PMID(sorted ascending)
subunit and small-molecule interaction of ribonucleotide reductases via surface plasmon resonance biosensor analyses.ribonucleotide reductase (rnr) synthesizes deoxyribonucleotides for dna replication and repair and is controlled by sophisticated allosteric regulation involving differential affinity of nucleotides for regulatory sites. we have developed a robust and sensitive method for coupling biotinylated rnrs to surface plasmon resonance streptavidin biosensor chips via a 30.5 a linker. in comprehensive studies on three rnrs effector nucleotides strengthened holoenzyme interactions, whereas substrate had n ...201020534631
defensin of the zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha): molecular structure, in vitro expression, antimicrobial activity, and potential functions.a 409 bp full length defensin gene was cloned and sequenced based on an expressed sequence tag (est) obtained from a normalized zebra mussel (dreissena polymorpha) foot cdna library developed in our laboratory. the d. polymorpha defensin (dpd) gene encoded a peptide with 76 amino acid residues. the mature dpd contains 54 amino acids with a fully functional insect defensin a domain. homologue searching against genbank database suggested that this dpd was phylogenetically close to defensins from a ...201020537393
a delta-class glutathione transferase from the chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis: cdna cloning, characterization and mrna expression.glutathione-s-transferases (gsts), a major superfamily of antioxidative enzymes, play an important role in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ros). the delta-class gst cdna was cloned and sequenced by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis. the 938 bp e. sinensis gst gene, encoding a polypeptide of 216 amino acids, showed significant similarity to homologous genes in insects. the deduced amino acid sequence of t ...201020538061
biosynthesis and mobilization of a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer produced by burkholderia sp. usm (jcm15050).we attempted to synthesize a polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) containing newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) monomer by using wild type burkholderia sp. usm (jcm15050) and its transformed strain harboring the pha synthase gene of aeromonas caviae (phac(ac)). the introduction of 3h4mv as a second monomer will improve the material properties of 3hb-based polymers. to promote the accumulation of pha containing 3h4mv monomer, isocaproic acid was provided as co-carbon source. approximately 1m ...201020541932
quorum sensing in aeromonas species isolated from patients in malaysia.bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules called n-acylhomoserine lactone (ahl) controls the expression of virulence determinants in many gram-negative bacteria. we determined ahl production in 22 aeromonas strains isolated from various infected sites from patients (bile, blood, peritoneal fluid, pus, stool and urine). all isolates produced the two principal ahls, n-butanoylhomoserine lactone (c4-hsl) and n-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). ten isolates also produced additional ahls. this re ...201120544198
identity, virulence genes, and clonal relatedness of aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea and drinking water.among 800 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea submitted by primary care centers for routine analysis to the hospital of león (nw spain) microbiology and parasitology service, 32 (4%) were tested positive for aeromonas spp. mixed infections with other enteric pathogens occurred in 12 patients. a. caviae was isolated from 23 clinical specimens. there were also patients infected with a. media, a. hydrophila, a. bestiarum, and a. veronii biovar veronii. all but three isolates carried one or ...201020549532
parasitic growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa in co-culture with the chitinolytic bacterium aeromonas hydrophila.polymer-degrading bacteria face exploitation by opportunistic bacteria that grow with the degradation products without investing energy into production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. this scenario was investigated with a co-culture of aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas aeruginosa with chitin as carbon, nitrogen and energy source. in single cultures, a. hydrophila could grow with chitin, while p. aeruginosa could not. co-cultures with both strains had a biphasic course. in the first phase ...201020553557
unraveling the mechanism of action of a new type iii secretion system effector aexu from aeromonas hydrophila.we recently characterized a t3ss effector, aexu, from a diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila, which exhibited adp-ribosyltransferase (adprt) activity. here we provided evidence that aexu also possessed gtpase-activating protein (gap) activity, which was mainly responsible for host cell apoptosis and disruption of actin filaments. earlier, we showed that the deltaaexu null mutant was attenuated in a mouse model, and we now demonstrated that while the parental a. hydrophila strain could b ...201020553837
in vitro study of possible microbial indicators for drowning: salinity and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood.numbers and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood samples mixed with water of various salinity levels were examined to determine the characteristics of species associated with salinity. water samples (total n=88) were collected from the midstream of two rivers (freshwater; n=10; salinity <0.05%), from around their estuaries (areas of freshwater, n=20, salinity <0.05%; areas of brackish water, n=20, salinity <0.05-3.1%; areas of marine water beyond the mouths of the rivers, n=28, salin ...201120554407
experimental challenge studies in vietnamese catfish, pangasianodon hypophthalmus (sauvage), exposed to edwardsiella ictaluri and aeromonas hydrophila.the two main diseases in the pangasius catfish industry are bacillary necrosis of pangasianodon (bnp) and motile aeromonas septicaemia (mas), where the aetiological agents have been identified as edwardsiella ictaluri and aeromonas hydrophila, respectively. in this study, apparently healthy pangasianodon hypophthalmus were exposed to e. ictaluri, a. hydrophila or both bacterial species by intraperitoneal injection or immersion. there were 20 fish per treatment group, and the bacterial isolates u ...201020572902
the eye fly siphunculina funicola (diptera: chloropidae) as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in thailand.the oriental eye fly siphunculina funicola (1.0-1.6 mm) is extremely annoying to humans and domestic animals, feeding on mucous membranes, secretions, wounds, eyes, and other moist surfaces of the host body. in many rural areas of thailand heavy populations of this fly prevail where they aggregate on a variety of hanging substrates, such as strings, nest trailings, electrical lines, decorations, ropes, cob webs, clothes hangers, automobile radio antennae and other items in open shade close to th ...201020578483
effect of withania somnifera (l. dunal) root as a feed additive on immunological parameters and disease resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in labeo rohita (hamilton) fingerlings.the present study evaluated the efficacy of dietary doses of withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root powder on immunological parameters and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila infections in indian major carp, labeo rohita fingerlings. fishes were fed with dry diet containing 0 gkg(-1) (control), 1 gkg(-1) (t(1)), 2 gkg(-1) (t(2)) and 3 gkg(-1) (t(3)) w. somnifera root powder for 42 days. immunological (nbt level, phagocytic activity, total immunoglobulin and lyso ...201020580830
identifying diazotrophs by incorporation of nitrogen from (15)n(2) into rna.the diversity and abundance of active diazotrophs was investigated in a new zealand pulp and paper wastewater by enrichment with (15)n(2). purified (15)n-rna was analysed by reverse transcription, molecular cloning and sequence analysis of 16s rrna to reveal a diverse community of bacteria as indicated by a shannon weaver index value of > 2.8. the major class represented in the enriched culture were the gamma-proteobacteria at 85% with a secondary group of the phylum firmicutes present at 8.2%, ...201020582411
acute postoperative infection with aeromonas hydrophila after using medical leeches for treatment of venous congestion.venous convulsion after reconstructive microsurgery procedures is one major complication a surgeon has to deal with. today, especially in the field of reconstructive microsurgery, medicinal leech therapy enjoys a renaissance. the potential risks such as infections associated with leech therapy are generally underestimated and not sufficiently discussed in literature. method/patients: we present five male patients with an average age of 47 years. all patients suffered from a trauma incident, whic ...201020585793
characterization of the active site and coenzyme binding pocket of the monomeric udp- galactose 4'- epimerase of aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila is a bacterial pathogen that infects a large number of eukaryotes, including humans. the udp-galactose 4'-epimerase (gale) catalyzes interconversion of udpgalactose to udp-glucose and plays a key role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. this makes it an important virulence determinant, and therefore a potential drug target. our earlier studies revealed that unlike other gales, gale of a. hydrophila exists as a monomer. this uniqueness necessitated elucidation of its structur ...201020587332
investigation of mineral water springs of miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) with cultivation-dependent microbiological methods.water samples of ten mineral water springs at miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) were examined during 2005-2006 using cultivation-dependent microbiological methods. the results of standard hygienic bacteriological tests showed that the hargita spring had perfect and five other springs had microbiologically acceptable water quality (zsögöd-, nagy-borvíz-, taploca-, szentegyháza- and lobogó springs). the water of borsáros spring was exceptionable (high germ count, presence of enterococc ...201020587384
bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in uruguayan children.diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of shigella, campylobacter, yersinia and salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. the aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine ...201020589332
structural investigation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.mass spectrometric studies are now playing a leading role in the elucidation of lipopolysaccharide (lps) structures through the characterization of antigenic polysaccharides, core oligosaccharides and lipid a components including lps genetic modifications. the conventional ms and ms/ms analyses together with cid fragmentation provide additional structural information complementary to the previous analytical experiments, and thus contribute to an integrated strategy for the simultaneous character ...201020589944
chemical and structural characterization of hydroxamate siderophore produced by marine vibrio the present study, 22 different bacteria were isolated from open ocean water from the gulf of mannar, india. of the 22 isolates, 4 were identified as vibrio spp. (vm1, vm2, vm3 and vm4) and found to produce siderophores (iron-binding chelators) under iron-limited conditions. different media were found to have an influence on siderophore production. maximum siderophore production was observed with vm1 isolate in mm9 salts medium at 48 h of incubation. the isolate was confirmed as vibrio harvey ...201120602146
live recombinant lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing aerolysin genes d1 and d4 for protection against aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).to evaluate a live recombinant lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing aerolysin genes d1 (lac-d1ae) and/or d4 (lac-d4ae) in protection against aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).201020602654
[clinical relevance of time-to-positivity in bactec9240 blood culture system].continuous monitoring systems have allowed determination of the time-to-positivity (ttp). we evaluated the clinical relevance of ttp in the bactec9240 system (becton-dickinson, usa).201020603588
cloning, expression in escherichia coli, and enzymatic properties of laccase from aeromonas hydrophila wl-11.a strain wl-11 with high laccase activity was isolated from activated sludge collected from the effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. it was identified as aeromonas hydrophila by physiological test and 16s rdna sequence analysis. a gene encoding of laccase from a newly isolated aeromonas hydrophila wl-11 was cloned and characterized. nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame of 1605 bp encoding a polypeptide comprised of 534 amino acids. the primary structure ...201020617743
water soluble fraction of tinospora cordifolia leaves enhanced the non-specific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus.the present paper describes the effect of water-soluble fraction of the leaves of the indian medicinal plant, tinospora cordifolia (miers) on the non-specific immunity and disease resistance in oreochromis mossambicus (peters). fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0, 6, 60 or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight, of the water soluble fraction. the non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase) responses ...201020624469
bio-reduction of fe(iii) ores using three pure strains of aeromonas hydrophila, serratia fonticola and clostridium celerecrescens and a natural consortium.the present work describes a research approach to the anaerobic bioleaching of fe(iii) ores. three strains (serratia fonticola, aeromonas hydrophila and clostridium celerecrescens) isolated from an acidic abandoned mine were selected to test their ability to reduce dissimilatory fe(iii). total iron bio-reduction was achieved after 48h using either the consortium or the aeromonas cultures. in the latter case, there was no evidence of precipitates and fe(ii) remained in solution at neutral ph thro ...201020627716
molecular quantification of virulence gene-containing aeromonas in water samples collected from different drinking water treatment processes.pathogenic species of aeromonas produce a range of virulence factors, including aerolysin, cytotonic enterotoxins, and serine protease, to cause acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans and animals. recognizing that not all aeromonas strains are pathogenic, in this study, we proposed to evaluate aeromonas removal effectiveness based on the presence of virulence gene-containing aeromonas as a proper means to assess microbial risk of aeromonas. we developed and applied real-time pcr as ...201120632090
clinical isolates of aeromonas veronii biovar veronii harbor a nonfunctional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of vibrio parahaemolyticus.thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin encoded by the trh gene is considered a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. in this study, we report the presence of a trh homolog in three clinical isolates of aeromonas veronii biovar veronii. the presence of a trh homolog in these strains of a. veronii was confirmed by pcr, followed by cloning, sequencing and colony hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. dna sequence analysis revealed that ...201020636974
high diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in an urban river sediment habitat.antibiotic-resistant bacteria (arb) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of arb in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. we isolated 56 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in china. all strains were confirmed for esbl-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and mic determination. of the isolated s ...201020639374
microbial contamination of disinfectants used for intermittent self-catheterization.we investigated the microbial contamination of 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution used in catheter kits for intermittent self-catheterization. of 20 samples examined, 12 (60.0%) were contaminated with 8.8 x 10(2)-3.1 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml. the contaminants were pseudomonas fluorescens, burkholderia cepacia, and aeromonas spp. these results showed that 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution used for the lubrication/disinfection of catheters for self-catheterization is susceptible ...201020657069
implications of faecal indicator bacteria for the microbiological assessment of roof-harvested rainwater quality in southeast queensland, australia.the study aimed to evaluate the suitability of escherichia coli, enterococci, and clostridium perfringens for assessing the microbiological quality of roof-harvested rainwater and assessing whether the concentrations of these faecal indicators can be used to predict the presence or absence of specific zoonotic bacterial or protozoan pathogens. from a total of 100 samples tested, 58%, 83%, and 46% of samples were found to be positive for, respectively, e. coli, enterococci, and clostridium perfri ...201020657617
vanillin, a potential agent to prevent biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane.reverse osmosis (ro) membrane systems are widely used in water purification plants. reduction in plant performance due to biofilm formation over the membrane is an inherent problem. as quorum sensing (qs) mechanisms of microorganisms have been reported to be involved in the formation of biofilm, ways are sought for quorum quenching (qq) and thereby prevention of biofilm formation. in this study using a chemostat culture run for seven days in a cdc reactor it was found that a natural qq compound, ...201020661790
[the midgut bacterial flora in lab-reared anopheles sinensis].to screen gram-negative bacteria in the midguts of lab-reared anopheles sinensis at 3 development stages (larva, unfed adult and engorged adult).201020666322
exposure to sublethal concentration of glyphosate or atrazine-based herbicides alters the phagocytic function and increases the susceptibility of silver catfish fingerlings (rhamdia quelen) to aeromonas hydrophila challenge.the resistance of fish to microorganisms challenge depends mainly on the efficacy of the immune response. most studies on the natural immune response of fish have focused on the effect of diets and immunostimulants. few studies correlated the presence of commonly used agrichemical and susceptibility to infection by aquatic microorganism. thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of glyphosate and atrazine-based herbicides on immune cell phagocytosis and susceptibility of silver catfish to ...201020685618
laetiporus sulphureus lectin and aerolysin protein family.the parasitic mushroom laetiporus sulphureus produces a family of lectins (lsl's) sharing 80-90% sequence identity that possesses a low but significant sequence similarity to the bacterial pore-forming toxins mosquitocidal toxin mtx-2 from bacillus sphaericus and a toxin from clostridium septicum. the crystal structure of one member of the l. sulphureus lectins family (lsla) reveals unexpected structural similarities to the 1-pore-forming toxins from the aerolysin family, namely, aerolysin from ...201020687481
infectious diseases in end-stage liver disease patients.patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. these defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. there should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid s ...201020691380
production of p(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate) terpolymers using a chimeric pha synthase in recombinant ralstonia eutropha and pseudomonas putida.recombinant strains of ralstonia eutropha and pseudomonas putida harboring a chimeric polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase, which consisted of pha synthases of aeromonas caviae and r. eutropha, produced 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb)-based pha copolymers comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and 3-hydroxyoctanoate units from dodecanoate (87-97 mol % 3hb), indicating that the chimeric pha synthase possesses desirable substrate specificity leading to the production of 3hb-rich copolymers.201020699558
dynamics of aeromonas species isolated from wastewater treatment system.aeromonas are widely distributed in the aquatic environment, and are considered to be emerging organisms that can produce a series of virulence factors. the present study was carried out in a sanitary sewage stabilization pond treatment system, located in lins, state of são paulo, brazil. most probable number was applied for estimation of the genus aeromonas. colony isolation was carried out on blood agar ampicillin and confirmed by biochemical characterization. aeromonas species were isolated i ...201020705981
evaluation of a bwtk for detection of total coliforms, e. coli and emerging pathogens from drinking water: comparison with standard mpn method.a defined substrate method media in bacteriological water testing kit (bwtk) has been developed to recover and detect the presence/absence of total coliforms and emerging pathogens from drinking water without the need for the confirmatory or complete tests. this method is based on technology that uses a hydrolysable substrate as a specific indicator- nutrient for the target microbes. to perform the test, one only has to add water to the ingredients in the bwtk and incubate at room temperature fo ...201020706015
development and evaluation of a multiplex pcr assay for simultaneous detection of flavobacterium psychrophilum, yersinia ruckeri and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in culture fisheries.bacterial cold water disease, enteric red mouth disease and frunculosis are the common bacterial diseases of fish worldwide. the etiologic agents of these diseases are flavobacterium (f.) psychrophilum, yersinia (y.) ruckeri and aeromonas (a.) salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, respectively. in this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-pcr) method with yer8/10-fer3/4-fp1/3 primer pairs which can identify these fish pathogens simultaneously was developed and optimized. in optimized condit ...201020706031
screening of antibacterial activity of mucus extract of snakehead fish, channa striatus (bloch).the objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the antimicrobial properties of the mucus extract of snakehead fish, channa striatus against selected human and fish pathogenic microbes.201020707287
quorum sensing in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase asai on bacterial virulence.the gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida possesses the luxir-type quorum sensing (qs) system, termed asair. in this study the role of qs in a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. five wild-type asa strains induced the n-acyl-homoserinelactone (ahl) monitor bacteria. hplc-hr-ms analysis identified only one type of ahl, n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl). a knock out mutant of asai, constructed by allelic exchange, did n ...201120708354
the influence of surfactants on cell surface properties of aeromonas hydrophila during diesel oil this study the capacity of the newly isolated environmental strain aeromonas hydrophila was evaluated. the influence of three surfactants: rhamnolipides, saponins and triton x-100 on cell surface properties of the a. hydrophila environmental strain and the biodegradation process of diesel oil was studied. the surface activities in water, a mineral salts medium and in the biological system of all considered surfactants were estimated by means of equilibrium surface tension experiments. the obt ...201020708388
a lipase with broad temperature range from an alkaliphilic gamma-proteobacterium isolated in greenland.a gamma-proteobacterium related to the genera alteromonadales and pseudomonadales, isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in greenland, has been shown to produce a lipase active between 5 degrees c and 80 degrees c, with optimal activity at 55 degrees c and ph 8. pcr-based screening of genomic dna from the isolated bacterium, followed by genome walking, resulted in two complete open reading frames, which were predicted to encode a lipase and its helper protein, a lipase foldase. the amino ...201020718291
cytotoxins of the human pathogen aeromonas hydrophila trigger, via the nlrp3 inflammasome, caspase-1 activation in macrophages.aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative pathogen that causes serious infectious disease in humans. a. hydrophila induces apoptosis in infected macrophages, but the host proinflammatory responses triggered by macrophage death are largely unknown. here, we demonstrate that the infection of mouse macrophages with a. hydrophila triggers the activation of caspase-1 and release of il-1β. caspase-1 activation was abrogated in macrophages deficient in nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 ...201020722078
discovery of serum l-amino acid oxidase in the rockfish sebastes schlegeli: isolation and biochemical have a complex innate defense mechanism against microbial invasion. in particular, epidermal mucus and serum in fish play important roles in innate immunity and contain a variety of bioactive substances such as complements, lectins and lysozymes, involved in host defense. recently, l-amino acid oxidases (laos) with antibacterial activity were isolated from the skin and/or gill mucous secretions of rockfish, great sculpin and flounder, and were identified to be a novel type of antibacterial ...201020728563
genotyping of aeromonas hydrophila by box elements.pcr-based dna fingerprinting techniques were evaluated to genotype eight diseased, particularly normal and environmental isolates of aeromonas hydrophila. pcr-based fingerprinting method has an advantage of having repetitive sequence also called box elements that are interspersed throughout the genome in diverse bacterial species. the box-pcr fingerprinting technique was evaluated for the discrimination of different isolates of a. hydrophila. all the studied isolates have shown major banding pat ...201020734813
determination of distinctive carbohydrate signatures obtained from the aeromonas hydrophila (chemotype ii) core oligosaccharide pinpointing the presence of the 4-o-phosphorylated 5-o-linked kdo reducing end group using electrospray ionization quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.the electrospray quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometric (esi-qqtof-ms) structural elucidation of the core oligosaccharide of aeromonas hydrophila (chemotype ii) lipopolysaccharide has been investigated and it was demonstrated that it contained an 4-o-phosphorylated kdo reducing end group, which was glycosylated by the remaining outer core oligosaccharide through its o-5 position. after releasing the core oligosaccharide from the native lps with acid, the phosphorylated kdo resid ...201020740521
role of hcp, a type 6 secretion system effector, of aeromonas hydrophila in modulating activation of host immune cells.recently, we reported that the type 6 secretion system (t6ss) of aeromonas hydrophila ssu plays an important role in bacterial virulence in a mouse model, and immunization of animals with the t6ss effector haemolysin co-regulated protein (hcp) protected them against lethal infections with wild-type bacteria. additionally, we showed that the mutant bacteria deleted for the vash gene within the t6ss gene cluster did not express the hcp gene, while the vask mutant could express and translocate hcp, ...201020798163
purification of a toxic cysteine protease produced by pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow extracellular lethal toxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila strain rt860715k originally isolated from diseased rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) was purified by using fast protein liquid chromatography system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange columns. the toxin was a cysteine protease, inhibited by l -cysteine, iodoacetic acid, n -ethylamleimide, p-chloromercuibenzene-sulfonic acid and n-α-p-tosyl-1-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (tlck), and showed maximal activity ...201020806257
enhanced chloroplast transgene expression in a nuclear mutant of chlamydomonas.chloroplast transformation in microalgae offers great promise for the production of proteins of pharmaceutical interest or for the development of novel biofuels. for many applications, high level expression of transgenes is desirable. we have transformed the chloroplast of chlamydomonas reinhardtii with two genes, acrv and vapa, which encode antigens from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. the promoters and 5' untranslated regions of four chloroplast genes were compared for their ability t ...201120809927
the effects of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon retene on rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response.the objective of this study was to examine the immune toxicity of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) in rainbow trout. retene is a common alkyl pah associated with combustion of terrestrial plants or industrial effluents. rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 0, 1, or 10mg/kg of retene and sampled at 21d. within each retene treatment, co-injection of formalin-killed aeromonas salmonicida or a phosphate buffered ...201020810174
[taxonomic position of certain representatives of sulphate-reducing corrosive microbial community].sulfate-reducing bacteria and their heterotrophic satellites have been isolated from the biofilm formed on steel by sulfidogenic corrosive microbial community. bacteria were characterized according to phenotypical features and investigated by the methods of molecular-genetic analysis. in accordance with the phenotypical features the studied strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria were related to desulfovibrio genus, gram-positive strains of heterotrophic satellites were related to bacillus genus, b. ...201020812503
an ancient molecule with novel function: alanine aminotransferase as a lipopolysaccharide binding protein with bacteriocidal activity.alanine aminotransaminase (alt) has been identified from bacteria to plants to animals including humans. the increase in serum alt is regarded as an index for clinical diagnosis of liver function in humans. however, alt elevation is also reported in non-liver injury conditions and in apparently healthy people, suggesting it may play a fundamental role physiologically. herein we isolated an alt homolog, amphialt, from branchiostoma japonicus, an intermediatary species from invertebrates to verteb ...201120816894
immunomodulatory effect of aegle marmelos leaf extract on freshwater fish cyprinus carpio infected by bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila.aquatic organisms (especially fish) require potent defense mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogen invasion and disease formation. the use of immunostimulants in fish culture can prevent the diseases through augmentation of both specific and non-specific immunity.201020818950
comparison of chromogenic biolog rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of shigella spp. from foods.shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. however, it remains a challenge to isolate shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas (rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of shigella spp. in foods. all four shigella species, s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. dysenteriae, and s. boydii, were studied. rainbow agar was compare ...201020819355
lead distributions and risks in new orleans following hurricanes katrina and rita.during the last four years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding the effects that hurricanes katrina and rita had on contaminant distribution and redistribution in new orleans, louisiana, usa, and the surrounding gulf coast area. elevated concentrations were found for inorganic contaminants (including as, fe, pb, and v), several organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and volatiles) and high concentration of bioaerosols, particularly aeromonas and vibrio ...201020821590
immobilization of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica on mg2+/al3+ layered double hydroxide particles.a novel biomaterial formed by the immobilization of the aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) on synthetic mg2+ and al3+ ion-containing layered double hydroxide (ldh) particles was prepared. immobilization of aap on the ldh particles in a buffered, aqueous mixture is rapid such that the maximum loading capacity, 1×10(-9) moles of aap/mg ldh, is achieved in a few minutes. x-ray powder diffraction of ldh samples before and after treatment with aap indicates that the enzyme does not inte ...201020825230
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: usefulness for taxonomy and epidemiology.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) mass spectrometry (ms) is a powerful tool for the species and subspecies classification of a broad spectrum of bacteria, including gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococcus, streptococcus and listeria, and gram-negative bacteria such as neisseria, salmonella, aeromonas, campylobacter and helicobacter. maldi-tof ms has also been used for the rapid identification and typing of potential bioterrorism agents, including coxiel ...201020825435
yeast extract, brewer's yeast and spirulina in diets for labeo rohita fingerlings affect haemato-immunological responses and survival following aeromonas hydrophila challenge.a feeding trial was conducted for 60days to study the immunomodulatory role of three different immunostimulants yeast extract (ye), brewer's yeast (by) and spirulina (sp) in labeo rohita fingerlings. four hundred and fifty fingerlings (avg. wt 3.35±0.15g) were randomly distributed in ten treatments and fed with either of ten iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric semi-purified diets, prepared with three incremental levels (1%, 2% and 4%) of different immunostimulants except the control. growth paramete ...201020825959
electrochemical detection of foodborne pathogen aeromonas hydrophila by dna hybridization biosensor.the paper describes an electrochemical dna biosensor used for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila. this opportunistic pathogen is recognized as an emerging foodborne hazard and is associated with a variety of virulence factors including production of cytotoxic enterotoxin aerolysin. the genosensor recognition layer was prepared using mixed self-assembled monolayer (sam) consisting of thiolated single-stranded dna probe (ssdna) and diluent molecules--mercaptoalcohol: mercaptoethanol (mce) or me ...201020829023
total and pathogenic vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp: fast and reliable quantification by real-time pcr.vibrio parahaemolyticus is found in aquatic environments and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to seafood consumption worldwide. we evaluated a quantitative real-time pcr (q-pcr) assay with hydrolysis probes, to determine whether this method could be used for the efficient counting of total, tdh and trh-positive v. parahaemolyticus in shrimps. we assessed the specificity of this assay, using 62 strains from 12 non target bacterial species of the vibrio, photobacterium, shewanella and a ...201020843573
zebrafish mast cells possess an fcɛri-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.we previously identified a zebrafish mast cell (mc) lineage and now aim to determine if these cells function analogously in innate and adaptive immunity like their mammalian counterparts. intraperitoneal (ip) injection of compound 48/80 or live aeromonas salmonicida resulted in significant mc degranulation evident histologically and by increased plasma tryptase compared with saline-injected controls (p=0.0006, 0.005, respectively). pre-treatment with ketotifen abrogated these responses (p=0.0004 ...201120849876
molecular characterization and functional analysis of myd88 in chinese soft-shelled turtle trionyx sinensis.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is one of the key adaptor proteins to signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in this study, the myd88 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) (tmyd88) was identified, representing the fist example from reptile species. the tmyd88 has a 894-bp orf and encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acids including a typical death domain (dd) at the n-terminus and a conservative toll/il-1r (tir) domain at the ...201120850547
identification and pathogenicity of aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia oreochromis niloticus.thirty-six strains, numbered from py01 to py36, were isolated from six moribund oreochromis niloticus. the biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of aeromonas sobria on the basis of api 20e and biolog gn system. furthermore, gyrb sequence of strain py36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with a. sobria in genbank. antibiotic-resistance of strain py36 was assessed by the kirby-bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was suscept ...201120853167
transcriptome and expression profiling analysis revealed changes of multiple signaling pathways involved in immunity in the large yellow croaker during aeromonas hydrophila infection.the large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in china suffering from severe outbreaks of infectious disease caused by marine bacteria such as aeromonas hydrophila (a. hydrophila), resulting in great economic losses. however, the mechanisms involved in the immune response of this fish to bacterial infection are not fully understood. to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune response to such pathogenic bacteria, we used high-throughput ...201020858287
exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.this study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (mfcs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. phylogenetic tree analysis on 16s rrna gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized mfcs were gamma-proteobacteria aeromonas punctata niu-p9, pseudomonas plecoglossicida niu-y3, pseudomonas koreensis niu-x8, acinetobacter junii niu-y8, stenotropho ...201120859654
influence of microbial interactions and eps/polysaccharide composition on nutrient removal activity in biofilms formed by strains found in wastewater treatment systems.the study of biofilm function, structure and microbial interactions might help to improve our understanding of biofilm wastewater treatment processes. however, few reports specifically address the influence of interactions within multispecies biofilms on microbial activity and biofilm composition. thus, the relationship between biofilm formation, denitrification activity, phosphorus removal and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (eps), exopolysaccharides and the bacterial comm ...201020869860
isolation and characterization of bacteria from the gut of bombyx mori that degrade cellulose, xylan, pectin and starch and their impact on digestion.bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae) have been domesticated and widely used for silk production. it feeds on mulberry leaves. mulberry leaves are mainly composed of pectin, xylan, cellulose and starch. some of the digestive enzymes that degrade these carbohydrates might be produced by gut bacteria. eleven isolates were obtained from the digestive tract of b. mori, including the gram positive bacillus circulans and gram negative proteus vulgaris, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, citro ...201020874394
altered hematological and immunological parameters in silver catfish (rhamdia quelen) following short term exposure to sublethal concentration of glyphosate.using agrichemicals to control unwanted species has become a necessary and common worldwide practice to improve crop production. although most currently used agrichemicals are considered relatively safe, continuous usage contributes for soil and water contamination and collateral toxic effects on aquatic species. few studies correlated the presence of agrichemicals on fish blood cells and natural immune system. thus, in this study, silver catfish (rhamdia quelen) were exposed to sublethal concen ...201020883798
in vitro adherence of two candidate probiotics from atlantic cod and their interference with the adhesion of two pathogenic bacteria.the potential of two candidate probiotic bacteria (gp21 and gp12), isolated from the gut of atlantic cod, to adhere to primary cultures of the epithelial cells from the different regions of the intestine and to interfere with the adhesion of two pathogens, vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were investigated. the intestinal isolates showed clear preference in adhering to the cells from the different intestine segments. gp12 adhered strongly to the fore- and mid intes ...201020884135
isolation of culturable microorganisms from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) from the southeastern united states.reports of diseases in marine mammals are increasing worldwide, however our understanding of the microorganisms associated with marine mammals is still limited. in this study, we cultured bacteria and fungi isolated from the upper respiratory tract (blowhole), gastric fluid and anus of 180 wild bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) from two estuarine locations along the southeastern atlantic coast of the united states. a total of 339 and 491 isolates from charleston, sc (chs) and indian river ...201020888150
molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of aeromonas caviae and aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.mutations in quinolone targets were studied together with quinolone efflux pump activation and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in nalidixic-acid-resistant isolates of aeromonas caviae and aeromonas veronii. among 135 clinical aeromonas spp. isolated from stools of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 40 nalidixic acid-resistant strains belonging to a. caviae and a. veronii were selected and their susceptibility to different quinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin ...201020890847
characterization and immune function of two intracellular sensors, hmtlr1 and hmnlr, in the injured cns of an invertebrate.unlike mammals, the cns of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions. our group recently demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response, which promotes the regenerative processes. this defense mechanism is microorganism-specific, suggesting that the leech cns is able to discriminate among microbial components. we report here the characterization of two receptors potentially implicated in this detection: hmtlr1 and hmn ...201020920526
epithelial cell proliferation in the developing zebrafish intestine is regulated by the wnt pathway and microbial signaling via myd88.rates of cell proliferation in the vertebrate intestinal epithelium are modulated by intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic cues. here, we report that epithelial cell proliferation in the developing zebrafish intestine is stimulated both by the presence of the resident microbiota and by activation of wnt signaling. we find that the response to microbial proliferation-promoting signals requires myd88 but not tnf receptor, implicating host innate immune pathways but not inflammation in the est ...201020921418
bacterial enteropathogens and risk factors associated with childhood investigate the etiology of bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhea among children; to elucidate the risk factors, sign and symptoms involved in developing of infection; and to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.201020924718
potential of the melanophore pigment response for detection of bacterial toxicity.chromatophore cells have been investigated as potential biodetectors for function-based detection of chemically and biologically toxic substances. oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon) melanophores, a chromatophore cell type containing brown pigment, rapidly detect the salmonid pathogens aeromonas salmonicida, yersinia ruckeri, and flavobacterium psychrophilum and the human pathogen bacillus cereus.201020952639
isolation and characterization of new potential probiotic bacteria based on quorum-sensing system.this work was aimed at identifying strains which can degrade quorum-sensing (qs) molecules from fish gut, with properties suitable for use as probiotic in aquaculture.201020955192
an acute gastroenteritis outbreak of vibrio parahaemolyticus o4:k55 in nursing college, thailand.a cluster of acute gastroenteritis among nursing students was noticed on 13th september 2005. between 13th and 17th september 2005, a retrospective cohort study was then conducted to identify the most likely cause of gastroenteritis at a nursing college in bangkok, thailand. self-administered questionnaires, interviews, environmental investigations, and rectal swabs from all participants were carried out. in the investigation, 98.9% female nursing students were investigated and had completed the ...201020962724
type vi secretion regulation: crosstalk and intracellular communication.pathogens use type vi secretion systems (t6sss) to transport proteins into the environment or host cells in response to external stimuli. t6sss are tightly regulated together with other virulence determinants such as type iii secretion systems, quorum sensing (qs), and flagella synthesis. five pathogens (salmonella enterica, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio cholerae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) are examined for crosstalk proteins (global regulators) that connect t6sss to other vi ...201120971679
assembly of the type ii secretion system: identification of exea residues critical for peptidoglycan binding and secretin multimerization.aeromonas hydrophila secretes a number of protein toxins across the outer membrane via the type ii secretion system (t2ss). assembly of the secretion channel exed secretin into the outer membrane is dependent on the peptidoglycan binding domain of exea. in this study, the peptidoglycan binding domain pf01471 family members were divided into a prokaryotic group and a eukaryotic group. by comparison of their sequence conservation profiles and their representative crystal structures, we found the p ...201020971903
adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces: influence of ph of culture.the adhesion of aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella enteritidis, and staphylococcus aureus to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces in cultures with different phs (6, 7, and 8) was studied. the results indicated that the type of material had no effect on the attachment capacity of microorganisms, while environmental ph influenced the adhesion of a. hydrophila, e. coli, and s. aureus to both solid substrates. the attachment of s. enteritidis (p > .05) was not affected by the ...201020981289
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
detection of autoinducer (ai-2)-like activity in food samples.the contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. however, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. the autoinducer ai-2 is thought to be a universal signa ...201121031305
biofilm formation by aeromonas hydrophila on green-leafy vegetables: cabbage and lettuce.aeromonas hydrophila is the most well known of the six species of aeromonas, which has been linked to two groups of human diseases: septicemia and gastroenteritis. reference strain atcc 7966 and biofilm strains tub19, tub20, and tub21 were investigated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro (after 48 h on polystyrene surface) and on the surface of two green-leafy vegetables, cabbage and lettuce (after 1, 2, 4, and 24 h). attachment strength (s(r)) of these strains to the vegetable surface wa ...201021034267
bacteremia caused by aeromonas hydrophila complex in the caribbean islands of martinique and guadeloupe.aeromonas species are gram-negative bacilli of the water environment whose survival appears facilitated by warm climates. there have been no reports on aeromonas hydrophila complex (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, a. veronii) in the caribbean to date. our aim was to describe clinical and bacteriological features in patients presenting with such bacteremia in martinique and guadeloupe. during a 14-year period, we retrospectively identified 37 patients. the mean age was 55 years and in 89% of cases unde ...201021036850
differential regulation of caspase-1 activation via nlrp3/nlrc4 inflammasomes mediated by aerolysin and type iii secretion system during aeromonas veronii infection.aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that cause serious infectious disease in humans. such bacteria have been shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages, yet the host responses triggered by macrophage death are largely unknown. in this study, we demonstrate that the infection of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with aeromonas veronii biotype sobria triggers activation of caspase-1 with the ensuing release of il-1β and pyroptosis. caspase-1 activation in response to a. veronii in ...201021037094
stereology and computer assisted three-dimensional reconstruction as tools to study probiotic effects of aeromonas hydrophila on the digestive tract of germ-free artemia franciscana nauplii.validation of stereology and three-dimensional reconstruction for monitoring the probiotic effect of aeromonas hydrophila on the gut development of germ-free artemia franciscana nauplii.201021040270
urinary tract infection due to aeromonas spp., a lesser known causative bacterium. 201021045364
biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate homopolymers by pseudomonas putida.pseudomonas putida kt2442 has been a well-studied producer of medium-chain-length (mcl) polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) copolymers containing c6 ~ c14 monomer units. a mutant was constructed from p. putida kt2442 by deleting its phag gene encoding r-3-hydroxyacyl-acp-coa transacylase and several other β-oxidation related genes including fadb, fada, fadb2x, and fadax. this mutant termed p. putida kthh03 synthesized mcl homopolymers including poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phhx) and poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate ...201021046374
the effect of preparation of cebiche on the survival of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, aeromonas hydrophila, and vibrio parahaemolyticus.cebiche is a common dish in latin america, prepared using raw fish mixed with vegetables and marinated with lime juice. the acidity of the lime juice is commonly believed to destroy bacteria and render cebiche as safe to eat. little data exist concerning rates of cebiche-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks, although these may be high given the popularity of the dish.201021050320
effect of aeromonas hydrophila on reductive dechlorination of ddts by zero-valent iron.this study presents a reductive transformation method that combines zerovalent iron (zvi) and aeromonas hydrophila hs01 with iron oxide reduction property to degrade ddt (1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) under anoxic conditions. the results suggest that hs01 has weak capability in terms of reducing ddt to ddd (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) and nearly failed to reduce ddd or its transformed intermediates. the coexistence of zvi and hs01 results in a slight enhancement of ...201021062044
conventional and molecular methods to detect bacterial pathogens in detect aeromonas spp., salmonella spp., vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio vulnificus in mussels and water samples from a farming area, conventional and molecular methods were applied to enrichment cultures.201021070267
biologic responses of bacteria communities living at the mucus secretion of common carp (cyprinus carpio) after exposure to the carbon nanomaterial fullerene (c(60)).bacteria communities living in mucus secretions of common carp cyprinus carpio (cyprinidae) were exposed to the organic nanomaterial fullerene (c(60)) to evaluate its potential bactericidal effects. end points analyzed were viability, growth, reactive oxygen species (ros) concentration, and total antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals. viability was not affected (p > 0.05), whereas growth was arrested (p < 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure to the three concentration of c(60) assayed (0.1, ...201021072630
effect of acute and chronic arsenic exposure on growth, structure and virulence of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.aeromonas hydrophila being a ubiquitous bacterium is prone to arsenic exposure. the present study was designed to determine the role of arsenic on growth and virulence of a. hydrophila. exposure to arsenic (1 mg l(-1) and 2 mg l(-1)) had no effect on growth but significantly inhibited the hemolytic and cytotoxic potential of exposed bacteria. transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of membrane integrity and presence of condensed cytoplasm suggestive of acute stress in bacteria exposed to ...201021074603
bacterial tolerance to silver nanoparticles (snps): aeromonas punctata isolated from sewage environment.use of silver nanoparticles (snps) is increasing in a large number of consumer products. thus, the possible build-up of the nanoparticles in the environment is becoming a major concern. aeromonas punctata isolated from sewage showed tolerance to 200 μg/ml snps. the growth kinetics data for a. punctata treated with nanoparticles were similar to those in the absence of nanoparticles. there was a reduction in the amount of exopolysaccharides (eps) in bacterial culture supernatant after nanoparticle ...201021077112
the in vitro effect of bovine lactoferrin on the activity of organ leukocytes in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), european eel (anguilla anguilla) and wels catfish (silurus glanis).lactoferrin (lf) is a glycoprotein found in milk, neutrophil granules, secretions and selected organs of mammals. lactoferrin exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, immunoregulatory and other functions. although fish are devoid of this protein and its cell receptors, lf effect on the immune mechanisms of fish has been demonstrated. the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine lactoferrin, applied in vitro, on the activity of head kidney and spleen leukocytes in thr ...201021077435
different clinical characteristics between polymicrobial and monomicrobial aeromonas bacteremia--a study of 216 cases.part of aeromonas bacteremia is polymicrobial infection. however, a clinical comparison of monomicrobial and polymicrobial aeromonas bacteremia has not hitherto been reported.201021088342
simple and direct detection of aeromonas hydrophila infection in the goldfish, carassius auratus (l.), by dot blotting using specific monoclonal antibodies.a combination of eight isolates of aeromonas hydrophila was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs). ten different groups of mabs specific to aeromonas were selected. the first five groups of mabs demonstrated high specificity and bound to only one or two isolates of a. hydrophila. the sixth and the seventh groups of mabs were a. hydrophila specific. they recognized seven of eight a. hydrophila isolates (ah1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8); however, the mab in the seventh group also showed cross-reactiv ...201021091724
malate dehydrogenase: a useful phylogenetic marker for the genus aeromonas.the reconstruction of correct genealogies among biological entities, the estimation of the divergence time between organisms or the study of the different events that occur along evolutionary lineages are not always based on suitable genes. for reliable results, it is necessary to look at full-length sequences of genes under stabilizing selection (neutral or purifying) and behaving as good molecular clocks. in bacteria it has been proved that the malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh) can be used to de ...201021095084
acute phase response in chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) with aeromonas hydrophila infection.chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) is an important culture reptile. however, little is known about its acute phase response (apr) caused by bacteria. serum amyloid a (saa) is a major acute phase protein (app). in this study, a turtle saa homologue was identified and described in reptiles. the full-length cdna of turtle saa was 554 bp and contained a 381 bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 127 aa. similar to other known saa genes, the turtle saa gene contained three ex ...201021095204
the type ii secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonization by the leech digestive tract symbiont aeromonas veronii.hemolysin and the type ii secretion system (t2ss) have been shown to be important for virulence in many pathogens, but very few studies have shown their importance in beneficial microbes. here, we investigated the importance of the type ii secretion pathway in the beneficial digestive-tract association of aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech hirudo verbana and revealed a critical role for the hemolysis of erythrocytes. a mutant with a minitn5 insertion in exem, which is involved in forming ...201021097598
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