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filter-feeder macroinvertebrates as key players in culturable bacteria biodiversity control: a case of study with sabella spallanzanii (polychaeta: sabellidae).the present study investigates the effect of the filtering activity of sabella spallanzanii on the culturable heterotrophic bacterial community through the comparison of the bacterial diversity in transplanted polychaetes and the surrounding seawater. for isolation of culturable heterotrophic bacteria, seawater samples as well as polychaete homogenates were plated in triplicates onto bacto marine agar 2216 (difco). all the colonies grown were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morph ...200717548107
variation in copolymer composition and molecular weight of polyhydroxyalkanoate generated by saturation mutagenesis of aeromonas caviae pha synthase.amino acid substitutions at two residues downstream from the active-site histidine of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases are effective for changing the composition and the molecular weight of pha. in this study, saturation mutagenesis at the position ala505 was applied to pha synthase (phacac) from aeromonas caviae to investigate the effects on the composition and the molecular weight of pha synthesized in ralstonia eutropha. the copolymer composition and molecular weight of pha were varied by ...200717541931
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of lamb encoding outer membrane maltose-inducible porin of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a significantly important pathogen causing major diseases in humans and fresh water fish. the outer membrane proteins (omp) which are strong immunogens have been reported to act as adhesins aiding in the attachment of enteropathogenic bacteria. it is of interest to investigate the role of omp in pathogenesis and their potential as vaccine candidates. in our laboratory, we cloned the gene encoding channel protein lamb porin of a. hydrophila. dna sequence analysis revealed ...200717541836
characterization of a broad range antibacterial substance from a new bacillus species isolated from amazon basin.a bacillus sp. strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16s rdna sequencing. the phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain has low sequence similarity with most bacillus spp., suggesting a new species was isolated. the antimicrobial activity was detected starting at the exponential growth phase, and maximum activity was observed at stationary phase. the substance was inhibitory to a broad range of indicator strains, including pathogenic ...200717534601
site-directed mutagenesis of aeromonas hydrophila enoyl coenzyme a hydratase enhancing 3-hydroxyhexanoate fractions of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate).the aim of this study is to enhance 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3hhx) fractions of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), abbreviated as phbhhx, through site-directed mutagenesis of aeromonas hydrophila enoyl coenzyme a hydratase (phaj(ah)). two amino acids (leu-65 and val-130) were selected as a substitutional site based on the structural information of phaj(ah). the purified proteins from the wild-type enzyme and mutants were used to determine hydratase activities. hydratase activities of four ...200717534562
characterization of a catalase gene from aeromonas veronii, the digestive-tract symbiont of the medicinal leech.the catalase gene kata of the medicinal leech symbiont aeromonas veronii bv. sobria was cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. southern hybridization, using an a. veronii kata-specific hybridization probe, suggested the presence of a single gene copy in many aeromonas species. a. veronii kata consisted of 1446 nt encoding a protein with a high degree of similarity to the small-subunit group iii bacterial catalases. a catalase-null mutant (jg186) was constructed through gene-replaceme ...200717526846
antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in motile aeromonads and pseudomonads from rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in australia.a total of 129 pseudomonas spp. and 90 aeromonas spp. were isolated from nine rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in australia. all the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 15 antibiotics and the multiresistant strains were tested for sensitivity to seven heavy metals. minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were determined by the agar dilution method. in pseudomonas spp., resistance to amoxicillin, cefalothin, ceftiofur, ticarcillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, nitrofu ...200717524624
cystitis caused by aeromonas caviae.aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. we report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by a. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.200717522269
aeromonas infection in critically ill burn patients.aeromonas infection in burn patients is extremely uncommon. here we report on four cases of aeromonas infection in burn patients admitted to the bicu at the singapore general hospital burn unit between june 2001 and may 2006. two patients had positive blood cultures, and the other two had tissue samples with growth. there was no history of exposure to soil or fresh water in all patients. the average age of patients was 35 years (range 24-41) and the average % tbsa was 48% (range 35-80). cultures ...200717521817
interaction between innate immune cells and a bacterial type iii secretion system in mutualistic and pathogenic associations.animals house a community of bacterial symbionts in their digestive tracts that contribute to their well being. the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, has a remarkably simple gut population carrying two extracellular microbes in the crop where the ingested blood is stored. this simplicity renders it attractive for studying colonization factors. aeromonas veronii, one of the leech symbionts, can be genetically manipulated and is a pathogen of mammals. screening transposon mutants of a. veronii for ...200717517651
bacterial symbionts in the hepatopancreas of isopods: diversity and environmental transmission.the midgut glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods contain bacterial symbionts. we analysed the phylogenetic diversity of hepatopancreatic bacteria in isopod species from various suborders colonizing marine, semiterrestrial, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. hepatopancreatic bacteria were absent in the marine isopod idotea balthica (valvifera). the symbiotic bacteria present in the midgut glands of the freshwater isopod asellus aquaticus (asellota) were closely related to members of th ...200717506824
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in naturally- and laboratory-challenged farmed haddock, melanogrammus aeglefinus (l.). 200717501741
dominant pathogenic species of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from diseased and healthy fish cultured in poland.aeromonas isolates were collected from cultured fish, characterized phenotypically and identified to species using 16s rdna. the pathogenicity of all isolates was assayed on the basis of haemolytic and proteolytic activity and challenge tests were performed for isolates from healthy fish. a total of 131 aeromonas isolates were obtained and identified as follows: a. hydrophila (13), a. bestiarum (23), a. salmonicida (motile biogroup) (19), a. caviae (2), a. sobria (18), a. veronii bt. sobria (42) ...200717501739
antimicrobial properties of two purified skin peptides from the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) against bacteria isolated from the natural habitat.numerous peptides exhibiting antimicrobial properties have been isolated from the skins of many amphibian species. these peptides offer an innate chemical defense system against various microbial agents that exist in the amphibian's environment. amphibian skin peptides are typically tested for antimicrobial activity against microbial strains that are pathogenic to humans, but not on potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria that exist in the organism's habitat. two peptides, a brevinin-2-re ...200717499556
oral administration of eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of oreochromis mossambicus.immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. for this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing e. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. after each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against aero ...200717499515
gene structure of an antimicrobial peptide from mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi (basilewsky), suggests that moronecidins and pleurocidins belong in one family: the piscidins.the gene of piscidin, an antimicrobial peptide, has been cloned from the mandarin fish, siniperca chuatsi. from the first transcription initiation site, the mandarin fish piscidin gene extends 1693 nucleotides to the end of the 3' untranslated region and contains four exons and three introns. a predicted 79-residue prepropeptide consists of three domains: a signal peptide (22 aa), a mature peptide (22 aa) and a c-terminal prodomain (35 aa). the shortage of xqq motif in the prodomain of mandarin ...200717498177
[infection with aeromonas hydrophila after use of leeches (hirudo medicinalis) in a free microvascular osteo-(myo-)cutaneous flap--suggestions for successful management].medical leeches (hirudo medicinalis) are an important therapeutic option in the treatment of venous congestion of flaps. in a case report an infection with aeromonas hydrophila of a free microvascular osteo-(myo)-cutaneous flap after leech application for venous congestion is described and the current literature reviewed. infection associated with leech therapy is a documented complication of leech application, with reported incidences ranging from 2.4 to 20 %. in some cases an infection of the ...200717497606
[hirudo medicinalis-leech applications in plastic and reconstructive microsurgery--a literature review].medical leech therapy has enjoyed a renaissance in the world of reconstructive microsurgery during recent years. especially venous congestion is decreased using hirudo medicinalis application such as following replantation of amputated fingers or congested flaps. they provide a temporary relief to venous engorgement whilst venous drainage is re-established. living in symbiosis with aeromonas hydrophila, who can digest the sixfold blood meal related to their body weight, and a broad number of ant ...200717497605
importance of flagella and enterotoxins for aeromonas virulence in a mouse model.a genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaa/flab, flag), lateral flagella (lafa), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates. when 16 aeromonas hydrophila strains, seven aeromonas veronii strains, and seven aeromonas caviae strains exhibiting different combinations of virulence factor genes were tested in immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal inj ...200717496975
sampling bias created by ampicillin in isolation media for aeromonas.members of the bacterial genus aeromonas are widely isolated from aquatic environments and studied in part for their ability to act as opportunistic pathogens in a variety of animals. all aeromonads, with the exception of aeromonas trota, are generally thought to be resistant to ampicillin, so the antibiotic is frequently added to isolation medium as a selective agent. in this study, 282 aeromonads from environmental sources were isolated on a medium without ampicillin and their resistance to am ...200717496948
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (cyprinus carpio l.) by oral administration of humus extract.humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. in the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (cyprinus carpio l.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection. mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treat ...200717485929
global trade in ornamental fish from an australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies.over 1 billion ornamental fish comprising more than 4000 freshwater and 1400 marine species are traded internationally each year, with 8-10 million imported into australia alone. compared to other commodities, the pathogens and disease translocation risks associated with this pattern of trade have been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to conduct an appraisal of the effectiveness of risk analysis and quarantine controls as they are applied according to the sanitary and phytosanitary ( ...200717485126
microbial and clinical determinants of time-to-positivity in patients with bacteraemia.time-to-positivity is useful in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteraemia and as a predictor of an endovascular source in patients with staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. however, this parameter has been evaluated for only a limited number of microorganisms. in the present study, time-to-positivity was recorded for 1872 episodes of significant monomicrobial bacteraemia diagnosed at a teaching hospital during a 2-year period, and the associated microbial and clinical variables were investigat ...200717484763
association of bacteria with metacercarial cysts of echinostoma caproni.echinostoma caproni metacercarial cysts often need to be stored for several months to a year to meet laboratory requirements. this study examined the bacteria associated with encysted metacercariae stored at 4 degrees c. bacterial assemblages from the kidney-pericardial region of uninfected snails and assemblages from the site of metacercarial infection in biomphalaria glabrata were determined. four species of gram-negative rods were isolated and identified from the stored cysts to species or ge ...200717483963
wound infection and septic shock due to aeromonas trota in a patient with liver cirrhosis. 200717479957
construction of a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs and its effects on the innate immune responses of aquatic animals.bacterial dna and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) containing unmethylated cpg dinucleotides (cpg motifs) have been shown to induce potential immune responses. in this study, we designed a recombinant plasmid containing multi-copy cpg motifs, and observed its effects on innate immune responses of fish and prawn. the results showed that such plasmid dna, compared to the vacant vector, can highly induce the activation of head kidney macrophages and the proliferation of peripheral blood leuko ...200717475508
multiplex-pcr for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, flavobacterium columnare, edwardsiella ictaluri, and aeromonas hydrophila.a multiplex pcr (m-pcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. the m-pcr to amplify target dna fragments from flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. the lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-pcr reaction mixture. the sensitivity ...200717465305
application of real-time quantitative pcr for the detection of selected bacterial pathogens during municipal wastewater treatment.bacteria were detected at five stages of municipal wastewater treatment using taqman(r) real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). thirteen probe and primer sets were tested for diverse pathogens that may be present in wastewater, including aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, clostridium perfringens, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, e. coli o157:h7, helicobacter pylori, klebsiella pneumoniae, legionella pneumophila, listeria monocytogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella sp., and staphyloc ...200717462712
endogenous aeromonas hydrophila endophthalmitis in an immunocompromised patient.to report a case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to aeromonas hydrophila in a patient with distal common bile duct carcinoma and biliary sepsis.200717460432
cpg oligodeoxynucleotides up-regulate antibacterial systems and induce protection against bacterial challenge in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the effects of unmethylated cpg oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) on the mammalian immune system are relatively well studied but much less is known of their effects on the immune systems of different fish species. here we show that cpg odns significantly enhance the survival of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) following bacterial challenge when used both as stand-alone prophylactic agents, or as adjuvants to a commercially available vaccine. they are also capable of increasing serum lysozyme activi ...200717459727
issues for microbial regulation: aeromonas as a model.the decision by public health agencies to regulate specific microorganisms that may be found in drinking water can only be made if specific criteria find that a microorganism poses a health risk. these criteria should include: (1) there is a clinical history of an organism causing disease from the ingestion of drinking water; (2) there is epidemiological evidence that drinking water rather than food or other vectors is a major source of disease; (3) there is sufficient evidence that the target o ...200717453931
species identification of clinically important aeromonas spp. by restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16s rdna.the aim of the study was to characterize 16s rdna of aeromonas spp. to rapidly identify clinically important species of these bacteria.200717451524
multiple controls regulate the expression of mobe, an hnh homing endonuclease gene embedded within a ribonucleotide reductase gene of phage aeh1.mobile genetic elements have the potential to influence the expression of genes surrounding their insertion site upon invasion of a genome. here, we examine the transcriptional organization of a ribonucleotide reductase operon (nrd) that has been invaded by an hnh family homing endonuclease, mobe. in aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1, mobe has inserted into the large-subunit gene (nrda) of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr), splitting it into two smaller genes, nrda-a and nrda-b. this gene org ...200717449612
enhancement of nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus by solanum trilobatum leaf fractions.the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water and hexane soluble fractions of the indian medicinal plant, solanum trilobatum on the nonspecific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus. fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 4, 40 or 400 mg kg(-1) body weight of water or hexane soluble fraction. the nonspecific immune mechanisms were assessed in terms of serum lysozyme activity, reactive oxygen species production and reactive n ...200717448687
phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria and their adhesive capability in relation to the intestinal mucus of carp.the aims of the present study are to characterize the intestinal microbial community displaying a high-adhesive capability in fish, and to evaluate the relationship between mucosal adhesion of intestinal bacteria and fish health and disease.200717448166
cytokine expression in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) during infection with aeromonas salmonicida.gene expression of a number of cytokines in the intestine of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of aeromonas salmonicida. fish were exposed to a. salmonicida by immersion in a bacterial suspension (bath challenge) and tissue samples of the distal and proximal intestine were collected at days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 post-exposure. head kidney tissue was also collected to assess the effect in a systemic immune tissue. a classic profile of pro-inf ...200717434320
chronic colitis after aeromonas hydrophilia infection. 199617429262
shape and subunit organisation of the dna methyltransferase m.ahdi by small-angle neutron scattering.type i restriction-modification (r-m) systems encode multisubunit/multidomain enzymes. two genes (m and s) are required to form the methyltransferase (mtase) that methylates a specific base within the recognition sequence and protects dna from cleavage by the endonuclease. the dna methyltransferase m.ahdi is a 170 kda tetramer with the stoichiometry m(2)s(2) and has properties typical of a type i mtase. the m.ahdi enzyme has been prepared with deuterated s subunits, to allow contrast variation u ...200717418232
[biodegradation of estrogens in stream water].estrogens of human and animal origin that reach the aquatic environment may enter human or animal organism and act as endocrine disruptors.to investigate the persistency of estrogens in laboratory experiments, estrone respectively 17beta-estradiol were added to stream water sampled from river spree in berlin. the concentration of estrone and 17beta-estradiol was quantified using enzyme-immuno-assay. the estrone concentration decreased to less than 5 % of the starting concentration at storage tem ...200717416137
rotavirus disease in young children from hanoi, vietnam.pathogen prevalences and antimicrobial susceptibilities are essential for the rational development of preventive strategies for diarrheal diseases, but little recent information from vietnam is available. we prospectively studied the prevalence of enteric pathogens in children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea and in nondiarrhea controls in a city hospital in hanoi, vietnam for 1 year.200717414396
immunomodulating effect of inositol hexaphosphate against aeromonas hydrophila-endotoxin.the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (ip6) administration on endotoxemia as an example of the systemic inflammatory response. mice were divided into three groups as follows: first group, remained as a naive group injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with pbs (ph 7.4; 0.2 ml/mice) at intervals parallel to the treated groups. the second group was injected i.p. with the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of aeromonas hydrophila once a week for four weeks at a dose o ...200717412285
quorum-sensing-dependent switch to butanediol fermentation prevents lethal medium acidification in aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n.aeromonas hydrophila ah-1n shows biphasic growth in glucose containing broth at 30 degrees c. the first phase is characterized by strong acidification, while the second phase is accompanied by an increase in medium ph. disruption of ahl production by knockout of ahyi did not affect the first growth phase, but resulted in further acidification which completely blocked the second growth phase and even caused cell death. the block could be relieved by addition of 5 microm (or less) synthetic n-buta ...200717408926
the recently proposed species aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., isolate gptsa-6t, is not a member of the genus aeromonas.a new species of the genus aeromonas, aeromonas sharmana sp. nov., was recently described on the basis of a single isolate, strain gptsa-6t, obtained from a warm spring in india. the description of this new species included biochemical characterization, antibiotic susceptibility, cellular fatty-acid profiles, and 16s rrna gene sequencing, but not dnadna hybridization data. in the present article, phylogenetic analysis (branch distances in the tree and nucleotide signatures) of the 16s rrna of is ...200717407062
metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton bacterial communities in a hungarian shallow soda lake.in the present study, the species composition and potential metabolic activities of bacterial communities of reed phragmites australis (cav.) (trin. ex steudel) periphyton from lake velencei were studied by cultivation-based and metabolic fingerprinting methods. serially diluted spring biofilm samples were used to test the community-level physiological profiling (clpp) using biolog microplates, and for plating onto different media. on the basis of their morphological, biochemical, and physiologi ...200717406774
the role of aeromonas in diarrhea: a review.the evidence for an enteropathogenic role of aeromonas spp. is still controversial. this review examines various parameters related to a causative role of aeromonas and concludes that infraspecific subsets of strains with a particular array of enterotoxin genes are potential enteropathogens. the consequences for stool bacteriology are discussed.200717401708
evaluation of adherence, hydrophobicity, aggregation, and biofilm development of flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates.flavobacterium spp. isolates have been identified in diverse biofilm structures, but the mechanism of adherence has not been elucidated. the absence of conventional biofilm-associated structures such as fimbriae, pili, and flagella suggest that surface hydrophobicity, and/or autoaggregation and coaggregation may play an important role in adherence and biofilm formation. the biofilm-forming capacity of 29 flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates obtained from south african aquaculture systems was ...200817401596
insertion of a homing endonuclease creates a genes-in-pieces ribonucleotide reductase that retains function.in bacterial and phage genomes, coding regions are sometimes interrupted by self-splicing introns or inteins, which can encode mobility-promoting homing endonucleases. homing endonuclease genes are also found free-standing (not intron- or intein-encoded) in phage genomes where they are inserted in intergenic regions. one example is the hnh family endonuclease, mobe, inserted between the large (nrda) and small (nrdb) subunit genes of aerobic ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) of t-even phages t4, rb2 ...200717395719
[extraintestinal infection due to aeromonas spp.: review of 38 cases].aeromonas spp. typically cause gastroenteritis, but can occasionally produce extraintestinal infections. the aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of extraintestinal infections caused by aeromonas spp. in our area.200717386217
immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles due to dietary gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch.a 60 days experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (g) and non-gelatinized (ng) starch on immunomodulation of labeo rohita juveniles. two hundred and thirty four juveniles (av. wt. 2.53+/-0.04) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. six semi-purified diets containing ng and g corn starch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100) were prepared viz., t(1) (100% ng, 0% g starch), t(2) (80% ng, 20% g starch), t(3) ( ...200717383896
bacterial-binding activity and plasma concentration of ladderlectin in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).soluble, defense lectins bind conserved microbial patterns leading to pathogen opsonization, enhanced phagocytosis and activation of complement. these immune functions, however, vary widely among individuals due to genetic and acquired differences affecting binding capacity or plasma concentration. most evidence for the defensive function of soluble lectins is based on mammals, but several functionally homologous, but less well-characterized, lectins have been identified in fish. in this study, ...200717383895
contribution of ahyr to virulence of aeromonas hydrophila j-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a broad-host-range pathogen and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. a regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing has been found to be involved in the regulation of virulence in many bacteria. in a. hydrophila the ahyr gene encodes luxr-type response regulator. here we describe the inactivation of the ahyr gene of a. hydrophila j-1 by the insertion of a dna fragment containing a kanamycin resistance determinant and reintroduced by allelic exchange into the chromosome of ...200717383694
serum antibody response of indian major carp, labeo rohita to three species of pathogenic bacteria; aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens.the immune response to mixed whole cell antigens of aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda and pseudomonas fluorescens, the common gram negative bacterial pathogens associated with diseases of indian major carps were evaluated for their efficacy in triggering antibody responses in rohu, labeo rohita (ham.). the rohu yearlings were either immunized with antigens from single bacterial strain, a. hydrophila, e. tarda and p. fluorescens or a combination of all three. an antibody response was detec ...200717383016
antimicrobial resistance survey in a river receiving effluents from freshwater fish farms.the aims of this study were: (i) to determine the proportions of aeromonas spp. resistant to florfenicol (fc), oxolinic acid (oa) and oxytetracycline (otc) along a river receiving effluents from fish farms, and (ii) to assess the relevance of using this bacterial group as an indicator for studying the consequences of the use and release of these aquacultural antimicrobials in the freshwater environment, as compared with performing antimicrobial measurements in sediments.200717381761
non-structural flagella genes affecting both polar and lateral flagella-mediated motility in aeromonas hydrophila.an aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 minitn5 mutant unable to produce polar and lateral flagella was isolated, in which the transposon was inserted into a gene whose encoded protein was an orthologue of the campylobacter jejuni motility accessory factor (maf) protein. in addition to this gene, several other related genes were found in this cluster that was adjacent to the region 2 genes of the polar flagellum. mutation of the a. hydrophila ah-3 maf-2, neub-like, flmd or neua-like genes resulted in non-m ...200717379726
quantitative analysis of organ tissue damage after septic shock.the objective of this study was to quantify end-organ damage caused by bacteremic sepsis. twelve adult swine were divided into two groups. the anesthesia control group (n = 6) received general anesthesia for 4 hours. the septic shock group (n = 6) received an infusion of aeromonas hydrophila under general anesthesia for 4 hours. swine were sacrificed at the end of the 4-hour procedure. tissues from lungs, kidneys, livers, and hearts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. images of tissues were ...200717375779
effects of polyherbal formulation 'immuplus' on immunity and disease resistance of indian major carp, labeo rohita at different stages of growth.a series of experiments were performed to determine the impact of polyherbal immunomodulatory formulation 'immuplus' (aquaimmu) on growth, immunity and disease resistance of rohu (labeo rohita), one of the indian major carp at different stages of growth. rohu larvae were fed on plankton, immuplus-mixed compound feed, and plankton plus immuplus-mixed compound feed (immuplus added at three dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g/kg feed) from 4th day of hatching to 14th day. immuplus-mixed diets enh ...200717373376
global transcriptional responses of wild-type aeromonas hydrophila and its virulence-deficient mutant in a murine model of infection.we previously generated a double knockout mutant (act/aopb) of a diarrheal isolate ssu of a. hydrophila, in which the genes encoding aeromonas outer membrane protein b (aopb), a structural component of the type iii secretion system (t3ss), and a type ii (t2)-secreted cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) were deleted. this mutant exhibited minimal virulence in mice, compared to animals infected with wild-type (wt) a. hydrophila. based on microarray analyses, wt a. hydrophila altered the expression of ...200717368824
vaccination against atypical furunculosis and winter ulcer disease of fish.atypical furunculosis is a problem in farming of salmonids and various other fish species caused by a heterogeneous group of atypical aeromonas salmonicida strains. winter ulcer is a disease of salmonids and cod caused by moritella viscosa, but a number of fish species are susceptible to the infection. vaccines are available against atypical furunculosis of salmonids, but their efficacy is dependent on the characteristics of the infective strain. vaccines for non-salmonid fish are currently not ...200717367897
infection risk related to the use of medicinal leeches.to assess the incidence of postoperative wound infections related to treatment with medicinal leeches at ghent university hospital.200717353971
ulinastatin alone does not reduce caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in protease-positive aeromonas hydrophilia-induced sepsis.to evaluate the effect of ulinastatin, a protease inhibitor, on survival and apoptosis in protease-positive aeromonas hydrophilia (ppah)-induced sepsis.200717339152
enteropathogenic bacteria and enterotoxin-producing staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods in khon kaen, thailand.the objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food in the municipality of khon kaen, thailand. four categories of 186 food samples were collected: (1) high heat food; (2) low heat food; (3) no heat food; and, 4) on-site prepared fruit juices and beverages. of the food samples, 145 (78%) failed to meet acceptable microbiological standards, including fruit juice and beverages (100%), no heat food (91.7%), low heat food (81.7%) and high heat food (57.9%) ...200617333744
studies on synonymous codon and amino acid usages in aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1: architecture of protein-coding genes and therapeutic implications.codon and amino acid usage biases determined in numerous organisms have deciphered the architectures of their protein-coding genes to some extent. to understand the architecture of protein-coding genes of aeromonas phages, codon and amino acid usage biases have been investigated in the protein-coding genes of the aeromonas hydrophila phage aeh1.200717332903
necrotizing soft-tissue infections and sepsis caused by vibrio vulnificus compared with those caused by aeromonas species.vibrio and aeromonas species, which can cause necrotizing fasciitis and primary septicemia, are members of the vibrionaceae family and thrive in aquatic environments. because the clinical symptoms and signs of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by these two bacteria are similar, the purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of vibrio vulnificus and aeromonas infections, to analyze the risk factors for death, and to compare the effects of surgical treatment on the ...200717332113
aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs.a polyphasic study was performed to determine the taxonomic position of two aeromonas strains, 665n and 868e(t), isolated from bivalve molluscs, that could not be identified at the species level in a previous numerical taxonomy study. the dna g+c content of these isolates was 62.3 and 62.6 mol%, respectively. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene showed that the two new strains were closely related to members of the genus aeromonas. fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprin ...200717329789
quantitative detection of aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time pcr using self-quenched, fluorogenic primers.in this study a real-time pcr assay using self-quenched primers labelled with a single fluorophore for the detection of aeromonas salmonicida was developed. probe specificity was confirmed by amplification of 16 a. salmonicida strain templates and by the lack of a pcr product with 26 non-a. salmonicida strains. with a pure culture of a. salmonicida, the assay was linear over a range of 0.5 pg to 50 ng and was able to detect 16 c.f.u. per reaction. a similar sensitivity was observed in dna extrac ...200717314361
screening of genes involved in chitinase production in aeromonas caviae cb101 via transposon mutagenesis.to find genes involved in chitinase production in chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas caviae cb101.200717309612
characterization of cytotoxin-producing aeromonas caviae (strain ht10) isolated from a sulfur spring in orissa, india.during a study of microbial diversity, a bacterial strain designated ht10, was isolated from sediment collected from an unexplored sulfur spring at athamallik, orissa, india. various biochemical tests and 16s rdna sequence analysis revealed that strain ht10 is aeromonas caviae. the growth temperature of this strain ranged from 12 to 43 degrees c and the optimum temperature was 30 degrees c. the strain ht10 showed cytotoxic and alpha-hemolytic activity. this is the first report on the isolation o ...200717309514
competitive inhibitors of the cpha metallo-beta-lactamase from aeromonas hydrophila.various inhibitors of metallo-beta-lactamases have been reported; however, none are effective for all subgroups. those that have been found to inhibit the enzymes of subclass b2 (catalytically active with one zinc) either contain a thiol (and show less inhibition towards this subgroup than towards the dizinc members of b1 and b3) or are inactivators behaving as substrates for the dizinc family members. the present work reveals that certain pyridine carboxylates are competitive inhibitors of cpha ...200717307979
microbial and sensory changes during refrigerated storage of desalted cod (gadus morhua) preserved by combined methods.water blanching and the use of additives (potassium sorbate and citric acid) combined with different types of packaging (air, vacuum "vp" and modified atmosphere packaging "map": 60% co(2), 30% n(2) and 10% o(2)), were studied as new methods of preservation of chilled desalted cod. microbial counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (tvb-n) analyses were carried out during a period of 42 days on all samples stored at 4 degrees c. no aeromonas or sulphite-reducing clostridium were isolated from an ...200717303277
[classification and identification of vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates based on gyrb gene phylogenetic analysis].in order to validate the usefulness of gyrb genotype for the classification and identification of vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates, the phylogenetic analysis of 13 v. cholerae, 8 v. parahaemolyticus, 2 aeromonas hydrophila and 1 plesiomonas shigelloides strains was carried out using the partial coding sequence of gyrb, a gene that encodes the b subunit of dna gyrase (topoisomerase type ii ) in bacteria. these strains were separately clustered at species level and typed by the ...200617302148
aeromonas hemolytic uremic syndrome. a case and a review of the literature.although rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome can be induced by aeromonas. we report a case in a 40-year-old spanish female produced by aeromonas veronii bv. sobria and review the previous cases described in the literature. this is the 2nd case described in adults.200717300902
evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay-based stool antigen test to detect campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.an enzyme immunoassay-based antigen test (ridascreen campylobacter; r-biopharm, darmstadt, germany) was evaluated for the detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in 1050 clinical stool samples as compared with culture on selective medium. after routine inoculation for salmonella, shigella, yersinia, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and campylobacter, the same swab specimens were used for the antigen test. the positivity rate for campylobacter was 9.3% in culture, and the antigen test gav ...200717300899
poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] formation in escherichia coli from glucose through an enoyl-coa hydratase-mediated pathway.in this study, a new metabolic pathway for the synthesis of poly[(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [p(3hb)] was constructed in a recombinant escherichia coli strain that utilized forward and reverse reactions catalyzed by two substrate-specific enoyl-coa hydratases, r-hydratase (phaj) and s-hydratase (fadb), to epimerize (s)-3hb-coa to (r)-3hb-coa via a crotonyl-coa intermediate. the r-hydratase gene (phaj(ac)) from aeromonas caviae was coexpressed with the pha synthase gene (phac(re)) and 3-ketothiolase g ...200717298899
a stochastic modelling approach to describing the dynamics of an experimental furunculosis epidemic in chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).a susceptible-infected-removed (sir) stochastic model was compared to a susceptible-latent-infectious-removed (slir) stochastic model in terms of describing and capturing the variation observed in replicated experimental furunculosis epidemics, caused by aeromonas salmonicida. the epidemics had been created by releasing a single infectious fish into a group of susceptible fish (n = 43) and progress of the epidemic was observed for 10 days. this process was replicated in 70 independent groups. th ...200717298564
construction of pha-operon-defined knockout mutants of pseudomonas putida kt2442 and their applications in poly(hydroxyalkanoate) production.pseudomonas putida kt2442 could accumulate medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (pha) consisting of 3-hydroxyhexanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate from a wide range of carbon sources. in this study, the pha synthase pha operon (phac1-phaz-phac2) was knocked out and the vgb gene encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin protein (vhb), which could enhance oxygen uptake rate especially at low oxygen concentration, was integrated into the p. putida kt2442 genome t ...200717295412
gamma study of ph, nitrite, and salt inhibition of aeromonas hydrophila.the gamma hypothesis states that there are no interactions between antimicrobial environmental factors. the time to growth of aeromonas hydrophila challenged with ph, nano(2), and salt combinations at 30 degrees c was investigated. data were examined using a model based on the gamma hypothesis (the gamma model), which takes into account variance-stabilizing transformations and which gives biologically relevant parameters. at high concentrations of nano(2) and at phs of >6.0, the antimicrobial ac ...200717293519
induction of apoptosis in vero cells by aeromonas veronii biovar sobria vacuolating cytotoxic factor.recently, a cytotoxin named vacuolating cytotoxic factor (vcf) in aeromonas sobria and aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was described. we have now purified this factor using ion metallic affinity chromatography. the vcf is a nonhemolytic enterotoxin that acts as a serine protease. the toxin can be partially neutralized by serum antiaerolysin and it induced not only cytoplasmatic vacuole formation, but also mitochondrial disorders that must be signaling the apoptotic pathways, leading to vero (afr ...200717286562
surveillance of bacteriological quality of natural water resources in rural areas around kasauli town, distt. solan, himachal pradesh.a study was conducted to find out the bacteriological quality of water during the monsoon season in local areas around kasauli town, and to evaluate the management of water resources in rural areas. the water samples were collected from bowries and hand pumps. as there is no municipal water supply in majority of these areas, the local residents depends mainly on these natural resources without any treatment of water. all the 14 surface water samples collected from bowries were found bacteriologi ...200517278659
characterization of aeromonas virulence using an immunocompromised mouse model.an immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. a total of 34 isolates of aeromonas (a. hydrophila [n = 12]), a. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], a. caviae [n = 4], a. enchelia [n = 4], a. allosaccharophila [n = 2], a. salmonicida (n = 4), and a. bestiarum [n = 1]) were introduced by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompetent or chemically compromised (using cyclophosphamide) mice. the ability of ...200717277907
spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech.the medicinal leech, hirudo verbana, is one of the simplest naturally occurring models for digestive-tract symbioses, where only two bacterial species, aeromonas veronii bv. sobria (gamma-proteobacteria) and a rikenella-like bacterium (bacteroidetes), colonize the crop, the largest compartment of the leech digestive tract. in this study, we investigated spatial and temporal changes of the localization and microcolony structure of the native symbionts in the crop, after ingestion of a sterile blo ...200717277211
assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.a new aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, roundup, in the albufera lake, a protected area near valencia. viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between a. caviae counts of viability m ...200717270238
differentiation of aeromonas isolated from drinking water distribution systems using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry.the genus aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. in this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) was used to analyze the whole cells of both reference strains and unknown aeromonas isolates obtained from water distribution systems. a library of over 45 unique m/z signatures was created from 40 strains that are representative of the 17 reco ...200717269751
immune response in the tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to tannery effluent.the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent (te) on the specific immune response and nonspecific immunity in tilapia, oreochromis mossambicus. the effluent from the tannery was collected directly from a chrome-tanning factory situated in dindigul district, tamil nadu, india. apart from chromium (88.2 ppm), the effluent contained appreciable amount of calcium carbonate and sodium sulphate. groups of fish (45-50 g) we ...200717261332
influence of different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous on aeromonas spp. growth.this paper evaluates the influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth of aeromonas previously isolated from irrigation water. three strains respectively of three species of aeromonas (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, a. sobria) (nine strains) were individually inoculated in a microcosm added with ammonium, nitrate and phosphate using different combinations (nh4-n + no3-n and nh4-n + no3-n + po4-p) and concentrations (nh4-n: from 20 to 2500 microg l-1; no3-n: from 200 to 22000 microg l-1; po4-p: ...200617256017
aeromonas salmonicida toxin aext has a rho family gtpase-activating protein domain.the n terminus of the aeromonas salmonicida adp-ribosylating toxin aext displays in vitro gtpase-activating protein (gap) activity for rac1, cdc42, and rhoa. hela cells transfected with the aext n terminus exhibit rounding and actin disordering. we propose that the aeromonas salmonicida aext toxin is a novel member of the growing family of bacterial rhogaps.200717237181
[rapidly progressive myonecrosis by aeromonas veronii biotype sobria].myonecrosis due to aeromonas spp is exceptional. we report the case of a diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis who developed a rapidly progressive myonecrosis by aeromonas veronii biotype sobria. the portal of entry was an injury after falling down in an irrigation canal. the outcome was not favourable and surgical amputation of left leg was performed in spite of antibiotic treatment with cefotaxime and tobramicin. aeromonas spp can be very aggressive and this microorganism should be considered ...200617222071
microbiological profile of raw nile water.with the increase of population on the nile banks, a remarkable increase in industrial, agricultural, human activities, and recreational activities have also occurred. the effluents of such activities are discharged directly into the nile or through some agricultural drains which finally discharge their wastes into the nile. thus, the microbiological monitoring is one of the main objectives to protect the river nile. this study was conducted to determine the microbiological profile of river nile ...199817217019
two unrelated cases of septicaemia due to vibrio cholerae non-o1, non-o139 in poland, july and august 2006. 200617213560
an attenuated plasmid-cured strain of aeromonas hydrophila elicits protective immunity in clarias batrachus l.wild type aeromonas hydrophila (strain ao1) isolated from the lesions of ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) affected fish bears a 21 kb virulence plasmid. with plasmid curing the isolates became attenuated and failed to induce fatal haemorrhagic ulcers in fish. the objective of the present work was to check the immunogenicity of these plasmid-cured derivatives and determine whether such strains could be used as candidate antigens for eliciting protective immunity to a. hydrophila infections in th ...200717208455
occurrence of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones in extracts of some gram-negative bacteria evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.acylated homoserine lactones (ahls) are self-generated signal molecules that mediate population density-dependent gene expression (quorum sensing) in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. these signal molecules diffuse from bacterial cells and accumulate in the medium as a function of cell growth. in selected foods ahls contribute to product spoilage. as different bacterial species produce ahl analogs that differ in length of the n-acyl chain, ranging from 4 to 14 carbons and in the substitution ...200717207763
detection of conjugation related type four secretion machinery in aeromonas culicicola.background: aeromonas sp. can now be considered relatively common enteropathogens due to the increase of diseases in humans. aeromonas culicicola is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated for the first time from the mosquito mid-gut, but subsequently detected in other insects and waters also. our previous study discovered that a. culicicola harbors three plasmids, which we designated as pac3249a, pac3249b and pac3249c. we investigated and report here the existence and genetic organization ...200617205119
characterization of extracellular proteins produced by aeromonas hydrophila ah-1.aeromonas hydrophila is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which can cause motile aeromonad septicemia in both fish and humans. a. hydrophila secretes many extracellular proteins associated with pathogenicity and environmental adaptability. in this study, an extracellular proteome map of a. hydrophila ah-1 was constructed. the major extracellular virulence factors were characterized by comparing the proteomes of various deletion mutants with that of the wild type. the results suggested that se ...200717203509
in vivo humoral and cellular reactions, and fate of injected bacteria aeromonas hydrophila in freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.live non-opsonized and opsonized aeromonas hydrophila were injected into juveniles of freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii to study the cells involved in phagocytosis, distribution of bacteria, cellular reactions and clearance of both forms of bacteria from the system. the bacteria were rapidly distributed to various tissues viz., gills, heart, hepatopancreas within 1h, and the tissues revealed haemocytic nodule formation after 3 h of injection. there was rapid clearance of both the forms ...200717200030
persistence, transmission, and virulence characteristics of aeromonas strains in a duckweed aquaculture-based hospital sewage water recycling plant in bangladesh.the persistence and transmission of aeromonas in a duckweed aquaculture-based hospital sewage water treatment plant in bangladesh was studied. a total of 670 samples from different sites of the hospital sewage water treatment plant, from feces of hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea, from environmental control ponds, and from feces of healthy humans were collected over a period of three years. in total, 1,315 presumptive aeromonas isolates were biochemically typed by the pheneplate rapi ...200717194839
combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. immune and antioxidant effects.goldfish (carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (asdi) at a cumulative concentration of 50microg/l for 12 weeks. control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of immunity and antioxidant defenses. the antioxidant defenses were evaluated in haemopoietic organs and liver. asdi-induced stress was reflected as a si ...200717194491
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water samples in istanbul, turkey.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the resistance patterns of aeromonas spp. in drinking water in istanbul, turkey. we investigated a total of 1,680 drinking water samples (840 tap water and 840 domestic water tank samples) for aeromonas strains between june 2002 and october 2005. a total of 147 aeromonas strains were isolated from 49 (6%) of 840 tap water samples and from 98 (12%) of 840 domestic water tank samples. antibiotic susceptibility of aeromonas strains was deter ...200717191011
culturable and vbnc vibrio cholerae: interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population.vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments. recently, it was found that chironomid (nonbiting midges) egg masses serve as a reservoir for the cholera bacterium and that flying chironomid adults are possible windborne carriers of v. cholerae non-o1 non-o139. chironomids are the most widely distributed insect in freshwater. females deposit egg masses at the water's edge, and each egg mass contains eggs embedded in a gelatinous matrix. hemagglu ...200717186156
synthesis, spectral, catalytic and antimicrobial studies of pph3/asph3 complexes of ru(ii) with dibasic tridentate o, n, s donor ligands.complexes of the type [ru(co)(eph(3))(b)(l)] (e = p or as; b = pph(3), asph(3), py or pip; l=dianion of the schiff bases derived from thiosemicarbazone with acetoacetanilide, acetoacet-o-toluidide and o-chloro acetoacetanilide) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar amounts of [ruhcl(co)(eph(3))(2)(b)] and schiff bases in benzene. the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (ir, electronic, nmr) data. the arrangement of pph(3) groups around ruthenium metal ...200717182271
long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of clarias batrachus.the present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (hk) and ensuing humoral immune responses in clarias batrachus l. long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 microm) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in hk cell number eventually affecting the hk somatic index. prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed hk-b cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels ...200717182119
emerging epidemic diseases of frogs in britain are dependent on the source of ranavirus agent and the route of exposure.a series of transmission studies was conducted to investigate the aetiology, or aetiologies, of emerging fatal epidemic disease syndromes affecting the common frog (rana temporaria) in britain. the syndromes, characterized by skin ulceration or systemic haemorrhages, were induced upon exposure to lesion homogenates or cultured ranavirus. the re-isolation of ranavirus from experimentally affected frogs fulfilled koch's postulates. aeromonas hydrophila, previously associated with similar lesions, ...200717181914
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