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recurrent dialysis-associated aeromonas hydrophila peritonitis: reports of two cases and review of the literature. 200516178485
the type iii secretion system and cytotoxic enterotoxin alter the virulence of aeromonas hydrophila.many gram-negative bacteria use a type iii secretion system (ttss) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. here we report the characterization of a ttss chromosomal operon from the diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. we deleted the gene encoding aeromonas outer membrane protein b (aopb), which is predicted to be involved in the formation of the ttss translocon, from wild-type (wt) a. hydrophila as well as from a previously characterized cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act)-minus str ...200516177316
the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry-based method for the protein fingerprinting and identification of aeromonas species using whole cells.this report describes the development of a method to detect the waterborne pathogen aeromonas using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms). the genus aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. in this study, maldi-ms was applied to the characterization of seventeen species of aeromonas. these seventeen species were represented by thirty-two strains, ...200616176841
[synthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl pha) in type i pha synthase negative mutant of aeromonas hydrophila].aeromonas hydrophila cgmcc 0911 possessing type i polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene (phac) only accumulate copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx), abbreviated as phbhhx, from lauric acid as sole carbon source but not from glucose. the gene encoding type i pha synthase was interrupted by insertion of a chloramphenicol resistance gene (cm). conjugation of suicide plasmid pfh10 transformed a. hydrophila cgmcc 0911 into a recombinant organism with the ...200516176086
high pressure processing for food safety.food preservation using high pressure is a promising technique in food industry as it offers numerous opportunities for developing new foods with extended shelf-life, high nutritional value and excellent organoleptic characteristics. high pressure is an alternative to thermal processing. the resistance of microorganisms to pressure varies considerably depending on the pressure range applied, temperature and treatment duration, and type of microorganism. generally, gram-positive bacteria are more ...200516175246
experimental handling stress as infection-facilitating factor for the goldfish ulcerative disease.experimental handling stress (ehs) was applied to clinically asymptomatic farmed goldfish (carassius auratus l.). ehs affected the gills and skin integrity of the fish and was accompanied by increased levels of plasma glucose, cortisol and interleukin-10 (il-10). ehs application was followed by highly significant enhancement of the rate of infection with a virulent aeromonas salmonicida isolate. cumulative ulceration at the initial phase of the ensuing goldfish ulcerative disease (gud) evidenced ...200616174536
antibacterial and antifungal lysozyme-type activity in cameraria ohridella pupae.lysozyme-type antibacterial and antifungal activity in pupae of cameraria ohridella was studied. activity against micrococcus luteus and bacillus megaterium was detected in pupae extract. also antifungal activity from c. ohridella pupae extract directed against saccharomyces cerevisiae strain w 303 was shown. during immunoblotting two bands in pupae extract, with molecular mass of about 15 and 28 kda were recognized by antibodies directed against hewl. after acid electrophoresis followed by bioa ...200516169556
evolutionary and diagnostic implications of intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16s rrna gene in aeromonas strains.sequencing 16s rrna genes (ssu) cloned from aeromonas strains revealed that strains contained up to six copies differing by < or = 1.5%. the ssu copies from aeromonas veronii lmg13695 clustered with sequences from four aeromonas species. these results demonstrate intragenomic heterogeneity of ssu and suggest caution when using ssu to identify aeromonads.200516159790
purification and characterization of the n-terminal domain of exea: a novel atpase involved in the type ii secretion pathway of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila secretes a number of degradative enzymes and toxins into the external milieu via the type ii secretory pathway or secreton. exea is an essential component of this system and is necessary for the localization and/or multimerization of the secretin exed. exea contains two sequence motifs characteristic of the walker superfamily of atpases. previous examination of substitution derivatives altered in these motifs suggested that atp binding or hydrolysis is required for exeab com ...200516159770
passive transfer of maternal antibodies and their existence in eggs, larvae and fry of indian major carp, labeo rohita (ham.).lack of immune competence in the early stages of life leads to severe mortality in larval stages of different fish species including indian major carp (imc). investigation through indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and agglutination test revealed a significant increase in specific serum antibody response in the brood fish of indian major carp, labeo rohita (ham.) following immunisation with a virulent aeromonas hydrophila bacterin 1 month prior to breeding, which was transferred ...200616157486
isolation of vibrio cholerae from neonates admitted to an urban diarrhoeal diseases hospital in bangladesh.very little is known about vibrio cholerae infection in neonates with diarrhoea.200516156982
aeromonas culicicola pidiyar et al. 2002 is a later subjective synonym of aeromonas veronii hickman-brenner et al. 1987.we re-investigated the taxonomic affiliation between aeromonas culicicola pidiyar et al. 2002 and aeromonas veronii hickman brenner et al. 1987, two species that have previously been shown to be closely related on the basis of gyrb and rpod gene sequencing and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. from extended biochemical characterization and fatty acid analysis, it was concluded that a. culicicola did not constitute a unique phenotypic group in the genus aeromonas but instead ...200516156118
predictive modelling of growth and measurement of enzymatic synthesis and activity by a cocktail of selected enterobacteriaceae and aeromonas hydrophila.the possibility was examined of developing a predictive model that would predict food spoilage by combining microbial growth (increase in cellular number) with extracellular enzymatic activity of a cocktail of five strains of enterobacteriaceae: escherichia coli, enterobacter agglomerans, klebsiella oxytoca, klebsiella pneumoniae and proteus vulgaris and one aeromonas hydrophila strain. estimations of growth and enzyme activity were made within a three-dimensional matrix of conditions: temperatu ...200516154655
new gammaproteobacteria associated with blood-feeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts.many monophagous animals have coevolutionary relationships with bacteria that provide unavailable nutrients to the host. frequently, these microbial partners are vertically inherited and reside in specialized structures or tissues. here we report three new lineages of bacterial symbionts of blood-feeding leeches, one from the giant amazonian leech, haementeria ghilianii, and two others from placobdelloides species. these hosts each possess a different mycetome or esophageal organ morphology wher ...200516151107
kinetic, spectroscopic, and x-ray crystallographic characterization of the functional e151h aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica.glutamate151 (e151) has been shown to be catalytically essential for the aminopeptidase from vibrio proteolyticus (aap). e151 acts as the general acid/base during the catalytic mechanism of peptide hydrolysis. however, a glutamate residue is not the only residue capable of functioning as a general acid/base during catalysis for dinuclear metallohydrolases. recent crystallographic characterization of the d-aminopeptidase from bacillus subtilis (dppa) revealed a histidine residue that resides in a ...200516142900
in vitro susceptibility of antibiotics against vibrio spp. and aeromonas spp. isolated from penaeus monodon hatcheries and ponds.susceptibility patterns to 16 different antibiotics were investigated against pathogenic vibrio spp. and aeromonas spp. isolated from shrimp culture hatcheries and ponds in india. thirteen species of vibrio (n = 90) and two species of aeromonas (n = 7) isolates were tested by agar disk diffusion. the results show that 100% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and that 43.2% and 47.4% were sensitive to chlortetracycline and erythromycin, respectively. susceptibility patterns of another 1 ...200516139992
purification and characterization of alpha2-macroglobulin from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus: cloning a segment of the corresponding gene.the plasma protein alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2m) was purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography from grass carp plasma. the alpha2m consists of two different subunits of molecular weight 95 kda and 80 kda, respectively. the characteristics of grass carp alpha2m are similar to mammalian alpha2m, in that grass carp alpha2m exists in two forms: a fast-form and a slow-form. the former is complexed with protease. the sequence of grass carp alpha2m-conserved region and a region cont ...200616139520
plasma proteomic analysis of the acute phase response of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) to intraperitoneal inflammation and lps injection.few acute phase proteins are known in fish and better knowledge of them would provide a basis for more reliable methods to objectively assess fish health and welfare. an acute phase response was induced in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) by inflammation triggered by intraperitoneal administration of purified aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (lps/fia) or a commercial oil-based multivalent vaccine. acute phase proteins were characteri ...200616139357
[a case of idiopathic portal hypertension complicated with sepsis caused by aeromonas hydrophila].a 53 year old man with idiopathic portal hypertension (iph) was admitted because of high fever and diarrhea. nineteen years before admission, he had received splenic hilar renal shunt operation with proximal flush ligation of splenic vein due to gastric varices. three months before admission, he had been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of liver dysfunction. liver biopsy examination had revealed peri-portal fibrosis consistent with iph. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from blood. althou ...200516119770
a study on inhibitory effects of siğla tree (liquidambar orientalis mill. var. orientalis) storax against several bacteria.in this study, siğla (liquidambar orientalis mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus amyloliquefaciens, b. brevis, b. cereus, b. megaterium, b. subtilis, corynebacterium xerosis, enterobacter aerogenes, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, e. coli o157:h7, klebsiella pneumoniae, listeria monocytogenes, micrococcus luteus, mycobacterium smegmatis, proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa, p. fluorescens, staphylococcus aureus a ...200516114094
management of extremity trauma and related infections occurring in the aquatic environment.wounds sustained in oceans, lakes, and streams are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in typical land-based injuries. these include vibrio species, aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas and plesiomonas species, erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, mycobacterium marinum, and other microbes. failure to recognize and treat these less common pathogens in a timely manner may result in significant morbidity or death. initial antibiotic therapy should address common gram-positive and gram-negative ...200516112981
identification of a transcript encoding a soluble form of toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5) in atlantic salmon during aeromonas salmonicida infection.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are involved in the innate immune response against microbial pathogens in vertebrates and insects. the extracellular region of a tlr recognizes pathogen-associated molecules, while the intracellular region initiates the signaling pathway leading to immune response. membrane-bound tlrs have been found in most vertebrates, but few soluble forms have been reported. a novel transcript corresponding to a portion of a soluble tlr was identified in liver of infected atlantic ...200616112748
new mutant chinese hamster ovary cell representing an unknown gene for attachment of glycosylphosphatidylinositol to proteins.aerolysin, a secreted bacterial toxin from aeromonas hydrophila, binds to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored protein and kills the cells by forming pores. both gpi and n-glycan moieties of gpi-anchored proteins are involved in efficient binding of aerolysin. we isolated various chinese hamster ovary (cho) mutant cells resistant to aerolysin. among them, chopa41.3 mutant cells showed several-fold decreased expression of gpi-anchored proteins. after transfection of n-acetylglucosamine tra ...200516102723
aeromonas septicaemia: an uncommon complication following placement of transhepatic biliary drainage devices in europe. 200616099547
box-pcr is an adequate tool for typing aeromonas spp.pcr-based methods of fingerprinting take advantage of the presence of repetitive sequences that are interspersed throughout the genome of diverse bacterial species. they include the repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) sequence, the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (eric) and the 154-bp box element. the combination of the three methods is used for fine discrimination of strains and is designated as rep-polymerase chain reaction (pcr). rep-pcr and eric-pcr have been sho ...200516096694
identification and characterization of putative virulence genes and gene clusters in aeromonas hydrophila ppd134/91.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans. the pathogenesis of a. hydrophila is multifactorial. genomic subtraction and markers of genomic islands (gis) were used to identify putative virulence genes in a. hydrophila ppd134/91. two rounds of genomic subtraction led to the identification of 22 unique dna fragments encoding 19 putative virulence factors and seven new open reading frames, which are commonly present in the eight virulence strains examined. ...200516085838
use of starch and potato peel waste for perchlorate bioreduction in water.the cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (clo(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for clo(4)(-). this study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for clo(4)(-) bioreduction. we obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a citrobacter sp. s4, streptomyces sp. s2, flavobacterium sp. s6, pseudoxanthomonas sp ...200516084965
multiplex pcr assay for the detection of pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila. 200516083449
study on peptide hydrolysis by aminopeptidases from streptomyces griseus, streptomyces septatus and aeromonas proteolytica.we developed a spectrophotometric assay for peptide hydrolysis by aminopeptidases (aps). the assay enables the measurement of free amino acids liberated by ap-catalyzed peptide hydrolysis using 4-aminoantipyrine, phenol, peroxidase, and l-amino acid oxidase. we investigated the specificity of bacterial aps [enzymes from streptomyces griseus (sgap), streptomyces septatus (ssap), and aeromonas proteolytica (aap)] toward peptide substrates using this assay method. although these enzymes most effici ...200616080009
metabolic changes in atlantic salmon exposed to aeromonas salmonicida detected by 1h-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plasma.1h-nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance)-based chemometric methods have been applied for the first time to investigate changes in the plasma metabolite profiles of atlantic salmon salmo salar as a result of exposure to aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a gram-negative bacterium that is the etiological agent of furunculosis. plasma samples were obtained from salmon that survived 21 d post exposure to a. salmonicida, and from a control group maintained under similar conditions. 1d 1h-nmr spectr ...200516060263
white spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (fabricious) in india are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along east coast of india viz. chidambram (tamil nadu), nellore (andhra pradesh) and balasore (orissa), revealed presence of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. infectio ...200516053274
quorum sensing signal molecules (acylated homoserine lactones) in gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria.the aim of the present study was to investigate the production of quorum sensing signals (specifically acylated homoserine lactones, ahls) among a selection of strains of gram-negative fish bacterial pathogens. these signals are involved in the regulation of virulence factors in some human and plant-pathogenic bacteria. a total of 59 strains, representing 9 different fish pathogenic species, were tested against 2 ahl monitor bacteria (agrobacterium tumefaciens nt1 [pzlr4] and chromobacterium vio ...200516042042
effect of multiple injections of beta-glucan on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in labeo rohita fingerlings.the purpose of this study was to determine if multiple injections of different dosages of beta-glucan derived from barley would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against infections due to opportunistic pathogens aeromonas hydrophila and edwardsiella tarda in labeo rohita fingerlings. hence, four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate-buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg kg(-1) body weight of fish were injected intraperitoneally to the fingerlings of l ...200616039142
[lung abscess caused by aeromonas hydrophila]. 200516029738
the contribution of aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products to the induction of inflammation in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following vaccination with oil-based vaccines.intraperitoneal injection of atlantic salmon with oil-based vaccines often results in severe side effects. aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida, a primary antigen in the vaccines, produces extracellular products (ecps) that are included in the formulation but the role of ecps in inducing side effects is not well understood. in the present study, we evaluated the contribution of ecps to early inflammatory reactions since early events determine the outcome of inflammation. five groups of a ...200616018934
selectivity and specificity of a chromogenic medium for detecting vibrio parahaemolyticust.the thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (tcbs) used in the most-probable-number method for detecting vibrio parahaemolyticus cannot differentiate growth of v. parahaemolyticus from vibrio vulnificus or vibrio mimicus. this study examined the selectivity and specificity of bio-chrome vibrio medium (bcvm), a chromogenic medium that detects v. parahaemolyticus on the basis of the formation of distinct purple colonies on the medium. a panel consisting of 221 strains of bacteria, including 17 ...200516013386
the impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio anguillarum and vibrio harveyi on their virulence towards gnotobiotically cultured artemia franciscana.disruption of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication by means of small signal molecules, has been suggested as a new anti-infective strategy for aquaculture. however, data about the impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of aquatic pathogens are scarce. in this study, a model system using gnotobiotically cultured artemia franciscana was developed in order to determine the impact of mutations in the quorum sensing systems of aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio anguillarum and v. harveyi ...200516011761
aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of aeromonas species in human pathology. these species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. this last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, ...200316008142
[aeromonas caviae infection mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a child]. 200516008045
[aeromonas caviae infection mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a child]. 200516008044
sepsis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing aeromonas hydrophila in a pediatric patient with diarrhea and pneumonia. 200516007554
enhancement of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production in the transgenic arabidopsis thaliana by the in vitro evolved highly active mutants of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase from aeromonas caviae.in this study, the enhancement of photosynthetic pha production was achieved using the highly active mutants of pha synthase created by the in vitro evolutionally techniques. the wild-type and mutated pha synthase genes from aeromonas caviae were introduced into arabidopsis thaliana together with the nadph-dependent acetoacetyl-coa reductase gene from ralstonia eutropha. expression of the highly active mutated pha synthase genes, n149s and d171g, led to an 8-10-fold increase in pha content in th ...200516004454
development of a simple and rapid fluorogenic procedure for identification of vibrionaceae family members.we describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (copp) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. the assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by vibrionaceae family members. overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under uv illumination. fluoresce ...200516000757
quantitative detection of legionella pneumophila in water samples by immunomagnetic purification and real-time pcr amplification of the dota gene.a new real-time pcr assay was developed and validated in combination with an immunomagnetic separation system for the quantitative determination of legionella pneumophila in water samples. primers that amplify simultaneously an 80-bp fragment of the dota gene from l. pneumophila and a recombinant fragment including a specific sequence of the gyrb gene from aeromonas hydrophila, added as an internal positive control, were used. the specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, repetit ...200516000746
role of microfilaments and microtubules in the invasion of epc cells by aeromonas hydrophila.the influence of the cytoskeleton on the invasion of aeromonas hydrophila strain ahj-1, isolated from diseased fish, in the monolayer cell of epithelioma papillosum cells of carp (epc) was evaluated by the recovery of gentamicin-resistant bacteria from triton x-100 cell lysates. the depolymerization of microfilaments (mf) by cytochalasin b and d inhibited the uptake of a. hydrophila in a dose-dependent manner and that of microtubules (mt) by colchicines and nocodazole did not affect the invasion ...200516000113
standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria.a multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards established by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi), formerly the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls), for the development of quality control (qc) ranges using dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for bacterial isolates from aquatic animal species. qc ranges were established for escherichia coli atcc 25922 and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida atcc 33658 w ...200515997819
in vitro activity of telithromycin against gram-negative bacterial pathogens.to investigate the in vitro activity of the ketolide anti-bacterial telithromycin against a range of commensal bacteria and common aerobic gram-negative respiratory and non-respiratory pathogens.200615996744
use of clostridium septicum alpha toxins for isolation of various glycosylphosphatidylinositol-deficient cells.in eukaryotic cells, various proteins are anchored to the plasma membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi). to study the biosynthetic pathways and modifications of gpi, various mutant cells have been isolated from the cells of chinese hamster ovaries (cho) supplemented with several exogenous genes involved in gpi biosynthesis using aerolysin, a toxin secreted from gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. alpha toxin from gram-positive bacterium clostridium septicum is homologous t ...200515995645
antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity in heterotrophic bacteria of mineral water origin.antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity were determined on heterotrophic bacteria isolated from mineral waters. of the 120 isolates pseudomonas spp. (55.8%) was the predominant group followed by acinetobacter spp. (14.17%), flavobacterium spp. (10.83%), achromobacter spp. (10%), burkholderia cepacia (3.3%), agrobacterium/radiobacter (2.5%), moraxella spp. (1.7%), aeromonas hydrophila (1.7%). over 80% of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the highest resistance wa ...200515993695
detection of the apr gene in proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from refrigerated raw milk.bacteria of the genus pseudomonas have been associated with the spoilage of raw milk and dairy products due to the production of thermostable proteolytic enzymes. the apr gene encodes for alkaline metalloprotease in pseudomonas and other related bacteria. its presence in psychrotrophic proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk collected from cooling tanks was verified. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was used with degenerate primers. total dna from 112 isolates was pooled in differ ...200515992619
[construction and characterization of some virulence determinants-deficient strain in aeromonas hydrophila].cell conjugation was carried out between the donor e. coli cg120 with pam120 (tc(r)/tn916) and the recipient aeromonas hydrophila j-1 by filter mating. 3800 positive clones were gained according to the ability of growth on lb medium with 10 g/ml tetracycline (tc) and 100 g/ml cephazolin (cfz). conjugation efficiency was 3 x 10(-5) per donor. when 16s rdna pcr amplification was performed with special primers, positive results were gained in all the 38 conjugants. to demonstrate the insertion of t ...200515989258
metabolic engineering of aeromonas hydrophila for the enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate).wild-type aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produced 35-45 wt.% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) consisting of 10-15 mol% 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx). to enhance phbhhx production, vgb gene encoding vitreoscilla haemoglobin or fadd gene encoding escherichia coli acyl-coa synthase was co-expressed with polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) synthesis-related genes including phbab from wautersia eutropha and phapcj from a. hydrophila. expression of vgb increased phbhhx content from 46 to 53 wt.% ...200615983806
characterization of a galactose binding serum lectin from the indian catfish, clarias batrachus: possible involvement of fish lectins in differential recognition of pathogens.a lectin with molecular mass around 200 kda was isolated from the serum of the indian catfish clarias batrachus. the bioactivity of this serum lectin was ca2+ and ph dependent. the lectin appeared to be specific for alpha-methyl galactose and sialoglycoproteins like porcine and bovine submaxillary mucin and could agglutinate human, rabbit, mice, rat and chicken erythrocytes. this fish lectin was able to specifically agglutinate different gram negative bacteria. when it was checked against differ ...200515979414
[studies on synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate consisting of 3-hydroxyvalerate by aeromonas hydrophila].polyhydroxyalkanoates (pha) is a family of microbially synthesized polyesters consisting of various 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomers. aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 could be able to synthesize pha copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3-hhx). no data has been reported about the ability to synthesize the pha with other monomers in a. hydrophila. in this study, propionic acid, valeric acid, heptanoic acid, nonanoic acid and undecanoic acid were used together with gluconate ...200415974009
[fermentative production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 (ptg01)].copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) (phbhhx), a new type of biodegradable material, are receiving considerable attentions recently. the material properties are strongly related to the 3hhx fraction of phbhhx. as the 3hhx fraction increase, crystallinity and melting point of phbhhx decrease, flexibility and tractility increase. phbhhx of different 3hhx fraction can meet different demands of commercial application and research. aeromonas are the best st ...200315971584
[bacteriological evaluation of fresh tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) coming from the northern region of costa rica].the following work presents an evaluation of the normal and pathogenic flora associated to tilapia (oreochromis niloticus), since there are no previous national studies referred to the microbiological quality of this product. the total aerobic plate count, lactic bacteria, enterococcus sp and aeromonas sp and fecal and total coliform count, and the presence of listeria sp and salmonella spp from the external surface of tilapias were evaluated. a total of 50 samples, coming from san carlos and ca ...200415969269
[purification and immobilization of chondroitinase from aeromonas sobria yh 311].chondroitinase has been used as an important tool in the study of the structure, function and distribution of glycosaminoglycans for many years. recently, the enzyme has been reported to be a potential enzyme for chemonucleolysis, an established treatment for intervertebral disc protrasion. in this paper, a chondroitinase had been purified from the culture supernatant of aeromonas sobria yh311 using a simple purification procedure of ammonium sulfate precipitation, qae-sephadex a50 ion exchange ...200415968993
electroporation-mediated transformation of aeromonas hydrophila.a strain of aeromonas hydrophila producing copolyesters of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate, abbreviated as phbhhx, was successfully transformed by electroporation. the plasmid used was a broad host range plasmid pbbr1mcs. electroporation conditions were varied systemically to develop an electroporation protocol. the optimal yield of transformant was approximately 4x10(2) cfu/microg dna at 12.5 kv/cm and 1000 omega, resulting in a time constant of approximately 5 ms. the a. hydrophila tr ...200515967502
comparative pathogenicity of bacteraemic isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and klebsiella pneumoniae.two bacteraemic isolates of aeromonas hydrophila and klebsiella pneumoniae, ah-2743 and kp-129, respectively, were studied for their relative pathogenicity in comparison with escherichia coli atcc 25922. ah-2743 caused significantly higher serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (il)-1beta or il-6 in human whole blood, and higher serum il-1beta and il-6 levels in infected mice, than did kp-129 and e. coli atcc 25922. in addition, in balb/c mice infected by intraperitoneal inocu ...200515966973
bacterial vaccines for fish--an update of the current situation worldwide.during the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. according to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like atlantic salmon (salmo salar), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (sparus aurata), barramundi (lates calcarifer), tilapia (tilapia spp), ...200515962470
effect of achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of labeo rohita infected with aeromonas hydrophila.achyranthes aspera seed was incorporated in the diets (at 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.5%) of labeo rohita, rohu fingerlings (3.0+/-0.4 g). after 2 weeks, the fish were immunized with heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila, and after a further 2 weeks the rohu were experimentally infected with aeromonas hydrophila (atcc 49140). after 7 days blood and serum were sampled to determine superoxide anion production, bactericidal activity, lysozyme, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transam ...200615961319
clinical evaluation of an aerolysin-based screening test for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria.recently, a toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila was demonstrated to bind directly to the glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (gpi) anchor. after coupling it to a fluorescent dye and applying it in fluorescence-activated cell scanning (facs), this property was exploited to detect gpi-negative cells in the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (pnh).200515952213
identification of bacteria isolated from an oligotrophic lake with pesticide removal capacities.we studied the growth and capacities for pesticides removal of bacterial strains isolated from the laguna grande, an oligotrophic lake at the south of spain (archidona, málaga). strains were isolated from water samples amended with 10 and 50 microg/ml of nine pesticides: organochlorinated insecticides (aldrin and lindane), organophosphorous insecticides (dimetoate, methyl-parathion and methidation), s-triazine herbicides (simazine and atrazine), fungicide (captan) and diflubenzuron (1-(-4-chloro ...200515943106
attenuated virulence of an aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type iii secretion mutant in a rainbow trout model.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a severe systemic disease affecting salmonid fish. this bacterium contains a type iii protein secretion system that is responsible for the secretion and translocation of the adp-ribosylating toxin, aext, into the cytosol of fish cells. this study showed that inactivation of the type iii secretion system by marker-replacement mutagenesis of the gene ascv, which encodes an inner-membrane component of the type iii secr ...200515942017
antibacterial effect of cu2+-exchanged montmorillonite on aeromonas hydrophila and discussion on its mechanism.montmorillonite (mmt) and its cu2+-exchanged montmorillonite (cu-mmt) were used to study the antibacterial activity on aeromonas hydrophila. the results indicated that mmt had no antibacterial activity. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and bactericidal concentration (mbc) of cu-mmt on a. hydrophila are found to be 150 and 600 mg/l, respectively. the continuance of the antibacterial activity of cu-mmt was much longer than copper sulfate. in order to reveal the mechanism of the antibacte ...200515939555
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of qm gene from grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus) homologous to wilms' tumor suppressor.qm, a novel gene that was originally identified as a tumor suppressor, has been cloned from species encompassing members of higher vertebrate, plant and fungal kingdoms, but it is not well documented in fish. in present study, a gene homologous to qm was obtained from grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus) head kidney and spleen cdna library. the full-length grass carp qm (gcqm) cdna of 759 bp contains a short 5' utr of 22 bp, a 3' utr of 89 bp and an open reading frame of 648 nucleotides that tr ...200515936234
adaptational changes in cellular fatty acid branching and unsaturation of aeromonas species as a response to growth temperature and salinity.the effects of growth temperature and salinity on the cellular fatty acids were investigated on aeromonas caviae, aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria. under optimal growth conditions, fatty acids patterns were dominated by even-numbered chains c(16:0), c(16:1cis9), c(18:1cis11), c(12:0) and c(14:0). growth temperature modifications induced, in the three aeromonas species, important changes in fatty acid (i) unsaturation, (ii) branching and (iii) chain length. an important decrease in the c ...200515925007
elucidation of the molecular structure of lipid a isolated from both a rough mutant and a wild strain of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.the chemical structure of lipid a, isolated by mild acid hydrolysis from a rough mutant and a wild strain of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, was investigated using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (qqtof) hybrid tandem mass spectrometry and showed a great degree of microheterogeneity. the chemical structure of the main constituent of this heterogeneous mixture was identified as a beta-d-(1 --> 6) linked d-glucosamine disaccharide substituted by two phosphate groups, on ...200515912470
polymorphism of aeromonas spp. trna intergenic spacers.we investigated the length polymorphism of the intergenic spacers lying between trna genes of aeromonas spp. a total of 69 strains representing all known genomic species of aeromonas were used in the study. tdna-pcr patterns were examined by dice coefficient (s(d)) and unweighted pair group method of clustering (upgma). the strains were allocated into 15 groups at a similarity level of 70%. the strains belonging to seven genomic species: a. hydrophila (hg 1), a. caviae (hg 4), a. sobria (hg 7), ...200515900969
aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus).aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. there are, however, limited data on a. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. the aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with a. hydrophila in a nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus). a captive male crocodile in the zoological park of antalya (turkey) was found dead without showing signs of any disease. gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin les ...200515900900
cloning and analysis of non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor (nccrp)-1 from common carp cyprinus carpio l.nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein (nccrp-1) provides an important function in target cell recognition and activation of cytotoxicity. nccrp-1 has been cloned from common carp cyprinus carpio l. from fish barbel by est analysis. the isolated gene is composed of 945 bp with a 79 bp 5' utr, 714 bp open reading frame and 152 bp 3' utr. the predicted nccrp-1 gene is composed of 237 amino acid residues and its predicted signal peptide is 19 amino acid residues in length. this gene has conser ...200515897012
sex and low-level sampling stress modify the impacts of sewage effluent on the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) immune system.the objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of chronic exposure to municipal sewage treatment effluent at environmentally relevant concentrations on immune parameters in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), including the assessment of potential differences in reactivity between sexually mature male and female fish. trout were exposed to 1.5 and 15% (v/v) secondary treated municipal sewage effluent for 32 weeks. fish were injected intra-peritoneally either with inactivated ...200515892994
evaluation of an experimental aeromonas salmonicida epidemic in chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).to determine the dynamics of the transmission of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida infection, chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were exposed to bacteria by cohabitation. the latent period (time between exposure and infectivity) was determined by exposing a group of chinook salmonid fingerlings to a. salmonicida by bath, then, at daily intervals, by holding five exposed (donor) fish with approximately 50 naive fish for 24 h. the latent period was 3 days post-infection and the time pe ...200515892751
microbiological quality changes in the intestine of hybrid tilapia (oreochromis niloticus x oreochromis aureus) in fresh and frozen storage condition.the goal of this study was to monitor the quantitative and qualitative bacterial flora in the intestine of hybrid tilapia in fresh fish and fish kept in frozen storage conditions for 1 year.200515892747
the long-distance tertiary air transfer and care of tsunami victims: injury pattern and microbiological and psychological aspects.on december 26, 2004, a giant earthquake shocked southeast asia, triggering deadly flood waves (tsunami) across the indian ocean. more than 310,000 people have been reported dead and millions left destitute. shortly thereafter, european governments organized airborne home transfer of most severely injured tourists using medevac aircraft. on arrival, patients were distributed to various medical centers. one cohort of the severely injured was admitted to the cologne-merheim medical center (germany ...200515891349
a c1q-binding 40 kda porin from aeromonas salmonicida: cloning, sequencing, role in serum susceptibility and fish immunoprotection.a 40 kda c1q-binding outer membrane protein from aeromonas salmonicida was identified by direct-binding assay with biotinylated c1q, a subcomponent of the complement classical pathway component c1. the 40 kda porin structural gene from the a450 a. salmonicida typical strain (a+:o+) was cloned in escherichia coli and sequenced. the amino acid sequence of the 40 kda a. salmonicida porin, its ability to bind c1q in an antibody independent process, and its immunological cross-reaction with the a. hy ...200515885977
[influence of gaseous metabolites of soil bacteria on the multiplication of listeria monocytogenes and yersinia pseudotuberculosis].the influence of gaseous metabolites of saprophytic soil bacteria on the growth and multiplication of l. monocytogenes and y. pseudotuberculosis was studied. the study revealed that all cultures under study exhibited selectively both inhibiting and stimulating action on the multiplication of test cultures. bacteria of the genera pseudomonas and acinetobacter showed the highest inhibiting activitywith respect to the test cultures. volatile metabolites of bacteria of the genus aeromonas showed the ...200515881930
gram-negative bacteria from the camel tick hyalomma dromedarii (ixodidae) and the chicken tick argas persicus (argasidae) and their antibiotic sensitivities.a total of nine species of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from organs and haemolymph of the hard tick hyalomma (hyalomma) dromedarii and the soft tick argas (persicargas) persicus. four species namely serratia liquefaciens, stenotrophomonas maltophilia, klebsiella ornithinolytica and aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from h. dromedarii and five species namely rahnella aquatilis, pseudomonas fluorescens, enterobacter cloacae, chryseomonas luteola and chryseobacterium meningosepticum were i ...200515880998
factors affecting biosurfactant production by oil degrading aeromonas spp. isolated from a tropical environment.an aeromonas spp. was isolated from tropical estuarine water. the organism grew on crude oil and produced biosurfactant that could emulsify hydrocarbons. the peak growth and biosurfactant production was on the 8th day. the organism grew on a range of hydrocarbons that include crude oil and hexadecane while no growth was recorded on some hydrocarbons that include benzene. the biosurfactant produced by the organism emulsified a range of hydrocarbons with diesel (e24=65) as the best substrate and h ...200515878609
septic arthritis due to aeromonas hydrophila: case report and review of the literature.aeromonas hydrophila is a rare human pathogen, and worldwide, soft tissue infections following water-related injuries are the most common. however, septic arthritis due to a. hydrophila remains uncommon with only seven cases previously reported in the english literature. in this report, we describe the important clinical features, microbiological findings and management of severe septic arthritis of the knee due to a. hydrophila in a healthy 13-year-old girl following an injury sustained in a pr ...200515875648
evaluation of 16s rdna- and gyrb-dgge for typing members of the genus aeromonas.the dna sequence of the gyrb gene is a suitable phylogenetic marker for bacterial systematics. in this study, the diversity of aeromonas spp. present in environmental samples was assessed by a pcr combined with dgge approach. pcr primers targeting the gyrb gene of aeromonads were designed and the resulting amplicons were analyzed by dgge. the gyrb-dgge analysis was evaluated with aeromonas isolates and reference strains allowing discrimination of the majority of strains. the gyrb-dgge analysis i ...200515869956
dramatic broadening of the substrate profile of the aeromonas hydrophila cpha metallo-beta-lactamase by site-directed mutagenesis.among class b beta-lactamases, the subclass b2 cpha enzyme is characterized by a unique specificity profile. cpha efficiently hydrolyzes only carbapenems. in this work, we generated site-directed mutants that possess a strongly broadened activity spectrum when compared with the wt cpha. strikingly, the n116h/n220g double mutant exhibits a substrate profile close to that observed for the broad spectrum subclass b1 enzymes. the double mutant is significantly activated by the binding of a second zi ...200515863831
effects of cyclophosphamide on the immune system and disease resistance of asian catfish clarias batrachus.cyclophosphamide (cyp), a multifunctional alkylating agent is known as a potent immunosuppressor in endotherms. here, an experiment was conducted in an ectothermic asian catfish species, clarias batrachus to investigate its effect on non-specific and specific immunity as well as disease resistance against a common bacterial pathogen challenge. cyp was intraperitoneally injected for 3 consecutive days at a rate of 200 mgkg(-1) body weight. after 72 h post-injection, control and cyp-treated fish w ...200515863012
administration of yeast glucan enhances survival and some non-specific and specific immune parameters in carp (cyprinus carpio) infected with aeromonas hydrophila.effects of beta-glucan administration on survival and immune modulations were studied in cyprinus carpio against the bacterial pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila. beta-glucan was extracted from saccharomyces cervisiae and purified. a virulent strain of the pathogen a. hydrophila was collected from infected fish. different concentrations of beta-glucan were administered to test animals on day 1, 3 and 5 through different routes (intraperitoneal injection (ip), bathing and oral administration). contro ...200515863011
pesticides as a source of microbial contamination of salad vegetables.ten commercially available pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), used during the production of vegetable produce, were examined as potential sources of microbial contaminants. as purchased, none of the pesticides showed the presence of viable microorganisms (< 5 cfu/ml). using an agar plate diffusion assay, they did not inhibit a range of bacteria of spoilage and public health significance on vegetable produce. after reconstitution in sterile water to their recommended concentrat ...200515862885
[expression and antibody preparation of a novel serine protease esp30].to express esp30, a novel serine protease, in escherichia coli and to prepare anti-esp30 antibody.200515862153
[a correlative study on heterotrophic bacteria and the main pollutant in city lakes' water].to provide scientific basis for bioremediation of city lake, the distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and its correlation with major pollutions condition were studied.200515862023
identification of genes differentially expressed in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in response to infection by aeromonas salmonicida using cdna microarray technology.the response of atlantic salmon, salmo salar, to infection by the bacterial pathogen aeromonas salmonicida (the causative agent of furunculosis), was investigated using a cohabitation model and a custom atlantic salmon cdna microarray consisting of over 4000 different amplicons. pooled samples of each of three immune-relevant tissues (spleen, head kidney and liver) were obtained from fish exposed to infected salmon for 13 days. reverse transcription-pcr assays were used to verify the differentia ...200515859237
methods to determine the growth domain in a multidimensional environmental space.data from a database on microbial responses to the food environment (combase, see www.combase.cc) were used to study the boundary of growth several pathogens (aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica). two methods were used to evaluate the growth/no growth interface. the first one is an application of the minimum convex polyhedron (mcp) introduced by baranyi et al. [baranyi, j., ross, t., mcmeekin, t., roberts, t.a., 1996. the effect of parameterisa ...200415854687
aeromonas: an emerging pathogen associated with extraintestinal infection in cuba.an 87 years-old female with a history of heart disease who has been presenting dysnea and fever for 2 months was evaluated. a sputum bacteriological study proved positive for aeromonas hydrophila in the context of an existing lung cancer. the study was negative for acid fast bacilli.200315849928
microarray and proteomics analyses of human intestinal epithelial cells treated with the aeromonas hydrophila cytotoxic enterotoxin.we performed microarray analyses on rna from human intestinal epithelial (ht-29) cells treated with the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) of aeromonas hydrophila to examine global cellular transcriptional responses. based on three independent experiments, act upregulated the expression of 34 genes involved in cell growth, adhesion, signaling, immune responses (including interleukin-8 [il-8] production), and apoptosis. we verified the upregulation of 14 genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-pcr and ...200515845465
in-source fragmentation and analysis of polysaccharides by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.in order to develop a robust and easy-to-use technique for characterization of bacterial polysaccharides, a pseudo-hydrolysis strategy was investigated. based on in-source collision-induced dissociation, polysaccharide molecular ions were fragmented within the orifice-skimmer region of an electrospray ionization (esi) mass spectrometer. the fragment ions thus generated were then analyzed similarly to the conventional esi mass spectrometry approach. ms/ms scanning was applied to obtain product-io ...200515838845
a millennium update on pediatric diarrheal illness in the developing world.more than one billion diarrhea episodes occur every year among children younger than 5 years of age in socioeconomically developing countries causing 2 to 2.5 million deaths. more than twenty viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens are currently associated with acute diarrhea. rotavirus and diarrheagenic escherichia coli are the most common pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea episodes in children; shigella spp., salmonella spp, campylobacter jejuni/coli, vibrio cholerae, aeromonas s ...200515825143
dietary yeast rna supplementation reduces mortality by aeromonas hydrophila in rohu (labeo rohita l.) juveniles.a feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to delineate the effect of dietary ribonucleic acid or chitin on haematological parameters, phagocyte respiratory burst and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila of labeo rohita juveniles. one hundred and twenty-six (avg. wt. 13.40 +/- 0.17 g) juveniles were randomly distributed in six treatment groups, each one in three replicates. six isonitrogenous (crude protein: 34.34-35.37%) and isocaloric (414-425 kcal 100 g(-1)) purified diets were prepared with dif ...200515820128
bacterial diversity in the bacterioneuston (sea surface microlayer): the bacterioneuston through the looking glass.the bacterioneuston is defined as the community of bacteria present within the neuston or sea surface microlayer. bacteria within this layer were sampled using a membrane filter technique and bacterial diversity was compared with that in the underlying pelagic coastal seawater using molecular ecological techniques. 16s rrna gene libraries of approximately 500 clones were constructed from both bacterioneuston and the pelagic water samples and representative clones from each library were sequenced ...200515819854
production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of vibrio harveyi.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against vibrio harveyi were produced from mice immunized with heat-killed and sds-mercaptoethanol-treated highly virulent v. harveyi 639. fifteen mabs were selected and sorted into 6 groups according to their specificity to various proteins of apparent molecular weight ranging from 8 to 49 kda. some antibodies were used for detection of v. harveyi at concentrations as low as 10(4) cfu ml(-1) using immunodot blots. most of the selected mabs did not show cross-reactivi ...200515819431
[aeromonas caviae infection mimicking inflammatory bowel disease in a child].a 10-year-old girl presented with a pancolitis with watery bloody diarrhoea. her family history revealed the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. whilst awaiting the diagnostic tests results, the stool cultures showed aeromonas caviae. the disease resolved spontaneously. after 24 months there were no further signs of illness, notably no inflammatory bowel disease. this case represents a more severe form than the mild diarrhoea that is usually described in the literature. in a retrospective se ...200515819138
nonbioluminescent strains of photobacterium phosphoreum produce the cell-to-cell communication signal n-(3-hydroxyoctanoyl)homoserine lactone.bioluminescence is a common phenotype in marine bacteria, such as vibrio and photobacterium species, and can be quorum regulated by n-acylated homoserine lactones (ahls). we extracted a molecule that induced a bacterial ahl monitor (agrobacterium tumefaciens nt1 [pzlr4]) from packed cod fillets, which spoil due to growth of photobacterium phosphoreum. interestingly, ahls were produced by 13 nonbioluminescent strains of p. phosphoreum isolated from the product. of 177 strains of p. phosphoreum (i ...200515812045
[characterization of microbial population present in the edible seaweed, monostroma undulatum, wittrock].the microbiological quality of monostroma undulatum, wittrock from the southern argentinean coast, was studied for its application for human food. also the diversity and function of the native bacterial population to this green seaweed was analyzed. samples were collected in puerto deseado, province of santa cruz, southern argentina (47 degrees 45'l.s., 65 degrees 55'l.w). the samples were analyzed for the presence of psycotrophic heterotrophic bacteria, marine heterotrophic bacteria, low nutrit ...200415807211
lack of agreement between biochemical and genetic identification of aeromonas spp.biochemical and genetic identification by rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the pcr-amplified 16s r-rna sequence were compared for a selection of 171 clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas spp. the investigation revealed large differences between the two methods. the species phenotypic identification scheme and the genetic technique applied to the environmental strains gave divergent results for 96% of the strains tested. there was 46% discrepancy between the two metho ...200515799764
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