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mechanistic studies of two amino acid racemases of broad substrate specificity from pseudomonas striata and aeromonas caviae.the conversion of l-[alpha-2h]alanine in h2o and unlabeled l-alanine in 2h2o into d-alanine, under nearly irreversible conditions, with the amino acid racemase from pseudomonas striata showed significant internal transfer of the alpha-hydrogen. this result has been interpreted as being indicative of a single base mechanism for the racemization. the relative rates of deuterium incorporation into unlabeled d- and l-methionine by the two amino acid racemases of broad substrate specificity from p. s ...19911920082
major diseases of striped bass and redfish.diseases of striped bass, their hybrids, and redfish (red drum) are important constraints to the culture of these two species. since striped bass have been cultured for years the organisms that cause most diseases of these fish are well known, but very little specific disease information exists for redfish. however, it appears that the organisms that cause diseases of striped bass and redfish do not differ greatly from those of other fishes. the most significant viral disease is lymphocystis, bu ...19911926745
enrofloxacin in salmonids. 19911926748
gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of cellular fatty acid methyl esters in aeromonas species.the cellular fatty acids of 39 strains belonging to the genus aeromonas (aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas media, aeromonas schubertii, aeromonas veronii) were determined by high resolution gas-liquid chromatography. the fatty acid profiles were characterized by major amounts (60% or more) of one saturated (hexadecanoic acid = 16:0) and two unsaturated (hexadecenoic acid = 16:1 and octadecenoic acid = 18:1) acids. while the majority of the strains of the six spe ...19911930556
multilocus enzyme analysis of the genus aeromonas and its use for species identification.a total of 153 aeromonas strains were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. all 11 genetic loci were polymorphic with three to 14 alleles per locus (average 6.55). the genetic diversity of each locus varied between 0.095 for indophenol oxidase and 0.881 for the fast variety of malic enzyme. cluster analysis of the 122 enzyme types revealed a good correlation with taxonomic groupings as determined by dna-dna hybridization. in conjunction with biochemical analysis, as few as two enzymes m ...19911930563
susceptibilities of motile aeromonas sp. to antimicrobial agents.resistance to antimicrobial agents of 106 isolates of motile aeromonas sp. was characterized. the results indicated that in vitro susceptibilities among the three species of the motile aeromonas sp. were similar, and only the distribution of susceptibility to cephalothin was different. the percentage of resistance of a. sobria strains was lower than the percentage of the resistant strains of a. hydrophila and a. caviae. all of the isolates were susceptible to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tobramyci ...19911930569
[aeromonas spp. isolated from human feces. species and pathogenicity factors].the role of aeromonas genus as a primary intestinal pathogen is still a matter of controversy. we have studied the isolation of aeromonas spp. from human stools samples, looking for the production of pathogenic factors and its relationship with different species. from a total of 471 strains isolated, 241 were a. caviae, 127 a. sobria, 89 a. hydrophila and 14 non-typable strains. the pathogenic factors production was studied in a bacteria-free filtrate from a 18 hours trypticase-soy broth culture ...19911932239
[bacteremia of biliary origin caused by aeromonas caviae in a healthy patient]. 19911932258
induction of the alka gene of escherichia coli in gram-negative bacteria.a broad-host-range plasmid containing a fusion of the alka and lacz genes of escherichia coli was introduced into various aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacteria--33 species belonging to 19 genera--to study the induction of expression of the alka gene by alkylating agents. the bacteria included species of the families enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonadaceae, rhizobiaceae, vibrionaceae, neisseriaceae, rhodospirillaceae, and azotobacteraceae. results obtained show that all bacteria tested, exc ...19911938974
a positive fever response in agama agama and sceloporus orcutti (reptilia: agamidae and iguanidae).three species of lizards (agama agama, mabuya perrotetii, and sceloporus orcutti) were tested for a possible increase in mean selected body temperature (msbt) in response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed aeromonas sobria, a gram-negative bacterium known to be pathogenic to reptiles. a paired experimental design was utilized in which each animal was given an injection of sterile saline and 1.10(10) a. sobria. body temperatures were monitored via indwelling cloacal thermocouples at 4 ...19911939744
intestinal secretory immune response to infection with aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides among students from the united states in mexico.intestinal secretory iga (siga) response or lack of response among adults in mexico with diarrhea was used as an indicator of enteropathogenicity of aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides. siga was extracted from stool specimens obtained at day of presentation and 5 days later. total siga was standardized, and specific siga titer against the organism being shed by each patient was determined. western blotting was used to determine which microbial antigens elicited an intestinal siga resp ...19911940478
in vitro invasion of aeromonas spp. to hep-2 tissue culture cells. 19911950848
enteric infections associated with exposure to animals or animal products.the epidemiology and clinical presentation of enteric infections are discussed in this article. these include bacterial, viral, and parasitic illnesses, and are associated with the increasing popularity of drinking unpasteurized milk; eating raw fish and shellfish; consuming undercooked pork, poultry, and eggs; and having contact with pets. salmonella, campylobacter jejuni, vibrio, yersinia, aeromonas, edwardsiella, hepatitis a virus, norwalk virus, anisakis, eustrongylides, diphyllobothrium, na ...19911955706
the role of lipopolysaccharide in complement-killing of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34.the role of lipopolysaccharide (lps) in the susceptibility of aeromonas hydrophila strains of serotype o:34 to non-immune human serum was investigated using isogenic mutants (serum-sensitive), previously obtained on the basis of phage resistance, and characterized for their surface components. the classical complement pathway was found to be principally involved in the serum-killing of these sensitive strains. lps preparations from serum-resistant or serum-sensitive strains, or purified core oli ...19911955853
the etiology of childhood diarrhea in northern coastal peru: the 1989 fuerzas unidas humanitarian civic action--a model for international and interservice cooperation, community service, and scientific opportunity.as a humanitarian civic action project, american and peruvian military medical personnel established a temporary clinic in dos palos, peru. fecal specimens from 20 diarrheic children and 10 non-diarrheic controls were tested for common agents of diarrhea. enteropathogens detected in diarrheic stools were enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec; 30%), aeromonas (20%), enteropathogenic e. coli (15%), and campylobacter (15%). isolates from control specimens were aeromonas (10%) and campylobacter (10 ...19911956529
enumeration of aeromonas hydrophila from domestic wastewater treatment plants and surface waters.influents, effluents and sludges from sewage purification plants and surface water samples were examined quantitatively for aeromonas hydrophila on the ma medium of rippey and cabelli. between 10(4) and 10(6)/ml a. hydrophila were found in domestic wastewaters. on the average 99.975% were removed by activated sludge and 98.25% by trickling filters. only 20.9% of a. hydrophila end up in the primary sludge, which contained up to 10(7)/g dry sludge. after 3 months, anaerobically (methane) fermented ...19911960113
an extracellular acetylcholinesterase produced by aeromonas hydrophila is a major lethal toxin for fish.a hitherto unrecognised lethal toxin from the extracellular products (ecp) of aeromonas hydrophila is described. the pure toxin was 300 times more toxic than the crude ecp and is the most toxic substance so far described from this bacterium, with a minimum lethal dose of 0.05 micrograms g-1 fish. the toxin had high acetylcholinesterase activity and occurred in native ecp as a monomeric 15.5 kda polypeptide. the purified toxin had five isoelectric focusing forms ranging from pl 4.45 to 4.70. the ...19911961106
surface-disorganized, attenuated mutants of aeromonas salmonicida as furunculosis live vaccines.a slow-growing, aminoglycoside-resistant mutant and a rapidly-growing pseudo-revertant were isolated from aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of salmonid furunculosis. these mutants continued to elicit a variety of classical virulence factors associated with a. salmonicida pathogenesis. they differed morphologically from the wild-type and from one another with respect to a-layer organization, membrane antagonist sensitivity and particularly to aerobic metabolism. both mutants were drastic ...19911961112
the etiology of diarrhea among american adults living in peru.during 1984-1989, 655 diarrheic and 287 nondiarrheic stool specimens from adult u.s. citizens living in lima, peru were tested for presence of bacterial enteropathogens. frequencies of isolation among diarrheic specimens were: shigella 9.8%; campylobacter 6.1%; enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) 6.0%; plesiomonas 2.0%; salmonella 1.4%; and vibrio 0.6%. isolates recovered from non-diarrheic stools were: shigella 4.5%; campylobacter 2.1%; salmonella 1.0%; etec 0.7%; plesiomonas 0.7%; and vibr ...19911961431
pili of aeromonas hydrophila: purification, characterization, and biological role.aeromonas hydrophila (ae6) has 2 morphologically distinctive kinds of pili. one appeared rigid, channeled, and straight with a diameter of 9 nm (ae6-r pili). the other looked flexible, wavy, and having helical structure with a diameter of 7 nm (ae6-w pili). ae6-r pili were purified and characterized. the pili consisted of a subunit protein with a molecular weight of 18 kda as estimated by sds-page, and contained 42.3% hydrophobic amino acids and one cysteine residue. the pilus was solubilized to ...19901971705
the pili of aeromonas hydrophila: identification of an environmentally regulated "mini pilin".ultrastructural studies of aeromonas hydrophila strain ah26 revealed two distinctive pilus types: "straight" pili appear as brittle, rod-like filaments, whereas "flexible" pili are supple and curvilinear. straight pili are produced constitutively under all tested conditions of growth. in contrast, the expression of flexible pili is regulated by physical and chemical variables, being produced at 22 vs. 37 degrees c, in a liquid vs. a solid medium, and when the availability of free-iron is reduced ...19901974915
effect of bacterial pyrogen on three lizard species.1. three lizard species (callopistes maculatus, gerrhosaurus major, and varanus exanthematicus) were tested for their response to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol-killed aeromonas sobria. 2. a paired experimental design, in which each animal received an injection of sterile saline and 1 x 10(10) a. sobria, was utilized. 3. c. maculatus demonstrated a statistically significant increase in mean selected body temperature (msbt) after bacteria injection. 4. g. major and v. exanthematicus did not ...19901976479
[a membrane-bound alanine aminopeptidase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 3. inhibition of the enzyme].the alanine aminopeptidase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus is inhibited by sh-reagents like p-hydroxymercuribenzote, ellman's reagent, n-bromosuccinimide, and metal chelating agents like 1,10-phenanthroline. the aap is competitively inhibited by l-amino acids such as leucine, phenylalanine, and valine having hydrophobic side chains. bacitracin (ki = 2.0.10(-6) mol/l) inhibits aap stronger than puromycin (ki = 8.0.10(-6) mol/l). in contrast, the aeromonas aminopeptidase (ec 3.4.11.10) is stronge ...19901980190
pili of an aeromonas hydrophila strain as a possible colonization factor.aeromonas hydrophila ae6 had 2 morphologically distinctive kinds of pili. one appeared rigid and straight with a diameter of 9 nm (r-pili). the other appeared wavy and flexible with a diameter of 7 nm (w-pili). w-pili were very few on the cell as compared with r-pili. in this study, w-pili were purified and characterized. the pili consisted of a subunit protein with a molecular weight of 21 kda as estimated by sds-page. there was no immunological cross-reaction between w-pili and other cellular ...19901982552
studies on the reaction mechanism of a microbial lipase/acyltransferase using chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis.aeromonas hydrophila releases a protein which is a member of the lipase superfamily, similar in reaction mechanism to the important mammalian plasma enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. we have used chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis of the protein to identify amino acids which may be involved in catalysis. the enzyme was unaffected by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but it was almost completely inhibited by another serine-reactive compound, diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphat ...19911985976
aeromonas hydrophila diarrhea. 19911991958
description and evaluation of the semiautomated 4-hour atb 32e method for identification of members of the family enterobacteriaceae.a study was performed to compare the rapid identification system atb 32e (api-biomérieux sa, la balme-les-grottes, france) with conventional biochemical methods for identifying 414 isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae and the genus aeromonas, mainly of clinical origin. overall, 395 strains (95.4%) were correctly identified, with 48 (11.6%) requiring extra tests for complete identification. ten strains (2.4%) were not identified, and nine (2.9%) were misidentified. the atb 32e is a suitable ...19911993747
etiology of childhood diarrhea in beijing, china.to determine the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in china, 221 children with diarrhea and 108 controls seen at the beijing children's hospital were studied during april and may 1989. stools were examined for ova, parasites, and rotavirus, cultured for bacterial pathogens, and probed for enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), and enteropathogenic adherence factor-positive (eaf+) e. coli. pathogens ...19911993771
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli of serotypes o157:h7 and o26:h11.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4e8c12) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7 and o26:h11 was produced by immunizing balb/c mice with a rough strain of e. coli o157:h7. the antibody reacted strongly by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with each of 36 strains of e. coli o157:h7. no cross-reactivity was observed with strains of salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, shigella dysenteriae, proteus spp., escherichia hermanii, klebsiella pneumoniae, campylobacter jejuni, serratia marcescens, c ...19911993773
aeromonas hydrophilia infection complicating digital replantation and revascularization. 19911995683
freeze-substitution of gram-negative eubacteria: general cell morphology and envelope profiles.freeze-substitution was performed on strains of escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, campylobacter fetus, vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, pseudomonas putida, aeromonas salmonicida, proteus mirabilis, haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, caulobacter crescentus, and leptothrix discophora with a substitution medium composed of 2% osmium tetroxide and 2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone. a thick periplasmic gel ranging from 10.6 to 14.3 nm in width was displayed in e. coli k-12, k30, and hi ...19911999383
effect of paracrystalline protein surface layers on predation by bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.we determined that paracrystalline protein surface arrays (s layers) protected gram-negative eubacteria from predation by bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. aquaspirillum serpens vha and mw5 and aquaspirillum sinuosum were resistant to predation by b. bacteriovorus 6-5-s when fully covered by their s layers. the s layer of aeromonas salmonicida a449 protected the cells from predication by b. bacteriovorus 109j. a predacious, plaque-forming vibrio that lysed an s-layer- variant of caulobacter crescentus ...19912007549
aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis after consumption of contaminated shrimp. 19912009882
biochemical and genetic characterization of autoagglutinating phenotypes of aeromonas species associated with invasive and noninvasive disease.the genetic characteristics and biochemical and structural properties of a number of autoagglutinating (aa) strains of aeromonas associated with invasive and noninvasive disease in humans and infections in animals and from environmental sources were investigated. of 27 strains analyzed by multilocus enzyme typing and dna hybridization studies, 25 (93%) were confirmed to belong to either hybridization group 1 (phenospecies and genospecies aeromonas hydrophila) or 8 (phenospecies aeromonas sobria; ...19912010642
sgap-10c agar for the isolation and quantification of aeromonas from water.glutamate starch penicillin (gsp) medium was used for the simultaneous isolation of pseudomonas and aeromonas. modifications to reduce the number of pseudomonas and background flora and to improve the recovery of aeromonas from water samples are described. the original medium was modified by adding glucose and ampicillin. the addition of 10 micrograms/l of c-glucose to the medium (sgap-10c) permitted better recuperation of stressed cells of aeromonads and the ampicillin reduced the numbers of ps ...19912016212
a membrane filter procedure for assaying cytotoxic activity in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water.cytotoxic activity assays of gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. the objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. water samples were passed through 0.45 microns membrane filters which were then placed upon appropriate media incubated. after incubation, each membrane filter was transferred to the surface of y-1 mouse adrenal cells overla ...19912016213
furunculosis in wrasse. 19912017848
comparative study of extracellular matrix protein binding to aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish and human infection.binding of 125i-labelled types i and iv collagen, fibronectin and laminin to aeromonas cells is a common characteristic among aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish and human infections. the proportion of aeromonas strains which bind to the various proteins were significantly greater for a. hydrophila than for a. sobria or a. caviae. the binding property was specific since it was inhibited by unlabelled homologous proteins. bacterial cells incubated with proteolytic enzymes lose the abili ...19912030645
aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies dna group 9 a. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.a large numerical taxonomy study conducted in 1988 of 165 mostly clinical aeromonas strains from diverse geographic sources produced a cluster (s = 84%, ssm) of four sucrose-negative strains that included the dna definition strain for dna group 9 a. sobria (cdc 0787-80). these four strains, together with five additional strains received in 1989, were subjected to dna-dna hybridization (hydroxyapatite, 32p, 60 and 75 degrees c), and all eight strains were closely related to the ninth labeled dna ...19912037673
aeromonas jandaei and aeromonas veronii dual infection of a human wound following aquatic exposure.exudate removed from an infection that developed below the left eye of a 10-year-old male following a previously inflicted wound after aquatic exposure was cultured and revealed two different aeromonas spp. further characterization showed that one strain was phenotypically identical to aeromonas veronii, while the other strain was confirmed by dna hybridization analysis to be aeromonas jandaei sp. nov. this is the first report of these more recently described aeromonads, thus far rarely reported ...19912037674
genetic variation in related cytolytic toxins produced by different species of aeromonas.comparative analyses were performed at the immunological, biological, and genetic level to establish the degree of relatedness of a group of four cytotoxic enterotoxins and aerolysins produced by different isolates of aeromonas: ssu [16], ah1 [13], ah2 [18], and ah65 [21]. results obtained from western blot analysis, neutralization studies, and southern blot analysis indicated that although the members of this group of toxins displayed structural similarities they also differed from each other a ...19912040431
opsonizing activity of anti-aeromonas salmonicida antibodies after inactivation of complement in rainbow trout.young rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with killed aeromonas salmonicida, bled 5 wk later, and tested for the presence of serum agglutinins. the positive antisera were pooled and fractionated in a ultrogel aca 34 column. seven fractions were collected and concentrated. the higher agglutinin titres were found in the 2nd fraction, which also contained igm revealed by immunoelectrophoresis. the 7 fractions were heated for 30 min at 45 degrees c to inactivate the complement system, ...19912042906
action of a microbial lipase/acyltransferase on phospholipid monolayers.vibrio species release a lipase which shares many properties with mammalian lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. we have studied the action of the enzyme on phospholipid monolayers. at similar surface pressures, reaction velocities were higher with monolayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine than with the corresponding phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylethanolamine. the dependence of reaction velocity on molecular density was very similar for phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine mo ...19912043645
aeromonas update: new species and global distribution.there are currently eight proposed or validated aeromonas spp. of which five have been implicated in human disease: a. hydrophila, a. sobria, a. caviae, a. veronii, and a. schubertii. recent studies have extended the geographic distribution and source of isolation of the newer species and resulted in the possibility of two new species, a. jandaei and a. trota, from diarrheal, wound, blood and environmental sources.19912044682
the taxonomy and nomenclature of the psychrotrophic aeromonads.following the introduction of the dna hybridization technique several genotypes have been separated from the older phenotypically described aeromonas species. work has been undertaken on some arbutin-negative psychrotrophic aeromonas strains. these were differentiated into three genotypically and phenotypically identifiable groups. one group (i) is genetically related to a. sobria (type 208). the two other groups (ii and j) can be separated genotypically and phenotypically from the a. sobria, a. ...19912044683
media and methods for isolation of aeromonads from fecal specimens. a multilaboratory study.an international multilaboratory study was conducted to establish the optimal combination of culture media, incubation time and temperature for recovery of aeromonads from stools using blood ampicillin (10 mg/l) agar (baa), starch ampicillin (10 mg/l) agar (saa), and cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin agar (cin) with alkaline peptone water (apw) for enrichment. optimal recovery of aeromonads (167/186) occurred using baa (37 degrees c; 24 h) and cin (25 degrees c; 48 h) with apw (25 degrees c; 24 h) s ...19912044684
form and functions of the regular surface array (s-layer) of aeromonas salmonicida.the principal virulence factor of aeromonas salmonicida is its s-layer (a-layer) which is comprised of tetragonally arrayed approximately 50,000 mr protein subunits tethered to the cell surface via lps. the detailed composition of its lps is known, as is the primary sequence, and three-dimensional disposition of the a protein subunits. the a-layer physically protects the cell against bacteriophage, proteases, as well as immune and non-immune complement. the a-layer appears to be uniquely adapted ...19912044685
new lectins and other putative adhesins in aeromonas hydrophila.the ability of strains of aeromonas hydrophila to bind 125i-labelled collagen types i and iv, fibronectin, laminin, lactoferrin, and immobilized mucins and orosomucoid on latex beads was found to be a property common to all the isolated strains. the binding was specific, was inhibited by homologous unlabelled glycoproteins, and was protease sensitive. the nature of the binding is discussed.19912044686
secretion and mechanism of action of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin.aeromonas hydrophila exports aerolysin as a protoxin which is activated by proteolysis after release. aerolysin binds to the eucaryotic cell receptor glycophorin and oligomerizes, forming holes in the membrane. important regions of the molecule have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis, and channel formation has been studied in planar lipid bilayers.19912044687
studies on aerolysin and a serine protease from aeromonas trota sp. nov.hybridization of 257 mesophilic aeromonads revealed that the aerolysin gene is present in virtually all strains irrespective of origin of isolation. a probe comprising the promotor region was specific for a species now defined as aeromonas trota sp. nov. finally, isolation of a serine protease that is concomitantly expressed with aerolysin is described.19912044688
application of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detection of the aerolysin gene in whole cell cultures of beta-hemolytic aeromonas hydrophila.oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction protocol to detect the aerolysin gene in aeromonas hydrophila. primers detected template dna in hemolytic, cytotoxic and enterotoxic strains of a. hydrophila and no amplification was detected with hemolytic a. sobria, non-hemolytic a. hydrophila and a. caviae strains.19912044689
review of aeromonas enterotoxins.this report reviews the work of other investigators regarding aeromonas toxins and describes work conducted in our laboratory relating to the biochemical characterization of a cytolytic factor with an antigenic moiety that cross-reacts with cholera toxin (referred to as ctc-cytolysin), as well as the purification and partial characterization of a non-ctc enterotoxin. these two toxins were produced by aeromonas hydrophila, isolate ssu, and are capable of causing fluid accumulation in animal model ...19912044690
re-examination of rattus norvegicus as an animal model for aeromonas-associated enteritis in man.we have developed an oral feeding model for aeromonas hydrophila enteritis using rattus norvegicus with clindamycin pretreatment. all animals in the clindamycin group developed a self-limited, loose stool by day four of feeding. intestinal examination revealed evidence of enteritis. moreover, antibiotic usage may be a predisposing risk factor to infection.19912044691
the phenomenon of toxin secretion by vibrios and aeromonads.vibrio and aeromonas species have a remarkable ability to secrete extracellular proteins, including toxins, haemagglutinins and other virulence factors. here we discuss the pathways and potential mechanisms of toxin secretion through the double-membraned envelopes which surround these organisms.19912044692
bacteriological and clinical aspects of aeromonas-associated diarrhea in the netherlands.aeromonas species were isolated from 0.61% of 34,311 fecal samples during a 5-year period. most strains belonged to dna hybridization groups (hg) 4 (a. caviae), 8 (a. sobria), and 1 (a. hydrophila). mannitol-negative a. schubertii (hg 12) and ornithine-positive a. veronii (hg 10) were not found. multivariate analysis of the clinical data showed that aeromonas-associated diarrhea cannot be attributed solely to cytotoxin production of the strains, but that it is also strongly associated with host ...19912044693
aeromonas caviae: ecologic adaptation in the intestinal tract of infants coupled to adherence and enterotoxin production as factors in enteropathogenicity.aeromonas caviae isolated from stools of diarrheic formula-fed infants and environmental sources produce acetic acid when grown in glucose broth, which is bactericidal (suicide phenomenon). a. caviae grows anaerobically in a minimal medium or under permissive conditions such as the intestinal tract of formula-fed infants. these isolates adhered to hep-2 cells and produced a cytotoxic and a cytotonic enterotoxin which underscore their enteropathogenicity.19912044694
spectrum of aeromonas and plesiomonas infections in patients with cancer and aids.the spectrum of infection with aeromonas and plesiomonas included gastroenteritis, bacteremia, biliary tract infection, perirectal infection, and disseminated disease. most patients (86%) with bacteremia were neutropenic (less than 500 pmn/mm3). colonization of stools and sputum also occurred. therapy with aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and the newer quinolones was effective in patients with aids and cancer.19912044695
the role of motile aeromonads in the fish disease, ulcerative disease syndrome (uds).ulcerative disease syndrome (uds) is an epizootic fish disease characterized by the presence of severe, open dermal ulcers on the head, midbody, and dorsal regions of the fish. aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria were recovered more often from uds fish than other bacteria from the genera vibrio, alteromonas and plesiomonas. representative isolates of a. hydrophila, a. sobria, v. anguillarum, v. vulnificus, alteromonas putrefaciens, and p. shigelloides taken from uds and healthy fish were assayed ...19912044697
nutritional requirements of aeromonads and their multiplication in drinking water.aeromonads can utilize a wide range of low molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, carbohydrates and long-chain fatty acids at a concentration of a few micrograms per liter. utilization of biopolymers such as gelatin, casein and amylose is slow at this concentration level. the concentration of substrates available for an a. hydrophila strain in drinking water was usually below 10 micrograms of c/l. the autochthonous bacteria utilized these substrates more rapidly than the aeromonads. ...19912044698
pore-forming cytolysins of gram-negative bacteria.a great deal is known about the structure, function and metabolic effects of enzymatic bacterial toxins such as the diphtheria, pertussis and cholera toxins. by comparison, our understanding of the pore-forming, cytolytic toxins, particularly those produced by gram-negative bacterial pathogens, is far less complete. the genetics and biochemistry of a large, newly discovered family of calcium-dependent, pore-forming cytotoxins (rtx toxins) produced by different genera of the enterobacteriaceae an ...19912046545
experimental evidence for toxin production by aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria in a meat extract at low temperatures.the ability of enterotoxigenic strains of aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria to produce exotoxins (enterotoxin and haemolysin) in a meat extract at low temperatures (5 and 12 degrees c) was investigated. all three strains incubated at 12 degrees c were enterotoxigenic and haemolytic in the meat extract after 5 days. at 5 degrees c, five of the six strains tested were able to produce these exotoxins after 8 days incubation while one strain was neither enterotoxigenic nor haemolytic after 5 ...19912049284
antibacterial activity of eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: iii--relationship within the polymorphic hemolysins.the antibacterial activity exhibited by 10 different hemolytic, genetic families was established by measuring the inhibition of spontaneous in vitro growth by cell-free coelomic fluid toward 2 bacteria which are pathogenic for the earthworm: bacillus megaterium (gram +) and aeromonas hydrophila (gram -). only two families (b and k) displayed potent inhibitory activities. this finding is consistent with the fact that the b family occurs most frequently in both natural as well as in industrial bre ...19912050244
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) analogues, the inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway.metabolic and antiproliferative effects of methylglyoxal bis(butylamidinohydrazone) (mgbb) and methylglyoxal bis(cyclopentylamidinohydrazone) (mgbcp), inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway, on escherichia coli, shigella sonnei, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio cholerae were investigated. mgbb at the concentration of 100 mumol/l depleted intracellular putrescine and spermidine concentrations of e. coli to 25 and 20% of the controls, respectively, while mgbcp depressed the ...19912055790
cellular fatty acid composition of plesiomonas shigelloides.the cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides and 5 strains of aeromonas hydrophila were studied. the cellular fatty acid compositions of all the plesiomonas strains were identical and characterized by the presence of hexadecanoate (16:0) (33%), hexadecenoate (16:1) (28%), octadecenoate (18:1) (9%), and octadecanoate (18:0) (6%). the cellular fatty acid composition of a. hydrophila was similar to that of the plesiomonas strains, except that the former contained a ...19912056045
aeromonas spp. and their association with human diarrheal disease.between january 1988 and december 1989 aeromonas species were isolated from 45 (1.8%) of 2,480 patients with acute gastroenteritis. no other bacterial enteric pathogens were found in any of these 45 patients. of the 45 aeromonas isolates, 35 strains (77.8%) were aeromonas hydrophila, 7 (15.5%) were aeromonas sobria, and 3 (6.7%) were aeromonas caviae. most of the patients were under 5 years of age. no bacterial enteric pathogens, including aeromonas species, were isolated from 512 age- and sex-m ...19912056050
exotoxin profiles of clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.eighty-six clinical isolates of aeromonas hydrophila were studied for their ability to produce four exotoxins: a haemolysin active against rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxin and enterotoxin detectable with vero cell cultures, and the cholera toxin-like factor detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. at least one exotoxin was produced by 80% of enteric and 96% of non-enteric isolates. the exotoxin profiles of non-enteric isolates were more restricted than those of enteric isolates, with haem ...19912056519
[liver abscess caused by aeromonas hydrophila].because of the rare incidence of liver abscess in childhood and of extremely rare observed aeromonas hydrophila as pathogen of such a disease we report on a 14 7/12 year old girl with a liver abscess. for the last 4 years she had to be enrolled in chronic hemodialysis. the treatment comprised opening of the abscess cavity and drainage, and antibiotic therapy with cefotiam. we were unable to isolate aeromonas hydrophila in the environment of the hemodialysis center. some aspects of clinical impor ...19912056675
further study on polyamine compositions in vibrionaceae.it has previously been reported that norspermidine, one of the unusual polyamines, is present in vibrio species. to expand this observation, the cellular polyamine compositions of additional species and strains in the family vibrionaceae (vibrio, photobacterium, listonella, and shewanella) as well as aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides, which have been proposed to be excluded from vibrionacea, were determined by using gas-liquid chromatography. some vibrio species previously reported ...19912059921
effect of lernaea cyprinacea (crustacea: copepoda) on stocked rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).prevalence, intensity and pathogenesis of lernaea cyprinacea (anchorworm) in stocked rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were monitored annually for 4 yr (1981 to 1984) in east canyon reservoir, utah (usa). anchorworms were first detected in midsummer each year and were most abundant in the fall. the mean parasite intensity was highest in october 1982 (19 anchorworms per fish); in other years, maximum density was 7 to 9. the dorsal and caudal areas of the fish were the most heavily p ...19912067042
haemolysin occurrence among aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae and aeromonas sobria strains isolated from different aquatic ecosystems.a total of 909 aeromonas spp. isolates from different aquatic ecosystems were tested for haemolysin production by both sheep and horse blood agar-plate assays and by rabbit erythrocytes in broth assay. a comparison of these different methods was undertaken in order to appreciate their capacity to evaluate the haemolytic activity of aeromonas spp. isolated from aquatic ecosystems. the haemolytic activity was associated particularly with a. hydrophila and a. sobria (about 95% of strains), whereas ...19912068383
aztreonam versus gentamicin for short-term prophylaxis in biliary and gastric surgery.short-term antibiotic prophylaxis was studied in 80 patients undergoing biliary or gastric surgery. the patients were randomized to receive 1 g of aztreonam or 80 mg of gentamicin intravenously 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 16 hours after surgery. of samples taken from the abdominal cavity for bacteriologic study, 53% were culture positive. wound infections developed in two (4.5%) of 44 patients receiving aztreonam and in seven (19.4%) of 36 patients treated with gentamicin. staphylococcus ...19912068469
[pulmonary infection by aeromonas hydrophila following drowning in a swimming pool]. 19902073626
analysis of the autoagglutination phenomenon, serogroup and hydrophobicity as virulence markers in mesophilic aeromonads isolated from stool cultures.the autoagglutination phenomenon (aa) was studied in 71 strains of mesophilic aeromonads isolated from stool cultures of patients with acute diarrhea (28 aeromonas hydrophila, 20 aeromonas sobria, and 23 aeromonas caviae). two phenotypes were considered in the aa+ strains: sp+ (self-pelleting) and pab+ (precipitation after boiling). serogrouping of the strains was performed only with the 0:11 serum. other properties studied were agglutination with acriflavine (acr) and crystal violet uptake (cvb ...19902073902
aeromonas hydrophila blepharoconjunctivitis. 19902073904
ecology of mesophilic aeromonas spp. in aquatic environments of a temperate region and relationship with some biotic and abiotic environmental parameters.the ecology of mesophilic aeromonas species has been investigated since january 1988 to examine their occurrence and distribution in aquatic environments of okayama prefecture. water and plankton samples were quantitatively as well as qualitatively analyzed throughout the seasons from five selected stations including fresh, brackish, and saline environments. analysis of variance and correlation coefficients among the biotic and abiotic parameters were sought. the organisms were found in all the ...19902080966
[reactions of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species in brila-mug (fluorocult) bouillion].in order to test the usefulness of brila-mug (= fluorocult) medium (merck) for isolation and identification of total coliforms and faecal coliforms in surface water according to the ec guidelines for bathing waters a total of 969 strains of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species was examined under different culture conditions. these included 486 e. coli (reference strains of o-groups 1-170, enterotoxin and verotoxin-producing strains), 149 salmonella (subspecies i-vi), 92 yersinia ...19902080970
cross resistance between oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid in aeromonas salmonicida associated with alterations in outer membrane proteins.oxytetracycline resistant mutants of aeromonas salmonicida isolated from mutation frequency experiments showed decreased susceptibility to oxolinic acid. outer membrane preparations of these resistant mutant strains revealed a major protein, with a molecular mass of approximately 37 kda, which was not present in significant quantities in the parent strain.19902083844
[new enteropathogens: aeromonas spp].aeromonas is one of the type of enteric pathogens which is commonly present in less developed countries. it leads to acute diarrhea in children and traveller's diarrhea in adults. additionally it is also responsible from the extraintestinal infections. aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria which is isolated from water, soil, foods and rarely from intestinal tract of human. aeromonas sobria is especially isolated from wound infection of scuba diver's. there are other types of aeromonas such as salmo ...19902089235
[analysis of the sensitivity of mesophilic aeromonas isolated from feces to antibiotics of everyday use].the sensitivity to antibiotics of 56 mesophilic strains of aeromonas (20 a. caviae, 18 a. sobria and 18 a. hydrophila) isolated from the feces of patients with enteritis, 89.2% of strains had some type of resistance, such as 83.9% to ampicillin, 32.1% to carbenicillin, 28.8% to cefalotin, 5.3% to co-trimoxazole and 1.7% to chloramphenicol. 48.2% of strains were simultaneously resistant to two of the tested antibiotics, 3.5% to three and 5.3% to four. 95.7% of ampicillin resistant strains were be ...19902094389
[diarrhea caused by aeromonas in madrid]. 19902095269
production of enterotoxin and cytotoxin by aeromonas veronii.fourteen strains of aeromonas veronii were isolated from salt and fresh water in rio de janeiro and investigated for the presence of virulence factors. eleven (79%) a. veronii strains were positive for enterotoxin by the suckling-mouse test and thirteen (93%) produced hemolysin. of the 13 a. veronii strains that produced hemolysin, seven were investigated for cytotoxin production using vero cells as indicator cells and all of them were positive.19902095293
wound infection due to fresh water contamination by aeromonas hydrophila.we report the case of a 24-year-old man who sustained a scalp laceration in a diving accident. his wound became infected, and he was treated with an oral cephalosporin, with subsequent progression of the infection. cultures subsequently grew aeromonas hydrophila. many strains of aeromonas are not sensitive to the antibiotics commonly used for wound infections. aeromonas must be suspected as a pathogen in all wounds occurring in fresh water if proper treatment is to be initiated.19902096165
[mesophile aeromonas gastroenteritis: value of biotyping as virulence marker]. 19902098138
isolation of motile aeromonads from foods of animal origin.the purpose of this work was to select an available medium for aeromonads isolation as well as to point out the aeromonads presence in different foodstuffs of animal origin. out of 15 tested media for aeromonas isolation, two media, were selected: dfs as control medium and agos medium, both giving superposable results. 404 samples of foodstuffs of animal origin were examined; aeromonads testing was performed qualitatively and quantitatively. 142 samples with a positivity percent of 51.40% were q ...19902101209
etiological agents of diarrhoea.two decades of research have established newer pathogens and techniques in establishing several organisms of diarrhoeal diseases as aetiological agents. it is now possible to detect an agent in 80% of the situation of diarrhoea in a standard laboratory. the brief review describes the list of pathogens, their diagnostic techniques with short description on clinical and epidemiological status.19902101388
aromatic-dependent mutants of aeromonas salmonicida. 19902101485
detective work in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.we report five cases of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in which the mechanisms and sources of infection were established. we show how diligent enquiry and environmental investigation can explain the pathogenesis of infection and help in prevention by motivation of the patient.19902108222
aeromonas wound infections associated with outdoor activities--california. 19902110619
effects of incorporating ampicillin, bile salts and carbohydrates in media on the recognition and selection of aeromonas spp. from faeces.the effects of incorporating ampicillin, some bile salts and sugars into media on the primary recognition and selection of aeromonads from faeces were examined. most (88%) of the 101 aeromonas strains examined had an ampicillin mic of greater than or equal to 40 mg/l, and would be isolated on blood agar containing ampicillin 30 mg/l. the strains with an ampicillin mic of less than 40 mg/l were all of human origin and predominantly a. caviae. although ampicillin at 10, 20 or 30 mg/l in blood agar ...19902111407
antimicrobial activity of ro 24-6778, a covalent bonding of desmethylfleroxacin and desacetylcefotaxime.a new "dual action" cephalosporin (ro 24-6778), representing an ester-linked desacetylcefotaxime and desmethylfleroxacin was tested against 287 aerobic bacteria. ro 24-6778 was found to be very active (minimal inhibitory concentrations [mic90], less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml) against enterobacteriaceae, streptococcus spp., and aeromonas hydrophila. moderate ro 24-6778 activity (mic90, 1-8 micrograms/ml) was demonstrated against bacillus spp., staphylococcus spp. (including oxacillin-res ...19902116952
validation of flow cytometry for rapid enumeration of bacterial concentrations in pure cultures.flow cytometry was investigated as a rapid detection and counting method for bacteria in pure cultures. a simple two-parameter detection scheme was employed: particle size was measured by forward angle light scatter and nucleic acid content by fluorescence of the dna/rna-binding dye ethidium bromide. the technique gave results that correlated exceptionally well with conventional plate counting for four species of bacteria, and concentrations in the range 10(2) to 10(7) cfu/ml. cytometric counts ...19902118900
an investigation of indirect conductimetry for detection of some food-borne bacteria.indirect conductimetry using a rapid automated bacterial impedance technique was investigated. strains of staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, enterococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, aeromonas hydrophila and salmonella spp. grown in whitley impedance broth all elicited indirect conductimetric changes. these indirect conductance responses were improved by the addition of 2 g/l glucose to the medium and resulted in maximum changes of 2340-4300 ...19902126006
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (ci-978; at-4140) against clinical isolates from cancer patients.the in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new quinolone, was compared with those of ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, greater than 90% of which were isolated from blood culture specimens of cancer patients. sparfloxacin was extremely active against acinetobacter species, aeromonas hydrophila, citrobacter diversus, enterobacter species, escherichia coli, klebsiella species, proteus vulgaris, and serratia marcescens (inhibiting greater than 90% of these ...19902127348
acidity and intestinal bacteria: an in-vitro assessment of the bactericidal activity of hydrochloric acid on intestinal pathogens.the bactericidal activity of hydrochloric acid (hcl) on different intestinal bacteria was evaluated at various ph values and time intervals. the effect of hcl was highest at ph 2 and ph 3 on strains of campylobacter jejuni, aeromonas hydrophila, plesiomonas shigelloides, yersinia enterocolitica, salmonella spp. and shigella spp., producing complete killing after 60 min incubation. however, at higher ph values (ph 4 and above), these organisms not only survived but they also showed evidence of ra ...19902127996
plasmid screening amongst aeromonas species and plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from subjects with diarrhoea in lagos, nigeria.fifty-three aeromonas strains and 16 plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from subjects with diarrhoea in lagos were screened for the presence of plasmids. nine (17%) of the aeromonas strains and one (6.3%) of the p. shigelloides harboured one or more plasmids, ranging in size from 2.4 to 16.8 mda. as has been documented in other enteropathogens, the possibilities are that these plasmids code for some factors to enhance the virulence of their hosts.19902128001
a new and rapid method for the assay of bacterial fatty acids using high resolution capillary gas chromatography and trimethylsulfonium hydroxide.gas-liquid chromatography of cellular fatty acids is a useful tool for the identification of bacteria. derivatization of bacterial fatty acids to methyl esters by conventional techniques is usually time-consuming and complicated. a new one-step technique using trimethyl-sulfonium hydroxide allows the direct formation of fatty acid methyl esters within 1-2 min. some random examples of profiles demonstrate that straight, branched, saturated, unsaturated, hydroxy and cyclopropyl fatty acids match c ...19902128179
[mixed culture of enterococcus faecium sf 68 with pathogenic intestinal bacterial strains].an antagonistic activity of enterococcus faecium sf 68 towards plesiomonas shigelloides, aeromonas sp., enteropathogenic escherichia coli and yersinia enterocolitica has been studied and demonstrated.19902133323
[infection of an open fracture caused by aeromonas hydrophila. a case report].with regard to a case report and the review of literature the authors point out that this uncommon but severe infection due to an aero-anaerobia bacteria, existing preferentially in stagnant or running water. this seriousness leads to the use of appropriate antibiotics instead of those usually prescribed in compound fractures, and most of the time, to the use of irrigation-stucking drainage of the wounds.19902142319
[sensitivity of enteropathogenic bacteria to furazolidone].the sensitivity in vitro of 348 strains of 18 enteropathogen agents to furazolidone was investigated during the period of 1987-1989. all strains of shigella sonnei (17), s. flexneri (17), s. boydii (16), escherichia coli enteropathogen (40), e. coli enteroinvasive (20), campylobacter jejuni (50), vibrio cholerae 01 (5), vibrio cholerae non 01 (5), v. parahaemolyticus (5), v. alginolyticus (2), aeromonas hydrophila (5), a. caviae (5), a. sobria (5), and plesiomonas shigelloides (12) were sensitiv ...19902152485
site-directed mutagenesis of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin: studies on the roles of histidines in receptor binding and oligomerization of the monomer.the six histidines of the channel-forming protein aerolysin have been replaced one at a time with asparagine by site-directed mutagenesis, and each of the modified proteins has been purified. three proteins had the same hemolytic activity as native toxin, but the others, those changed at his107, his132, or his332, were less able to disrupt both human and rat erythrocytes. the largest reduction in activity, more than 100-fold, was observed with the his132 mutant protein. studies with radioiodinat ...19902158347
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