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site-specific dota/europium-labeling of recombinant human relaxin-3 for receptor-ligand interaction studies.relaxin-3 (also known as insl7) is a recently identified neuropeptide belonging to the insulin/relaxin superfamily. it has putative roles in the regulation of stress responses, food intake, and reproduction by activation of its cognate g-protein-coupled receptor rxfp3. it also binds and activates the relaxin family peptide receptors rxfp1 and rxfp4 in vitro. to obtain a europium-labeled relaxin-3 as tracer for studying the interaction of these receptors with various ligands, in the present work ...201122187146
Do alternate bacterial indicators and pathogens increase after centrifuge dewatering of anaerobically digested biosolids?The objectives of this research were to evaluate the potential for sudden increase and/or regrowth of alternative bacteria as either indicators or pathogens after dewatering of thermophilic and mesophilically digested biosolids. The results showed that, in general, for thermophilic processes, even when a statistically significant (p < 0.05) sudden increase and regrowth occurred for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci, it did not occur for Salmonella or Aeromonas. For the mesophili ...201122195428
Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic bac ...201122196148
The Aeromonas dsbA mutation decreased their virulence by triggering type III secretion system but not flagella production.Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Dsb (Disulfide bond) proteins play an important role in catalyzing disulfide bond formation in proteins within the periplasmic space. An A. hydrophila dsbA mutant with attenuated virulence using Dictyostelium amoebae as an alternative host model was identified. The attenuated virulence ...201222198000
Detection of a unique fibrinolytic enzyme in Aeromonas sp. JH1.A fibrinolytic enzyme was found in a Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas sp. JH1. SDS-PAGE and fibrinzymography showed that it was a 36 kDa, monomeric protein. Of note, the enzyme was highly specific for fibrinogen molecules and the hydrolysis rate of fibrinogen subunits was highest for a, ß, and ? chains in that order. The first 15 amino acids of N-terminal sequence were X-D-A-T-G-P-G-G-N-V-X-T-G-K-Y, which was distinguishable from other fibrinolytic enzymes. The optimum pH and temperature of th ...201122203567
Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdomin ...201122204074
evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic ozark hellbender salamanders.investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. however, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. we cultured and i ...201122205979
a chitinase from aeromonas veronii cd3 with the potential to control myxozoan disease.the class myxosporea encompasses about 2,400 species, most of which are parasites of fish and cause serious damage in aquaculture. due to the concerns about food safety issues and limited knowledge of myxozoa life cycle and fish immune system, no chemicals, antibiotics or immune modulators are available to control myxozoa infection. therefore, little can be done once myxozoa establishment has occurred.201122205999
induction of toll-like receptor (tlr) 2, and myd88-dependent tlr- signaling in response to ligand stimulation and bacterial infections in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) is a member of tlr family. it recognizes a wide range of bacteria and their products, and is involved in inducing innate immune responses. in this article, we reported inductive expression of tlr2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. ontogeny analysis of tlr2, myd88 and traf6 (tnf receptor asso ...201122207179
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in crete.in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vibrio, salmonella, and aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in thailand.uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in bangkok, thailand, and were examined for the presence of vibrio, salmonella, and aeromonas species from january to february 2008. from 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of vibrio, salmonella, or aeromonas, leaving on ...201222221354
complete genome sequence and characterization of a broad-host range t4-like bacteriophage phias5 infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.in this study, we report one lytic myoviridae bacteriophage (phage) infecting aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. the phage (named as phias5) was isolated from environmental river waters in korea, and showed broad infectivity to other bacterial species in the family aeromonadaceae as well as antibiotic-resistant a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains. the biological properties and complete genome of phias5 were simultaneously investigated. the complete genome of phias5 composed of linea ...201122226819
an aerolysin-like enterotoxin from vibrio splendidus may be involved in intestinal tract damage and mortalities in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), and cod, gadus morhua l., larvae.vibrio splendidus is a pathogen that can cause major losses during the early stages of larval turbot rearing when live feed (rotifers or artemia) is used. as haemolytic bacteria have often been associated with larval rearing losses, we studied the role of the v. splendidus haemolysin in infection of larvae. from a bank of over 10 000 transposon mutants of v. splendidus, two different types of haemolysin-negative mutants were obtained. both had lost virulence for larval fish, and immunohistochemi ...201222233514
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
effects of graded levels of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue on immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian).immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. jian) fed graded levels of methionine hydroxy analogue (mha) (0, 5.1, 7.6, 10.2, 12.7, 15.3 g kg(-1) diet) for 60 days were investigated. results indicated that head kidney index, spleen index, red and white blood cell counts significantly increased with increasing mha levels up to a point (p < 0.05), whereupon decreased (p < 0.05). glutathione reductase activity in head kidney and spleen, anti-hy ...201222245840
a small incq type plasmid carrying the quinolone resistance (qnrs2) gene from aeromonas hydrophila.aims:  to investigate the qnrs2 gene encoded by a plasmid obtained from aeromonas hydrophila. methods and results:  to investigate the full length sequence of the plasmid carrying qnrs2 (plasmid designated pahh04) from the strain snufpc-a10, the full length coding sequence of the qnrs region was first amplified. the remaining part of the plasmid was read outwards from this region. the plasmid pahh04 contained the repc, repa, moba and mobc genes and its total size was 7,191 bp with a g + c conten ...201222260532
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
synergies of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables.this study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole against bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables using the determination of fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index, time-kill assay in vegetable broth and application in vegetable matrices. their effects, individually and in combination, on the sensory characteristics of the vegetables were also determined. carvacrol and 1,8-cineole displayed minim ...201122273461
baltic salmon, salmo salar, from swedish river lule älv is more resistant to furunculosis compared to rainbow trout.furunculosis, caused by aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. we hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout.201222276121
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