PMID(sorted ascending)
foodborne and indicator bacteria in farmed molluscan shellfish before and after depuration.galicia's coast (northwestern spain) is a major producer of bivalve molluscs. over an 18-month period, the presence of salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and clostridium botulinum was determined by pcr methods in mussels (22 batches) and infaunal bivalves (31 batches of clams and cockles) before and after depuration. all batches were harvested from galician class b harvesting areas where bivalve molluscs must not exceed 4,600 escherichia coli per 100 g of f ...200919681267
identification, biosynthesis, and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and this study, we found that ralstonia eutropha strain phb(-)4 expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase 1 (phac1(ps)) from pseudomonas sp. 61-3 synthesized a pha copolymer containing a 3-hydroxybutyrate (3hb) and small amounts of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3h4mv) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3hv) from fructose as a sole carbon source. 3h4mv is a monomer unit that has hitherto not been reported as a naturally occurring component of phas. to increase the 3h4mv fraction in pha copolymers, the ...200919681605
comparative biology of two natural variants of the incq-2 family plasmids, pras3.1 and pras3.2.plasmids pras3.1 and pras3.2 are two closely related, natural variants of the incq-2 plasmid family that have identical plasmid backbones except for two differences. plasmid pras3.1 has five 6-bp repeat sequences in the promoter region of the mobb gene and four 22-bp iterons in its oriv region, whereas pras3.2 has only four 6-bp repeats and three 22-bp iterons. plasmid pras3.1 was found to have a higher copy number than pras3.2, and we show that the extra 6-bp repeat results in an increase in mo ...200919684126
aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 type iii secretion system expression and regulatory network.the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system (t3ss) has been shown to play a crucial role in this pathogen's interactions with its host. we previously described the genetic organization of the t3ss cluster and the existence of at least one effector, called aext, in a. hydrophila strain ah-3. in this study, we analyzed the expression of the t3ss regulon by analyzing the activity of the aopn-aopd and aext promoters (t3ss machinery components and effector, respectively) by means of two differ ...200919684162
tri-trophic linkages in disease: pathogen transmission to rainbow trout through stonefly prey.relationships between macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in aquatic environments are only poorly understood despite the fact that many aquatic macroinvertebrates feed on microbial biofilms during some life stage. better understanding of trophic interactions between microbial biofilms, macroinvertebrates, and fish may also help control fish diseases and loss of natural resources. it has also been suggested that pollution, habitat fragmentation, and poor water quality may contribute to increase ...200919689880
magnetic circular dichroism study of a dicobalt(ii) complex with mixed 5- and 6-coordination: a spectroscopic model for dicobalt(ii) hydrolases.the magnetic circular dichroism (mcd) study of [co(2)(mu-oh)(mu-ph(4)dba)(tmeda)(2)(otf)], in which ph(4)dba is the dinucleating bis(carboxylate) ligand dibenzofuran-4,6-bis(diphenylacetate) and tmeda is n,n,n',n'-tetramethylethylenediamine, is presented. this complex serves as an excellent spectroscopic model for a number of dicobalt(ii) enzymes and proteins that have both the mu-hydroxo, mu-carboxylato bridging and asymmetric 6- and 5-coordination. the low-temperature mcd spectrum of the model ...200919691327
aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. with the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, w ...200919692919
atypical furunculosis vaccines for atlantic cod gadhus morhua: impact of reattached aeromonas salmonicida a-layer protein on vaccine efficacy.atypical furunculosis caused by atypical aeromonas salmonicida bacteria is reported as an increasing problem in farmed atlantic cod gadus morhua in norway. at present, furunculosis vaccines adapted for cod or other marine fish species are not available. to identify bacterial components important for inducing protection in cod, we compared oil-adjuvanted vaccines based on a. salmonicida isolates phenotypically differing in their major cell surface constituents, such as the a-layer protein and lip ...200919694171
management of human and animal bite wound infection: an overview.animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. the organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, pasteurella multocida in animal bites, eikenella corrodens in animal and human, capnocytophaga spp, neisseria weaveri, weeksella zoohelcum, neisseria canis, staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxid ...200919698283
effect of beta-glucan on immunity and survival of early stage of anabas testudineus (bloch).the present experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of beta-glucan suspension derived from barley on the innate immune response and disease resistance of anabas testudineus spawns against infection caused by aeromonas hydrophila. four different dosages of beta-glucan suspension in phosphate buffered saline at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15 mg l(-1) were taken and 8 days old spawn were exposed for 2 h and 3 h. the cell suspension of spawn was assayed for total protein, acid ...200919699803
bacteria isolated from 25 hydatid cysts in sheep, cattle and goats.bacteria were isolated from 12 of 25 hydatid cysts collected from the lungs and livers of cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in the province of messina, sicily, italy. citrobacter freundii was isolated from seven of the cysts, aeromonas hydrophila from three, staphylococcus species from two, salmonella species from two and escherichia coli and proteus vulgaris from one.200919700784
comparison study of membrane filtration direct count and an automated coliform and escherichia coli detection system for on-site water quality testing.this study compared an automated escherichia coli and coliform detection system with the membrane filtration direct count technique for water testing. the automated instrument performed equal to or better than the membrane filtration test in analyzing e. coli-spiked samples and blind samples with interference from proteus vulgaris or aeromonas hydrophila.200919703500
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro gene transfer in bacteria isolated from the ulcers of eus-affected fish in india.the occurrence of drug resistance and plasmid-mediated transferability was investigated in 15 aeromonas isolates collected from the ulcers of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected fishes katla (catla catla), mrigel (cirrhinus mrigala) and punti (puntius sp.).200919709369
pathogenic potential of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from surface waters in kolkata, india.members of the genus aeromonas (family aeromonadaceae) are medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped micro-organisms and are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens; they possess several virulence factors associated with human disease, and represent a serious public health concern. in the present study, putative virulence traits of aeromonas hydrophila isolates collected from different natural surface waters of kolkata, india, w ...200919713362
interleukin-17d in atlantic salmon (salmo salar): molecular characterization, 3d modelling and promoter is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the clearance of extracellular bacteria and contributes to the pathology of many autoimmune and allergic conditions. much work on il-17 has been done in humans and higher vertebrates while little work has been conducted in lower vertebrates including fish. in this study, we have cloned and characterized the full-length cdna and genomic sequence of il-17d from atlantic salmon. the atlantic salmon il-17d (asil-17d) cdna possessed ...200919716422
molecular cloning and expression analysis of the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) gene in grass carp.liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is a novel antimicrobial peptide (amp) recently found in vertebrates, and exhibits distinct amino acid sequence, secondary structure and expression pattern from other peptides. in this study, the leap-2 gene and its full-length cdna were cloned from grass carp. grass carp leap-2 gene consists of two introns and three exons. the translated product contains 92 amino acids, including a 26 amino acids signal peptide and a mature peptide of 41 amino ac ...201019716607
virulence factor-activity relationships (vfar) with specific emphasis on aeromonas species (spp.).the human population most commonly inflicted with aeromonas infection includes young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. importantly, the isolation rate of aeromonas species from children suffering from diarrhea is similar in developing and developed countries. it is becoming clear that only a small subset of aeromonas species belonging to a particular hybridization group causes disease in humans. human infections with this pathogen occur by consuming contaminated food and w ...200919717930
diversity of activated sludge bacteria receiving the 3-chloroaniline-degradative plasmid pc1gfp.plasmid pc1 of delftia acidovorans ca28, encoding the oxidative deamination of 3-chloroaniline (3-ca), was tagged with a mini-tn5 transposon containing the gfp gene. the labelled plasmid, designated pc1gfp, was subsequently transferred to pseudomonas putida uwc3 and the plasmid transfer from this donor to the bacterial community in activated sludge was studied. mating experiments were performed on both luria-bertani agar plates and directly in liquid activated sludge. green fluorescent colonies ...200319719576
bacteria associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs in a natural environment (ría de vigo, galicia, northwestern spain).abstract the present study was undertaken to describe the epiflora of the eggs of an important fishing species collected in a coastal zone. microflora associated with sardine (sardina pilchardus) eggs collected in the ría de vigo was examined from january to june 2000. the count was carried out in three different ways: a total direct count by epifluorescence, a heterotrophic bacteria count on marine agar (ma) and a total vibrio count on thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose (tcbs). it was observed th ...200319719614
characterization of a serine proteinase homologous (sph) in chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.the serine protease homologous (sph) is an important cofactor of prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae). the gene of sph of chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis (essph) in hemocytes was cloned and characterized using reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the sph cdna consisted of 1386 bp with an open reading frame (orf) encoded a protein of 378 amino acids, 154 bp 5'-untranslated region, and 95 bp 3'-untranslated region. sequence ...201019720078
occurrence of motile aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors.aeromonas-associated cases of gastroenteritis are generally considered waterborne. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential microbiological risk associated with the presence of these bacteria in public drinking water. over a period of one year, 132 drinking-water samples were monitored in león (nw of spain, 137,000 inhabitants) for mandatory drinking-water standards and the occurrence of aeromonas spp. samples were taken at the municipal water treatment plant, one storage facility ...200919720415
biopreservation of refrigerated and vacuum-packed dicentrarchus labrax by lactic acid bacteria.two lactic acid bacteria (lab) were selected from 100 lab isolated from various sea products to examine their use in dicentrarchus labrax preservation. the isolates, tentatively named strain nr 3 and 7, were identified as lactobacillus plantarum and l. pentosus, respectively. they showed antagonistic activity against psychrotroph, pathogenic, and coliform bacteria. the antagonistic activity of strain 3 was suggested to be by bacteriocins since activity was abolished by protease treatment, while ...200919723220
inhibition of frog antimicrobial peptides by extracellular products of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas determine whether the extracellular products (ecps) from aeromonas hydrophila, a frog bacterial pathogen that is resistant to skin antimicrobial peptides of three different frog species xenopus laevis, litoria aurea and litoria raniformis, can modulate the activity of these peptides.200919728406
n-acylhomoserine lactones involved in quorum sensing control the type vi secretion system, biofilm formation, protease production, and in vivo virulence in a clinical isolate of aeromonas this study, we delineated the role of n-acylhomoserine lactone(s) (ahls)-mediated quorum sensing (qs) in the virulence of diarrhoeal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila by generating a double knockout delta ahyri mutant. protease production was substantially reduced in the delta ahyri mutant when compared with that in the wild-type (wt) strain. importantly, based on western blot analysis, the delta ahyri mutant was unable to secrete type vi secretion system (t6ss)-associated effectors, namely ...200919729404
an experimental vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a candidate vaccine against aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. to test the strength of protection, a. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (ip) cavity and the dorsal sinus (ds) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. unlike the ip route, injection into the ds with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and ...201019732266
isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the american alligator (alligator mississippiensis).to determine whether american alligators (alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in south carolina's coastal waters.201019735329
aeromonas-associated infections in developing countries.although their role in gastroenteritis is controversial, aeromonas species are recognized as etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in man and animals. in developing countries, potentially pathogenic aeromonas sp. are very common in drinking water and in different types of foods, particularly seafood. several food-borne and water-borne outbreaks as well nosocomial outbreaks associated with aeromonads have been reported. significant association of aeromonas sp. with diarrhoea in childr ...200819738331
clinical relevance of the recently described species aeromonas aquariorum.twenty-two human extraintestinal isolates (11 from blood) and three isolates recovered from patients with diarrhea were genetically characterized as aeromonas aquariorum, a novel species known only from ornamental fish. the isolates proved to bear a considerable number of virulence genes, and all were resistant to amoxicillin (amoxicilline), cephalothin (cefalotin), and cefoxitin. biochemical differentiation from the most relevant clinical species is provided.200919741075
identification and characterization of the first reptilian cd9, and its expression analysis in response to bacterial this study, a cd9 homologue in a reptile, chinese soft-shelled turtle, has been cloned and identified for the first time. the full-length cdna of turtle cd9 was 1146bp and contained a 672bp open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of 224 amino acids. four transmembrane domains (tms) divided the turtle cd9 into several parts: short n-, c-termini, an intracellular loop and two (small and large) extracellular loops (sel and lel). a ccg motif, a potential n-linked glycosylation site and 10 c ...201019747940
mutations in the aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type iii secretion system affect atlantic salmon leucocyte activation and downstream immune responses.deletion mutants of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were used to determine the effect of the type three secretion system (ttss) on atlantic salmon anterior head kidney leucocytes (ahkl). one strain had a deletion in the outer membrane pore gene, ascc; and the other in three effector genes: aopo, aoph and aext (we call this strain deltaaop3). host cell invasion success and 24h survival were depressed in deltaascc, as was 24h survival of deltaaop3, when compared to the wild type strain. c ...200919751835
gene cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant aerolysin from aeromonas hydrophila.aerolysin is a significant virulent toxin protein secreted by aeromonas hydrophila; it produces deep wound infections and hemorrhagic septicemia. the complete aerolysin gene (1,482 bp) was amplified from a. hydrophila. furthermore, it was cloned and expressed into escherichia coli bl21(de3) codon plus rp cells using 0.5 mm iptg for induction. the protein size was 54 kda as estimated by sds-page, and it was purified by ni-nta affinity chromatography. anti-his antibodies were used to characterize ...201019763901
a novel method for the diagnosis of drowning by detection of aeromonas sobria with pcr method.the acid digestion method has been widely used for the diagnosis of death by drowning, but it is not always sensitive. however, there has been no definitive method to replace acid digestion until now. we speculate that bacteria are more useful markers than plankton for the diagnosis of death by drowning. in this study, from the preserved blood samples of 32 freshwater drowning cases, specific dna fragments of aeromonas sobria, one of the most common aquatic bacteria, were examined using pcr. the ...200919766051
integration of microfiltration and anion-exchange nanoparticles-based magnetic separation with maldi mass spectrometry for bacterial analysis.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms) is powerful in characterizing and identifying bacterial isolates. however, sufficient quantities of bacterial cells are required for generating maldi mass spectra and a procedure to isolate and enrich target bacteria from sample matrix prior to maldi-ms analysis is often necessary. in this paper, anion-exchange superparamagnetic nanoparticles (nps), i.e., fluidmag-deae and fluidmag-q, were employed to capture aeromonas, sal ...200919782231
a bifunctional enzyme in a single gene catalyzes the incorporation of glcn into the aeromonas core lipopolysaccharide.the core lipopolysaccharide (lps) of aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 and aeromonas salmonicida a450 is characterized by the presence of the pentasaccharide alpha-d-glcn-(1-->7)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->2)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->3)-l-alpha-d-hep-(1-->5)-alpha-kdo. previously it has been suggested that the waha protein is involved in the incorporation of glcn residue to outer core lps. the waha protein contains two domains: a glycosyltransferase and a carbohydrate esterase. in this work we demonstrate that the in ...200919805547
in vitro effects on bacterial growth of phenoloxidase reaction active phenoloxidase preparation from the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus exhibited a strong antibacterial effect in vitro on the bacteria aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumoniae whereas a weaker but still significant effect against bacillus cereus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. in most cases reduction of bacterial growth was stronger when dopamine was used as substrate as compared to l-dopa. the effect on bacteria was abolished if no ...201019808037
detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in mexico.we determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. species were identified as a. caviae, a. hydrophila, a. veronii and a. media using pcr-rflp of the 16s rdna. selected isolates were further characterized by eric-pcr. resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the kirby-ba ...200919810047
aeromonas sepsis as a marker of devitalized tissue in traumatic injuries. 200919811055
effects of chelators (deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox) on the growth of klebsiella pneumoniae and aeromonas hydrophila isolated from transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.infections are among the leading causes of death for thalassemia major patients. the known predisposing factors of infection include prior splenectomy, iron overload and use of iron chelator such as deferoxamine (dfo). while encapsulated organisms frequently found in splenectomized patients were readily controlled by prophylactic vaccination and vigilant antibiotic treatment, ferrophilic organisms such as yersinia and klebsiella remain common pathogens in thalassemic patients. yersinia infection ...200919814682
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the extracts of kefe cumin (laser trilobum l.) fruits from different regions.structural properties (using gas chromatographic analyses: gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of some compounds (pure chemicals, essential oils, extracts, etc.) and systematic investigation of antimicrobial activities (with agar dilution and agar diffusion disc methods) were determined in the fruits of kefe cumin (laser trilobum l.) obtained from different regions (germany, india, and turkey). the main components were established as limonene (41.03-72.24%) and perillald ...200919817640
aeromonas taiwanensis sp. nov. and aeromonas sanarellii sp. nov., clinical species from taiwan.two clinical aeromonas strains (a2-50(t) and a2-67(t)) recovered from the wounds of two patients in taiwan could not be assigned to any known species of this genus based on their 16s rrna gene sequences, which showed similarities of 99.6-99.8 % to those of the type strains of aeromonas caviae, a. trota and a. aquariorum. the rpod phylogenetic tree allocated these strains to two novel and independent phylogenetic lines, the neighbouring species being a. caviae, the type strain of which showed 93. ...201019819994
salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium can detect acyl homoserine lactone production by yersinia enterocolitica in mice.luxr-type transcription factors detect acyl homoserine lactones (ahls) and are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species. escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cannot synthesize ahls but can detect the ahls produced by other bacterial species using the luxr homolog, sdia. previously we determined that s. typhimurium did not detect ahls during transit through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pig ...201019820103
[necrotizing fasciitis caused by aeromonas hydrophila in an immunocompetent patient]. 201019822313
beneficial role of green plantain [musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized evaluate the beneficial effects of green plantain-based diet on stool volume, frequency and weight gain as compared with a traditional yogurt-based diet in children with persistent diarrhea.200919828902
comparison of the biolog omnilog identification system and 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing for accuracy in identification of atypical bacteria of clinical origin.the biolog omnilog identification system (biolog) and the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequencing methods were compared to conventional microbiological methods and evaluated for accuracy of bacterial identification. these methods were evaluated using 159 clinical isolates. each isolate was initially identified by conventional biochemical tests and morphological characteristics and subsequently placed into one of seven categories: aerobic actinomycetes, bacillus, coryneforms, fastidious gram-neg ...200919837117
beta2-microglobulin is involved in the immune response of large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila: a proteomic based study.outbreaks of infectious diseases in cultured large yellow croaker have resulted in great economic losses. however, information regarding its immune defense is limited. in the present study, an approach by the combination of differential proteomics with est resource was applied for investigation of a profile of serum immune response by large yellow croaker to aeromonas hydrophila challenge after immunization and for characterizing of one of the targeted immune molecules. of the twelve altered pro ...201019837169
aeromonas hydrophila ecthyma gangrenosum without bacteraemia in a diabetic man: the first case report in italy.ecthyma gangrenosum is a well recognized cutaneous manifestation of severe, invasive infection by pseudomonas aeruginosa usually in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. this type of infection is usually fatal. aeromonas infection is infrequently reported as the cause of ecthyma gangrenosum. here we show the first case described in italy of aeromonas hydrophila ecthyma gangrenosum in the lower extremities in an immunocompetent diabetic without bacteraemia. a 63-year-old obese diabetic m ...200919838092
aeromonas hydrophila folliculitis associated with an inflatable swimming pool: mimicking pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.aeromonas species are ubiquitous, facultative, anaerobic, gram-negative flagellated rods, mainly found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. skin and soft-tissue infections, including cellulitis and wound infections, are the second most frequent location of isolations of aeromonas spp. in clinical samples, after the gastrointestinal tract. all three major aeromonas species (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, and a. veroni biotype sobria) have been associated with wound infections, but a. hydrophila predominat ...200919840320
use of garlic, allium sativum, to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).garlic, allium sativum, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g garlic per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 4% compared with the controls (88%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was stimulation of the number of erythrocytes and leuco ...200919843196
use of dietary ginger, zingiber officinale roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).ginger, zingiber officinale, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at 0.5 g ginger per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 0% compared with the controls (64%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was proliferation in the number of neutrophils, macrophages and lym ...200919843197
effect of oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts on protection against experimental fish investigate whether oral immunization with aeromonas hydrophila ghosts (ahg) vaccine can elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses of carp (carassius auratus gibelio) compared to conventional formalin-killed bacteria (fkc).201019843213
design and performance of a turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray based on ests from immune expressed sequence tag database from immune tissues was used to design the first high-density turbot (scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray with the aim of identifying candidate genes for tolerance to pathogens. specific oligonucleotides (60 mers) were successfully designed for 2,716 out of 3,482 unique sequences of the database. an agilent custom oligo-microarray 8 x 15 k (five replicates/gene; eight microarrays/slide) was constructed. the performance of the microarray and the sources of va ...201019844759
responses of atlantic cod gadus morhua head kidney leukocytes to phytase produced by gastrointestinal-derived bacteria.this study identified phytase-producing bacteria that were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of atlantic cod, gadus morhua and determined its effect on head kidney leukocytes. out of the 216 bacterial strains tested, the two phytase producers were identified as pseudomonas sp. and psychrobacter sp. based on their 16s rdna sequence. crude phytase from these two bacterial strains was produced employing the shake flask method. even though the total protein of the crude phytase was ...201019844802
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas simiae from a pig, first isolate since species description.the species aeromonas simiae was first described on the basis of two strains (cip 107798(t) and cip 107797) isolated from faeces of healthy monkeys (m. fascicularis) from mauritius, which were kept in quarantine in the centre for primatology, louis pasteur university, strasbourg, france. in the present study, during a survey to determine the prevalence of aeromonas at three different pig slaughterhouses at north of portugal, a single strain mdc2374 (out of 703 isolates) was identified as a. simi ...201019853388
plasmid-mediated qnrs2 determinant in an aeromonas caviae isolate recovered from a patient with diarrhoea.a qnrs2 gene was identified in an aeromonas caviae isolate (mics of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin >32 mg/l) from a stool sample collected from a patient with gastroenteritis. the analysis of the gyra and parc genes revealed amino acid substitutions ser83-ile and ser80-thr, respectively. in addition, five out of 41 nalidixic acid-resistant aeromonas isolates studied (26 identified as aeromonas veronii bv sobria and 15 identified as a. caviae) showed ciprofloxacin resistance. the identi ...201019863591
are all koi ulcer cases associated with infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida? polymerase chain reaction assays of koi carp skin swabs submitted by hobbyists.infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida is regarded as the cause of ulcer disease (kud) in koi carp cyprinus carpio and goldfish carassius auratus. however, other causes--including parasites, viral infection, and fungi--have been proposed. in our diagnostic work, we often fail to isolate a. salmonicida even when clear clinical signs of kud are present. this failure may be because these fastidious and slow-growing bacteria are difficult to isolate in culture or because the bacteria are not ac ...200919873831
hepatic gene expression profiling reveals protective responses in atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis.furunculosis, a disease caused with gram negative bacteria aeromonas salmonicida produces heavy losses in aquaculture. vaccination against furunculosis reduces mortality of atlantic salmon but fails to eradicate infection. factors that determine high individual variation of vaccination efficiency remain unknown. we used gene expression analyses to search for the correlates of vaccine protection against furunculosis in atlantic salmon.200919878563
assessment of microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its public health assess the microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its impact on public health.200919880150
a type vi secretion system effector protein, vgrg1, from aeromonas hydrophila that induces host cell toxicity by adp ribosylation of actin.we recently delineated the importance of a type vi secretion system (t6ss) gene cluster in the virulence of diarrheal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila and showed that vash, a sigma(54) activator and t6ss component, was involved in the production of its associated effectors, e.g., hemolysin-coregulated protein. to identify additional t6ss effectors and/or secreted proteins, we subjected culture supernatants from deletion mutants of a. hydrophila, namely, a delta act mutant (a t2ss-associated c ...201019880608
characterization of polysaccharides using mass spectrometry for bacterial serotyping.mass spectrometry provides a rapid and reliable method for characterization of bacterial polysaccharides. application of the in-source fragmentation technique to promote the formation of structurally relevant repeating units of heterogeneous capsular polysaccharides and o-chain polysaccharides has proven to be particularly useful for detection of non-carbohydrate functionalities and subtle differences arising across bacterial serotypes. here we discuss application of these methods to the direct ...201019882133
homology modelling of a sensor histidine kinase from aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in extra-intestinal infection and diarrhoea in humans. targetting unique effectors of bacterial pathogens is considered a powerful strategy for drug design against bacterial variations to drug resistance. the two-component bacterial system involving sensor histidine kinase (shk) and its response regulators is considered a lucrative target for drug design. this is the first report describing a three-dimensional (3d) structure for shk of a. hydrophila. the ...201019882182
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis in a preterm neonate. 200919887702
the dc-sign of zebrafish: insights into the existence of a cd209 homologue in a lower vertebrate and its involvement in adaptive immunity.dendritic cell-specific icam-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign/cd209) has become hot topic in recent studies because of its important roles in immune responses and immune escape. cd209 has been well characterized in humans and several other mammals, but little documentation exists about it in lower vertebrates. this is the first report on the identification and functional characterization of a fish dc-sign/cd209 molecule. the zebrafish dc-sign/cd209 cdna translates into 343 aa organized into three ...200919890038
simultaneous differential detection of human pathogenic and nonpathogenic vibrio species using a multiplex pcr based on gyrb and pnta develop a multiplex pcr targeting the gyrb and pnta genes for vibrio species differentiation.201019891709
growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.this paper reports the effects of changing ph (5-7) and temperature (t, 40-60 degrees c) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (som) in wastewater from food waste recycling (fwr) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at ph 5.7 and t = 44.5 degrees c. changes in short-chain volatile organic acid profiles and in acidogenic ...201019894044
genetic insertions and diversification of the polb-type dna polymerase (gp43) of t4-related escherichia coli phage t4 and many of its phylogenetic relatives, gene 43 consists of a single cistron that encodes a polb family (polb-type) dna polymerase. we describe the divergence of this phage gene and its protein product (gp43) (gene product 43) among 26 phylogenetic relatives of t4 and discuss our observations in the context of diversity among the widely distributed polb enzymes in nature. in two t4 relatives that grow in aeromonas salmonicida phages 44rr and 25, gene 43 is fragmented ...201019896487
outbreaks of an ulcerative and haemorrhagic disease in arctic char salvelinus alpinus caused by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia.arctic char salvelinus alpinus farmed in different places in austria and free of the viral diseases viral haemorrhagic septcaemia (vhs), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (ihn) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (ipn) experienced disease and mortality. diseased fish showed skin ulceration and pathological signs of sepsis. aeromonas sp. was isolated as pure culture from the kidney of freshly euthanized diseased fish. three independent isolates from outbreaks that occurred on 2 of the affected fa ...200919899353
mechanisms of quinolone resistance in aeromonas species isolated from humans, water and eels.mechanisms of resistance were determined in 33 quinolone-resistant isolates of the species aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas caviae, aeromonas media, aeromonas salmonicida, aeromonas popoffii and aeromonas veronii, recovered from humans, freshwater and eels. the quinolone resistance-determining regions (qrdrs) of gyra and parc genes were sequenced in these resistant strains, as well as in 8 quinolone-sensitive aeromonas used as controls. all quinolone-resistant aeromonas carried point mutations in ...201019900538
analysis of the vaccine potential of a laboratory escherichia coli strain in a japanese flounder model.escherichia coli dh5alpha is a genetically tailored laboratory strain that is commonly used for general cloning. in this study, the vaccine potential of dh5alpha was investigated. it was found that when used as a live vaccine, dh5alpha could afford effective protection upon japanese flounder against aeromonas hydrophila infection. vaccination with purified outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides of dh5alpha failed to induce protective immunity against a. hydrophila. specific antibody pro ...201019900558
antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (cyprinus carpio).the aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. the isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. in all isolates, pcr was used to detect the presence of tet(a-e) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. from the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to o ...201019900770
cellular components of probiotics control yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).subcellular components of the probiotics aeromonas sobria gc2 and bacillus subtilis jb-1, when administered to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, conferred protection against a new biogroup of yersinia ruckeri. thus, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection of rainbow trout with cell wall proteins (cwps), outer membrane proteins (omps), lipopolysaccharides (lps), whole cell proteins (wcps) and live cells followed by challenge on day 8 with y. ruckeri led to 80-100% survival compared with 10% ...201019912460
gene cloning, characterization, and heterologous expression of levansucrase from bacillus amyloliquefaciens.although levan produced by bacillus amyloliquefaciens is known to have efficient immunostimulant property which gives 100% survival of common carp when infected with aeromonas hydrophila, no detailed reports are available describing kinetic studies of d: -glucose production and levan formation. in this study, we cloned and characterized the enzymatic kinetics using levansucrase expressed in escherichia coli. optimum ph for d: -glucose production and levan formation was 6.0 and 8.0, respectively, ...201019916084
parenteral immunization of fish, labeo rohita with poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) encapsulated antigen microparticles promotes innate and adaptive immune responses.immunogenicity of different antigen preparations of outer membrane proteins (omp) of aeromonas hydrophila such as poly d, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga) microparticles, oil emulsion, neat omp and bacterial whole cells were compared through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, labeo rohita. among these preparations, plga encapsulated antigen stimulated both innate and adaptive immune parameters and the immunogenicity exhibited by plga microparticles was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at both 2 ...201019922799
characterization and expression analyses of anti-apoptotic bcl-2-like genes nr-13, mcl-1, bcl-x1, and bcl-x2 in atlantic cod (gadus morhua).nr-13, mcl-1, and bcl-x(l), are conserved anti-apoptotic proteins that belong to the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 sub-family, which inhibits cell death by preventing mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (mmp). given the anti-apoptotic functions of these proteins in vertebrates (e.g. human, mouse, and zebrafish) and the involvement of apoptotic regulation in immune responses, we studied the sequences of these genes and their transcript expression in atlantic cod (gadus morhua) during innate immune res ...201019923001
multiplex pcr method for detection of three aeromonas enterotoxin genes.a novel multiplex pcr method using three sets of specific primers was developed for the detection of the cytotoxic (act), heat-labile (alt), and heat-stable (ast) enterotoxin genes in aeromonas spp. this assay was used to characterize 35 reference strains as well as 537 food-borne isolates. a total of seven gene pattern combinations were encountered, including act, alt, act/alt, act/alt/ast, act/alt/148-bp amplicon, alt/ast, and alt/148-bp amplicon. the alt gene was detected with 34 reference st ...201019933350
viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (marb) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (ttse) used for irrigation, was investigated at the sultan qaboos university sewage treatment plant (stp). this water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout oman and the gulf region. samples of ttse were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the stp. viable ba ...200919934516
aeromonas septicemia after medicinal leech use following replantation of severed digits.medicinal leeches are used to control venous congestion. aeromonas in the leech gut are essential for digestion of blood. this case report describes a patient who had aeromonas bacteremia develop after leeching. he had an injury to his hand that required replantation of his thumb. following the surgery, leech therapy was started with ampicillin-sulbactam prophylaxis. sepsis developed. blood cultures were positive for aeromonas that were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam. the antibiotic was chang ...201019940254
herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish against aeromonas hydrophila.goldfish, carassius auratus (47 + or - 3 g, n = 300) were inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). on the 6th day of post-infection the fishes were divided into i) control, without infection fed with normal diet (c), ii) infected fish, fed with normal diet (iu), and infected fishes treated with different doses of iii) 100 mg kg(-1), iv) 200 mg kg(-1), iv) 400 mg kg(-1) and vi) 800 mg kg(-1) mixed herbal extracts supplementation diets. hematolog ...201019941960
identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of aeromonas spp. isolated from stool samples of brazilian subjects with diarrhoea and healthy controls. 201019942692
molecular cloning and expression of two hsp70 genes in the wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala yih).two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cdna) clones encoding heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were isolated from the liver of wuchang bream (megalobrama amblycephala y.) using rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). they were named ma-hsc70 and ma-hsp70, respectively. the cdnas were 2336 and 2224 bp in length [not including poly (a)] and contained 1950 and 1932 bp open reading frames (orfs), respectively. the orfs encoded proteins of 649 and ...201019944170
endosulfan increases seric interleukin-2 like (il-2l) factor and immunoglobulin m (igm) of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) challenged with aeromona hydrophila.endosulfan is a persistent organochlorine insecticide which is extremely toxic to fish. it is known to induce immunological alterations in juvenile nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) such as increases in phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production of spleen macrophages. the purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan (7 ppb, 96 h) on parameters of the adaptive humoral immune response of the aforemention ...201019944172
comparative study on characteristics of azo dye decolorization by indigenous decolorizers.this study provides a first attempt to explore indigenous strains with excellent decolorization capability from the most biodiverse region in taiwan for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. bacterial isolates were obtained via serial selections under selection pressure of the fungicide nystatin and model textile dye(s). according to profiles of protein expression and pcr-augmented 16s rrna gene analyses for strain identification, >99% of nucleotide sequences in isolated strains were identical to ty ...201019944603
transgenic zebrafish eggs containing bactericidal peptide is a novel food supplement enhancing resistance to pathogenic infection of fish.zebrafish (danio rerio) was used as a bioreactor to produce bovine lactoferricin (lfb), which has wide-ranging antimicrobial activity. we constructed an expression plasmid in which lfb was fused with green fluorescent protein (gfp) and driven by zebrafish beta-actin promoter. after microinjection, six transgenic founders were screened on the basis of gfp appearance. among them, a stable zbl-5 line was selected by the ubiquitous and strong expression of gfp. using pcr and western blot analysis, w ...201019944764
in vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections at a medical center in taiwan: results of the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) 2002-2006.the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) was initiated to monitor the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (gnb) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (iai). this report summarizes the smart data from 1 of the study centers from 2002 to 2006.200919949755
inhibition by chestnut honey of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in erwinia carotovora, yersinia enterocolitica, and aeromonas hydrophila.bacteria are able to communicate and coordinate certain processes using small secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. this phenomenon, known as "quorum sensing" (qs), may be essential for the synchronization of virulence factors as well as biofilm development. the interruption of bacterial qs is acknowledged to attenuate virulence and considered to be a potential new therapy to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (ahls) have been identified as t ...200919950997
[development of taqman real-time pcr in detection of aeromonas hydrophila].to develop a taqman real-time pcr for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila.200919954074
the carboxy-terminal tail of aeromonas sobria serine protease is associated with the chaperone.asp is the only bacterial protease in the kexin group of the subtilisin family. previous studies have revealed that the orf2 protein encoded at the 3' end of the asp operon is required for asp to change from a nascent form into an active form in the periplasm. however, the mechanism by which orf2 makes contact and interacts with asp in the maturation process remains unknown. the present study examined the effect of mutations in the carboxy-terminal region of asp on the asp maturation process. bo ...200919954452
decolorization of anthraquinone vat blue 4 by the free cells of an autochthonous bacterium, bacillus subtilis.uncontaminated soil, vat blue 4 contaminated soil and vat blue 4 effluent were screened for heterotrophic bacterial population and the bacterial density were found to be 19.3 x 10(4) colony forming units (cfu)/gm, 5.5 x 10(4) cfu/gm and 1.1 x 10(4) cfu/ml respectively. student's 't' test analysis affirmed that significant variation prevailed between the three set of 't' tests conducted (p<0.001 to 0.002). the heterotrophic bacterial population of dye contaminated soil comprised of 32.5% of pseud ...200919955647
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
aeromonas caviae cb101 contains four chitinases encoded by a single gene chi1.aeromonas caviae cb101 secretes four chitinases (around 92, 82, 70, and 55 kda) into the culture supernatant. a chitinase gene chi1 (92 kda) was previously studied. to identify the genes encoding the remaining three chitinases, a cosmid library of cb101 was constructed to screen for putative chitinase genes. nine cosmid clones were shown to contain a chitinase gene on chitin plates. surprisingly, all the positive clones contained chi1. in parallel, we purified the 55-kda chitinase (chi55) from t ...201019960373
glycan flexibility: insights into nanosecond dynamics from a microsecond molecular dynamics simulation explaining an unusual nuclear overhauser atomistic all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the trisaccharide beta-d-manpnac-(1-->4)[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-l-rhap-ome with explicit solvent molecules has been carried out. the trisaccharide represents a model for the branching region of the o-chain polysaccharide of a strain from aeromonas salmonicida. the extensive md simulations having a 1-micros duration revealed a conformational dynamics process on the nanosecond time scale, that is, a 'time window' not extensively investiga ...201019962132
the 2dx robot: a membrane protein 2d crystallization swiss army knife.among the state-of-the-art techniques that provide experimental information at atomic scale for membrane proteins, electron crystallography, atomic force microscopy and solid state nmr make use of two-dimensional crystals. we present a cyclodextrin-driven method for detergent removal implemented in a fully automated robot. the kinetics of the reconstitution processes is precisely controlled, because the detergent complexation by cyclodextrin is of stoichiometric nature. the method requires small ...201019963066
the reference strain aeromonas hydrophicla cip 57.50 should be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50.the use of reference strains is a critical element for the quality control of different assays, from the development of molecular methods to the evaluation of antimicrobial activities. most of the strains used in these assays are not type strains and some of them are cited erroneously because of subsequent reclassifications and descriptions of novel species. in this study, we propose that the reference strain aeromonas hydrophila cip 57.50 be reclassified as aeromonas salmonicida cip 57.50 based ...201019965992
identification of a novel allele of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (pparg) and its association with resistance to aeromonas salmonicida in atlantic salmon (salmo salar).bacterial and viral diseases are major problems in atlantic salmon aquaculture, but may be challenged through selection of brood stock with enhanced survival to diseases. today's selection strategy is based on controlled challenge tests using siblings of the breeding candidates, and is thus indirect. direct trait records on breeding candidates can potentially be provided through identification of genetic variation linked to the susceptibility to the disease. peroxisome proliferator-activated rec ...201020004720
proposal to assign aeromonas diversa sp. nov. as a novel species designation for aeromonas group 501.the aeromonas group 501, also named aeromonas sp. hg13, is taxonomically close to a. schubertii. results obtained in previous studies, including dna-dna hybridization and dna fingerprinting, suggest that aeromonas group 501 could constitute a different aeromonas species. in this work we have performed a polyphasic study with the two strains comprising the aeromonas sp. hg13 in order to propose a formal species name. they could be differentiated from a. schubertii by the indole and lysine decarbo ...201020005654
immune response and expression analysis of cathepsin k in goldfish during aeromonas hydrophila infection.the innate immunity and expression profiles of cathepsins d were determined in the goldfish (carassius auratus) tissues after challenge with a fish pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. the innate immunity of reactive oxygen species (ros) and reactive nitrogen species (rns) were determined by peripheral blood leucocytes. blood and tissue samples of the muscle, gills, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine were sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection for cathepsin d expression by semi-quantitati ...201020025977
a novel multivalent vaccine based on secretary antigen-delivery induces protective immunity against vibrio anguillarum and aeromonas our previous work, four secretory antigen-delivery systems based on different signal peptides (sps) (sp(hlya), sp(rtxa), sp(vah3) and sp(empa)) have been successfully established in attenuated vibrio anguillarum. to investigate the potential application of the antigen-delivery systems in v. anguillarum multivalent vector vaccine, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) from pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila, as a putative protective antigen, was fused to the four delivery systems, ...201020026209
high prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport.200920027306
comparative immunological analysis of innate immunity activation after oral administration of wheat fermented extract to teleost fish.intradermal or oral administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from pantoea agglomerans (ip-pa1) has shown prophylactic and antitumor effects without serious side-effects. while it is known that tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha produced by activated macrophages plays an important role in the expression mechanism following intradermal administration, details of the mechanism after oral administration remain unclear. in this study, the activation of innate immunity using fish as an animal model ...200920032450
[real-time pcr in rapid diagnosis of aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].we report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. we suspected vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. no microbe had been detected at death. we extracted dna from a blood culture bottle. sybr green i real-time pcr was conducted but could not detect v. vulnificus vvh in the dna sample. aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized ...200920034324
identification and expression analysis of the g-type and c-type lysozymes in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus.lysozyme is an important molecule of innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infections. we identified two genes encoding g-type and c-type lysozymes from grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus by the race method. the deduced amino acids of both lysozymes possessed typical structural residues and conserved catalytic sites similar to their counterparts across the species. in contrast, there was only 8.6% similarity of amino acid sequence between these two lysozymes. phylogenetic analy ...201020034515
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