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characterization of integrons and tetracycline resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. isolated from south african aquaculture systems.an increasing incidence of multidrug resistance amongst aeromonas spp. isolates, which are both fish pathogens and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. this can be attributed to the horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements, viz.: plasmids and class 1 integrons. the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 37 aeromonas spp. isolates, from tilapia, trout and koi aquaculture systems, were determined by disc-diffusion testing. the plasmid content of each isolate was ex ...200717173998
new consensus guidelines from the clinical and laboratory standards institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous clsi publications. the organisms include aeromonas species, bacillus species, and vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include abiotrophia and granulicatella species; ...200717173232
[properties of a triphenylmethane dyes decolorization enzyme (tpmd) from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322].a novel bacterial enzyme for decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322 was purified and named tpmd. the basic properties of this enzyme including molecular weight, isoelectric point km as well as the optimum temperature and ph were determined and the enzyme was identified as an nadh/nadph-dependent oxygenase in previous research. based on previous results, the effect of different inhibitor including vc, metyrapone, rotenone, antimycin a and nan3 as well as th ...200617172037
antibacterial activity of plant extracts from brazilian southeast region.a screening was conducted with 26 plants collected in the brazilian southeast region, to identify plant extracts with antibacterial properties against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. initially, the agar diffusion method was employed. then, those extracts presenting activity were submitted to a broth microdilution assay to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc). it was observed th ...200717169500
cloning of atp-dependent protease clpxp genes in aeromonas veronii. 200617169116
effect of mangifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in labeo rohita fingerlings.the study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of mangifera indica (mango) kernel on the immune response and disease resistance of labeo rohita fingerlings against the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila infections in. l. rohita fingerlings fed diet containing 0 (control), 1g, 5 g, 10 g mango kernel kg(-1) dry diet for 60 days. biochemical (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, blood glucose), haematological (wbc, rbc, haemoglobin content) and immunological (supe ...200717161956
genetic relationships of aeromonas strains inferred from 16s rrna, gyrb and rpob gene sequences.genetic relationships among bacterial strains belonging to the genus aeromonas were inferred from 16s rrna, gyrb and rpob gene sequences. twenty-eight type or collection strains of the recognized species or subspecies and 33 aeromonas strains isolated from human and animal specimens as well as from environmental samples were included in the study. as reported previously, the 16s rrna gene sequence is highly conserved within the genus aeromonas, having only limited resolution for this very tight ...200617158971
dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (cyprinus carpio) juveniles.a preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on cyprinus carpio juveniles. five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (t(1)) 0.1% levan, (t(2)) 0.2% levan, (t(3)) 0.5% levan, (t(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. the total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p<0.05) enhanced in the t(3) group, ...200717158064
health screening for a translocation of captive-reared tuatara (sphenodon punctatus) to an island refuge.to screen tuatara undergoing translocation from a captive crèche to an island refuge for evidence of health and known diseases, and apply basic epidemiological techniques to assess the significance of disease test results.200617151736
fatal case of myonecrosis and septicaemia caused by aeromonas hydrophila in finland.a 48-y-old female developed cellulitis, myonecrosis and sepsis after a prick wound in her hand while boning freshwater fish. cultures revealed aeromonas hydrophila, a gram-negative bacillus. despite prompt care the patient died 4 d after the incident. our case shows that the occurrence of severe aeromonas infections is not limited to tropical and subtropical areas of the world.200617148092
induction of vascular leakage and blood pressure lowering through kinin release by a serine proteinase from aeromonas sobria.aeromonas sobria causes septic shock, a condition associated with high mortality. to study the mechanism of septic shock by a. sobria infection, we examined the vascular leakage (vl) activity of a. sobria serine proteinase (asp), a serine proteinase secreted by this pathogen. proteolytically active asp induced vl mainly in a bradykinin (bk) b(2) receptor-, and partially in a histamine-h(1) receptor-dependent manner in guinea pig skin. the asp vl activity peaked at 10 min to 1.8-fold of the initi ...200617142774
an investigation of the gamma hypothesis: a predictive modelling study of the effect of combined inhibitors (salt, ph and weak acids) on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis, that multiple inhibitory factors combine independently, is the underlying hypothesis for the quantification of the hurdle concept used in food manufacture. the literature, however, is confused as to whether interactive effects exist and under which circumstances they occur, if at all. using the method of time to detection (ttd), the inhibitory effect of ph, salt and specific weak acids (acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic) and combinations of these with respect to the gro ...200717140685
identification of an antibacterial protein as l-amino acid oxidase in the skin mucus of rockfish sebastes schlegeli.fish skin mucus contains a variety of antimicrobial proteins and peptides that seem to play a role in self defense. we previously reported an antibacterial protein in the skin secretion of the rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, which showed selective antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. this study aimed to isolate and structurally and functionally characterize this protein. the antibacterial protein, termed ssap (s. schlegeli antibacterial protein), was purified to homogeneity by le ...200717140417
probiotic properties of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.one strain of lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of lactobacillus reuteri and lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at ph 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. there was a large variation in the survival of the iso ...200717136367
occurrence and diversity of integrons and beta-lactamase genes among ampicillin-resistant isolates from estuarine waters.the aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and molecular diversity of beta-lactamase genes and integrons among gram-negative ampicillin-resistant bacteria from ria de aveiro. ampicillin-resistant isolates were selected and subjected to genotyping using rep-pcr. representatives from each rep pattern were affiliated with the following taxa by sequencing the 16s rrna gene: aeromonas caviae, a. hydrophila, a. media, a. molluscorum, a. veronii, a. salmonicida, aeromonas sp., pseudomona ...200617125975
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives.several 1-(4-aryl-2-thiazolyl)-3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-2-pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by reacting substituted 3-(2-thienyl)-5-aryl-1-thiocarbamoyl-2-pyrazolines with phenacyl bromides in ethanol. the structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, and eims spectral data. their antimicrobial activities against escherichia coli (nrrl b-3704), staphylococcus aureus (nrll b-767), salmonella typhimurium (nrrl b-4420), bacillus cereus (nrrl b-3711), streptococcus ...200717125888
a microbial diagnostic microarray technique for the sensitive detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in a background of nonpathogens.a major challenge in microbial diagnostics is the parallel detection and identification of low-bundance pathogens within a complex microbial community. in addition, a high specificity providing robust, reliable identification at least at the species level is required. a microbial diagnostic microarray approach, using single nucleotide extension labeling with gyrb as the marker gene, was developed. we present a novel concept applying competitive oligonucleotide probes to improve the specificity o ...200717123456
histological changes in intestine of atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains.furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. the foregut of the atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, carnobacterium divergens, at 6 x 10(4) or 6 x 10(6) viable bacteria per milliliter. histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and ...200717120052
novel role for aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the north american medicinal leech.the gut bacteria of the north american medicinal leech, macrobdella decora, were characterized. biochemical tests and dna sequences indicated that aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. in this work we identified a new habitat for a. jandaei, and here we suggest that there is unexpected specificity between leeches and aeromonas species.200717114316
protective efficacy of recombinant ompts protein of aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp. 200717113689
[postoperative infection of an epigastric hematoma caused by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria].a 52-year-old man with a gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma but without acute symptoms was admitted for reconstructive surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.200617109273
role of gne and gale in the virulence of aeromonas hydrophila serotype o34.the mesophilic aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) strain shows two different udp-hexose epimerases in its genome: gale (ec 3.1.5.2) and gne (ec 3.1.5.7). similar homologues were detected in the different mesophilic aeromonas strains tested. gale shows only udp-galactose 4-epimerase activity, while gne is able to perform a dual activity (mainly udp-n-acetyl galactosamine 4-epimerase and also udp-galactose 4-epimerase). we studied the activities in vitro of both epimerases and also in vivo t ...200717098903
x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the zinc-binding sites in the class b2 metallo-beta-lactamase imis from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the metal-binding sites of imis from aeromonas veronii bv. sobria in catalytically active (1-zn), product-inhibited (1-zn plus imipenem), and inactive (2-zn) forms. the first equivalent of zinc(ii) was found to bind to the consensus zn(2) site. the reaction of 1-zn imis with imipenem leads to a product-bound species, coordinated to zn via a carboxylate group. the inhibitory binding site of imis was examined by a comparison of wild-type imis w ...200617087519
aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria bacteremia: rare pathogens of infection in a burn patient. 200717084982
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas strains isolated from carcasses of pig as new members of the species aeromonas allosaccharophila.the first description of the species aeromonas allosaccharophila was only based on two strains (the type strain cect4199, and a duplicate cect4200) isolated from diseased elvers (anguilla anguilla) of an eel-farm located in valencia, spain, and one stool isolate (atcc35942) from a female with diarrhoea and food poisoning in south carolina, u.s.a. in the present study, 17 aeromonas isolates obtained from carcasses of pigs and from the equipment for the cleaning process, and one strain recently is ...200717080292
potential use of a transposon tn916-generated mutant of aeromonas hydrophila j-1 defective in some exoproducts as a live attenuated vaccine.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes disease in a wide range of hosts due to its multifactorial virulence. here we describe the application of transposon insertion mutagenesis approach to obtain an exoenzyme mutant of a. hydrophila strain j-1. immunization of swordtail fish (xiphophorus helleri heckel) with the highly attenuated mutant provided protection (survival of 27 out of 35 fish, compared to survival of only 13 out of 35 control fish) in the fish give ...200717079040
secondary aeromonas peritonitis is associated with polymicrobial ascites culture and absence of liver cirrhosis compared to primary aeromonas peritonitis.aeromonas peritonitis remains a rare condition. in this study we describe the clinical features of primary and secondary aeromonas peritonitis, and compare the differences between these two diseases entities. patients with aeromonas peritonitis were identified from microbiological and medical records during the period between march 1994 and march 2003. clinical characteristics, laboratory data, microbiological results, treatment and outcome of patients were obtained by retrospective chart review ...200617078857
epidemiologic cutoff values for antimicrobial agents against aeromonas salmonicida isolates determined by frequency distributions of minimal inhibitory concentration and diameter of zone of inhibition data.to develop epidemiologic cutoff values by use of frequency distributions for susceptibility to 4 antimicrobial agents when tested against a representative population of a major aquaculture pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida.200617078743
antibacterial spectrum of plant polyphenols and extracts depending upon hydroxyphenyl structure.the relationship between the structure and antibacterial activity of 22 polyphenols was analyzed by using minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) as a criterion against 26 species of bacteria which can grow in mueller-hinton medium. there was no clear correlation between gram-staining and bacterial susceptibility to polyphenols, and the extent of the susceptibility was approximately dependent on the species of bacteria. in the same gram-negative bacteria, the antibacterial activity of the polyphe ...200617077519
characterization of twin toll-like receptors from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss): evolutionary relationship and induced expression by aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida.structure and function of factors contributing to the innate immune system of lower vertebrates, including fish are only sparsely characterized. we retrieved with rt-pcr cdna copies of two closely related toll-like receptors (tlr) from liver rna of the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). the cdna sequences are homologous to 95.6%. the phylogenetic analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences places these twin factors closely to other known tlrs from fish. the twin factors are equally expresse ...200717070576
aeromonas bacteremia in an elderly immunocompetent patient.we report the case of an elderly immunocompetent patient with aeromonas hydrophila bacteremia without evidence of portal of entry. despite several risk factors for a poor outcome, such as impaired renal function, two positive blood cultures, and community-acquired infections, the patient survived. antimicrobial susceptibility was normal. unknown polycystic liver disease was discovered and misdiagnosed as a hepatic abscess at the time of the bacteremia which was confirmed by repeated ct scans. be ...200617063071
virulence factors of a. caviae strains isolated from acute diarrheic disease in cuba.fifty aeromonas caviae strains from intestinal infection in different cuban provinces were identified by the aerokey ii method and virulence factors were investigated. the strains did not produce haemolysins but other exoenzymes such as proteases, lipases, and dnases; additionally, all isolates adhered to the hep-2 cell line by the carrello method and this did not correlate with other virulence factors presence which demonstrates that the haemolysin phenotypic expression is not necessary for the ...200217061509
viral and bacterial diseases of atlantic cod gadus morhua, their prophylaxis and treatment: a review.this review summarises the state of knowledge of both viral and bacterial diseases of atlantic cod gadus morhua, and their diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. the most important losses have been at the larval and juvenile stages, and vibriosis has long been the most important bacterial disease in cod, with listonella (vibrio) anguillarum dominant among pathogenic isolates. vaccination of cod against pathogens such as l. anguillarum and aeromonas salmonicida clearly demonstrates that the cod im ...200617058605
rapid separation and concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable-cell counting and real-time pcr.buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used to separate bacteria from complex food matrices, as well as to remove compounds that inhibit rapid detection methods, such as pcr, and to prevent false-positive results due to dna originating from dead cells. applying a principle of buoyant density gradient centrifugation, we developed a method for rapid separation and concentration following filtration and low- and high-speed centrifugation, as well as flotation and sedimentation buoyant den ...200717056684
antibacterial peptides in hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue from freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus: characterization and expression pattern.a 14 amino acid residues proline/arginine-rich antibacterial peptide designated as astacidin 2 was purified and characterized from hemocytes of the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus. astacidin 2 has a broad range of antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. the primary sequence of astacidin 2 is rprpnyrprpiyrp with an amidated c-terminal and the molecular mass is 1838da determined by mass spectrometry. furthermore, the cdna of three different crust ...200717049601
structural characterization of the lipid a region of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide.the lipid a components of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida from strains a449, 80204-1 and an in vivo rough isolate were isolated by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide. structural studies carried out by a combination of fatty acid, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses confirmed that the structure of lipid a was conserved among different isolates of a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. all analyzed strains contained three major lipid a ...200617049500
protection of carassius auratus gibelio against infection by aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk.specific immunoglobulin (igy) from egg yolk against aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of white leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of a. hydrophila. elisa test using a. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (p/n=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (p/n=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (p/n=7.03). the antibody was purified by saturated ammonium ...200617048308
inactivation of type i polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in aeromonas hydrophila resulted in discovery of another potential pha synthase.aeromonas hydrophila cgmcc 0911 possessing type i polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase (phac) produced only phbhhx from lauric acid but not from glucose. medium-chain-length (mcl) pha was produced from lauric acid or glucose only when phac of a. hydrophila was inactivated, indicating the existence of another pha synthase in the wild type. using pcr cloning strategy, the potential pha synthase gene (phac (mcl)) was obtained from genomic dna of the wild type and exhibited strong homology to type ii ...200717043804
comparison of total and faecal coliforms as faecal indicator in eutrophicated surface water.the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of total coliforms (tc) and faecal coliforms (fc) using a membrane filtration method for precise monitoring of faecal pollution in korean surface water. the samples were collected in korea from both main rivers and their tributaries. presumptive tc * fc were enumerated. the ratios of presumptive fc to tc were not constant, but varied widely, and tc were difficult to enumerate because of overgrowth by background colonies. for fc this was not the case. ...200617037151
identification by microarray of a common pattern of gene expression in intact intestine and cultured intestinal cells exposed to virulent aeromonas hydrophila isolates.the genus aeromonas comprises known virulent and avirulent isolates and has been implicated in waterborne disease. a common infection model of human gastroenteritis associated with a. hydrophila uses neonatal mice. the goal of this research was to evaluate whether a murine small intestinal cell line could provide comparable results to the gene expression changes in the neonatal mouse model. changes in mrna expression in host cell cultures and intestinal tissues were measured after exposure to vi ...200617036845
immune modulation by probiotic strains: quantification of phagocytosis of aeromonas salmonicida by leukocytes isolated from gut of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) using a radiolabelling assay.a method is described for the rapid and sensitive assay of phagocytosis that utilizes radioactively labelled bacteria. with this method, we observed that phagocytosis of heat-inactivated aeromonas salmonicida by leukocytes isolated from gut of rainbow trout fed with different viable probiotics (lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, lactobacillus sakei, and leuconostoc mesenteroides) was significantly higher (p<0.05) after 2 weeks of probiotic-feeding than the control group. however, only phagocytosi ...200617034857
cloning, expression, and characterization of a chitinase from the chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila strain suwa-9.the chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila strain suwa-9, which was isolated from freshwater in lake suwa (nagano prefecture, japan), produced several kinds of chitin-degrading enzymes. a gene coding for an endo-type chitinase (chia) was isolated from suwa-9. the chia orf encodes a polypeptide of 865 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 91.6 kda. the deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to those of bacterial chitinases classified into family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases. ...200617031053
aeromonas agar is a useful selective medium for isolating aeromonads from faecal samples. 200617030925
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoea in young children: high prevalence of enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) not belonging to the classical epec serogroups.diarrhoeal disease continues to be one of the most common causes of admittance in children hospital emergency. the aim of the present study was to investigate the relative contribution of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (epec and ehec, respectively) as a cause of infectious bacterial diarrhoea in children from the region of toulouse. we analysed 280 samples of stools from 280 children (<2 years) with diarrhoea admitted in the "hopital des enfants" from january to august 2 ...200617030460
microbial transformation of benzene to cis-3,5-cyclohexadien-1,2-diols by recombinant bacteria harboring toluene dioxygenase gene tod.toluene dioxygenase (tdo) catalyzes asymmetric cis-dihydroxylation of aromatic compounds. to achieve high efficient biotransformation of benzene to benzene cis-diols, pseudomonas putida kt2442, pseudomonas stutzeri 1317, and aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 were used as hosts to express tdo gene tod. plasmid pspm01, a derivative of broad-host plasmid pbbr1mcs-2 harboring tod from plasmid pkst11, was constructed and introduced into the above three strains. their abilities to catalyze the biotransformati ...200717021870
biochemical and molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant aeromonas veronii isolates from catfish.eighty-one tetracycline-resistant aeromonas sp. strains were isolated from farm-raised catfish. morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 23 of the 81 aeromonads were aeromonas hydrophila, 7 isolates were aeromonas trota, 6 isolates were aeromonas caviae, 42 isolates were aeromonas veronii, and 3 isolates were aeromonas jandaei. however, the alui and mboi restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns of the pcr-amplified 1.4-kb 16s rrna gene from all 81 tetracycline ...200617021193
common house spiders are not likely vectors of community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections.there is an increasing incidence in the number of community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) infections in the united states. skin and soft tissue infections caused by mrsa are often perceived as being preceded by a spider bite. several possibilities exist to explain this phenomenon, including 1) spiders introduce mrsa into the bite wound and thereby serve as a potential vehicle or vector for mrsa; 2) mrsa colonization is an event secondary to the spider bite; and 3) t ...200617017234
updated phylogeny of the genus aeromonas.recent phylogenetic studies of the genus aeromonas based on gyrb and rpod gene sequences have improved the phylogeny based on 16s rrna gene sequences first published in 1992, particularly in the ability to split closely related species. these studies did not include the recently described species aeromonas simiae and aeromonas molluscorum and only a single strain of aeromonas culicicola was available for analysis at that time. in the present work, these aeromonas species and newly isolated strai ...200617012583
immunostimulatory effect of tinospora cordifolia miers leaf extract in oreochromis mossambicus.immunostimulatory effect of leaf extract of t. cordifolia on (i) specific immunity (antibody response), (ii) non-specific immunity (neutrophil activity) and (iii) disease resistance against aeromonas hydrophila was investigated in o. mossambicus. ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves were used. both ethanol and petroleum ether extracts administered at doses of 0.8, 8 or 80 mg/kg body weight, prolonged the peak primary antibody titres upto one to three weeks. ethanol extract at the d ...200616999027
caspase-1 activation of lipid metabolic pathways in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins promotes cell survival.many pathogenic organisms produce pore-forming toxins as virulence factors. target cells however mount a response to such membrane damage. here we show that toxin-induced membrane permeabilization leads to a decrease in cytoplasmic potassium, which promotes the formation of a multiprotein oligomeric innate immune complex, called the inflammasome, and the activation of caspase-1. further, we find that when rendered proteolytic in this context caspase-1 induces the activation of the central regula ...200616990137
antimicrobial activity of extracts of chemical races of the lichen pseudevernia furfuracea and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents.the antimicrobial activity and the mic values of the ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, and acetone extracts of the chemical races of pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents have been investigated against some microorganisms. nearly all extracts of both chemical races showed antimicrobial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, prote ...200616989308
mutations within the catalytic motif of dna adenine methyltransferase (dam) of aeromonas hydrophila cause the virulence of the dam-overproducing strain to revert to that of the wild-type phenotype.in this study, we demonstrated that the methyltransferase activity associated with dam was essential for attenuation of aeromonas hydrophila virulence. we mutated aspartic acid and tyrosine residues to alanine within the conserved dppy catalytic motif of dam and transformed the pbad/damd/a, pbad/damy/a, and pbad/damahssu (with the native dam gene) recombinant plasmids into the escherichia coli gm33 (dam-deficient) strain. genomic dna (gdna) isolated from either of the e. coli gm33 strains harbor ...200616988254
[development of a gold-immunochromatography test for rapid detecting e. coli o157].to develop a method for rapid detecting escherichia coli (e. coli) o157 on site.200616986519
b lymphocytes from early vertebrates have potent phagocytic and microbicidal abilities.the present paradigm dictates that phagocytosis is accomplished mainly by 'professional' phagocytes (such as macrophages and monocytes), whereas b cells lack phagocytic capabilities. here we demonstrate that b cells from teleost fish have potent in vitro and in vivo phagocytic activities. particle uptake by b cells induced activation of 'downstream' degradative pathways, leading to 'phagolysosome' formation and intracellular killing of ingested microbes. those results indicate a previously unkno ...200616980980
genome sequence of aeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966t: jack of all trades.the complete genome of aeromonas hydrophila atcc 7966(t) was sequenced. aeromonas, a ubiquitous waterborne bacterium, has been placed by the environmental protection agency on the contaminant candidate list because of its potential to cause human disease. the 4.7-mb genome of this emerging pathogen shows a physiologically adroit organism with broad metabolic capabilities and considerable virulence potential. a large array of virulence genes, including some identified in clinical isolates of aero ...200616980456
bacterial lateral flagella: an inducible flagella system.flagella are complex surface organelles that allow bacteria to move towards favourable environments and that contribute to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria through adhesion and biofilm formation on host surfaces. there are a few bacteria that possess functional dual flagella systems, such as vibrio parahaemolyticus, some mesophilic aeromonas spp., rhodospirillum centenum and azospirillum brasilense. these bacteria are able to express both a constitutive polar flagellum required for swimming ...200616978346
[aeromonas spp. as the causative agent of acute diarrhoea in children under 1 year of age].to establish whether there is a link between cases of acute watery diarrhoea and a specific aeromonas species.200616970072
a simple fluorogenic method to detect vibrio cholerae and aeromonas hydrophila in well water for areas impacted by catastrophic disasters.the colony overlay procedure for peptidases (copp) is a simple, fluorogenic assay that can rapidly detect and quantify vibrio cholerae and aeromonas hydrophila in well water. cleavage of the substrate l-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin by enzymes present in vibrio and aeromonas species produces fluorescent foci on cellulose acetate membranes exposed to long-wave ultraviolet light. vibrio cholerae o1, o139, o155, and a. hydrophila were readily detected using this procedure, whereas enterob ...200616968933
prevalence of environmental aeromonas in south east queensland, australia: a study of their interactions with human monolayer caco-2 cells.to investigate the prevalence of aeromonas in a major waterway in south east queensland, australia, and their interactions with a gut epithelial model using caco-2 cells.200616968308
cloning and expression of an outer membrane protein ompts of aeromonas hydrophila and study of immunogenicity in fish.the outer membrane proteins of the warm water fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila have a role in the virulence of the organism and are potential candidates for vaccine development. in this study, the gene encoding an outer membrane protein designated ompts was amplified by pcr excluding the region coding for signal peptide, cloned in pqe 30-ua vector and expressed using induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (iptg). the size of the expressed protein was 37 kda as estimated by migration in 10% ...200716959494
antimicrobial susceptibilities of aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental sources.aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. a total of 282 aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of lubbock, texas, and several rivers in west texas and new mexico. of these, at least 104 were subseq ...200616950901
aopp, a type iii effector protein of aeromonas salmonicida, inhibits the nf-kappab signalling pathway.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida contains a functional type iii secretion system that is responsible for the secretion of the adp-ribosylating toxin aext. in this study, the authors identified aopp as a second effector protein secreted by this system. the aopp gene was detected in both typical and atypical a. salmonicida isolates and was found to be encoded on a small plasmid of approximately 6.4 kb. sequence analysis indicates that aopp is a member of the yopj family of effector protein ...200616946275
biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin by pseudomonas putida ie27 cells.the ability to produce vanillin and/or vanillic acid from isoeugenol was screened using resting cells of various bacteria. the vanillin- and/or vanillic-acid-producing activities were observed in strains belonging to the genera achromobacter, aeromonas, agrobacerium, alcaligenes, arthrobacter, bacillus, micrococcus, pseudomonas, rhodobacter, and rhodococcus. strain ie27, a soil isolate showing the highest vanillin-producing activity, was identified as pseudomonas putida. we optimized the culture ...200716944125
effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef.the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (bha/bht), grape seed extract (activin), pine bark extract (pycnogenol), and oleoresin rosemary (herbalox) on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation were investigated in cooked ground beef. when compared to the control, 1.0% activin and pycnogenol) effectively reduced the numbers of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella typhimurium, and retarded the growth of listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas hydrophila. pycnogeno ...200716943089
changes of bacterial diversity and main flora in chilled pork during storage using pcr-dgge.this study was designed to explore the bacterial diversity and the main flora in chilled pork by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge). longissimus muscle was removed from pork carcasses at 24 h postmortem. the muscle was tray- and vacuum-packaged at 4 degrees c for 2, 4, 7 days to extract the bacteria total dna, respectively. the results indicated that the bacterial diversity of chilled pork decreased with storage time regardless of packaging method. nine ...200616943058
effect of temperature and glucose concentration on the n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone production by aeromonas hydrophila.n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl) production by aeromonas hydrophila 519 has been established. c4-hsl production at 22 and 30 degrees c was found after 20-24 h of incubation corresponding to a population density of ca. 10(8)-10(9) cfu/ml, respectively. reduced c4-hsl production was noted after 72 h of incubation at 12 degrees c when the culture reached ca. 10(9) cfu/ml. no c4-hsl production was detected at 37 degrees c, although a dense population was obtained. in lb broth supplemented wi ...200616943048
quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of indian white shrimp (penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice.indian white shrimp (penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10 ...200616943047
antimicrobial resistance in food and clinical aeromonas isolates.this study highlights the incidence of resistance and the presence of plasmids in human and food isolates of aeromonas in brazil. a total of 83 aeromonas spp. strains (28 isolated from human and 55 from fresh lettuce) were studied. thirty-five were identified as a. hydrophila complex and 48 as a. caviae complex. all strains were shown to be susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. resistance to antimicrobial agents was observed in ...200616943044
occurrence and characterization of aeromonas spp. in mussels from the adriatic sea.samples of mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected from natural beds on the adriatic sea in front of ancona province (marches, central italy) officially recognized for human consumption. the mussels were analyzed to evaluate the prevalence of aeromonas spp. pathogenic strains. out of 144 samples, 32 aeromonas strains were isolated and 12 showed virulence and enterophatogenicity on mice. isolates were also examined to check their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. all isola ...200616943032
mechanistic studies on the mononuclear znii-containing metallo-beta-lactamase imis from aeromonas sobria.in an effort to understand the reaction mechanism of a b2 metallo-beta-lactamase, steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic and rapid freeze quench electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) studies were conducted on imis and its reaction with imipenem and meropenem. ph dependence studies revealed no inflection points in the ph range of 5.0-8.5, while proton inventories demonstrated at least 1 rate-limiting proton transfer. site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that lys224 plays a catalytic role ...200616939225
enterotoxigenic escherichia coli causing cholerogenic syndrome during an interepidemic period of cholera in north india.a study was undertaken to look for heat-labile enterotoxin producing escherichia coli (lt-etec) in patients with acute watery diarrhea resembling cholera in chandigarh in north india. two periods were selected, an interepidemic (2001) and an epidemic (2002) period. heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) was detected using reverse passive latex agglutination test. lt-etec strains were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility was studied. lt-etec was detected in 16 of 21 stool samples during 2001. other o ...200616936343
comparative study of cytotoxicity of aeromonas spp. on four different cell lines.in vitro cytotoxicity is an important virulence property of motile mesophilic aeromonas species. cell-free supernatant prepared from 55 aeromonas isolates including one a. hydrophila type strain (mtcc 646) were examined for their cytotoxic potential on four different cell lines (vero, bhk-21, mdbk, b 95a). results of the study revealed cytotoxic potential in 92.72% of the isolates. analysis of data exposed significant variation among isolates in respect of their cytotoxicity. vero cells proved t ...200616935331
[properties of a triphenylmethane dyes decolorization enzyme tpmd from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322].a novel bacterial decolorization enzyme for triphenylmethane dyes from aeromonas hydrophila strain dn322 was purified, named tpmd. the purified enzyme catalyzes the decolorization of several triphenylmethane dyes, i.e., crystal violet, basic fuchsin, brilliant green and malachite green. the enzyme was identified by the clear transparent band development of zymogram stained with crystal violet, basic fuchsin, brilliant green and malachite green after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) resp ...200616933606
alkylphenol polyethoxylate removal in a pilot-scale reed bed and phenotypic characterization of the aerobic heterotrophic community.the removal of the non-ionic surfactant triton x-100, dosed at 30 and 300 mg/l in a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow reed bed, and the aerobic heterotrophic cultivable community associated with the roots and with the substrate gravel in both absence and presence of triton x-100 were investigated. t-octylphenol (op) and its mono-, di- and tri-ethoxyl derivatives, among others, were found in the outlet. a mass balance allowed us to calculate that approximately 40% of the triton x-100 metabol ...200616929647
differential expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1beta-1, tnfalpha-1 and il-8 in vaccinated pink (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (oncorhynchus keta) salmon juveniles.laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (approximately 2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. relative to elongation factor-1a, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta-1 (il-1beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha-1 (tnfalpha) and interleukin-8 (il-8) in pools of kidney and liver were examined 6- and 24-h after injection. expression of il-1beta was significantly ...200716926099
adjuvant and immunostimulatory effects of beta-glucan administration in combination with lipopolysaccharide enhances survival and some immune parameters in carp challenged with aeromonas hydrophila.combined effects of beta-glucan and lipopolysaccharide (lps) on survival and immune response were studied in cyprinus carpio that were challenged with the pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. beta-glucan from saccharomyces cervisiae and lps from a virulent strain of a. hydrophila were used in this study. different concentrations of beta-glucan+lps mixture were administered on days 1, 7, and 14 through different routes (intraperitoneal injection, bathing, and oral administration). control and test fish ...200616919782
detection of typical and atypical enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) in iranian children with and without diarrhoea.the present study was performed to investigate the contribution of typical and atypical enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) as a cause of infectious diarrhoea among children less than 10 years old in iran. during the summer months, 247 specimens from children with diarrhoea and 1108 from asymptomatic children were analysed for the presence of epec and other bacterial pathogens. potential enteric pathogens were identified in 140 cases of children with diarrhoea (56.7%). epec was the most fre ...200616914644
a comparative study of susceptibility and induced pathology of cod, gadus morhua (l.), and halibut, hippoglossus hippoglossus (l.), following experimental infection with moritella viscosa.in this study experimental challenges with moritella viscosa, the causative agent of winter ulcers in salmonids, were performed on juvenile atlantic cod and atlantic halibut. the challenges involved both intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections and bath with a strain originally isolated from atlantic salmon. cod was found to be significantly more sensitive than halibut to the infection. both fish species were found to be more sensitive to i.m. than i.p. challenges. both challen ...200616911535
atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida contain multiple copies of insertion element isasa4 useful as a genetic marker and a target for pcr assay.the species aeromonas salmonicida includes a quite complex group of pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in fishes. best studied strains of this species are those of the subspecies salmonicida also referred to as 'typical' a. salmonicida, which cause furunculosis in salmonids. less completely understood are bacteria assigned to other subspecies, e.g. achromogenes and masoucida, or those that cannot be assigned to a recognized subspecies. these strains are referred to collectively as 'atypi ...200616903232
aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., isolated from a warm spring.a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain designated gptsa-6(t) was isolated from a water sample collected from a warm spring in assam, india. preliminary analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence of this isolate revealed its affiliation to the family aeromonadaceae. detailed characterization using a polyphasic approach indicated that strain gptsa-6(t) is most closely related to aeromonas sobria but differs significantly from existing members of the genus aeromonas. analysis of the ...200616902029
dietary ascorbic acid may be necessary for enhancing the immune response in siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii), a species capable of ascorbic acid biosynthesis.siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii brandt) is one of few fish species capable of synthesizing ascorbic acid (aa); however, it is unknown whether dietary aa is still necessary for this species to generate an optimal non-specific immune response, as is found in most teleostean species that do not synthesize aa. sturgeon fed either 0 or 500 mg aa (aa polyphosphate) equivalent kg(-1) diets for 2 weeks were then either sham or experimentally injected with aeromonas hydrophila lipopolysaccharide (lps ...200616901741
effects of electron transport inhibitors on iron reduction in aeromonas hydrophila strain kb1.the aim of this study was to determine the influence of respiratory chain inhibitors upon iron (iii) reduction in aeromonas hydrophila strain kb1. optimal conditions of the reduction process were established by determining the amount of biomass, optimal ph, temperature and substrate concentration. the obtained results allowed us to determine hill equation coefficients (k(m)=1.45+/-0.18 mm; v(max)=83.40+/-2.70 microm/min, and h=0.7+/-0.03). the value of h points to michaelis-like kinetics of the ...200316887699
crystallization and initial x-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from aeromonas hydrophila.polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in pha-accumulating bacteria. they play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial pha-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. the phasin phap(ah) from aeromonas hydrophila strain 4ak4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. single crystals were cryocooled for x-ray diffraction analysis. the phasin crystals belonged to s ...200616880566
purification and characterization of cytolytic toxins produced by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria strains.cytolytic toxins produced by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas veronii biotype sobria strains were partially purified from culture filtrates by two steps of purification: ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic chromatography using phenyl-sepharose cl-4b. hemolytic activity was detected in one or two peaks in elution profile. purified toxins were also cytotoxic to vero and cho cells. moreover, these toxins revealed cytotonic activity to cho cells.200616878602
dietary immunostimulants influence specific immune response and resistance of healthy and immunocompromised asian catfish clarias batrachus to aeromonas hydrophila infection.in order to determine the efficacy and immunoreversal effect of the 4 dietary immunomodulators, viz. lactoferrin, beta-1,3 glucan, levamisole and vitamin c, on disease resistance of a commercially important catfish, clarias batrachus, fish were fed diets supplemented with various levels of these substances in 2 subgroups, healthy and immunocompromised, during a 30 d trial. an artificial immunosuppressive state was induced by giving 3 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of cyclophosphamide (cyp) at ...200616875392
antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen xanthoparmelia pokornyi and its gyrophoric and stenosporic acid constituents.the antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethanol extracts of the lichen xanthoparmelia pokornyi and its gyrophoric acid and stenosporic acid constituents has been screened against some foodborne bacteria and fungi. both the extracts and the acids showed antimicrobial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, yersinia enterocol ...200616869486
transport of alpha-helical peptides through alpha-hemolysin and aerolysin pores.a series of negatively charged alpha-helical peptides of the general formula fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (fmoc)-d(x)a(y)k(z) were synthesized, where x and z were 1, 2, or 3 and y was 10, 14, 18, or 22. the translocation of the peptides through single pores, which were self-assembled into lipid membranes, was analyzed by measuring the current blockade i(block) and the duration t(block). the pores were either alpha-hemolysin, which has a wide vestibule leading into the pore, or aerolysin, which has n ...200616866363
antimicrobial activity of vanillin against spoilage microorganisms in stored fresh-cut mangoes.the antimicrobial activity of vanillin against four bacteria (pantoea agglomerans, aeromonas enteropelogenes, micrococcus lylae, and sphingobacterium spiritovorun), four fungi (alternaria sp., aspergillus sp., penicillium sp., and fusarium sp.), and three unidentified yeasts isolated from spoiling fresh-cut mango slices was verified in laboratory media adjusted to ph 5.0. mics of vanillin against the fungi (12.5 to 13.3 mm), bacteria (10 to 13.3 mm), and yeasts (5.0 to 6.7 mm) indicated that all ...200616865911
putative virulence factors of the aeromonas spp. isolated from food and environment in abu dhabi, united arab emirates.thirty randomly selected aeromonas isolates from food and the environment in abu dhabi, united arab emirates, were characterized for putative virulence determinants, such as production of cytotoxin, cytotonic toxin, and hemolysin and their capacity to adhere to and invade henle 407 cells in vitro. seventy percent of the tested isolates were cytotoxin producers, and 80% were hemolytic. cytotoxin was produced by 6 of 7 a. hydrophila strains, 6 of 13 a. caviae strains, and 6 of 7 a. veronii bv. sob ...200616865908
images in emergency medicine. necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila. 200616857472
bacterial contamination of vegetables served in hospitals.to study bacterial contamination of fresh vegetables before cleaning and before serving to patients in 14 hospitals.200516850639
multiple whole bacterial antigens in polyvalent vaccine may result in inhibition of specific responses in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the goal of fish vaccination today is to protect fish against multiple bacterial fish pathogens simultaneously using polyvalent vaccines. however, many immunological processes such as antigenic cross-reaction, antigenic competition, affinity maturation and antigen-induced suppression may affect the specificity, avidity and level of antibodies. consequently, the biological function of antibodies may be markedly different from that predicted by conventional serologic tests. here, we investigated t ...200716849036
aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) from a natural oyster bed, ceará, brazil.between april and october 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) from a natural oyster bed at the cocó river estuary in the sabiaguaba region (fortaleza, ceará, brazil) were carried out, aiming to isolate aeromonas spp. strains. oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (dp) and the presence/absence (p/a) methods. aeromonas were identified in 15 (50%) samples analyzed by the dp method and in 13 (43%) analyzed by the p/a method. a. caviae, a. eucrenoph ...200616847500
synthesis and structure activity relationships of novel non-peptidic metallo-aminopeptidase inhibitors.racemic derivatives of 3-amino-2-tetralone were synthesised and evaluated for their ability to inhibit metallo-aminopeptidase activities. new compounds substituted in position 2 by methyl ketone, substituted oximes or hydroxamic acids as well as heterocyclic derivatives were evaluated against representative members of zinc-dependent aminopeptidases: leucine aminopeptidase (e.c. 3.4.11.1), aminopeptidase-n (e.c. 3.4.11.2), aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase (e.c. 3.4.11.10), and the aminopepti ...200616844380
nano- and microparticles as adjuvants in vaccine design: success and failure is related to host natural antibodies.bovine serum albumin (bsa) and the surface a-layer protein (ap) of an atypical strain of fish bacterial pathogen aeromonas salmonicida were covalently linked with polymeric nano- and microparticles, and antigenicity of the resulted conjugates was compared in mice and goldfish. distinct albeit different levels of natural bsa and ap antibodies were present in both animal species. significant stimulation of the anti-ap antibody response in mice strikingly contrasted to unresponsiveness or even supp ...200616842893
necrotizing fasciitis in rheumatic diseases.necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon but life-threatening complication in immunocompromised hosts. we reported four patients with rheumatic diseases complicated by necrotizing fasciitis and reviewed 14 others from literature search. most patients were on corticosteroid treatment. septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and acute renal deterioration were common giving rise to an overall mortality rate of 27.8%. septic arthritis may also complicate the condition. statistical analysis ...200616830885
serogroups, k1 antigen, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of aeromonas spp. strains isolated from different sources in mexico.a total of 221 strains of aeromonas species isolated in mexico from clinical (161), environmental (40), and food (20) samples were identified using the automated system biomérieux-vitek. antisera for serogroups o1 to 044 were tested using the shimada and sakazaki scheme. the k1 antigen was examined using as antiserum the o7:k1c of escherichia coli. besides, we studied the antimicrobial patterns according to vitek automicrobic system. among the 161 clinical strains 60% were identified as a. hydro ...200616830708
plasticity of the gene functions for dna replication in the t4-like phages.we have completely sequenced and annotated the genomes of several relatives of the bacteriophage t4, including three coliphages (rb43, rb49 and rb69), three aeromonas salmonicida phages (44rr2.8t, 25 and 31) and one aeromonas hydrophila phage (aeh1). in addition, we have partially sequenced and annotated the t4-like genomes of coliphage rb16 (a close relative of rb43), a. salmonicida phage 65, acinetobacter johnsonii phage 133 and vibrio natriegens phage nt-1. each of these phage genomes exhibit ...200616828113
culture-independent characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of the medicinal leech reveals a tripartite symbiosis.culture-based studies of the microbial community within the gut of the medicinal leech have typically been focused on various aeromonas species, which were believed to be the sole symbiont of the leech digestive tract. in this study, analysis of 16s rrna gene clone libraries confirmed the presence of aeromonas veronii and revealed a second symbiont, clone pw3, a novel member of the rikenellaceae, within the crop, a large compartment where ingested blood is stored prior to digestion. the diversit ...200616820471
influence of food system conditions on n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones production by aeromonas spp.eleven of 13 aeromonas strains were shown to produce ahls. results of tlc showed that n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl) was the main ahl produced in lb medium at 30 degrees c. the influence of different carbon sources, temperature, ph values and salt concentrations on ahl production was determined in eight a. hydrophila and one a. caviae strain. additionally a quantitative study of c4-hsl production by a. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. positive results wer ...200616797762
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