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microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
in silico analysis of 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing based methods for identification of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria.the study is the first one that provides guidelines on the usefulness of full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing and microseq databases for identifying medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria. overall, full and 527-bp 16s rrna gene sequencing can identify 26.1% and 32.6% of medically important aerobic gram-negative bacteria confidently to the species level, whereas the full-microseq and 500-microseq databases can identify 15.2% and 26.1% of medically important aerobic gram-negative b ...201121498652
an in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish.aims:  to develop an in vitro screening method to be used for identifying potential effective chemotherapeutants to control aeromonas hydrophila infections. methods and results:  using catfish gill cells g1b and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and d-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. in vitro screening results revealed that, at concentration of 1 ...201121501349
pyrosequencing demonstrated complex microbial communities in a membrane filtration system for a drinking water treatment plant.microbial community composition in a pilot-scale microfiltration plant for drinking water treatment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing technology. sequences of 16s rrna gene fragments were recovered from raw water, membrane tank particulate matter, and membrane biofilm, and used for taxonomic assignments, estimations of diversity, and the identification of potential pathogens. greater bacterial diversity was observed in each sample (1,133-1,731 operational taxonomic units) tha ...201121502735
gene expression profiles of the spleen, liver, and head kidney in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) along the infection process with aeromonas salmonicida using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.we evaluated the expression profiles of turbot in the spleen, liver, and head kidney across five temporal points of the aeromonas salmonicida infection process using an 8 × 15 k agilent oligo-microarray. the microarray included 2,176 different fivefold replicated gene probes designed from a turbot 3' sequenced est database. we were able to identify 471 differentially expressed (de) genes (17.3% of the whole microarray), 223 in the spleen, 246 in the liver, and 125 in the head kidney, in at least ...201121503602
[effect of heavy metal salts on the growth and pathogenicity factors of opportunistic bacteria].the paper presents experimental data on the effect of different concentrations of the salts of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the adaptive potentialities of the most common opportunistic microflora in the volga-caspian region. the findings suggest that natural microorganisms (aeromonas and citrobacter) show a high metal resistance that seems to be associated with steadily increased background levels of these metals in the waters of the volga-caspian basin.201121510046
aeromonas pneumonia in a trauma patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome: case report and literature review.abstract background: aeromonas species, particularly aeromonas hydrophila, cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human being such as gastroenteritis; soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis, meningitis, peritonitis, and bacteremia; but pneumonia and respiratory tract infections are uncommon. methods: case report and literature review. results: a 30-year-old victim of a motor vehicle crash sustained pelvic fractures and splenic injury. delayed splenic rupture caused sudden cardiores ...201121510774
molecular basis of toxicity of clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.clostridium perfringensε-toxin is produced by toxinotypes b and d strains. the toxin is the aetiological agent of dysentery in newborn lambs but is also associated with enteritis and enterotoxaemia in goats, calves and foals. it is considered to be a potential biowarfare or bioterrorism agent by the us government centers for disease control and prevention. the relatively inactive 32.9 kda prototoxin is converted to active mature toxin by proteolytic cleavage, either by digestive proteases of the ...201121518257
phenotypic characteristics of human clinical and environmental aeromonas in western australia.: to determine the phenotypic characteristics of 199 aeromonas strains comprising 146 clinical and 53 environmental isolates.201121519288
medicinal leeches and the microsurgeon: a four-year study, clinical series and risk benefit review.background: there are case reports and small series in the literature relating to the use of medicinal leeches by plastic surgeons; however, larger series from individual units are rare. the aim of this article is to present a comprehensive 4-year case series of the use of medicinal leeches, discuss the current evidence regarding indications, risks, and benefits and highlight the recent updates regarding leech speciation. methods: patients prescribed leeches in a 4-year period (july 2004-2008) w ...201121520265
production and properties of keratinolytic proteases from three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils.the keratinolytic potential and protease properties of three novel gram-negative feather-degrading bacteria isolated from brazilian soils was described. aeromonas hydrophila k12, chryseobacterium indologenes a22 and serratia marcescens p3 were able to degrade feather meal, producing high amounts of soluble proteins and forming thiol groups. the proteases of strains k12, a22 and p3 had optimal ph of 8.0, 7.5 and 6.0, respectively; this last is an uncommon feature for bacterial keratinases. the op ...201121526391
phosvitin plays a critical role in the immunity of zebrafish embryos via acting as a pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector.how fish embryos that develop externally survive microbial attacks is poorly understood. here we clearly demonstrated that the embryo extract of zebrafish and its early embryo both displayed antimicrobial activity against microbes including pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, and phosvitn (pv), a nutritional protein abundant in eggs, was related to this antimicrobial activity. we also showed that recombinant pv (rpv) acted as a pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing the microbial signa ...201121531722
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and structure modeling of ompr, the response regulator of aeromonas hydrophila.the ability of bacteria to survive and proliferate in changing environmental conditions, and during host cell invasion is the key to their pathogenicity. in order to achieve this, the bacteria use a signal transduction system, the two component regulatory system, which consists of a sensor kinase and a response regulator. the envz/ompr system regulates the porin genes ompf/ompc in response to changes in osmolarity. in the present study, the ompr gene of aeromonas hydrophila (isolate ah17) was cl ...201121533905
high catalytic efficiency and resistance to denaturing in bacterial rho gtpase-activating proteins.abstract several major bacterial pathogens use the type iii secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. bacterial rho gtpase activating proteins (rhogaps) comprise a remarkable family of type iii secreted toxins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics and manipulate cellular signaling pathways. we show that the rhogap activity of salmonella sptp and pseudomonas exos toxins is resistant to variations in the concentration of nacl or mgcl(2), unlike the known salt dependant na ...201121534865
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
immunomodulatory and protective roles of quorum sensing signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones during infection of mice with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila leads to both intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in animals and humans, and the underlying mechanisms leading to mortality are largely unknown. by using a septicemic mouse model of infection, we showed that animals challenged with a. hydrophila die because of kidney and liver damage, hypoglycemia, and thrombocytopenia. pretreatment of animals with quorum sensing-associated signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones (ahls), such as butanoyl and hexanoyl homoserine ...201121536794
iron-regulated lysis of recombinant escherichia coli in host to release protective antigen and confer biological containment.recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce immune response to a carried protective antigen. the superiorities of live bacterial vectors include mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and the potential for administration by mucosal routes. escherichia coli is a simple and efficient vector system for production of exogenous proteins. in addition, many strains are nonpathogenic and avirulent making it a good candidate for use in recom ...201121536797
involvement of peroxinectin in the defence of red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii against pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.cell adhesion factors are important immune components for invertebrate to immobilize, phagocytose or encapsulate invasive microorganisms and foreign particles. in this study, a new cell adhesion factor, peroxinectin (refered as pcpxin) was isolated from hemocytes of red swamp crayfish (procambarus clarkii). the full-length cdna of pcpxin was 3014 bp encoding a protein of 819 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 89.0 kda and a calculational isoelectric point of 6.93. the putat ...201121539922
osteomyelitis associated to ctx-m-15-producing aeromonas hydrophila: first description in the literature. 201121546197
identification and epidemiological relationships of aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.a collection of aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (león, nw of spain) was characterized by (gtg)(5)-pcr fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis and gyrb gene sequence analysis. the isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). the distribution of aeromonas species varied with the strain source. aeromonas caviae hg4 and ...201121550680
complete genome sequence of aeromonas veronii strain b565.aeromonas veronii strain b565 was isolated from aquaculture pond sediment in china. we present here the complete genome sequence of b565 and compare it with 2 published genome sequences of pathogenic strains in aeromonas genus. the result represents an independent step-wise acquisition of virulence factors of pathogenic strains in this genus.201121551296
isolation and characterization of virulent aeromonas veronii from ascitic fluid of oscar astronotus ocellatus showing signs of infectious dropsy.the cichlid oscar astronotus ocellatus has worldwide commercial value in the pet fish industry because of its early maturation, relatively high fecundity, ability to identify its caretaker and also to alter colouration amongst conspecifics. pathogenic strains of aeromonas veronii resistant to multiple antibiotics were isolated from a. ocellatus individuals showing signs of infectious abdominal dropsy. the moribund fish showed haemorrhage in all internal organs, and pure cultures could be obtaine ...201121553566
crystal structure of the heteromolecular chaperone, asce-ascg, from the type iii secretion system in aeromonas hydrophila.the putative needle complex subunit ascf forms a ternary complex with the chaperones asce and ascg in the type iii secretion system of aeromonas hydrophila so as to avoid premature assembly. previously, we demonstrated that the c-terminal region of ascg (residues 62-116) in the hetero-molecular chaperone, asce-ascg, is disordered and susceptible to limited protease digestion.201121559439
identification of unique dna sequences present in highly virulent 2009 alabama isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.in 2009, a disease outbreak caused by aeromonas hydrophila occurred in 48 catfish farms in west alabama, causing an estimated loss of more than 3 million pounds of food size channel catfish. virulence studies have revealed that the 2009 isolates of a. hydrophila are at least 200-fold more virulent than a 1998 alabama isolate al98-c1b. however, up to now, no molecular markers have been identified to differentiate the highly virulent 2009 isolates from other isolates of a. hydrophila. to understan ...201121561726
measurement of k(on) without a rapid-mixing device.we have recently designed a biochemistry laboratory experiment for the purpose of providing students an advanced experience with enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of binding. bestatin, a well-known and commercially available general protease inhibitor, is a slow-binding inhibitor of aminopeptidase isolated from aeromonas proteolytica. the binding is on a timescale slow enough for measurement without the use of a rapid-mixing device. aminopeptidase inhibition is detected via a standard colorimetri ...201021567834
genome-level homology and phylogeny of shewanella (gammaproteobacteria: lteromonadales: shewanellaceae).abstract:201121569439
comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar cm1046 and mfc agar for detection of e. coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from water samples.aims:  the equivalence of oxoid (cm 1046) brilliance((tm)) e. coli/coliform selective agar to mfc agar, as used in the australian/new zealand standard method to detect thermotolerant coliforms and escherichia coli in water samples, was assessed. methods and results:  a total of 244 water samples were analysed in parallel over a 5-month period. sewage effluent samples (n = 131, sites = 43), freshwater (n = 62, sites = 18) and marine/brackish water samples (n = 51, sites = 23) were analysed. the w ...201121585405
application of polyhydroxyalkanoate binding protein phap as a bio-surfactant.phap or phasin is an amphiphilic protein located on surfaces of microbial storage polyhydroxyalkanoates granules. this study aimed to explore amphiphilic properties of phap for possible application as a protein surfactant. following agents were used to conduct this study as controls including bovine serum albumin, sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), tween 20, sodium oleate, a commercial liquefied detergent together with the same amount of phap. among all these tested control surfactants, phap showed t ...201121590291
occurrence of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus in the german bight over a seasonal cycle.bacteria of the genus vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. the genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in asia and the usa. pathogenic v. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of v. parahaemolyticus especially in northern european waters. this study focuses on v. parahaemolyticus and its close relati ...201121598011
two novel ficolin-like proteins act as pattern recognition receptors for invading pathogens in the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus.to isolate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps)-binding molecules, the bacterium, staphylococcus aureus was used as an affinity matrix to find bacteria-binding proteins in the plasma of the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus. two new bacteria-binding ficolin-like proteins (flps) were identified by 2-de and ms analysis. the flps have a fibrinogen-related domain (fred) in their c-terminal and a repeat region in their n-terminal regions with putative structural similarities to ...201121598394
alteration of virulence factors and rearrangement of pasa5 plasmid caused by the growth of aeromonas salmonicida in stressful conditions.aeromonas salmonicida, a fish pathogen, is the causative agent of furunculosis. it was already shown that growing this bacterium in stressful conditions such as temperature above 22°c might lead to virulence attenuation. unfortunately, many veterinary microbiology services and reference centers still routinely cultivate a. salmonicida at 25°c. here we tested the presence of virulence factors by growth on specific medium as well as the integrity of the pasa5 plasmid, which bears an important viru ...201121621930
gut cavp is an innate immune protein against bacterial challenge in amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri.the importance of calcium-binding proteins in immune response of vertebrates is determined, but whether they have the role in invertebrates is largely unknown. in the present study, phylogenetic analysis indicated that calcium vector protein (cavp), a protein unique to amphioxus, shared 68% similarity in amino acid sequence with human and mouse calmodulin (cam). cavp cdna was cloned into a bacterial vector pet-32a, and its his-tagged fusion protein was produced in eschherichia coli cells (bl21). ...201121624472
erratum: purification of a toxic cysteine protease produced by pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout.an extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila strain rt860715k originally isolated from diseased rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was purified by using fast protein liquid chromatography system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange columns. the toxin was a cysteine protease, inhibited by l-cysteine, iodoacetic acid, n-ethylamleimide, p-chloromercuibenzene-sulfonic acid and n-α-p-tosyl-1-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (tlck), and showed maximal activity at ...201121630504
enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in tripoli-libya.abstract. stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (n = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); salmonella, aden ...201121633024
post-traumatic skin and soft tissue infection due to aeromonas hydrophila.we report a case of posttraumatic skin and soft tissue infection in a patient who sustained laceration after being hit by a water tanker. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from pus and was identified to the species level by vitek 2 and a battery of biochemical tests. the patient responded to thorough drainage, debridement of wound and 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. the patient was taken up for split skin grafting of the raw area. she was discharged with satisfactory graft uptake after 1 wee ...201121633548
the influence of environmental bacteria in freshwater stingray wound-healing.invasion by bacteria can influence the course of healing of wounds acquired in aquatic environment. in this study, the bacteria present in potamotrygonmotoro stingray mucus and in the alto paraná river water were identified, and their ability to induce tissue injury and resist antibiotics was determined. biochemical identification analysis showed that 97% of all bacterial isolates were gram negative, aeromonas spp., enterobacter cloacae and citrobacter freundii being the species most prevalent. ...201121635911
pathophysiology of experimental aeromonas hydrophila infection in puntius sarana: early changes in blood and aspects of the innate immune-related gene expression in survivors.a decline in production of puntius sarana worldwide and subsequent intensification of its culture as a measure for conservation and increase food fish production have led to emergence of diseases. investigations on innate immunological changes in fish that survives an acute bacterial infection are a few or lacking. an attempt was made to study the detailed changes in innate immune responses in p. sarana following an intraperitoneal challenge with aeromonas hydrophila at 2.24×10(7)colony-forming ...201121640390
definition of microbial diversity in aeromonas strains based on multilocus sequence typing, phenotype and presence of putative genes of virulence.the genus aeromonas has been described as comprising several species associated with the aquatic environment that represents their principal reservoir. aeromonas is commonly isolated from diseased and healthy fish, but the involvement of such bacteria in human infection and gastroenteritis has frequently been reported. the primary challenge in establishing an unequivocal link between the aeromonas genus and pathogenesis in humans is the extremely complicated taxonomy. with the aim of clarifying ...201121642403
aetiology of diarrhoea among persons with hiv and their family members in rural uganda: a community-based study.to identify pathogens associated with diarrhoea in hiv-infected persons and their hiv-uninfected family members.200921644412
diversity of protease-producing marine bacteria from sub-antarctic environments.from seawater and the intestines of benthonic organisms collected from the beagle channel, argentina, 230 marine bacteria were isolated. cultivable bacteria were characterized and classified as psychrotolerant, whereas few isolates were psychrophiles. these isolates were capable of producing proteases at 4 and 15 °c under neutral (ph 7.0), alkaline (ph 10.0) and acidic (ph 4.5) conditions on different media, revealing 62, 33 and 22% producers at cold and 84, 47 and 33% producers at low temperatu ...201121656810
biocatalysed halogenation of nucleobase analogues.the synthesis of halogenated nucleosides and nucleobases is of interest due to their chemical and pharmacological applications. herein, the enzymatic halogenation of nucleobases and analogues catalysed by microorganisms and by chloroperoxidase from caldariomyces fumago has been studied. this latter enzyme catalysed the chlorination and bromination of indoline and uracil. pseudomonas, citrobacter, aeromonas, streptomyces, xanthomonas, and bacillus genera catalysed the chlorination and/or brominat ...201121660577
complete nucleotide sequence of a quinolone resistance gene (qnrs2) carrying plasmid of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.aeromonas hydrophila strain ao1 isolated from an infected fish was found to be resistant to several quinolones. a plasmid isolated from the strain ao1, termed pbrst7.6, was cloned and sequenced and shown to be 7621bp in length with a gc content of 60%. further analysis confirmed that it contained a gene with 100% identity to qnrs2 genes described in plasmids associated with other aeromonas species, the product of which usually confers increased resistance to quinolones. the plasmid backbone cont ...201121664930
molecular cloning, characterization and expression of a c-type lectin cdna in chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis.c-type lectins are pattern-recognition proteins which are functionally important for pathogen recognition and immune regulation in vertebrates and invertebrates. in this study, a lectin cdna named as es-lectin was cloned and characterized from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis. the full-length sequence of this es-lectin cdna was 651 bp, including an open reading frame of 483 bp encoding 160 amino acids. the predicted molecular weight of the es-lectin was 11.8 kda. a typical signal pept ...201121669290
antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern vietnam.the ubiquitous application and release of antibiotics to the environment can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which in turn can be a serious risk to humans and other animals. southeast asian countries commonly apply an integrated recycling farm system called vac (vegetable, aquaculture and caged animal). in the vac environment, antibiotics are released from animal and human origins, which would cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria (arb). this study evaluated occurrence of arb in the vac ...201121669325
metabolic engineering of aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 for production of copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoate.a mutant termed aeromonas hydrophila aklf was constructed by deleting acetic acid pathway related genes pta and acka in a. hydrophila 4ak4. accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) in a. hydrophila aklf was increased by 47% from 2.11 to 3.10g/l associated with a reduction on acetic acid formation compared with a. hydrophila 4ak4 when lauric acid was used as carbon resource. a. hydrophila aklf harboring pvgab encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin, +¦-ketothiolase and acet ...201121680176
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp, cyprinus carpio l., by oral administration of a mixed microbial culture of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae.a microbial culture was prepared by co-cultivation of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae for 48 hr at 30 c in rice bran extract medium, supplemented with dextrose. oral administration of the resulting non-viable heat-inactivated microbial culture to common carp, cyprinus carpio l., delivered in feed for four weeks, induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection which causes "ulcer disease". after challenge of t ...201121685718
extending the aerolysin family: from bacteria to vertebrates.a number of bacterial virulence factors have been observed to adopt structures similar to that of aerolysin, the principal toxin of aeromonas species. however, a comprehensive description of architecture and structure of the aerolysin-like superfamily has not been determined. in this study, we define a more compact aerolysin-like domain--or aerolysin fold--and show that this domain is far more widely spread than anticipated since it can be found throughout kingdoms. the aerolysin-fold could be f ...201121687664
influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. the objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and in goldfish (carassius auratus). faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. vib ...201121692817
the microbiological profile and presence of bloodstream infection influence mortality rates in necrotizing fasciitis.abstract: introduction: necrotizing fasciitis (nf) is a life threatening infectious disease with a high mortality rate. we carried out a microbiological characterization of the causative pathogens. we investigated the correlation of mortality in nf with bloodstream infection and with the presence of co-morbidities. methods: in this retrospective study, we analyzed 323 patients who presented with necrotizing fasciitis at two different institutions. bloodstream infection (bsi) was defined as a pos ...201121693053
silent spread of imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa belonging to sequence type 621 in belgium. 201121693463
aeromonas aquariorum is widely distributed in clinical and environmental specimens and can be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila.genotypic characterization of 215 aeromonas strains (143 clinical, 52 environmental, and 20 reference strains) showed that aeromonas aquariorum (60 strains, 30.4%) was the most frequently isolated species in clinical and water samples and could be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila by phenotypic methods.201121697316
effects of a prebiotic, immunogen(-«) , on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp cyprinus carpio (linnaeus) fingerlings.this study evaluated the effects of a commercial prebiotic, immunogen, on feed utilization, growth rate, immunity promotion and carcass composition of the common carp cyprinus carpio fingerlings. the fingerlings were adopted for 2ôçâweeks and then reared in triplicate groups in 250-l tanks (nôçâ=ôçâ15 per tank with average initial weights of 11.12ôçâ-¦ôçâ0.55ôçâg). the fish fed on five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing different levels of immunogen (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and ...201121707781
lactobacillus plantarum (vr1) isolated from an ayurvedic medicine (kutajarista) ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by aeromonas veronii.abstract:201121707995
selection for improved resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp labeo rohita: survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines.selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. in the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohu labeo rohita to assess their suitability as immune markers for use in indirect selection for increased resistance. experimental infe ...201121712094
bacterial infection of mudfish clarias gariepinus (siluriformes: clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish clarias gariepinus in africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. in order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between january 2008 and december 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (a, grassland), mid-river (b, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver ( ...201121717856
[in process citation]. 201121720695
[Phenotypic characteristics and virulence factors in Aeromonas strains isolated from patients with diarrheic disease in Cuba].Fifty four strains of Aeromonas spp were isolated from patients with acute diarrheic episodes by using Aerokey II and Aeroesquema methods. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors were analyzed. The most frequently isolated specie was Aeromonas caviae. Over 75% of strains exhibited resistance to penicillins and ce-phalosporins; for the other antibiotic groups resistance was under 20%. Twenty six strains (48.1 %) were multiresist-ant. At least one virulence factor among those e ...201121720696
bacterial symbiont and salivary peptide evolution in the context of leech phylogeny.summarythe evolutionary history of leeches is employed as a general framework for understanding more than merely the systematics of this charismatic group of annelid worms, and serves as a basis for understanding blood-feeding related correlates ranging from the specifics of gut-associated bacterial symbionts to salivary anticoagulant peptides. a variety of medicinal leech families were examined for intraluminal crop bacterial symbionts. species of aeromonas and bacteroidetes were characterized ...201121729354
aeromonas hydrophila moty is essential for polar flagellum function, requires coordinate expression of motx and pom proteins.by the analysis of aeromonas hydrophila atcc7966t genome we identified a. hydrophila ah-3 moty. a. hydrophila moty, like motx, is essential for the polar flagellum function energized by an electrochemical potential of na+ as coupling ion, but is not involved in lateral flagella function energized by proton motive force. thus, a. hydrophila polar flagellum stator is a complex integrated by two essential proteins: motx and moty, which interact with one of two redundant pairs of proteins: pomab and ...201121737499
differential immune responses of the green neon shrimp (neocaridina denticulate) to dipropyl phthalate.this study set out to understand the sublethal effect of xenobiotic phthalate esters (paes) on the relationship between the susceptibility of shrimp to bacterial infection and the immune response of the shrimp. neocaridina denticulate were exposed to different concentrations of the pae dipropyl phthalate (dprp), and mortality and six immune parameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after exposure. on days 1 and 3 after exposure, shrimp exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 mg/l of dprp and chall ...201121740974
bacillus amyloliquefaciens g1: a potential antagonistic bacterium against eel-pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. however, few probiotics are available against aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. in the present study, a potential antagonistic strain g1 against the eel-pathogenic a. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of ph, temperature, and proteinase k. it was initially ident ...201121754944
three goose-type lysozymes in the gastropod oncomelania hupensis: cdna sequences and lytic activity of recombinant proteins.three goose-type (g-type) lysozymes, designated as ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 were identified from expressed sequence tags (ests) of a gastropod oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of schistosoma japonicum. the full cdna sequences of ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 consisted of 735, 909 and 808 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 198, 214 and 249 codons containing a 21, 7 and 8 amino acid (aa) signal peptide at the n-terminus, respectively. the three g-type lysozymes shared conserv ...201121756934
a unique epidermal mucus lectin identified from catfish (silurus asotus): first evidence of intelectin in fish skin slime.the present study reports a new type of skin mucus lectin found in catfish silurus asotus. the lectin exhibited calcium-dependent mannose-binding activity. when mannose eluate from chromatography with mannose-conjugated agarose was analyzed by sds-page, the lectin appeared as a single 35-kda band. gel filtration showed that the lectin forms monomers and dimers. a 1216-bp cdna sequence obtained by race-pcr from the skin encoded a 308 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and fis ...201121757471
incidence of class 1 integron and other antibiotic resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. from rainbow trout farms in australia.there is limited information on antibiotic resistance determinants present in bacteria of aquaculture origin in australia. the presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in victoria (australia). polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes int1, int2 and int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated aada, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes stra-strb, ß ...201121762170
effect of dietary supplements on cytokine gene expression in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum). 201121762174
crystal structure of serratia fonticola sfh-i: activation of the nucleophile in mono-zinc metallo-ß-lactamases.metallo-ß-lactamases (mbls) or class b ß-lactamases are zinc-dependent enzymes capable of inactivating almost all classes of ß-lactam antibiotics. to date, no mbl inhibitors are available for clinical use. of the three mbl subclasses, b2 enzymes, unlike those from subclasses b1 and b3, are fully active with one zinc ion bound and possess a narrow spectrum of activity, hydrolyzing carbapenem substrates almost exclusively. these remain the least studied mbls. sfh-i, originally identified from the ...201121762699
identification of aeromonas isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.we evaluated the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identifying aeromonads with an extraction procedure. genus-level accuracy was 100%. compared to rpob gene sequencing, species-level accuracy was 90.6% (29/32) for type and reference strains and 91.4% for a collection of 139 clinical and environmental isolates, making this system one of the most accurate and rapid methods for phenotypic identification. the reliability of this technique wa ...201121763094
molecular basis of sulfonamide and trimethoprim resistance in fish-pathogenic aeromonas isolates.sulfonamide-trimethoprim-resistant aeromonas salmonicida and motile aeromonas spp. from diseased fish of the germ-vet study carried the sul1 gene together with mostly cassette-borne trimethoprim resistance genes, including the novel gene dfra28. the seven dfra and dfrb genes identified were mostly located in class 1 integrons which commonly harboured other gene cassettes.201121764945
molecular characterization of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2, analysis of its inductive expression and down-stream signaling following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in rohu (labeo rohita).nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2 is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (prr) and is a member of nod like receptor (nlr) family. it senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products and is involved in innate immune responses. in this report, nod-2 gene was cloned and characterized from rohu (labeo rohita) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. the full length rohu nod-2 (rnod-2) cdna comprised of 3176bp with a singl ...201121767564
immune response of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) following experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila.the gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicaemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. however, the immune mechanisms involved in this disease in fish are still poorly understood. for the purpose of this study, gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) specimens received a double intraperitoneal injection of bacterial inoculums: a primary infection with 1 ...201121767651
in vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts.to evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria.201121771453
multi-functional characteristics of the pseudomonas aeruginosa type iii needle-tip protein, pcrv; comparison to orthologs in other gram-negative bacteria.pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. this virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of t3 effector proteins into infected cells. to accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the t3 needle structure. strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host ce ...201121772833
dual chaperone role of the c-terminal propeptide in folding and oligomerization of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.throughout evolution, one of the most ancient forms of aggression between cells or organisms has been the production of proteins or peptides affecting the permeability of the target cell membrane. this class of virulence factors includes the largest family of bacterial toxins, the pore-forming toxins (pfts). pfts are bistable structures that can exist in a soluble and a transmembrane state. it is unclear what drives biosynthetic folding towards the soluble state, a requirement that is essential ...201121779171
comparative molecular characterization of the regucalcin (rgn) gene in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and maraena whitefish (coregonus marena).the ca(2+)-binding protein regucalcin (rgn) is crucial for the regulation of ca(2+) ion homeostasis and signal transduction of cells. it is involved in the regulation of ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases and ca(2+) pump enzymes in cell membranes. comparative transcriptome analysis in healthy fish of two aquacultured rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) lines (born, tco) varying in susceptibility to environmental stress identified significant differences in the expression of the rgn gene. therefore ...201121779798
gastrointestinal colonization rates for human clinical isolates of aeromonas veronii using a mouse model.a variety of environment-associated gastrointestinal infections have been associated with the aeromonas group of bacteria which contain both non-virulent strains as well as virulent strains within a particular species. this study monitors the colonization rates of colon tissue in a mouse-streptomycin dose/response model involving isolates of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria obtained from human clinical specimens. the ability to successfully colonize mouse colon tissues by the human clinical isola ...201121779939
bacterial communities in the gut of the freshwater copepod eudiaptomus gracilis.eudiaptomus gracilis is the most abundant member of the zooplankton, plays a key role in the food web of lake balaton (hungary). in the present study the composition of bacterial communities of this copepod was investigated based on cultivation and molecular cloning. the cultivated bacterial strains from the gut homogenate samples of eudiaptomus gracilis belonged to four different clades: firmicutes, actinobacteria, bacteriodetes and proteobacteria. clone library showed high species diversity, f ...201121780147
pathogenic bacteria in sewage treatment plants as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.this study applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze potentially pathogenic bacteria in activated sludge from 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) across four countries (china, u.s., canada, and singapore), plus the influent and effluent of one of the 14 wwtps. a total of 370?870 16s rrna gene sequences with average length of 207 bps were obtained and all of them were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks by using rdp classifier and megan. it was found that the most a ...201121780772
effects of dietary ß-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (cyprinus carpio koi).this study was performed to determine the efficacy of three immunomodulators viz., ß-1,3 glucan, chitosan and raffinose on the innate immune response of koi, cyprinus carpio koi. kois were divided into 4 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without immunostimulant for 56 days. total leukocyte counts (wbc), the non-specific humoral (lysozyme, alternative complement pathway and superoxide dismutase) and cellular (phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst activity) response ...201121784160
aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum gene transcriptional hierarchy.aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum class i gene transcription is s(70)-dependent, which is consistent with the fact that a. hydrophila polar flagellum is constitutively expressed. in contrast to other bacteria with dual flagella systems such as vibrio parahaemolyticus, the a. hydrophila lafk protein does not compensate for the lack of the polar flagella regulator flra (v. parahaemolyticus flak homologue). this is consistent with the fact that the a. hydrophila flra mutation abolishes polar fla ...201121784933
soft tissue infections caused by marine bacterial pathogens: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.skin and soft tissue infections (sstis) are one of the most common infection syndromes and may be caused by a large number of microorganisms. some principles of aquatic injuries are different than those of land-based trauma. wounds sustained in marine environment are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in different settings. these include vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., shewanella spp., erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, mycobacterium marinum, streptococcus iniae, and other microbes. fail ...201121785929
molecular identification and virulence of three aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in west alabama (usa) in 2009.three isolates (al09-71, al09-72, and al09-73) of aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish ictalurus punctatus during a disease outbreak in west alabama, usa, in august 2009. sequence analysis of the 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region (isr), cpn60, gyrb, and rpod genes of the 3 strains revealed that the 3 strains were closely related to each other, sharing 97 to 99% nucleotide sequence similarities. however, isr sequences of the 3 isolates from 2009 shared only 64% nuc ...201121790073
emerging gram-negative infections in burn wounds.gram-negative infection remains a major contributor to morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. in the absence of comparative multinational epidemiological studies specific to burn patients, we sought to review literature trends in emerging gram-negative burn wound infections within the past 60 years. mapping trends in these organisms, although in a minority compared with the six "eskape" pathogens currently being targeted by the infectious diseases society of north america, would identify pathog ...201121792068
isolation and identification of a novel inducible antibacterial peptide from the skin mucus of japanese eel, anguilla japonica.in this study, acetone extracts and acidic extracts were prepared from skin mucus, gill, kidney, liver and spleen of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, and they exhibited different levels of antibacterial activities against three strains of gram-negative bacteria, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sp. and one gram-positive bacterium micrococcus leteus. the mucus was chosen as the source of antibacterial peptide for further purification of antibacterial peptides. following the ...201121796440
biochemical and hematological reference intervals for krefft's turtles emydura macquarii krefftii from the burnett river catchment, australia.biochemical and hematological reference intervals have not previously been reported for emydura macquarii krefftii. in 2009, 56 e. m. krefftii were captured by hand from the burnett catchment, clinically assessed to determine health status and blood sampled. reference intervals were calculated from the 35 clinically healthy turtles using techniques established in other chelonid species. aberrant blood results were identified from the 21 clinically unhealthy turtles. low numbers of observed cases ...201121797034
characterization of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (gcsfr) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. in this study we report on the cloning and molecular characterization of goldfish gcsfr. the identified goldfish gcsfr sequence possesses the conserved ig-like domain, the cytokine receptor homology domain (crh), three fibronectin domains as well a ...201121801744
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health implications.ice used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by aeromonas hydrophila isolated from industrial effluent.economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. in this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in greece. the bacterial isolate was identified as aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a func ...201121808740
aeromonas spp.-mediated cell-contact cytotoxicity is associated with the presence of type iii secretion system.in the study we examined the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of a type iii secretion system (ttss) in 64 aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fecal specimens of patients with gastroenteritis. we observed that contact of the bacteria with host epithelial cells is a prerequisite for their cytotoxicity at 3 h incubation. cell-contact cytotoxic activity of the strains was strongly associated with the presence of the ttss. culture supernatants of the strains induced low ...201121809027
prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonas strains from various retail food products in mumbai, india.ôçé a total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in mumbai, india, were analyzed for the presence of aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (january 2006 to march 2008). twenty-two aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. the highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. aeromonas caviae, a. veronii bv. sobria, and a. salmonicida ...201121824136
independent predictors of mortality for necrotizing fasciitis: a retrospective analysis in a single institution.necrotizing fasciitis (nf), a life-threatening soft tissue infection, requires early diagnosis, prompt and repeated surgical intervention, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. the aim of this study was to identify the independent predictors of mortality among patients with nf in taiwan.201121825948
identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections.to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cdna hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of nile tilapia at 6h post infection with aeromonas hydrophila. a total of 31 unique expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from 192 clones of the subtractive cdna library. quantitative pcr revealed that nine of the 31 ests were significantly (p<0.05) ...201121840065
a specific inorganic triphosphatase from nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism.the cyth superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the cyab adenylyl cyclase from aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kda thiamine triphosphatase. because these proteins often form a closed +¦-barrel, they are also referred to as "triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes" (ttm). functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. these proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions, depending on ...201121840996
[role of aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the volga-caspian area].the paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the volga and caspian sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (acipenseridae), pike perch (stizostedion), carp (cyprinus carpio), silurus (silurus glanis), etc.). it provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. the findings suggest that aeromonas is a causative agent of ...201121842729
a novel amino-benzosuberone derivative is a picomolar inhibitor of mammalian aminopeptidase n/cd13.a new class of low molecular weight, highly potent and selective non peptidic inhibitors of aminopeptidase n (apn/cd13) is described. we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of racemic substituted analogues of 7-amino-benzocyclohepten-6-one 1a. we investigated various substitutions on the aromatic ring with phenyl and halogen groups. in vitro kinetic studies revealed that these compounds are among the most effective apn/cd13 inhibitors found so far. hydrophobic substituents placed at pos ...201121843945
Occurrence of enterotoxigenic Aeromonas species in foods of animal origin in North East India.The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify Aeromonas (A.) species and assess their toxin producing ability in foods of animal origin from North East India.201121845798
salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta.the present study describes pathological and microbiological findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis. histological lesions ranged from the presence of abundant eosinophilic material associated with bacterial colonies in the lumen of the central ducts of the glandular lobules to the destruction of the glandular tissue and presence of abundant eosinophilic material composed of heterophils and cell debris, ...201121848124
Colonization of turbot tissues by virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains during infection.Preventing disease outbreaks in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (ASS) requires a better understanding of how this pathogen colonizes its host. Distribution of 1 virulent and 2 avirulent ASS strains in turbot tissues was investigated during early and late stages of infection following an immersion challenge. To track bacteria within the turbot, the ASS strains were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Both virulent and avirulent strains ...201121848125
molecular cloning, characterization and expression patterns of hsp60 in the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).hsp60 is a highly immunogenic molecule, which is able to activate a large number of t cell types and is implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases. the grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater fish species of the family cyprinidae, accounts for the third biggest value (usd 4.8 billion) at single species level of major cultured fish species in the world. here, we isolated and characterized the hsp60 cdna from grass carp (designated as cihsp60). its cdna was 2434 bp in length and enc ...201121854854
Two novel homologs of simple C-type lectin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): potential role in immune response to bacteria.C-type lectins play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups which possess different physiological functions. In this study, two novel simple C-type lectins were identified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), an important cultured fish in China. GcCL1 and gcCL2 share an essentially identical gene structure, a conserved promoter region shorter than 300 bp and an a ...201121855640
nonspecific immune responses of cathranthus roseus in oreochromis mossambicus.the present study was performed to determine the efficacy and immune stimulatory effects of crude and water-soluble leaf fraction of cathranthus roseus in oreochromis mossambicus. intraperitoneal injection method was used to administrate the drugs and sheep red blood cells (srbc) which is used as an antigen. lysozyme assay, plate hole diffusion assay, phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity screening methods was used to confirm the drug immune responses. in vivo experiments show the si ...201121861775
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