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baltic salmon, salmo salar, from swedish river lule älv is more resistant to furunculosis compared to rainbow trout.furunculosis, caused by aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. we hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout.201222276121
synergies of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables.this study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole against bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables using the determination of fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index, time-kill assay in vegetable broth and application in vegetable matrices. their effects, individually and in combination, on the sensory characteristics of the vegetables were also determined. carvacrol and 1,8-cineole displayed minim ...201122273461
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
a small incq type plasmid carrying the quinolone resistance (qnrs2) gene from aeromonas hydrophila.aims:  to investigate the qnrs2 gene encoded by a plasmid obtained from aeromonas hydrophila. methods and results:  to investigate the full length sequence of the plasmid carrying qnrs2 (plasmid designated pahh04) from the strain snufpc-a10, the full length coding sequence of the qnrs region was first amplified. the remaining part of the plasmid was read outwards from this region. the plasmid pahh04 contained the repc, repa, moba and mobc genes and its total size was 7,191 bp with a g + c conten ...201222260532
effects of graded levels of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue on immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian).immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian) fed graded levels of methionine hydroxy analogue (mha) (0, 5.1, 7.6, 10.2, 12.7, 15.3 g kg(-1) diet) for 60 days were investigated. results indicated that head kidney index, spleen index, red and white blood cell counts significantly increased with increasing mha levels up to a point (p < 0.05), whereupon decreased (p < 0.05). glutathione reductase activity in head kidney and spleen, anti-hy ...201222245840
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
an aerolysin-like enterotoxin from vibrio splendidus may be involved in intestinal tract damage and mortalities in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), and cod, gadus morhua l., larvae.vibrio splendidus is a pathogen that can cause major losses during the early stages of larval turbot rearing when live feed (rotifers or artemia) is used. as haemolytic bacteria have often been associated with larval rearing losses, we studied the role of the v. splendidus haemolysin in infection of larvae. from a bank of over 10 000 transposon mutants of v. splendidus, two different types of haemolysin-negative mutants were obtained. both had lost virulence for larval fish, and immunohistochemi ...201222233514
complete genome sequence and characterization of a broad-host range t4-like bacteriophage phias5 infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.in this study, we report one lytic myoviridae bacteriophage (phage) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. the phage (named as phias5) was isolated from environmental river waters in korea, and showed broad infectivity to other bacterial species in the family aeromonadaceae as well as antibiotic-resistant a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains. the biological properties and complete genome of phias5 were simultaneously investigated. the complete genome of phias5 composed of linea ...201122226819
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vibrio, salmonella, and aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in thailand.uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in bangkok, thailand, and were examined for the presence of vibrio, salmonella, and aeromonas species from january to february 2008. from 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of vibrio, salmonella, or aeromonas, leaving on ...201222221354
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in crete.in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
induction of toll-like receptor (tlr) 2, and myd88-dependent tlr- signaling in response to ligand stimulation and bacterial infections in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) is a member of tlr family. it recognizes a wide range of bacteria and their products, and is involved in inducing innate immune responses. in this article, we reported inductive expression of tlr2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. ontogeny analysis of tlr2, myd88 and traf6 (tnf receptor asso ...201122207179
a chitinase from aeromonas veronii cd3 with the potential to control myxozoan disease.the class myxosporea encompasses about 2,400 species, most of which are parasites of fish and cause serious damage in aquaculture. due to the concerns about food safety issues and limited knowledge of myxozoa life cycle and fish immune system, no chemicals, antibiotics or immune modulators are available to control myxozoa infection. therefore, little can be done once myxozoa establishment has occurred.201122205999
evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic ozark hellbender salamanders.investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. however, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. we cultured and i ...201122205979
Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdomin ...201122204074
Detection of a unique fibrinolytic enzyme in Aeromonas sp. JH1.A fibrinolytic enzyme was found in a Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas sp. JH1. SDS-PAGE and fibrinzymography showed that it was a 36 kDa, monomeric protein. Of note, the enzyme was highly specific for fibrinogen molecules and the hydrolysis rate of fibrinogen subunits was highest for a, ß, and ? chains in that order. The first 15 amino acids of N-terminal sequence were X-D-A-T-G-P-G-G-N-V-X-T-G-K-Y, which was distinguishable from other fibrinolytic enzymes. The optimum pH and temperature of th ...201122203567
The Aeromonas dsbA mutation decreased their virulence by triggering type III secretion system but not flagella production.Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Dsb (Disulfide bond) proteins play an important role in catalyzing disulfide bond formation in proteins within the periplasmic space. An A. hydrophila dsbA mutant with attenuated virulence using Dictyostelium amoebae as an alternative host model was identified. The attenuated virulence ...201222198000
Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic bac ...201122196148
Do alternate bacterial indicators and pathogens increase after centrifuge dewatering of anaerobically digested biosolids?The objectives of this research were to evaluate the potential for sudden increase and/or regrowth of alternative bacteria as either indicators or pathogens after dewatering of thermophilic and mesophilically digested biosolids. The results showed that, in general, for thermophilic processes, even when a statistically significant (p < 0.05) sudden increase and regrowth occurred for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci, it did not occur for Salmonella or Aeromonas. For the mesophili ...201122195428
site-specific dota/europium-labeling of recombinant human relaxin-3 for receptor-ligand interaction studies.relaxin-3 (also known as insl7) is a recently identified neuropeptide belonging to the insulin/relaxin superfamily. it has putative roles in the regulation of stress responses, food intake, and reproduction by activation of its cognate g-protein-coupled receptor rxfp3. it also binds and activates the relaxin family peptide receptors rxfp1 and rxfp4 in vitro. to obtain a europium-labeled relaxin-3 as tracer for studying the interaction of these receptors with various ligands, in the present work ...201122187146
The spoilage of air-packaged broiler meat during storage at normal and fluctuating storage temperatures.Bacterial diversity and the major flora present on air-packaged broiler meat during storage at normal (4°C) and fluctuating storage temperatures (0-4°C and 4-10°C) were investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Culture-dependent analysis revealed that the growth of microflora was retarded when broiler meat was stored at lower temperatures (0-4°C). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., ...201222184446
complete genome sequence of tolumonas auensis type strain (ta 4).tolumonas auensis fischer-romero et al. 1996 is currently the only validly named species of the genus tolumonas in the family aeromonadaceae. the strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. this is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but t. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. other than aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hyd ...201122180815
adsorptive removal of silver nanoparticles (snps) from aqueous solution by aeromonas punctata and its adsorption isotherm and kinetics.silver nanoparticles (snps) are being increasingly used in many consumer products and industrial application. the release of snps to the environment is a major concern. here we have studied the adsorptive removal of snps by a snp resistant bacterial species aeromonas punctata, isolated from the sewage environment. the influence of zeta potential on adsorption was investigated at acidic, neutral and alkaline ph and with varying salt (nacl) concentrations. the rate of adsorption and removal of snp ...201122178439
Screening microorganisms for insulin binding reveals binding by Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cenocepacia and novel attachment of insulin to Aeromonas salmonicida via the A-layer.Exposure to microorganisms is considered an environmental factor which can contribute to Type 1 diabetes. Insulin binding proteins on microorganisms may induce production of antibodies which can react with the human insulin receptor (HIR) with possible consequences in developing a diabetic autoimmune response against HIR and insulin. The interaction of insulin with microorganisms was studied by screening forty-five microbial species for their ability to bind insulin. Binding assays were performe ...201122171975
incidence and etiology of omphalitis in pakistan: a community-based cohort study.although omphalitis (umbilical infections) among newborns is common and a major cause of neonatal deaths in developing countries, information on its burden and etiology from community settings is lacking. this study aimed to determine the incidence and etiology of omphalitis in newborns in high neonatal mortality settings in karachi, pakistan.201122169780
Bacterial infections of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to gamete collecting weirs in Michigan.Herein, we describe the prevalence of bacterial infections in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to spawn in two tributaries within the Lake Michigan watershed. Ten bacterial genera, including Renibacterium, Aeromonas, Carnobacterium, Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Salmonella, Shewanella and Morganella, were detected in the kidneys of Chinook salmon (n = 480) using culture, serological and molecular analyses. Among these, Aeromonas salmonicida was detected at ...201222168454
high prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-ib-cr genes in both water-borne environmental bacteria and clinical isolates of citrobacter freundii in china.we investigated the prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-ib-cr genes in water-borne environmental bacteria and in clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae, as well as the subtypes of qnr. environmental bacteria were isolated from surface water samples obtained from 10 different locations in hangzhou city, and clinical isolates of citrobacter freundii were isolated from several hospitals in four cities in china. qnra, qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib-cr genes were screened using pcr, and the genotypes were ana ...201122167061
Bacteriophages with potential for inactivation of fish pathogenic bacteria: survival, host specificity and effect on bacterial community structure.Phage therapy may represent a viable alternative to antibiotics to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. Its use, however, requires the awareness of novel kinetics phenomena not applied to conventional drug treatments. The main objective of this work was to isolate bacteriophages with potential to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria, without major effects on the structure of natural bacterial communities of aquaculture waters. The survival was determined in marine water, through quantification by ...201122163184
Identification of the Midgut Microbiota of An. stephensi and An. maculipennis for Their Application as a Paratransgenic Tool against Malaria.The midgut microbiota associated with Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles maculipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated for development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Here, we present the results of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and biochemical-based approaches to identify the female adult and larvae mosquitoe microbiota of these two major malaria vectors, originated from South Eastern and North of Iran. Plating ...201122163022
Application of artificial photoperiod in fish: a factor that increases susceptibility to infectious diseases?This paper describes and evaluates the mortality associated with the potential stressor effect induced by application of artificial photoperiods in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After application of artificial photoperiods, high mortalities of trout subjected to this management were recorded (36% in LD 14:10 and 25% in LD 24:0) as compared to controls (7%). The recorded signology related to diseased trout included darkening, lethargy and erratic swimming. Among the morphological changes, ...201122160663
Bactericidal activity of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella C9-deficient serum against Aeromonas hydrophila.Neutralizing complement C9 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella sera with rabbit anti-C9 sera against fish complement C9, demonstrated that bactericidal activity against Aeromonas hydrophila of the C9-deficient fish sera was greatly impaired. These results indicated that the fish complement C9 plays a key role in pathogen killing through the lytic pathway.201122141908
preparation and evaluation of oleoyl-carboxymethy-chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles as oral protein carriers.oleoyl-carboxymethy chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles based on chitosan with different molecular weights (50, 170 and 820 kda) were prepared by self-assembled method. the nanoparticles had spherical shape, positive surface charges and the mean diameters were 157.4, 274.1 and 396.7 nm, respectively. fitc-labeled ocmcs nanoparticles were internalized via the intestinal mucosa and observed in liver, spleen, intestine and heart following oral deliverance to carps (cyprinus carpio). extracellular produc ...201122139537
aeromonas diarrhea and behçet's disease: more than a mere association. 201122138675
Structural and Functional Analysis of the Serine Protease from Aeromonas sobria.Aeromonas species are Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria found ubiquitously in a variety of aquatic environments and most commonly implicated as causative agents of gastroenteritis. Sepsis is a fatal complication of Aeromonas infectious diseases, particularly in immune-compromised patients. Two species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, are associated with human disease. Feasible virulence factors of Aeromonas include fimbrial and afimbrial adhesion molecules, hemolysins, ente ...201122129876
novel gene cassettes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from urban wastewaters.in this study, the occurrence and diversity of integrons were evaluated in 697 isolates belonging to enterobacteriaceae and aeromonas spp. isolated from urban wastewaters. screening of integrons was performed by dot blot hybridization and inti-positive strains were further characterized. the global prevalence of integrons was 3.73%. three new gene cassettes were identified: a novel aada variant (aada17), a gene putatively involved in cell signaling (dcya) and an open reading frame of unknown fun ...201122127350
antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolated from clinical and environmental sources to 26 antimicrobial agents.we determined the susceptibility of 144 clinical and 49 environmental aeromonas strains representing 10 different species to 26 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. no single species had a predominantly non-susceptible phenotype. a multi-non-susceptible pattern was observed in three (2.1%) clinical strains and two (4.0%) strains recovered from diseased fish. common clinical strains were more resistant than the corresponding environmental isolates suggesting that resistance mechanism ...201122123695
Class 1 Integrons in Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates from Farmed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica).The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from farmed Nile Tilapia. A total of 50 A. hydrophila isolates from clinical cases were screened for the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and all the strains resistant to enrofloxacin and/or ciprofloxacin (n=19) examined for mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC. The intI1 gene was detected in 23 A. hydrophila strains (46%) but no intl2 and intl3 were ...201122123307
Phenoloxidase in the scallop Chlamys farreri: Purification and antibacterial activity of its reaction products generated in vitro.Phenoloxidase (PO) was purified from hemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri using native-PAGE and gel permeation column chromatography, and then substrate specificity and antibacterial activity generated from reaction products of purified PO were analyzed. The results showed purified PO had a molecular mass of 576 kDa in native-PAGE and 53 kDa in denatured PAGE, and could catalyze the substrates L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, catechol and hydroquinone suggesting it is a type ...201222119576
immunomodulatory effect of withania somnifera supplementation diet in the giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) against aeromonas hydrophila.the effect of withania somnifera extract supplementation diets on innate immune response in giant freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) against aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. the bacterial clearance efficiency significantly increased in prawn fed with 0.1% and 1.0% doses of w. somnifera supplementation diet against pathogen from weeks 1-4 as compared to the control. the innate immune parameters such as, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion level, superoxide dismutase ac ...201222118967
[fatal aeromonas sobria infection in liver cirrhosis].aeromonas sobria infection is known to be very serious in immunocompromised hosts. we report a case of a. sobria infection fatal in a subject with decompensated liver cirrhosis. a 63-year-old man with liver cirrhosis admitted for fever and vomiting developed a necrotizing soft-tissue infection in the right lower leg. despite a decompression incision in the affected limb and intensive care, he died of sepsis one day after surgery. a. sobria was detected afterward in a blood culture.201122117380
complete genomic sequence of a t4-like bacteriophage, phias4, infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.a newly identified virulent phage (named phias4) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated from river water in korea. morphological analysis of phias4 by transmission electron microscopy revealed that it belonged to the family myoviridae. the genome of phias4 comprised a linear double-stranded dna of 163,875 bp with a g + c content of 41.3%, and genomic analysis revealed 271 putative orfs, 67 putative promoters, 25 putative terminator regions, and 16 trna-encoding genes. mo ...201122116495
purification and characterization of enterocin mc13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont enterococcus faecium mc13 isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus.a bacteriocin producer strain mc13 was isolated from the gut of mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as enterococcus faecium. the bacteriocin of e. faecium mc13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (maldi-tof) mass spectro ...201122112158
optimized production of scygonadin in pichia pastoris and analysis of its antimicrobial and antiviral activities.the crab antimicrobial peptide scygonadin is confirmed to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and it is probably associated with the reproductive immunity in scylla paramamosain. to obtain large quantity of scygonadin for further biological assays, a 306bp cdna sequence encoding the mature peptide of scygonadin was cloned into a secretion vector of ppic9k, and a high-level of the recombinant scygonadin was achieved in pichia pastoris. the optimal expression condition was determined as i ...201122108619
the impact of cyanobacteria on growth and death of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e., whether increased occurrence of cyanobacteria and algae may stimulate the growth rate of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. laboratory experiments were performed to investigate if the presence of the cyanobacteria anabanea lemmermannii and microcystis aeruginosa affected the survival and growth rate of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria a ...201122097011
Interactions of bacteria with different mechanisms for chitin degradation result in the formation of a mixed-species biofilm.In this study, interactions between bacteria possessing either released or cell-associated enzymes for polymer degradation were investigated. For this, a co-culture of Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1N as an enzyme-releasing bacterium and of Flavobacterium sp. strain 4D9 as a bacterium with cell-associated enzymes was set up with chitin embedded into agarose beads to account for natural conditions, under which polymers are usually embedded in organic aggregates. In single cultures, strain AH-1N ...201222092834
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (musca domestica l.).house flies (musca domestica l.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. to fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harbored by natural fly populations. this study aimed to identify the diversity of house fly gut bacteria by both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. a total of 102 bacterial strains wer ...201122092755
Development and validation of an HPLC-based screening method to acquire polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase mutants with altered substrate specificity.A rapid and convenient method for the compositional analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and alkaline sample pretreatment in a 96-well plate format. The reliability of this system was confirmed by the fact that a mutant with a D171G mutation of Aeromonas caviae PHA synthase (PhaC(Ac)), which gained higher reactivity toward 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), was selected from the D171X mutant library. Together with D171G mutant, several ...201122088761
inductive expression of toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5) and associated downstream signaling molecules following ligand exposure and bacterial infection in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptors (tlrs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. among various types of tlrs, tlr5 is involved in recognizing bacterial flagellin and after binding, it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this report, we analyzed the expression profile of tlr5 and its associated downstream signaling molecules like myd88 and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) receptor-associated factor (traf) 6 ...201222085689
characterization and functional analyses of r-specific enoyl coenzyme a hydratases in polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing ralstonia eutropha.a genome survey of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha)-producing ralstonia eutropha h16 detected the presence of 16 orthologs of r-specific enoyl coenzyme a (enoyl-coa) hydratase, among which three proteins shared high homologies with the enzyme specific to enoyl-coas of medium chain length encoded by phaj4 from pseudomonas aeruginosa (phaj4(pa)). the recombinant forms of the three proteins, termed phaj4a(re) to phaj4c(re), actually showed enoyl-coa hydratase activity with r specificity, and the catalyti ...201222081565
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis from the Straits of Messina against pathogens relevant in aquaculture.Ethanol extracts of Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic shellfish and fish bacteria previously isolated from local marine and brackish environments. Genetic labelling by DNA barcoding allowed us to identify the algal population as a biogeographical strain conspecific to A. taxiformis. The extract obtained in May showed the broadest antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria, especiall ...201222078751
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
identification of bacterial microflora in the midgut of the larvae and adult of wild caught anopheles stephensi: a step toward finding suitable paratransgenesis candidates.to describe the midgut microbial diversity and to find the candidate bacteria for the genetic manipulation for the generation of paratransgenic anopheline mosquitoes refractory to transmission of malaria, the microbiota of wild larvae and adult anopheles stephensi mosquito midgut from southern iran was studied using a conventional cell-free culture technique and analysis of a 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequence library. forty species in 12 genera including seven gram-negative myroides, chryse ...201222074685
clinical observations of black disease in fairy shrimps, streptocephalus sirindhornae and branchinella thailandensis, from thailand and pathogen verification.in this study, black disease infecting fairy shrimps, streptocephalus sirindhornae sanoamuang, murugan, weekers & dumont, and branchinella thailandensis sanoamuang, saengphan & murugan, in thailand, was investigated. the typical signs of the disease are the appearance of black spots on the cuticle, located mainly on the dorsal side and thoracopods. a number of rod-shaped bacteria aggregated in the black spots and were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. the histopathological results show ...201122074019
[outer membrane nanovesicles of gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas salmonicida ]. 201122073553
the structural diversity of carbohydrate antigens of selected gram-negative marine bacteria.marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. among these biologically active molecules, t ...201122073003
Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then charact ...201122071643
diversity and impact of prokaryotic toxins on aquatic environments: a review.microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. as a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. these t ...201022069558
different clinical characteristics among aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and aeromonas caviae monomicrobial bacteremia.this study aimed to compare the clinical presentations of aeromonas hydrophila, a. veronii biovar sobria and a. caviae monomicrobial bacteremia by a retrospective method at three hospitals in taiwan during an 8-yr period. there were 87 patients with a. hydrophila bacteremia, 45 with a. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia and 22 with a. caviae bacteremia. compared with a. hydrophila and a. veronii biovar sobria bacteremia, a. caviae bacteremia was more healthcare-associated (45 vs 30 and 16%; p = 0. ...201122065896
bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products, as well as control measures.the importance of eschericha coli o157, listeria monocytogenes and salmonella typhimurium dt104 as meat-borne pathogens is well established. pathogenic bacteria such as aeromonas spp., arcobacter spp., psychrotrophic bacillus cereus, campylobacter spp., clostridium botulinum and non-invasive listeria monocytogenes can be regarded as rookies, but not yet firmly associated with today's production of red meat and meat products. the development of pcr and other dna-based techniques will shed new lig ...200222061614
starters in the processing of meat products.starter cultures applied in meat technology may contain moulds, yeasts and bacteria. moulds have been selected with the primary intension to exclude any potential of mycotoxin production. their sensory effects and the requirements of technology are also criteria for suitable starters. their genetic potential can now be modified by genetic engineering. yeasts are applied for sensory reasons mainly. the species in use are only fermentative and do not enhance nitrate reduction. bacterial components ...199422061458
new developments in meat starter cultures.meat starter cultures containing one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria,actinobacteria, staphylococci,halomonas elongata, aeromonas spec., and moulds or yeasts are widely in practical use. the progress in microbial systematic has led to changes in the taxonomy of familiar bacterial species which are described. studies of flavour genesis led to the identification of the contribution of the enzyme activities endogenously present in the meat matrix as well as of those exerted by the starter cu ...199822060705
cloning and expression analysis of the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of nf-κb (mulan) in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).nuclear factor-κb (nf-κb) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a large number of genes including many involved in bacterial and viral infections. nf-κb is normally sequestered by inhibitory proteins (iκbs) in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells. the degradation of iκbs by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway leads to the rapid translocation of nf-κb to the nucleous where it regulates gene transcription. the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase activator of nf-κb, (mulan), is an e3 ubi ...201122056942
Expression of Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene in Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM15050) enables the biosynthesis of SCL-MCL PHA from palm oil products.Aims: Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM15050) isolated from oil-polluted wastewater is capable of utilizing palm oil products and glycerol to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. To confer the ability to produce polymer containing 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), plasmid (pBBREE32d13) harbouring the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae (phaC(Ac) ) was transformed into this strain. Methods and Results: The resulting transformant incorporated approximately 1 ± 0·3 mol% of 3HHx ...201222054430
occurrence of aeromonas spp. in a random sample of drinking water distribution systems in the usa.aeromonads are aquatic bacteria found in drinking water supplies worldwide. some species, such as aeromonas hydrophila, can cause disease in humans. for this survey, 293 united states public water systems were selected using random sampling, stratified by water source and system type. water samples were collected during one year from three sites (six samples per site) in each system. temperature, ph, turbidity, total and free chlorine were measured using standard methods. aeromonads were detecte ...201122048437
virulence genes of aeromonas isolates, bacterial endotoxins and cyanobacterial toxins from recreational water samples associated with human health symptoms.exposure to cyanobacterial water blooms has been associated with various kinds of adverse health effects. in addition to cyanobacteria and their toxins, the bacteria associated with cyanobacteria could also be the etiological agents. we isolated aeromonas strains (n = 176) from water samples (n = 38) taken from sites where cyanobacteria were suspected to have caused human health symptoms, of which fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common. the isolates were screened by pcr for six ...201122048427
QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).Interactions between fish and pathogens, that may be harmless under natural conditions, often result in serious diseases in aquaculture systems. This is especially important due to the fact that the strains used in aquaculture are derived from wild strains that may not have had enough time to adapt to new disease pressures. The turbot is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, produces important losses to turbot industr ...201122047500
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for ...201122041547
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases and antimicrobial resistance in dhaka, bangladesh, 2005-2008.summaryinfectious diarrhoea caused by bacterial pathogens contributes to the high level of mortality in developing countries like bangladesh. following standard bacteriological procedures, a total of 14 428 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 56 132 stool samples and rectal swabs collected from diarrhoeal patients between 2005 and 2008. the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility data were retrospectively analysed for these isolates and among them vibrio spp. (42·9%) were the most ...201122040529
Aeromonas salmonicida-secreted protein AopP is a potent inducer of apoptosis in a mammalian and a Drosophila model.Some pathogens are able to establish themselves within the host because they have evolved mechanisms to disrupt host innate immunity. For example, a number of pathogens secrete preformed effector proteins via type III secretion apparatuses that influence innate immune or apoptotic signalling pathways. One group of effector proteins that usurp innate immune signalling is the YopJ-like family of bacterial effector proteins, which includes AopP from Aeromonas salmonicida. Aeromonas species are know ...201122040305
validation of the h2s method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the h(2)s test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive h(2)s test results. for the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential a ...201122038242
parasitism by protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish.protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich) and bacterium aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish, which cause high fish mortality. currently there is no information available for the effect of parasitism by ich on survival of channel catfish and invasion of a. hydrophila in fish tissues following exposure to a. hydrophila. a trial was conducted in this study to: (1) determine whether a. hydrophila increased fish mortality in ich-parasitized channel catfish; and ( ...201122033433
the effect of metals on condition and pathologies of european eel (anguilla anguilla): in situ and laboratory experiments.forty-nine wild eels (anguilla anguilla) caught in the albufera lake (spain), measuring 24.0-75.0cm in length and 25.0-637.7g in weight, were examined for metals (cd, co, cr, cu, fe, hg, mn, pb, se and zn), condition (ci and hsi indices), as well as for diseases (anguillicola infestation; bacterial infections). total metal load significantly increased in eel liver tissue parallel to total length and body weight (log), while silvering females (w(b)>200g; l≥500mm) exhibited the highest amounts of ...201122030412
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis mimicking vibrio vulnificus infection.aeromonas hydrophila is a facultatively anaerobic, asporogenous gram-negative rod that has often been regarded as an opportunistic pathogen in hosts with impairment of a local or general defense mechanism. a 68-year-old alcoholic woman presented with shock and gangrene on the right arm. at first, her clinical presentations were severe painful erythematous swelling that worsened within a few hours with development of gangrene, edema, and blisters. bullous fluid and blood cultures yielded a. hydro ...201122028565
first description of the qnrs-like (qnrs5) gene and analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions in motile aeromonas spp. from diseased fish and water.antimicrobial resistance patterns in a collection of 33 motile aeromonas species were described in this study. quinolone has been frequently employed for treatment of aeromonas-related diseases, and prolonged use of antimicrobial compounds has led to development of resistant strains. in a sample of diseased fish and environmental water, we evaluated nalidixic acid (n = 19) and ciprofloxacin (n = 4) resistance via minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) assays and the genetic basis was also invest ...201122024339
production of 3-hydroxypropionate homopolymer and poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by recombinant escherichia coli.conversion of 3-hydroxypropionate (3hp) from 1,3-propanediol (pdo) was improved by expressing dehydratase gene (dhat) and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldd) of pseudomonas putida kt2442 under the promoter of phacab operon from ralstonia eutropha h16. expression of these genes in aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 produced up to 21 g/l 3hp in a fermentation process. to synthesize homopolymer poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (p3hp), and copolymer poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) (p3hp4hb), dhat and ...201122024131
transcriptional profiles of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish vaccinated with an attenuated aeromonas hydrophila.a total of 22 uniquely expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive cdna library at 12 h post vaccination with an attenuated aeromonas hydrophila (al09-71 n+r). of the 22 ests, six were confirmed to be significantly (p < 0.05) induced by the vaccination. of 88 channel catfish genes selected from literature, 14 were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated by the vaccination. the transcriptional levels of the total 20 genes induced by the ...201122019831
Secreted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a broad spectrum vaccine candidate against microbial infection in aquaculture.Aims: Subcellullar localizations and cross-immunities of GAPDHs from six common pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture were investigated. Methods and Results: Subcellullar localizations of GAPDHs of Edwardsiella tarda EIB202, Edwardsiella ictaluri ATCC33202, Aeromonas hydrophila LSA34, Vibrio anguillarum MVM425, Vibrio alginolyticus EPGS020401 and Vibrio harveyi VIB647 were analysed with Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry examinations. Immunoprotections of different r ...201222017642
effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian).the present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. this improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (tor) and eif4e-binding protein (4e-bp). a total of 1200 juvenile jian carp, cyprinus carpio var. jian, with an average initial weight of 6·33 (se 0·03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9·8 (control), 12·7, 16·1, 18·5, 21·9 and 24·5 g argini ...201122013925
Bacterial skin flora variation and in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica in brown and rainbow trout.Variations in the number and diversity of bacteria from the skin of brown trout Salmo trutta L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum were surveyed from different rivers and fish farms in northern Spain. In addition to determining bacterial populations in skin samples of healthy fish, bacterial populations were determined from skin lesions (of brown trout only) infected with Saprolegnia parasitica, the causal agent of saprolegniosis. Mean bacterial counts from skin lesions of brown trout ...201122013752
the cphaii protein from aquifex aeolicus exhibits a metal-dependent phosphodiesterase activity.the cphaii protein from the hyperthermophile aquifex aeolicus shows the five conserved motifs of the metallo-β-lactamase (mbl) superfamily and presents 28% identity with the aeromonas hydrophila subclass b2 cpha mbl. the gene encoding cphaii was amplified by pcr from the a. aeolicus genomic dna and overexpressed in escherichia coli using a plex-based expression system. the recombinant cphaii protein was purified by a combination of heating (to denature e. coli proteins) and two steps of immobili ...201222009263
Study of the microbial ecology of wild and aquacultured Tunisian fresh fish.Eighty samples of fresh fish were collected in Tunisia and analyzed for microbial load. Quality and hygienic safety of the meat and intestines of wild and aquacultured fresh fish were determined. The mesophilic aerobic plate count and populations of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and other psychrotrophic bacteria ranged from 5.67 to 7.29, 4.51 to 6, and 5.07 to 6.21 log CFU/g, respectively. For all microbiological determinations, bacterial counts were lower in meat than in the intest ...201122004828
development of an antibody elisa for potency testing of furunculosis (aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida) vaccines in atlantic salmon (salmo salar l).the study was conducted in atlantic salmon to establish the initial and basic scientific documentation for an alternative batch potency test for salmon furuculosis vaccines. we assessed the antibody response development for aeromonas salmonicida vaccines at different immunisation temperatures (3, 12 and 18 °c), by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post vaccination, and the correlation between antibody response and protection in cohabitation challenge experiments p ...201122000732
the two-component qsebc signalling system regulates in vitro and in vivo virulence of aeromonas hydrophila.we recently demonstrated that the n-acyl-homoserine lactone [autoinducer (ai)-1] and luxs (ai-2)-based quorum-sensing (qs) systems exerted positive and negative regulation, respectively, on the virulence of a diarrhoeal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. however, the role of a newly identified, two-component-based qsebc qs system in the regulation of bacterial virulence in general is not well understood, with only a limited number of studies showing its function in bacterial pathogenesis. in t ...201221998161
antibody-coated gold nanoparticles immunoassay for direct detection of aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues.aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a disease that affects both salmonid and non-salmonid fish. detection of a. salmonicida can be labour intensive and time consuming because of the difficulties in distinguishing the bacterium from other species given the wide variety of existing biochemical profiles and the slow growth characteristics which allow other organisms to overgrow the a. salmonicida. herein, we report the development of a specific immunoassay using gold-conju ...201121988356
Quality assessment of roof-harvested rainwater in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority.Rain harvesting is becoming more common in the Palestinian Territories as a result of drinking water scarcity. Although it might pose serious human health risk, this water is being consumed without treatment in many areas of the West Bank. The present study evaluates the physicochemical and microbial quality of harvested rainwater that is used as potable water in the West Bank. Samples from roof-harvested rainwater storage tanks (n = 42) were collected in summer (SS) 2006/winter (WS) 2007. Physi ...201121976199
severe sepsis caused by aeromonas hydrophila in a patient using tocilizumab: a case report.abstract:201121970314
Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase-producing Aeromonas spp. at a medical center in Southern Taiwan.Although extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing aeromonads have been increasingly reported in recent years, most of them were isolates from case reports or environmental isolates. To investigate the prevalence of ESBL producers among Aeromonas blood isolates and the genes encoding ESBLs, consecutive nonduplicate Aeromonas blood isolates collected at a medical center in southern Taiwan from March 2004 to December 2008 were studied. The ESBL phenotypes were examined by clavulanate combinat ...201121968366
[cloning and expression of a outer membrance protein gene(omps(2);) of edwardsiella tarda hb01 and its immunogenicity].to construct a recombinant strain bl21(de3)(pet-28a-omps(2);), and obtain a genetic engineering vaccine to provide protective immunity against diseases caused by edwardsiella tarda.201121968306
a novel in vivo inducible expression system in edwardsiella tarda for potential application in bacterial polyvalence vaccine.recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce the immune response to a carried protective antigen, and the main concern of bacterial vector vaccine is to establish a stable antigen expression system in vector bacteria. edwardsiella tarda is an important facultative intracellular pathogen of both animals and humans, and its attenuated derivates are excellent bacterial vectors for use in recombinant vaccine design. in this study, we design an in vivo inducibl ...201121964456
a putative g protein-coupled receptor involved in innate immune defense of procambarus clarkii against bacterial infection.the immune functions of g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) were widely investigated in mammals. however, limited researches on immune function of gpcrs were reported in invertebrates. in the present study, the immune functions of hp1r gene, a putative gpcr identified from red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii were reported. expression of hp1r gene was significant up-regulated in response to heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila challenge. hp1r gene silencing mediated by rna interference significantly ...201121964155
Over-expression, purification and immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 flagellar proteins.Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and causes many diseases in fish as well as human. Recent outbreaks of aeromonad diseases in channel catfish prompted us to investigate catfish immune responses during infection of A. hydrophila. In this communication, we report to amplify, over-express, purify and characterize 19 A. hydrophila flagellar proteins. All recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of expression plasmids, SDS-PAGE analysis and His ...201121963857
recombinant aexu effector protein of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by downregulation of rac1 and induces direct cytotoxicity to β4-integrin expressing cell lines.aexu is a type three secretion system (ttss) effector of aeromonas hydrophila which has an in vitro adp-ribosyltransferase (art) and gtpase-activating protein (gap) activities on rac1, rhoa and cdc42. here we show that, aexu of aeromonas veronii bv. sobria aeg1 strain disrupts actin cytoskeleton of hela cells during aeg1 infection, aexu transfection or direct application of aexu protein. such cellular disruption was rescued by either inactivation of aexu-gap activity by substitution of arginine ...201121963679
Molecular detection and cloning of thermostable hemolysin gene from Aeromonas hydrophila.Aeromonas hydrophila is a major bacterial pathogen associated with hemorrhagic septicemia in aquatic and terrestrial animals including humans. There is an urgent need to develop molecular and immunological assays for rapid, specific and sensitive diagnosis. A new set of primers has been designed for detection of thermostable hemolysin (TH) gene (645 bp) from A. hydrophila, and sensitivity limit for detection of TH gene was 5 pg. The TH gene was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The G+C content was ...201121954591
Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a potential environmental vector for the transmission of food-borne and opportunistic pathogens.The endosymbiotic relationship could represent for many bacteria an important condition favouring their spread in the environment and in foods. For this purpose we studied the behaviour of some food-borne and opportunistic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica) when internalized in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Our results confirm the capability of the bacteria tested to gr ...201121953544
culture-based and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the bacterial community structure from the intestinal tracts of earthworms(eisenia fetida).the bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and - independent approaches. in total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. aerobic bacteria were classified as aeromonas (40%), bacillus (37%), photobacterium (10%), pseudomonas (7%), and shewanella (6%). anaerobic bacteria were classified as aeromonas (52%), bacillus (27%), shewanella (12%), paeni ...201121952364
isolation and partial characterization of a virulent bacteriophage ihq1 specific for aeromonas punctata from stream water.aeromonas punctata is the causative agent of septicemia, diarrhea, wound infections, meningitis, peritonitis, and infections of the joints, bones and eyes. bacteriophages are often considered alternative agents for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. in this study, we described the isolation and preliminary characterization of bacteriophage ihq1 (family myoviridae) active against the gram-negative bacterial strain a. punctata. this virulent bacteriophage was isolated from stream w ...201121947462
opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.household water in oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of muscat. the tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (grp), polyethylene or galvanised iron (gi). heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal colifor ...201121942202
Effective cohorting and "superisolation" in a single intensive care unit in response to an outbreak of diverse multi-drug-resistant organisms.Cohorting patients in dedicated hospital wards or wings during infection outbreaks reduces transmission of organisms, yet frequently, this may not be feasible because of inadequate capacity, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that cohorting isolation patients in one geographic location in a single ICU and using enhanced isolation procedures ("superisolation") can prevent the further spread of highly multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO).201121936667
virulence of aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish ictaluras punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products.we investigated the virulence of three 2009 west alabama isolates of aeromonas hydrophila (al09-71, al09-72 and al09-73) to channel catfish ictalurus punctatus fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3 g) in the presence and absence of extracellular products (ecps) from overnight bacterial culture using both bath immersion and intraperitoneal injection routes. at a concentration of 1.65 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) ml(-1), al09-73 without its ecps killed 100% of the catfish fingerlings within 2 h by bath i ...201121932532
structural determination of the o-specific polysaccharide from aeromonas hydrophila strain a19 (serogroup o:14) with s-layer.bacteria belonging to the genus aeromonas are gram-negative mesophilic and essentially ubiquitous in the microbial biosphere; moreover they are considered very important pathogens in fish and responsible for a great variety of human infections. the virulence of gram-negative bacteria is often associated with the structure of lipopolysaccharides, which consist of three regions covalently linked: the glycolipid (lipid a), the oligosaccharide region (core region) and the o-specific polysaccharide ( ...201121920513
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