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characterization and expression studies of gaduscidin-1 and gaduscidin-2; paralogous antimicrobial peptide-like transcripts from atlantic cod (gadus morhua).piscidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides (amps) from fish that constitute an important component of their innate immune system. based on previously generated atlantic cod (gadus morhua) expressed sequence tags (ests), we identified sequences representing two paralogous amp-like transcripts. these atlantic cod paralogues were termed gaduscidins (gad-1 and gad-2), derived from the genus name gadus. we obtained full-length cdna sequences for these putative amp-encoding transcripts using bi- ...201021108964
characterization and functional analysis of goldfish (carassius auratus l.) interleukin-10.this is the first report of comprehensive functional analysis of an interleukin-10 in bony fish. quantitative expression analysis of goldfish il-10 revealed the greatest mrna levels in the spleen tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes and granulocytes. the stimulation of cells with recombinant goldfish (rg) tnfα2 significantly reduced il-10 mrna levels in granulocytes and monocytes of the goldfish. to functionally assess the goldfish il-10, we generated a recombinant form of the molecule (rgil-10) ...201021111485
endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of typha angustifolia l. in the constructed beijing cuihu wetland (china).we investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (typha angustifolia l.) roots growing in the beijing cuihu wetland, china, using the 16s rdna library technique. in total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with proteobacteria, other clones grouped into cytophaga/flexibacter/bacteroids (3.3%), fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured ...201021111814
haemato-immunological and stress responses of labeo rohita (hamilton) fingerlings: effect of rearing temperature and dietary gelatinized carbohydrate.a feeding trial of 70-days was carried out to study the haemato-immunological and stress responses of labeo rohita fingerlings reared at two water temperatures [ambient (amb) - 27 °c and 32 °c] fed with graded levels of gelatinized corn carbohydrate (gc). two hundred and sixteen fingerlings were randomly distributed into six treatment groups in triplicate. three semi-purified diets were prepared containing 30% crude protein with graded levels of gc 40%, 50% and 58%. the six treatment groups were ...201021114548
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
resistance of genetically different common carp, cyprinus carpio l., families against experimental bacterial challenge with aeromonas hydrophila.the objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the research institute for fisheries, aquaculture and irrigation (haki, szarvas, hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; t ...201021118271
association of aeromonas caviae polar and lateral flagella with biofilm formation.to evaluate the association of the polar and lateral flagella with biofilm formation on plastic surfaces in 76 aeromonas caviae strains isolated from environment (lagoon water), food (vegetables, fish and cheese) and human source (faeces).201021118278
maturation pathway of metalloprotease produced by aeromonas sobria.previously, we cloned the metalloprotease gene of aeromonas sobria (amp) and determined its nucleotide sequence (genbank accession number dq784565). the protease is composed of 591 amino acid residues. in this study, we purified the mature metalloprotease from the culture supernatant of a. sobria and determined the amino terminal sequence and molecular size of amp. in addition, we examined the production of amp diachronically and found that amp emerges outside of the cell as an intermediate comp ...201021118297
development and experimental validation of a 20k atlantic cod (gadus morhua) oligonucleotide microarray based on a collection of over 150,000 ests.the collapse of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. in order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. the atlantic cod genomics and broodstock development project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cdna libraries representing various tissues, development ...201021127932
microbial communities and electrochemical performance of titanium-based anodic electrodes in a microbial fuel cell.four types of titanium (ti)-based electrodes were tested in the same microbial fuel cell (mfc) anodic compartment. their electrochemical performances and the dominant microbial communities of the electrode biofilms were compared. the electrodes were identical in shape, macroscopic surface area, and core material but differed in either surface coating (pt- or ta-coated metal composites) or surface texture (smooth or rough). the mfc was inoculated with electrochemically active, neutrophilic microo ...201021131513
characterization of two c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins from the cdna library of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis is one of the most important aquaculture crustacean species in china. a cdna library was constructed from mixed tissues of e. sinensis challenged with lps. eight genes involved in immune response were identified from 319 single colonies. among them, two different c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins were firstly identified in chinese mitten crab. the full-length cdna sequences of two c-type lectin-like domain (ctld)-containing proteins named ...201021134464
qm/mm studies of monozinc β-lactamase cpha suggest that the crystal structure of an enzyme-intermediate complex represents a minor pathway.qm/mm studies of the hydrolysis of a β-lactam antibiotic molecule (biapenem) catalyzed by a monozinc β-lactamase (cpha) have revealed the complete reaction mechanism and shown that an experimentally determined enzyme-intermediate complex is a stable intermediate or product in a minor pathway.201021138257
putative virulence properties of aeromonas strains isolated from food, environmental and clinical sources in italy: a comparative study.the distribution of virulence properties in 142 strains of aeromonas isolated from diarrhoeic patients, food and surface water in italy and identified by biochemical and molecular methods was investigated. the virulence properties studied were the presence of genes for the aerolysin (aera), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), cytotoxic enterotoxin (act); and cytotoxicity for vero cells and adhesion on hep-2 cells. a. hydrophila and a. caviae were the ...201021138783
preliminary crystallographic analysis of two oligomerization-deficient mutants of the aerolysin toxin, h132d and h132n, in their proteolyzed forms.aerolysin is a major virulence factor produced by the gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila and is a member of the β-pore-forming toxin family. two oligomerization-deficient aerolysin mutants, h132d and h132n, have been overproduced, proteolyzed by trypsin digestion and purified. crystals were grown from the proteolyzed forms and diffraction data were collected for the two mutants to 2.1 and 2.3 å resolution, respectively. the prism-shaped crystals belonged to space group c2. the crystal ...201021139211
ovarian hydrobursitis in female camels (camelus dromedaries): biochemical, bacterial and protozoal evaluation.the aim of this study was to evaluate female camels affected with ovarian hydrobursitis (n = 31) for hematological and biochemical findings and for bacterial and protozoal infections. blood samples were obtained and surgical ablation of the affected bursa was performed. bursal fluid, follicular fluid, and serum were subjected to hormonal and biochemical analyses. bursal fluids were cultured and colonies were identified using biomérieux vitek two compact system. passive haemagglutination test was ...201021144565
the rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in gallibacterium anatis.the present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(a, b, c, d, e, g, h, k, l, m, o). a recent study found tet(b) to be the most prevalent tetracycline resistance determinant in a larger collection of g. anatis field strains from mexico and denmark. however, in 41% of the tetracycline resistant strains no determinant could be assigne ...201021145184
gut microbial status induced by antibiotic growth promoter alters the prebiotic effects of dietary dvaqua® on aeromonas hydrophila-infected tilapia: production, intestinal bacterial community and non-specific immunity.the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether dietary antibiotic-induced changes in the fish intestinal microbiota altered host physiological responses to the infection with aeromonas hydrophila in hybrid tilapia (oreochromis niloticus ♀ × o. aureus ♂). after an 8-week induction period with an antibiotic-supplemented or antibiotic-non-supplemented diet, 160 hybrid tilapias in 16 tanks were each injected with phosphate buffered saline (pbs) or a. hydrophila at a dose of one-half of ...201021146333
molecular basis of bacterial defense against host lysozymes: x-ray structures of periplasmic lysozyme inhibitors plii and plic.lysozymes play a key role in the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan, a vital component of the bacterial cell wall. gram-negative bacteria produce various types of lysozyme inhibitors that allow them to survive the bactericidal action of lysozyme when their outer membrane is permeabilized. so far, three lysozyme inhibitor families have been described: the ivy (inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme) family, the mlic/plic (membrane-associated/periplasmic l ...201021146533
enhancement of protective immunity in european eel (anguilla anguilla) against aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas sobria by a recombinant aeromonas outer membrane protein.to develop a vaccine, which can simultaneously prevent the diseases caused by various pathogenic bacteria in fish, we try to find a conserved outer membrane protein (omp) antigen from different bacterial pathogens. in this study, an omp fragment of 747 bp (named as omp-g), which was highly conserved in seven aeromonas omp sequences from the ncbi database, was amplified by pcr from one aeromonas sobria strain (b10) and two aeromonas hydrophila strains (b27 and b33) with the designed specific prim ...201021148192
diversity of clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases in aeromonas spp. from the seine river, paris, france.environmental aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the seine river, in paris, france, in november 2009. selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16s rrna and rpob genes. pcr and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (esbl) genes were identified in 71% of the aeromon ...201021149627
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201021154843
colorimetric detection of pcr product with dnazymes induced by 5'-nuclease activity of dna polymerases. 201121161971
aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.members of the genus aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. this review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. antimicrobial resistance and therap ...201021163298
potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp.this study reports the effect of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diet on cyprinus carpio (52 +/- 2 g, n = 250) inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 106 cfu ml(-1)). on day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the basal diet (iu) or with diets supplemented with triherbal extract (h), sporolac (s) or lactobacillus (l). a fifth group of non-infected fish fed with the basal diet was used as a control. haematology and immunolo ...201021166313
atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in the black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli hilgendorf, in korea.cultured black rockfish, sebastes schlegeli, suffered mass mortalities during winter 2008 and spring 2009 in korea, showing clinical signs of ulcer lesions and haemorrhages over their body surface. the aetiological agent was identified as aeromonas salmonicida (strains rfas-1, -2 and -3), which is a non-pigmented, slow-growing bacterium. phenotypes of rfas strains showed variation, while 16s rrna, gyrb, rpod, dnaj and reca gene sequences of all the strains were affiliated to a. salmonicida. in p ...201121166824
inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.the present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when a. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (nacl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of asp is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of a. sobria (asp) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. in this study, the effect of salt in ...201121175775
microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant pseudomonas putida.polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthesis genes phapcj(ac) cloned from aeromonas caviae were transformed into pseudomonas putida ktoy06δc, a mutant of p. putida kt2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant p. putida ktoy06δc (phapcj(a.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length pha block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (phb) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3hhp) as another block. the novel block polymer was st ...201021181145
the effects of pollution on fish health.potentially harmful substances-e.g. pesticides, heavy metals and hydrocarbons-are often released into the aquatic environment. when large quantities of pollutants are released there may be an immediate impact as measured by large-scale sudden mortalities of aquatic organisms, e.g. fish kills resulting from contamination of waterways with agricultural pesticides. lower levels of discharge may result in an accumulation of the pollutants in aquatic organisms. the end results, which may occur long a ...199821182713
bacteriocin activity and probiotic activity of aeromonas media.three strains of aeromonas media (161, a164 and a199) were shown to be active in-vitro producers of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (blis). for example, the producer strain, aer. media a199, displayed antagonistic activity against all strains tested of aer. caviae, aer. hydrophila, aer. salmonicida, aer. veronii var. sobria, listonella anguillarum, photobacterium damsella, eight species of vibrio and yersinia ruckeri. because of this wide-ranging activity against fish/shellfish pathogens, ...199821182714
genome sequence of the emerging pathogen aeromonas caviae.aeromonas caviae is a gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. here we present the first genome sequence of an a. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.201021183677
clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome of gram-negative bacterial spinal epidural abscess in adults.gram-negative (g(-)) bacterial spinal epidural abscess (sea) in adults is uncommon. of the 42 adult patients with bacterial sea admitted to the chang gung memorial hospital - kaohsiung, between 2003 and 2007, 12 with g(-) sea were included in this study. of these 12 patients, seven were men and five were women; their ages ranged between 17 years and 81 years (median=72.5 years, mean=62.5 years). the patients were admitted at different stages of symptom onset (four were in the acute stage and fou ...201021185728
effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. there is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. but problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clo ...201021186711
[comparasion of two methods for recovery of aeromonas spp. in feces from agar cin (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin)]. 201021191564
influence of alginic acid and fucoidan on the immune responses of head kidney leukocytes in cod.the present study investigated the immunomodulatory activities of alginic acid and fucoidan, both derived from brown seaweeds, on selected cellular immune responses and antibacterial activity of head kidney (hk) leukocytes of cod, gadus morhua. primary cultures of hk leukocytes were incubated with either 10 or 100 μg ml(-1) of the substances and the effects on respiratory burst, cellular proliferation, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and cellular myeloperoxidase were measured at 3- and 24 ...201021191809
mortality of centrarchid fishes in the potomac drainage: survey results and overview of potential contributing factors.skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the south branch of the potomac river in 2002. since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the shenandoah and monocacy rivers. despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens aer ...201021192549
development of an aeromonas hydrophila  infection model using the protozoan tetrahymena thermophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a motile bacterium present in numerous freshwater habitats worldwide and is frequently the cause of infections in fish and numerous terrestrial vertebrates including humans. because a. hydrophila is also a component of the normal intestinal flora of healthy fish, virulence mechanisms are not well understood. considering that fish models used for the examination of a. hydrophila genes associated with virulence have not been well defined, we established an infection model u ...201121204941
melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, pacifastacus leniusculus, by aeromonas hydrophila ah-3.aeromonas hydrophila is the most common aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. pathogenesis of aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (lps), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. several mutant strains of a. hydrophila ah-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, pacifastacus leni ...201021206752
aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas hydrophila as part of a polymicrobial infection following a traumatic fall into freshwater.amikacin is a first-line treatment for aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. there are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant aeromonas spp. we report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins.201121209173
application of ultrasound in vaccination against goldfish ulcer disease: a pilot study.antigenicity and immunogenicity of aeromonas salmonicida soluble a-layer protein (ap) and formalin-killed bacterin were assessed in goldfish (carassius auratus l.) by applying ultrasound-immersion (usi) and injection (inj) routes. no adjuvant was used in usi while ifa was used in inj. the usi treated fish did not produce detectable acquired antibodies; however, this group stimulated by ap proved to be best protected against challenge infection with a homologous virulent strain of a. salmonicida. ...201121211585
fulminant fatal bacteremic pneumonia due to aeromonas hydrophila in a non-immunocompromised woman.a 75-year-old woman became ill suddenly with pneumonia two weeks after operation for colon cancer. despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit she died six hours after admission and 12 hours after her first symptom. autopsy showed necrotizing pneumonia. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lung at autopsy. in patients who develop a fulminant disease of pneumonia, particularly those who have underlying medical conditions, aeromon ...201121212576
bacterial diseases of crabs: a review.bacterial diseases of crabs are manifested as bacteremias caused by organisms such as vibrio, aeromonas, and a rhodobacteriales-like organism or tissue and organ tropic organisms such as chitinoclastic bacteria, rickettsia intracellular organisms, chlamydia-like organism, and spiroplasma. this paper provides general information about bacterial diseases of both marine and freshwater crabs. some bacteria pathogens such as vibrio cholerae and vibrio vulnificus occur commonly in blue crab haemolymph ...201121215353
diversity and characterization of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria associated with non-native species, white-leg shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), and native species, black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon), intensively cultured in thailand.this study aimed at surveying prevalence of oxytetracycline (otc)-resistant bacteria in the white-leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon, intensively cultured in thailand. we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial isolates, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of otc, the occurrence of major otc-resistant genes and multiple-antibiotic resistance in the isolates.201121219554
detection of three virulence genes alt, ahp and aera in aeromonas hydrophila and their relationship with actual virulence to zebrafish.to evaluate the frequency of the aerolysin (aera), cytotoxic enterotoxin (alt) and serine protease (ahp) genes in aeromonas hydrophila isolates from different sources, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these genes and virulence of a. hydrophila in zebrafish.201121219556
salmonella typhimurium st213 is associated with two types of inca/c plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.salmonella typhimurium st213 was first detected in the mexican typhimurium population in 2001. it is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blacmy-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. the objective of the current study was to examine the association between the st213 genotype and blacmy-2 plasmids.201121223599
structural insights into quinolone antibiotic resistance mediated by pentapeptide repeat proteins: conserved surface loops direct the activity of a qnr protein from a gram-negative bacterium.quinolones inhibit bacterial type ii dna topoisomerases (e.g. dna gyrase) and are among the most important antibiotics in current use. however, their efficacy is now being threatened by various plasmid-mediated resistance determinants. of these, the pentapeptide repeat-containing (prp) qnr proteins are believed to act as dna mimics and are particularly prevalent in gram-negative bacteria. predicted qnr-like proteins are also present in numerous environmental bacteria. here, we demonstrate that o ...201121227918
comparison of aeromonas salmonicida resistant and susceptible salmon families: a high immune response is beneficial for the survival against aeromonas salmonicida challenge.selective breeding has been employed to improve resistance to infectious diseases in aquaculture and it is of importance to investigate the expression profiles of immune genes together with complement activity of atlantic salmon with different genetic background in response to pathogens, in particular against aeromonas salmonicida. this study examined acute phase products, and several central t cell cytokines and a transcription factor in different tissues, namely head kidney, spleen and liver, ...201121232605
surface display of aeromonas hydrophila gapdh in attenuated vibrio anguillarum to develop a noval multivalent vector vaccine.displaying foreign antigens on the surface of attenuated or avirulent bacteria is an important strategy to develop live multivalent vector vaccines. in our previous work, several efficient surface display systems have been established based on outer membrane anchoring elements, which could successfully display heterologous proteins in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. in this work, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila lsa34 was fused to seven dis ...201121246232
a fatal case of necrotizing aeromonas schubertii fasciitis after penetrating injury. 201121247722
development of immunity in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) to aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic.the development and duration of immune protection against aeromonas hydrophila infections with garlic as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss was studied. rainbow trout fingerlings of 14 g average weight were fed with 0 g (=control), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days. physiological factors, biochemical, immunological, haematological parameters and electrolyte indices were evaluated after a further 14, 21 and 28 days before challenge with aeromonas hydroph ...201121255652
quorum sensing and c-di-gmp-dependent alterations in gene transcripts and virulence-associated phenotypes in a clinical isolate of aeromonas hydrophila.recently, we demonstrated that the luxs-based quorum sensing (qs) system (ai-2) negatively regulated the virulence of a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, while the ahyri-based (ai-1) n-acyl-homoserine lactone system was a positive regulator of bacterial virulence. thus, these qs systems had opposing effects on modulating biofilm formation and bacterial motility in vitro models and in vivo virulence in a speticemic mouse model of infection. in this study, we linked these two qs syste ...201121256953
detection of aaca-aphd, qaced1, mara, flor, and teta genes from multidrug-resistant bacteria: comparative analysis of real-time multiplex pcr assays using evagreen(®) and sybr(®) green i dyes.we have developed multiplex real-time pcr assays that utilize dna-intercalating dyes, sybr green i (sg) and evagreen (eg), with two primer sets (set 1=qaced1, teta and aaca-aphd; set 2=teta, mara, and flor) to simultaneously amplify the qaced1, teta, aaca-aphd, mara, and flor genes. validity of the multiplex pcr assays was confirmed by testing 83 bacterial isolates, including staphylococcus aureus (28 isolates), enterococcus spp. (17 isolates), salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (8 isolates ...201121256956
aeromonas hydrophila as a causative organism in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.most episodes of peritoneal dialysis (pd)-related peritonitis could be attributed to a single organism, but in almost 10% of peritonitis episodes multiple organisms are identified. polymicrobial peritonitis is often related to intra-abdominal pathology, and the prognosis may be poor. aeromonas spp. have rarely been identified as the causative pathogen in pd-related peritonitis, and a very small number of cases has been reported in the literature. these rod-shaped, gram-negative microorganisms ha ...201121269597
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.the safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16s-23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions (its) and the gyrase subunit b gene (gyrb) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne ...201121276629
molecular cloning and characterization of foxp3 in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).foxp3 is a t cell-specific transcription factor and plays a key role in the development of treg cells and in the immune regulatory process during inflammation. here we report cloning and characterization of the full-length cdna of atlantic salmon foxp3, which possesses a forkhead domain, a zinc finger domain and a leucine-zipper domain as its counterpart in mammals. foxp3 is highly expressed in thymus. furthermore, regulated expression was observed in head kidney cells in response to ß-glucan an ...201121276855
formation of new polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer in burkholderia sp.burkholderia sp. synthase has been shown to polymerize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb), 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenoic acid monomers. this study was carried out to evaluate the ability of burkholderia sp. usm (jcm 15050) and its transformant harboring the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase gene of aeromonas caviae to incorporate the newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) monomer. various culture parameters such as concentrations of nutrient rich medium, fructose and 4-methylval ...201121279348
amino-benzosuberone: a novel warhead for selective inhibition of human aminopeptidase-n/cd13.this paper describes the design and synthesis of compounds belonging to a novel class of highly selective mammalian cd13 inhibitors. racemic homologues of 3-amino-2-tetralone 1 were synthesised and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit the membrane-bound, zinc-dependent aminopeptidase-n/cd13 (ec 3.4.11.2). some of these novel non-peptidic compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme, with k(i) values in the low micromolar range in spite of their minimal size ...201121292493
the centromere site of the segregation cassette of broad-host-range plasmid ra3 is located at the border of the maintenance and conjugative transfer modules.ra3 is a low-copy-number, broad-host-range (bhr) conjugative plasmid of the incu incompatibility group isolated originally from aeromonas spp. a 4.9-kb fragment of ra3 is sufficient to stabilize an otherwise unstable replicon in escherichia coli. this fragment specifies the kora-incc-korb-orf11 operon coding for an active partition system related to the central control operon of incp-1 plasmids and found also in bhr environmental plasmids recently classified as the proma group. all four genes in ...201121296952
biomarker responses and disease susceptibility in juvenile rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss fed a high molecular weight pah mixture.juvenile rainbow trout were fed a diet containing an environmentally relevant mixture of 10 high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) at a dose of 0.66 or 7.82 µg pah · g fish(-1) · d(-1). at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d, biomarkers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation (ahr), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (erod) activity, and cytochrome p4501a (cyp1a)-associated staining increased 14- to 26-fold and 6- to 14-fold, respectively, in fish fed 7.82 µg pah · g fish (-1) ...201121298713
does domestication process affect stress response in juvenile eurasian perch perca fluviatilis?the objective was to evaluate the impact of domestication process on the physiological stress response of cultured eurasian perch confronted to a chronic stress situation. briefly, f1 and f4 juveniles were submitted to chronic confinement and investigated on days 5, 15 and 30. capture and 15min-anesthesia were imposed on fish to assess the effect of preceding confinement on acute stress response. on day 30, the fish were finally challenged with aeromonas hydrophila and sampled after 5 and 10 day ...201121300167
immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from alcaligenes faecalis fy-3 to crucian carp.a strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from weihe river in shaanxi province (108°03'e 34°14'n), which was identified as alcaligenes faecalis by 16s rrna analysis. a compound m showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. the structure of the compound m was elucidated using ft-ir, ei-ms, 1h nmr and 13c nmr spectra and identified as cyclo-(l-pro-gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product ...201121332568
a udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p galnac-1-p transferase (wecp) representing a new subgroup of the enzyme family.the aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 wecp represents a new class of udp-hexnac:polyprenol-p hexnac-1-p transferases. these enzymes use a membrane-associated polyprenol phosphate acceptor (undecaprenyl phosphate [und-p]) and a cytoplasmic udp-d-n-acetylhexosamine sugar nucleotide as the donor substrate. until now, all the weca enzymes tested were able to transfer udp-glcnac to the und-p. in this study, we present in vitro and in vivo proofs that a. hydrophila ah-3 wecp transfers galnac to und-p and is u ...201121335454
differentiation of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima): proximate chemical composition, fatty acid profile, trace minerals and antimicrobial resistance of contaminant bacteria.the proximate, cholesterol, fatty acid and trace mineral compositions in the flesh of farmed and wild turbot (psetta maxima) were evaluated. additionally, the potential influence of the use of antimicrobial agents in the bacteria carried by farmed turbot was investigated. for this purpose, a total of 144 pseudomonas spp. and 127 aeromonas spp. were isolated and tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. farmed turbot contained higher fat, cholesterol and cal ...201021339162
leech-transmitted ciprofloxacin-resistant aeromonas hydrophila. 201121339408
[biological properties of opportunistic bacteria in aquatic ecosystems].the paper gives the results of studying the enzymatic activity of bacteria in the microbial community of the lena river in the central part of yakutia (the town of yakutsk and its adjoining areas). the study properties were found in 31.8% of the bacteria. aeromonas had the highest enzymatic activity. high (22.0%) dnaase production rates were noted in enterobactericeae.201021341499
evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological w ...201121344093
[development of rapid detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification].loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay is a novel method of gene amplification with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity, which can be applied for disease diagnosis in shrimp aquaculture. the method is performed under isothermal conditions with a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences of the target. in the present study, according to the conservative regions of non-structural protein gene ns1, a set of four specific primers were designed, ...201021344755
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the complement component c6 gene in grass carp.the complement system, as a representative of innate immunity, plays a key role in the host defense against infections. c6 is the member of complement components creating the membrane attack complex (mac). in this study, we cloned and characterized the grass carp complement component c6 (gcc6) gene. our data showed that gcc6 gene contained a 2724bp open reading frame (orf), a 237bp 5'-untranslated region (utr) and a 219bp 3'-utr. the deduced amino acid sequence of gcc6 showed 77.6% and 58.9% ide ...201121353312
multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus aeromonas.a broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (mlpa) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of aeromonas. however, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. in the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all aeromonas species ...201121353754
antigen in chitosan coated liposomes enhances immune responses through parenteral immunization.to overcome the limitations of the use of conventional liposomes chitosan coated egg yolk lecithin based liposomes were used as antigen carrier through parenteral administration in two animal models such as fish and rabbit. extracellular proteins (ecps) antigen of aeromonas hydrophila encapsulated in liposomes became more stable and induced better immune response. it enhanced both adaptive and innate immune responses than other preparations both at 21, 42 and 63days post-immunization and suggest ...201121354354
complex evolutionary history of the aeromonas veronii group revealed by host interaction and dna sequence data.aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, and aeromonas allosaccharophila are a closely related group of organisms, the aeromonas veronii group, that inhabit a wide range of host animals as a symbiont or pathogen. in this study, the ability of various strains to colonize the medicinal leech as a model for beneficial symbiosis and to kill wax worm larvae as a model for virulence was determined. isolates cultured from the leech out-competed other strains in the leech model ...201121359176
effects of anthraquinone extract from rheum officinale bail on the physiological responses and hsp70 gene expression of megalobrama amblycephala under aeromonas hydrophila infection.we evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with anthraquinone extract (from rheum officinale bail) on the resistance to aeromonas hydrophila infection in megalobrama amblycephala. the fish were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (fed a standard diet) and a treatment group (standard diet supplemented with 0.1% anthraquinone extract) and fed for 10 weeks. we then challenged the fish with a. hydrophila and recorded mortality and changes in serum cortisol, lysozyme, alkaline p ...201121362482
molecular characterization of tetracycline- and quinolone-resistant aeromonas salmonicida isolated in korea.the antibiotic resistance of 16 aeromonas (a.) salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish and environmental samples in korea from 2006 to 2009 were investigated in this study. tetracycline or quinolone resistance was observed in eight and 16 of the isolates, respectively, based on the measured minimal inhibitory concentrations. among the tetracycline-resistant strains, seven of the isolates harbored teta gene and one isolate harbored tete gene. additionally, quinolone-resistance determining ...201121368562
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
cloning and characterization of timp-2b gene in grass carp.tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (timps) are the primary inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps) in tissues. in this study, a timp-2 gene was isolated from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella (citimp-2b) and characterized. this cdna sequence encoded a signal peptide, n- and c-terminal domains. citimp-2b is highly homologous to the orthologous in zebrafish and other teleosts, suggesting timp-2b is highly conserved during teleost evolution. citimp-2b gene is expressed in a wide range ...201121377537
structural characterization of the o-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of the fish pathogen aeromonas bestiarum strain p1s.the o-specific polysaccharide obtained by mild-acid degradation of lipopolysaccharide of aeromonas bestiarum p1s was studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the sequence of the sugar residues was determined using (1)h,(1)h noesy and (1)h,(13)c hmbc experiments. the o-specific polysaccharide was found to be a high-molecular-mass polysaccharide composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units of the structure [formula in text]. since small amounts of a term ...201121377659
common key acidogen populations in anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters: molecular identification and quantitative monitoring.bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) and real-time pcr techniques. the dgge results showed that bacterial populations related to aeromonas spp. and clostridium sticklandii emerged as common and prominent acidogens in all reactors. two real-time pcr prim ...201121377710
regulation of type vi secretion gene clusters by sigma54 and cognate enhancer binding proteins.type vi secretion systems (t6ss) are bacteriophage-derived macromolecular machines responsible for the release of at least two proteins in the milieu, which are thought to form an extracellular appendage. although several t6ss have been shown to be involved in the virulence of animal and plant pathogens, clusters encoding these machines are found in the genomes of most species of gram-negative bacteria, including soil, marine, and environmental isolates. t6ss have been associated with several ph ...201121378190
involvement of the gspab complex in assembly of the type ii secretion system secretin of aeromonas and vibrio species.the type ii secretion system (t2ss) functions as a transport mechanism to translocate proteins from the periplasm to the extracellular environment. the exea homologue in aeromonas hydrophila, gspa(ah), is an atpase that interacts with peptidoglycan and forms an inner membrane complex with the exeb homologue (gspb(ah)). the complex may be required to generate space in the peptidoglycan mesh that is necessary for the transport and assembly of the megadalton-sized exed homologue (gspd(ah)) secretin ...201121378198
dietary administration of bacillus thuringiensis on the cellular innate immune response of african catfish (clarias gariepinus) against aeromonas hydrophila.an experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) as a probiotic to enhance the cellular innate immune response of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus) challenged with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila.201121381499
application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in siliguri city of west bengal, india.sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in siliguri cityof west bengal, india. in regular surveys undertaken during june to august 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (qim) was applied to assess its quality raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samp ...201021387907
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas from pigs slaughtered for consumption in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal.in the present study, 710 isolates of aeromonas spp. have been collected from pig carcasses, diaphragm muscle, faeces, dehairing equipment and water in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal. the isolates were obtained from a total of 154 samples. all presumptive aeromonas isolates were subjected to eric-pcr analysis and those which presented a different pattern were taken and the species classified by gyrb gene sequencing. we have found the species a. hydrophila, a. salmonicida, a. bestiarum, ...201121402427
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
isolation and distribution of bacterial flora in farmed rainbow trout from mexico.trout farming is a growing aquaculture industry in mexico, with stock mainly supplied by the importation of eyed eggs. the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of bacterial isolations in farmed rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss from mexico. sixty-five farms distributed among seven states of mexico were included in the study. individual samples from gills, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were obtained from 563 apparently healthy fish. in total, 371 bacterial isolates were ...201021413508
painful purple plaques on the thighs of an immunosuppressed patient. 201121418277
application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (cstr) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. a successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. after an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. the performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of cod rates up to 95%. the residual tota ...201121419572
immunomodulatory effects of secondary metabolites from thermophilic anoxybacillus kamchatkensis xa-1 on carp, cyprinus carpio.a bacterial strain with putative immunomodulatory properties was isolated from xi'an hot springs in china. comparison of 16s rrna gene revealed a 97% similarity between the tested strain (designated xa-1) and anoxybacillus kamchatkensis. two compounds isolated from the secondary metabolites of xa-1 were identified by spectral data (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry) as: (1) cyclo (gly-l-pro) and (2) cyclo (l-ala-4-hydroxyl-l-pro). two cyclic dipeptides showed stimulatory ...201121421057
effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.we analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. fifty-seven bacterial 16s rdna clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) analysis. entomoplasma somnilux and bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included aeromonas, bacillus, clostr ...201121421302
occurrence, abundance and elimination of class 1 integrons in one municipal sewage treatment plant.integrons are elements that encode a site-specific recombination system that recognizes and captures mobile gene cassettes and are closely related to multiple resistances of environmental microorganisms. this study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of an activated sludge process to remove integrons. the prevalence and characteristics of class 1 integrons were investigated for bacterial species isolated from the activated sludge of nanjing jiangxinzhou sewage treatment plant (stp, china) ...201121431316
aeromonas spp. induce apoptosis of epithelial cells through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.we investigated interactions of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria and aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from faecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis, with ht29 intestinal epithelial cells. all strains were found to be cytotoxic to the cells. bacterial infection caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) and nitric oxide radical (no(-à)). the maximal levels of ros and no(-à) were 14 and 35 times, respectively, greater in cells infected with aeromonas spp. tha ...201121436367
factors affecting preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans to bacterial prey.to enhance our understanding of the factors affecting feeding selectivity of bacterivorous protists in aquatic systems, we examined the preference responses of the freshwater ciliate uronema nigricans towards three bacterial prey taxa, pseudomonas luteola, serratia rubidaea, and aeromonas hydrophila. potential factors influencing the predator-prey contact rate included the previous feeding history of the ciliate and physiological state of bacteria. preference indexes were obtained from multiple- ...200921462552
directed culturing of microorganisms using metatranscriptomics.the vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, metabolic capabilities, and role in the environment. high-throughput sequencing of rna transcripts (rna-seq) allows the investigation of the diverse physiologies from uncultured microorganisms in their natural habitat. here, we report the use of rna-seq for characterizing the metatranscriptome of the simple gut microbiome from the medicinal leech hirudo verbana and for utiliz ...201121467263
distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.we report on the mrna levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. the mrna levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida a449 or trypanosoma carassii. spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expressi ...201121474183
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.new gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were isolated from poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. the six gram-positive strains belong to bacillus, lysinibacillus and rhodococcus genera. the eight gram-negative strains belong to shewanella, aeromonas, pseudomonas and klebsiella genera. isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, e ...201121478643
k+ efflux, is required for histone-h3 dephosphorylation by listeria llo and other pore forming toxins.chromatin modification triggered by bacteria is a newly described mechanism by which pathogens impact host transcription. listeria monocytogenes dephosphorylates histone h3 through the action of listeriolysin o (llo), however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. here we show that an unrelated pore forming toxin, aeromonas aerolysin also provokes h3 dephosphorylation. as reported for aerolysin, we show that llo, and related toxins induce a pore-dependent k(+) efflux, and that this efflux is the ...201121482680
isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. the aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in tripoli, libya.201021483559
diversity of culturable chitinolytic bacteria from rhizospheres of agronomic plants in japan.a total of 100 isolates of chitinolytic bacteria were obtained from the rhizospheres of various agronomic plants, and the 16s rrna gene sequences of these isolates were determined. phylogenetic analyses revealed that 81 isolates belonged to the classes betaproteobacteria (39 isolates) and gammaproteobacteria (42 isolates). of the remaining 19 isolates, 16 belonged to the phylum firmicutes. clustering analysis identified 6 and 3 operational taxonomic units (otus) in gammaproteobacteria and betapr ...201121487197
structural modification of sanguinarine and chelerythrine and their antibacterial activity.in this study, five derivatives of sanguinarine (1) and chelerythrine (2) were prepared, with 1 and 2 as starting materials, by reduction, oxidation and nucleophilic addition to the iminium bond c=n(+). the structures of all compounds were elucidated on account of their ms, (1)h-nmr and (13)c-nmr data. the antibacterial activities of all compounds were screened, using staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, aeromonas hydrophila and pasteurella multocida as test bacteria. the minimum bacteriosta ...201121491327
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