateral contact lens-related aeromonas caviae keratitis associated with a. caviae contamination of the contact lens case. the presence of virulence factors produced by aeromonas species was also investigated.200415019388
functional significance of a periplasmic mn-superoxide dismutase from aeromonas hydrophila.a better understanding of the role of superoxide dismutases (sods) from aeromonas hydrophila and particularly the mn-sod which shares a peculiar localization within the bacterial periplasm and is only detected during the stationary phase of growth.200415012822
adhesive properties of a lamb-like outer-membrane protein and its contribution to aeromonas veronii adhesion.to identify and characterize nonfimbrial proteins from aeromonas veronii involved in the attachment to epithelial cells in vitro.200415012808
polymicrobic infection of hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops x morone saxatilis) with three bacterial pathogens: a case report. 200415009255
quantitative analysis, using maldi-tof mass spectrometry, of the n-terminal hydrolysis and cyclization reactions of the activation process of onconase.onconase, a member of the ribonuclease superfamily, is a potent cytotoxic agent that is undergoing phase ii/iii human clinical trials as an antitumor drug. native onconase from rana pipiens and its amphibian homologs have an n-terminal pyroglutamyl residue that is essential for obtaining fully active enzymes with their full potential as cytotoxins. when expressed cytosolically in bacteria, onconase is isolated with an additional methionyl (met1) residue and glutaminyl instead of a pyroglutamyl r ...200415009195
antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens isolated from a new regional hospital in southern taiwan.antimicrobial resistance has become a major health problem in taiwan. while some trends in antimicrobial resistance are universal, others appear to be unique for specific regions.200315008323
aeromonas spp associated with children's diarrhoea in tehran: a case-control study.the study sought a possible pathogenic role for aeromonas spp in tehranian children presenting with diarrhoea. during a 10-month period (february to october 2001), 310 children <10 years of age with diarrhoea and a group of 310 age- and sex-matched controls were selected. both groups were investigated for diarrhoeal pathogens. of 310 children who presented with acute diarrhoea, aeromonas spp was isolated from 14 (4.5%) (a. veronii biovar sobria 8, a. caviae 5 and a. hydrophila 1). the isolation ...200415005966
type iii secretion system genes in clinical aeromonas isolates.we have identified the genes ascf and ascg, which encode components of a putative type iii secretion system (ttss) in aeromonas: we investigated the distribution of these and other ttss genes in 84 clinical isolates and found hybridizing sequences in 50% of the strains, with a higher prevalence in aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii than in aeromonas caviae.200415004096
tracking spoilage bacteria in commercial poultry processing and refrigerated storage of poultry carcasses.four trials were conducted to examine the effect of commercial processing and refrigerated storage on spoilage bacteria in the native microflora of broiler carcasses. prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing facility, and psychrotrophs in the bacterial flora were enumerated on iron agar, pseudomonas agar, and staa agar. the size of the population of spoilage bacteria on processed carcasses stored at 4 degrees c for 7, 10, or 14 days was al ...200414996459
pharmacokinetics of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim in a 5:1 ratio following intraperitoneal and oral administration, in the hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops x morone saxitalis).selected pharmacokinetic parameters for sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, administered in a 5:1 ratio, via the oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes were determined in the hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops x morone saxitalis). plasma concentrations of both drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. a first-order one-compartment model adequately described plasma drug disposition. the elimination half-lives for sulfadimethoxine following i.p. and oral administration were 2 ...200414995959
an aeromonas veronii biovar sobria infection with disseminated intravascular gas production.we report a case of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria infection with disseminated intravascular gas production. the patient was an afebrile 15-year-old girl who had been quite healthy until the onset of the illness. she came to the hospital because of a 6-h history of increasing pain and swelling in her left thigh. on admission, no infection was suspected, and a tentative diagnosis of a ruptured left gracilis muscle was made. because the pain increased continuously, the treatment concentrated on p ...200414991516
bacterial stimulation upregulates the surface expression of the stress protein gp96 on b cells in the frog xenopus.the presence of the soluble intracellular heat shock protein gp96 (an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein) at the surface of certain cell types is an intriguing phenomenon whose physiological significance has been unclear. we have shown that the active surface expression of gp96 by some immune cells is found throughout the vertebrate phylum including the agnatha, the only vertebrate taxon whose members (lamprey, hagfish) lack an adaptive immune system. to determine whether gp96 surface expres ...200314984060
isolation and characterization of integron-containing bacteria without antibiotic selection.the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and commensal bacteria has become a serious problem worldwide. the use and overuse of antibiotics in a number of settings are contributing to the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. the class 1 and 2 integrase genes (inti1 and inti2, respectively) were identified in mixed bacterial cultures enriched from bovine feces by growth in buffered peptone water (bpw) followed by integrase-specific pcr. integrase-positive bacterial co ...200414982773
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