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comparison of two assays for the detection of haemolysins of aeromonas species.the haemolysins produced by aeromonas species were detected and compared by two assay methods--a modified blood agar plate assay and the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin method. both assays showed a high level of agreement (86%). the titres of the rabbit erythrocyte haemolysin assay correlated with the haemolytic zone diameter of the ox blood agar assay. in addition the agar haemolysin assay had simple media requirements, was easy to perform and results were well defined.19921411668
temperature-dependent in vitro antimicrobial activity of four 4-quinolones and oxytetracycline against bacteria pathogenic to fish.the in vitro antimicrobial activities of oxolinic acid, flumequine, sarafloxacin, enrofloxacin, and oxytetracycline against strains of bacteria pathogenic to fish (aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, atypical a. salmonicida, vibrio salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum, and yersinia ruckeri) were determined at two different incubation temperatures, 4 and 15 degrees c, by a drug microdilution method. the main objective of the study was to examine the effect of incubation temperature on the in vit ...19921416857
[clinical and diagnostic characteristics of aeromonas strains].we studied the taxonomic, clinic, microbiological diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of aeromonas strains. eleven geno-species have been isolated in human. they can be enterotoxigenic or enteroinvasive. these bacteria can be easily confused with other gram negative bacilli (the aeromonas are oxidase positive). they produce diarrhea but can only colonizer. in others localizations they are always diagnostic. their detection in stools can be realized with the blood agar plus ampicillin or c ...19921420766
epidemiology of persistent diarrhea and etiologic agents in mirzapur, bangladesh.to determine the epidemiology and etiologic agents of persistent diarrhea we carried out an intensive diarrhea surveillance on children less than six years old in rural bangladesh. from march 1987 to february 1989 we examined 363 children through diarrhea recall interviews and analyzed stool samples of all diarrhea cases for potential pathogens. results showed that children had an average of two episodes per year and the incidence rate of diarrheal episodes defined as acute (< 14 d) and persiste ...19921421936
rapid identification of motile aeromonas.the clinical relevance and taxonomy of motile aeromonas species are areas of current controversy. strains of motile aeromonas isolates (n = 60) from various sources were identified to species level using the following tests (all incubated at 30 degrees and 37 degrees c): esculin hydrolysis; formation of gas from glucose; production of acetoin; production of acid from mannitol and arabinose; decarboxylation of lysine and ornithine, dihydrolation of arginine; and pyrazinamide hydrolysis in a semis ...19921424504
effect of aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxins on function of mouse phagocytes.two enterotoxins produced by aeromonas hydrophila isolate ssu have been characterized in this laboratory. one is a cholera toxin cross-reactive cytolytic enterotoxin (ctc toxin) and the other is a non-cholera toxin cross-reactive cytotonic enterotoxin (non-ctc toxin). the two enterotoxins are capable of causing fluid accumulation in animal models; however, only the ctc toxin is lethal to mice and expresses hemolytic as well as cytotoxic activities. in this study, we have investigated the effects ...19921425069
a 15-year study of the role of aeromonas spp. in gastroenteritis in hospitalised children.during a 15-year period, 146 strains of aeromonas spp. were isolated from 32810 faecal specimens from 13,820 hospitalised patients up to 13 years of age. these isolates constituted 4% of all the pathogenic bacterial strains cultured. for the years 1978-1988, the files of children with gastro-enteritis revealed 81 whose faeces yielded aeromonas spp. most of them (94%) were < 3 years of age, 78% < 1 year old. the peak incidence was at 2-6 months, involving severe morbidity including dehydration an ...19921433252
purification and characterisation of an extracellular metalloprotease, serine protease and haemolysin of aeromonas hydrophila strain b32: all are lethal for fish.three different lethal (for rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri) extracellular toxins were purified by hplc from the culture supernatants of aeromonas hydrophila strain b32 which had been isolated from rainbow trout. a metalloprotease, mw 38 kda, was stable at 56 degrees c for 10 min, had no cytotoxic activity and and ld50 of 150 ng/g fish. in narrow range isoelectric-focusing (ief) the enzyme had 11 isomers with (pls) between 4.12 and 4.8. a serine protease (22 kda) was stable at 56 degrees c for 10 ...19921435227
dietary vitamin b6 and vitamin c. influence on immune response and disease resistance in atlantic salmon (salmo salar). 19921444053
variation in growth kinetics and phenotype of aeromonas spp. from clinical, meat processing and fleshfood sources.sixty-four strains of motile aeromonads (a. hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae), isolated from clinical meat processing and ready-to-eat fleshfood sources, and the a. hydrophila type strain were tested with respect to their growth kinetics at 4 degrees c and 37 degrees c, and the reported indicators of pathogenicity: autoagglutination and haemolysis (tested using a camp reaction). between the species, a. caviae grew the fastest at 37 degrees c and had the highest percentage of strains not able ...19921445756
incidence and coincidence of listeria spp., motile aeromonads and yersinia enterocolitica on ready-to-eat fleshfoods.a survey for the presence of listeria spp., yersinia enterocolitica and motile aeromonads in 203 samples of ready-to-eat fleshfoods purchased from retail outlets was conducted. overall, 39.4%, 3.4% and 23.2% of samples were positive for the presence of listeria spp., y. enterocolitica and motile aeromonads respectively. two factors have been identified as contributing to contamination of fleshfoods by these cold-tolerant bacteria. these are (i) the method of sale; delicatessen-bought foods were ...19921445763
contaminated marine wounds--the risk of acquiring acute bacterial infection from marine recreational beaches.an animal model was used to determine the potential for causing wound infections of bacteria isolated from marine recreational beaches in hong kong. water samples were characterized physically, chemically and bacteriologically and used to inoculate artificially-induced wounds in rats. morbidity and mortality correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with macconkey plate counts and faecal coliform counts (membrane filtration) and inversely with salinity of the water. the majority of deaths were due to ...19921447057
aeromonas sobria spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. 19921449170
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of the gene encoding an extracellular deoxyribonuclease (dnase) from aeromonas hydrophila.the gene encoding an extracellular dnase from aeromonas hydrophila chc-1 has been cloned and sequenced. following expression of the dns in escherichia coli, it was revealed that some of the cloned enzyme was present in the cell-free extracellular supernatant fluid, and there was no cell lysis and concurrent release of cytoplasmic or periplasmic proteins. therefore, results suggest that e. coli cells were capable of secreting the dnase extracellularly, albeit very inefficiently. the dns is transc ...19921452026
aeromonas spp as a potential cause of diarrhoea in children.to determine the prevalence of aeromonas spp in the faeces of children and the association with symptoms of gastroenteritis.19921452789
electrophoretic mobility and immunoblot analysis of the outer membrane proteins of aeromonas hydrophila, a. sobria and a. caviae.the outer membrane profiles of three species of the genus aeromonas were examined by means of sds-page and immunoblotting to identify species-specific polypeptides and antigens which could presumably be applied to differentiate aeromonas spp. at the species or subspecies level. profiles on an 11% discontinuous sds-page showed common band sharing at the 52 kd position. species-specific bands for the three strains could also be detected. immunoblots using heterologous lps-adsorbed polyclonal antis ...19921453982
crocodile attacks in the northern territory of australia.to examine crocodile attacks in the northern territory with particular reference to risk factors, range of injuries, microorganisms isolated from wounds, and surgical management; and to make recommendations for optimal treatment.19921453999
prevalence of bacterial agents of diarrhoeal disease at the national university hospital, singapore and their resistance to antimicrobial agents.over a 50-month period, 4,508 stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea were bacteriologically examined at the national university hospital, singapore. salmonella serotypes other than the typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli were the most common finding, being isolated in 10.8% of cases. campylobacter jejuni was unexpectedly infrequent (1.9%); aeromonas hydrophila was found in 1.8%. no other aerobic pathogen occurred in more than 1% of cases. clostridium difficile was sought only when requested, a ...19921455527
stimulation of neutrophil leukocyte chemotaxis by a cloned cytolytic enterotoxin of aeromonas hydrophila.a cytolytic enterotoxin produced by aeromonas hydrophila, isolate ssu, has been cloned in our laboratory. this enterotoxin lysed rabbit red blood cells, destroyed chinese hamster ovary cells, caused fluid secretion in rat ligated ileal loops, inhibited the phagocytic function of mouse phagocytes, and was lethal to mice when injected intravenously. in this study, the effect of this cytolytic enterotoxin on the chemotaxis of human leukocytes (cell line rpmi 1788) was examined. this toxin, at conce ...19921459417
identification of a cyprinid fish, the tench tinca tinca l., as a carrier of the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids.a typical, pigment-producing strain of aeromonas salmonicida (a. sal.), the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish species, was isolated from a cyprinid species, the tench tinca tinca l. with papilloma-like skin alterations. histopathology of the papilloma-like skin alterations in tench revealed "round holes", distinctly lined by thick layers of epithelial cells, but no bacteria. the organism was isolated from skin, gills and fins, but not internal organs. the isolate proved highly vir ...19921462724
[bacterial pathogens in diarrhea: demonstration of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli using the polymerase chain reaction].in 23% of 576 diarrhea patients we were able to demonstrate putative bacterial pathogens. not included in this number is clostridium difficile which was found in 8 of 48 (8.3%) specimens analyzed. in addition to salmonella (8.2%), campylobacter (6.0%), aeromonas (2.7%), shigella (1.9%) and yersinia (0.8%) we identified verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) in 10 patients (1.9%). vtec were found as frequently as shigella (occurring exclusively in patients returning from the tropics) and we ...19921465595
destruction of bacteria on fresh meat by hot water.strains of different bacterial genera; escherichia coli (7), salmonella serotypes (7), enteropathogenic e. coli o 157 (2), aeromonas hydrophila (4), yersinia enterocolytica (1), pseudomonas fragi (5), and listeria monocytogenes (5), inoculated onto the surface tissues of pieces of fresh beef were found to be susceptible to the lethal action of hot water. on average, more than 3 log10 (99.9%) of these organisms were destroyed when water at 80 degrees c was applied for 10 or 20 s. therefore, a hot ...19921468533
the cloning and nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene (aspa) of aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida.the gene for aeromonas salmonicida serine protease has been cloned into phagemid ptz18r in two restriction fragments, 2.0-kb psti and 2.3-kb kpni, of genomic dna. the nucleotide sequences of the two fragments have been determined, in both directions, after subcloning, by double-stranded sequencing of nested deletions. an open reading frame of 1863 bp translated into a sequence of 621 amino acids, a 24-amino acid signal peptide and a 597-amino acid mature enzyme of molecular mass 64,173 da. the c ...19921468618
detection of bacterial and mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by polymerase chain reaction.a fast and simple method to detect bacterial and especially mycoplasma contamination in tissue culture by means of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification is described. in a first step the universal primer pairs p1/p2 (190-bp fragment) and p3/p4 (120-bp fragment) directed to different conserved parts of the prokaryotic 16s rrna gene are used. a positive signal after amplification on cell culture dna with these primers provides an indication of bacterial infection. using the internal primer ...19921468621
detection of aeromonas salmonicida from fish by using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the virulence surface array protein gene.a dna-based assay was developed to detect aeromonas salmonicida from infected fish by analyzing tissues, feces, and the tank water in which the infected fish were held. this analysis was done both by direct detection from samples and after a bacterial outgrowth step. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of a 421-bp sequence from the 3' region of the surface array protein gene (vapa) of a. salmonicida provided a specific and sensitive method for the detection and identification of this i ...19921476426
phenotypic methods for speciating clinical aeromonas isolates.to establish the suitability of currently available phenotypic methods for speciation of clinical aeromonas isolates in diagnostic microbiology laboratories.19921479034
diagnostic exercise: high mortality in red-eared slider turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans). 19921479815
in vitro activities of ro 40-6890 against 164 predominantly intestinal members of the families enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae.the in vitro activities of ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the national committee for clinical laboratory standards. ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (mic for 90% of isolates [mic90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families entero ...19921482154
development of monoclonal antibodies that identify vibrio species commonly isolated from infections of humans, fish, and shellfish.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against vibrio species that infect humans, fish, and shellfish were developed for application in rapid identifications. the pathogens included vibrio alginolyticus, v. anguillarum, v. carchariae, v. cholerae, v. damsela, v. furnissii, v. harveyi, v. ordalii, v. parahaemolyticus, and v. vulnificus. three types of mabs were selected. the first important group included mabs that reacted with only a single species. a second group comprised a number of mabs that reacted w ...19921482190
aeromonas hydrophila conjunctivitis in a pet parrot (amazona versicolor).a bilateral conjunctivitis in a pet parrot (amazona versicolor) is reported. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated in pure culture from both eyes and considered of diagnostic significance. biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of the strain were studied, as were the factors that could have contributed to the clinical conjunctivitis and the role of a. hydrophila as an opportunistic pathogen.19921485867
[the suicide phenomenon and fermentative metabolic activity in strains of the aeromonas group isolated from feces].we study the "suicide" phenomena as well as metabolic pathways of mixed acids (methyl red test, mr) and butylene glycol (voges-proskauer, vp), in 107 strains belonging to mesophilic aeromonas group, isolated from stools. the strains have been identified as a. hydrophila, 28 cases (26.1%), a. sobria 26 cases (24.3%) and a. caviae 53 cases (49.6%). all a. caviae strains behave homogeneously as f+, rm+ and vp-, independently of temperature (30 or 37 degrees c). a. hydrophila strains only showed the ...19921489794
aeromonas hydrophila fulminant pneumonia in a fit young man.a previously healthy 24 year old athletic man became ill suddenly with pneumonia the day after swimming in the sea. despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit he died three hours after admission and 21 hours after his first symptom. necropsy showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrotising pneumonia. aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lungs at necropsy. the infection may have come from contaminated sea water.19921496512
formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei and attendant changes in shape and adhesive capacity of constitutive cells.the formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity may result from an aggregation of coelomocytes around offending foreign cells such as bacteria, gregarines, incompatible graft fragments, and altered self structures such as setae or necrotic muscle cells. the initial nodule rapidly increases in volume by aggregation of new coelomocytes and various waste particles. when a brown body has reached a diameter of 1-2 mm, its external cells flatten and lose their adhesiveness toward free coelomocyte ...19921499843
use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1 strains from the latin american cholera epidemic.in january 1991, an outbreak of cholera started in peru and spread throughout most of latin america within 8 months. as of march 1992, over 450,000 cases and approximately 4,000 deaths have been reported to the pan american health organization. the causative organism is toxigenic vibrio cholerae o1 of the el tor biotype and is distinct from the u.s. gulf coast strains. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that amplifies a 564-bp fragment of the cholera toxin a subunit gene (ctxa) was used to identi ...19921500520
occurrence of haemolysin producing aeromonas species in the aquatic environment.a total of 532 environmental isolates of motile aeromonads were evaluated for their ability to produce haemolysins. of those isolates tested, 68 (12.5%) and 18 (3.4%) were found to be alpha and beta haemolytic, respectively. aeromonas caviae was found to be alpha haemolytic (3.8%) for the first time. isolates of aeromonas which were either alpha or beta haemolytic on plate assay also produced detectable amounts of haemolysin in cell free broth assay.19921501594
in vitro activity of ro 23-9424, a dual-action antibacterial agent, against bacterial isolates from cancer patients compared with those of other agents.the in vitro activity of ro 23-9424 against bacterial isolates from patients with cancer was compared with those of fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone, and ceftazidime. ro 23-9424 inhibited the majority of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae and all aeromonas isolates at a concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/ml. it was also active against acinetobacter spp. and haemophilus influenzae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. the mic for 90% of isolates (mic90) ...19921503453
isolation and characterization of the hupa gene coding for hu of aeromonas proteolytica. 19921508695
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
automated lanes detection and comparison of bacterial electrophoretic protein fingerprints using fast fourier transformation.a method of computer-automated analysis of bacterial fingerprints produced by electrophoresis of proteins in a one-dimensional slab gel system is described. proteins were visualized by silver staining. western blotting, or autoradiography. gels were recorded with a ccd camera, and after initial manual removal of the unwanted image margins, track margins were identified and extracted and a normalized trace was produced automatically using fourier routines to smooth plots required for this process ...19921511600
survival of bacterial enteric pathogens in traditional fermented foods.the survival of strains of bacterial enteric pathogens was investigated in two traditional fermented foods (mahewu and sour porridge) and in unfermented porridge. the foods were inoculated with cell suspensions of salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, aeromonas species and pathogenic escherichia coli which had a final concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml of food. none of the strains of aeromonas and campylobacter were detected in mahewu and sour porridge 20 min after inoculation. the salmonellas w ...19921512176
the activity of ceftiofur sodium for aeromonas spp. isolated from ornamental fish.our objective was to determine the activity of ceftiofur sodium against aeromonas hydrophila and a. sobria isolated from a variety of domestic and imported tropical fish. twelve antimicrobial drugs were tested for effectiveness against these aeromonads using the kirby-bauer disk diffusion technique and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations. ceftiofur sodium was highly effective in vitro against aeromonads isolated from ornamental fish. of the 42 isolates of aeromonas spp. tested, none ...19921512880
[sensitivity of vibrio and aeromonas to antibiotics].the antibiotic sensitivity of 696 cultures belonging to the family vibrionaceae (v. cholerae o1, v. cholerae non-o1, v. albensis, v. parahaemolyticus, v. alginolyticus and aeromonas spp.) was studied and general regularities of the antibiotic sensitivity were shown: a high sensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics (tetracycline and chloramphenicol) and a low sensitivity to ++beta lactams (carbenicillin and ampicillin). the comparative examinations revealed similarity in the antibioticograms of v ...19921514858
emerging food-borne pathogens and their significance in chilled foods. 19921517168
effect of culture age, pre-incubation at low temperature and ph on the thermal resistance of aeromonas hydrophila.the thermal resistance of aeromonas hydrophila strain nctc 8049 was determined within the range 48 degrees-65 degrees c with a thermoresistometer tr-sc and mcilvaine buffer. the effects of culture age, pre-incubation at 7 degrees c and the ph of the heating menstruum were evaluated. the pattern of thermal death was dependent on culture age. cells heated in the late logarithmic growth phase (15 h at 30 degrees c) were twice as resistant as those in the early stage (5 h at 30 degrees c), and the m ...19921517173
numerical classification and identification of aeromonas genospecies.a total of 176 aeromonas strains representing all currently characterized genospecies were tested for 329 biochemical characters. overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomic techniques, the upgma algorithm and the ssm and the sj coefficients as measures of similarity. sixteen clusters (two or more strains) and seven unclustered strains were recovered at the 93.5% similarity level (ssm). genospecies 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 13 were largely represented by single phen ...19921517176
epidemiology of aeromonas infections in california.in may 1988, california became the first state to make aeromonas infection a reportable condition, thereby permitting the first population-based study of the epidemiology of infection caused by aeromonas organisms. case investigations were carried out on 219 of the 280 patients whose infections were reported during the first year of notification. the overall incidence rate for aeromonas isolation was 10.6 cases per 1 million population. the gastrointestinal tract was the most commonly reported s ...19921520792
aeromonas hydrophila infections following use of medicinal leeches in replantation and flap surgery.aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of postoperative leech application, and can occur with measurable frequency in populations of patients treated with leeches. we review 11 previously reported leech-related aeromonas infections and analyze seven unreported cases. these infections range from minor wound complications to extensive tissue loss and sepsis. often, these infections followed leech application to tissue with questionable arterial perfusion. onset of clinical i ...19921524373
postprandial aeromonas hydrophila cultures and antibiotic levels of enteric aspirates from medicinal leeches applied to patients receiving antibiotics.increasing use of medicinal leeches has been accompanied by increasing numbers of reports of aeromonas hydrophila infections after leech application on or near damaged tissue. we examined the enteric contents of postprandial leeches after their application to patients receiving antibiotics. we found measurable levels of antibiotic in the leech enteric contents, and in leeches applied to patients receiving an antibiotic effective against aeromonas hydrophila, there was a significant decrease in p ...19921524374
the use of medicinal leeches in the salvage of flaps with venous congestion.the use of medicinal leeches (hirudo medicinalis) for the salvage of tissues with venous congestion has been intermittent over the last two centuries. during the last decade, interest in leech therapy has undergone a resurgence. hirudo's tricuspid bite injects a highly potent anticoagulant. the site usually bleeds for 1 to 2 hours and under special circumstances may bleed for up to 24 hours. this collective series presents four patients in whom immediate postoperative venous congestion threatene ...19921524375
comparative in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a novel cephalosporin with a catechol moiety.the in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in 1230 clinical isolates from 1028 consecutive patients. using an agar dilution method, the drugs were tested against 625 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, 68 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 xanthomonas maltophilia, 20 aeromonas hydrophila, 54 acinetobacter, 373 staphylococci, and 54 strains of enterococci. more than 98% of enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to ro 09-1 ...19921525790
[late onset serum iga and igm deficiency revealed by acute diarrhea caused by aeromonas sobria infection]. 19921526403
occurrence of a capsule in aeromonas salmonicida.aeromonas salmonicida grown in a medium with excess glucose as carbon source produces both capsular and exocellular polysaccharides. the capsular polysaccharide is composed of glucose, mannose, rhamnose, n-acetylmannosamine and mannuronic acid in the molar ratios of approximately 5:3:0.75:2:1. the extracellular polysaccharide is similarly constituted, but in the molar ratios of approximately 4.75:10.5:1.5:2:1. the capsular and exocellular polysaccharides did not cross-react with monoclonal antib ...19921526444
molecular cloning, characterization and nucleotide sequence of the gene for secreted alpha-amylase from xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-d-glucan glucanohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.1) of apparent molecular mass 45 kda was secreted by xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris grown in medium containing starch or maltose. we isolated its structural gene from a recombinant lambda library and located it on a 2.7 kb dna fragment. nucleotide sequencing of the fragment revealed a potential orf encoding a protein of 475 amino acid residues, including a potential signal sequence of 35 amino acids. the signal processing site w ...19921527504
siderophore production and dna hybridization groups of aeromonas spp.a correlation between the genospecies (dna-dna hybridization group) and the type of siderophore produced by 118 isolates of the genus aeromonas was established. organisms in hybridization groups 1 through 5 (including 5a, 5b, and 5ab) and group 12 predominantly produced the siderophore amonabactin, while an enterobactinlike siderophore was prevalent in groups 8/10 and 9. the siderophore produced by strains in group 6 may be an as-yet-unidentified nonphenolate, nonhydroxamate compound, and group ...19921532398
amoxycillin in the control of furunculosis in atlantic salmon parr.the efficacy of amoxycillin in the control of laboratory induced aeromonas salmonicida infection in atlantic salmon parr was investigated. when given in the diet at a dose rate of 80 mg per kg bodyweight it was effective against both a moderate and severe challenge (with mortality rates in untreated groups of 75 per cent and 45 per cent). at 40 mg per kg it was effective against the moderate challenge only. the plasma levels in these regimens were 1.25 micrograms per ml and 0.3 to 0.6 micrograms ...19921546434
rapid purification of the aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase: crystallization and preliminary x-ray data.the heat-stable aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica has been purified using two new procedures, with the aim of preparing large single crystals for x-ray analysis. in a first procedure, we tried to avoid any drastic conditions capable of inducing microheterogeneities in the protein sample. the enzyme was purified through two chromatographic steps based on hydrophobic interactions and ion exchange. in a second procedure a heat treatment of the protein to a temperature of 70 degrees c over ...19921550363
myonecrosis due to aeromonas hydrophila following insertion of an intravenous cannula: case report and review. 19921554856
isolation of salmonellas by immunomagnetic separation.magnetisable particles, coated with anti-salmonella serum, were used to isolate salmonella livingstone from pure cultures, mixed cultures and food samples. beads (10(7] were generally incubated with 10(4) salm. livingstone cells/ml for 60 min at room temperature. the incubation and washing medium (0.01 mol/l phosphate-buffered saline; pbs) contained 0.1% bovine serum albumin (bsa) and 0.1% tween 20, respectively. this method gave a recovery for salm. livingstone of 51.0 +/- 7.8%. however, other ...19921556036
enterotoxicity of clinical and environmental isolates of aeromonas spp.of 147 isolates of three species of aeromonas, 54 were from clinical and 93 from environmental sources. when tested for enterotoxin production, most of the isolates (56%) caused accumulation of fluid in rabbit ileal loops (rils). although large proportions of clinical and environmental isolates of a. caviae (55% and 65%, respectively) elicited such a response in rils, isolates of a. hydrophila and a. sobria produced significantly more fluid (p less than 0.05). furthermore, the environmental stra ...19921560448
catfish-related injury and infection: report of two cases and review of the literature.two cases of serious infection following catfish spine-related injuries are presented, and the literature on this topic is reviewed. the organisms usually involved in such infections are vibrio species, aeromonas hydrophila, enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas species, and components of the flora of the human skin. irrigation, exploration, and culture of these wounds as well as immunization of the patient against tetanus are recommended. patients with hepatic disease or chronic illness and immunocom ...19921562661
behaviour of aeromonas species in cary-blair transport medium at various temperatures. 19921563392
structural and pathogenic properties of aeromonas schubertii.we investigated the phenotypic, structural, and pathogenic properties of 11 aeromonas schubertii strains recovered from extraintestinal sites. most a. schubertii strains were autoagglutination positive, possessed a high surface charge but low hydrophobicity, and fell into one or two biogroups on the basis of carbon substrate utilization patterns. fatty acid methyl ester analysis of a. schubertii revealed this species to contain a relatively high percentage of branched fatty acids (i-13:0, i-15:0 ...19921563798
enterotoxic effects of aeromonas sobria haemolysin in a rat jejunal perfusion system identified by specific neutralization with a monoclonal antibody.investigations into the pathogenesis of aeromonas diarrhoea have demonstrated that several different cell-free products of motile aeromonads show enterotoxic activity in suckling mouse, rat, and rabbit assay systems. the relative contributions made by separate cytotoxic and cytotonic activities in the mixture produced by in vitro culture remains unresolved. using a modified rat jejunal perfusion assay, we have studied the effects of a. sobria culture filtrates containing defined levels of haemol ...19921564437
isolation of the leucine aminopeptidase gene from aeromonas proteolytica. evidence for an enzyme precursor.the leucine aminopeptidase of aeromonas proteolytica (ec 3.4.11.10) is a monomeric metalloenzyme having the capacity to bind two zn2+ atoms in the active site. structural information of this relatively small aminopeptidase that could illuminate the catalytic mechanism of the metal ions is lacking; hence, we have obtained sequences from the purified enzyme, cloned the corresponding gene, and expressed the recombinant protein in escherichia coli. the deduced primary amino acid sequence of this sec ...19921569090
haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with aeromonas hydrophila enterocolitis. 19921571224
dna probe for aeromonas salmonicida.a dna fragment that is specific to aeromonas salmonicida has been isolated from a genomic dna library by differential hybridization. the specificity of this fragment as a dna probe for a. salmonicida was shown by hybridization against reference strains and clinical isolates of a. salmonicida, related aeromonads, and species from several other bacterial genera. the sensitivity of detection by a polymerase chain reaction test, based on this fragment, was approximately two a. salmonicida cells.19921575477
virulence traits of aeromonas strains in relation to species and source of isolation.the virulence traits of 39 well-defined clinical (29 strains) and environmental (10 strains) isolates of aeromonas (16 a. hydrophila, 12 a. sobria and 11 a. caviae) were examined by a variety of assays to delineate differences, if any, in the enteropathogenic potential in relation to species and the source of isolation. the distribution of enterotoxin (ent), cytotoxin (cyt) and haemolysin (hae) producing strains of aeromonas did not correlate to species and source of isolation. the extracellular ...19921576411
elastolytic activity among aeromonas spp. using a modified bilayer plate assay.a total of 166 isolates of aeromonas, representing diverse geographical regions and originating from various sources, were evaluated for the ability to produce elastase by using a bilayer elastin agar medium (beam) plate assay. the degree of elastase activity of individual strains was roughly assessed by measuring the clear area beneath or peripheral to the colony and recorded as 1+, 2+, or 3+. of the 166 aeromonads tested, 53 (32%) were found to produce elastase, of which 26 (49%) were 3+, 21 ( ...19921582164
identification of aeromonas strains to the genospecies level in the clinical laboratory.one hundred thirty-three strains of aeromonas (human, n = 102; animal, n = 16; environmental, n = 15) previously identified to the dna group level by molecular methods were biochemically analyzed for 58 properties. on the basis of the use of between 9 and 16 selected tests, 132 of the 133 strains (99%) could be assigned to their correct hybridization group using this biochemical scheme. the results suggest a feasible approach for identifying aeromonads to genospecies level under appropriate cond ...19921583128
characterization of aeromonas caviae antigens which cross-react with shigella boydii 5.live and boiled cells of 16 strains of aeromonas caviae, isolated from patients with diarrhea, agglutinated with shigella boydii 5 antiserum in a slide test. further studies with seven selected strains showed agglutination with boiled cells in a tube test. lipopolysaccharide antigen extracted from one of these strains cross-reacted with s. boydii 5 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot studies. either all or the majority of the seven strains possessed properties deemed to be diarrh ...19921583145
susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and plasmid carrying in aeromonas hydrophila isolated from two estuarine systems.susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and the presence of plasmids was investigated in eleven strains of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from samples of sea water and these strains isolated from aulacomya ater. transference of resistance to escherichia coli was attempted by conjugation and transformation experiments. the strains showed multiple resistance toward beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents. five strains harboured plasmids with molecular weights ...19921593967
stereochemical and positional specificity of the lipase/acyltransferase produced by aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas species secrete a glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) which shares many properties with mammalian plasma lecithin-cholesterol acetyltransferase (lcat). we have studied the stereochemical and positional specificity of gcat against a variety of lipid substrates using nmr spectroscopy as well as other assay methods. the results show that both the primary and secondary acyl ester bonds of l-phosphatidylcholine can be hydrolyzed but only the sn-2 fatty acid can be transfe ...19921599923
molecular studies on the aerolysin gene of aeromonas species and discovery of a species-specific probe for aeromonas trota species nova.a large group of aeromonads and other enteric microorganisms were assayed for the presence of the aerolysin gene with use of dna-dna hybridization. two dna fragments corresponding to the regulatory region (aerc) and the structural gene (aera) were used as probes for the detection of the aerolysin gene in these strains. sequences corresponding to the aerolysin structural gene were widespread among aeromonas isolates. in contrast, the aerc probe was much more selective, and sequences corresponding ...19921600007
case report with review of aeromonas infection.a 31-year-old woman with a. sobria infection and septicemia was reported. the patient was a known case of anll,m4 with incomplete remission following successive courses of chemotherapy. there were abscesses in the subcutaneous tissue of right knee and the liver at necropsy. leukemic cell infiltration in various organs as well as the aforementioned organs were observed. reported cases of aeromonas infection with or without diarrhea were also reviewed. according to our knowledge the present case i ...19921602265
a comparison of total and specific immunoglobulin levels in healthy atlantic salmon (salmo salar l.) and in salmon naturally infected with aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes.healthy atlantic salmon and salmon with a history of chronic natural aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes infection were compared with respect to total serum protein and the concentration and specificity of serum immunoglobulin. the immunoglobulin level was measured using competitive elisa and the specific antibody activity against aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes was measured using double sandwich elisa. significant elevation of serum protein and immunoglobulin concentration was o ...19921604799
[usefulness of studies of susceptibility of ampicillin, carbenicillin, cefalotin and colistin as a presumptive identification system for the aeromonas sp. group].we have studied the restricted antibiotic susceptibility tests for 180 strains belonging to mesophilic aeromonas sp. isolated from stools samples. strains has been identified as follows: a. caviae (64.6%), a. hydrophila (17.7%) and a. sobria (17.7%). antibiotics tested were ampicillin (10 micrograms), carbenicillin (100 micrograms), cephalotin (30 micrograms) and colistin (10 micrograms), by means of agar diffusion tests (disk-plate). we identified four different patterns of antibiotic susceptib ...19921606227
[the occurrence of aeromonads in a drinking water supply system].this study concerns with the occurrence of aeromonads, coliforms and colony counts in a drinking water supply. aeromonas contents were detected in the range of 15.0 to greater than 2,400/100 ml in the raw water samples of the man made lake. after the drinking water treatment process including fast sand filtration and chlorination aeromonads indicated in comparison to total coliforms and colony counts early and significant an after-growth of maximal 240 aeromonads/100 ml in the peripheric drinkin ...19921609555
summary of bacterial isolates from farm-reared channel catfish (1979-1988). 19921616987
toxicity of aeromonas salmonicida cells to atlantic salmon salmo salar peritoneal macrophages.several strains of aeromonas salmonicida were toxic to cultured peritoneal macrophages of atlantic salmon, salmo salar, in minimum doses of 5 x 10(6) cfu, whereas other strains were not. there was no correlation between cytotoxicity and in vivo virulence of the bacteria, the presence or absence of the two major surface components of a. salmonicida (namely, the a-layer and the o-polysaccharide chain of the lps) nor, finally, with the ability of the strains to produce the following enzymes in vitr ...19921618355
typing of aeromonas strains from patients with diarrhoea and from drinking water.aeromonas strains (187) from human diarrhoeal stools and from drinking water (263) in the netherlands were typed by three different methods. biotyping alone was found to be of little value for epidemiological studies because 84% of all strains belonged to only 10 biotypes. common biotypes could be further differentiated by serotyping. gas-liquid chromatography of cell wall fatty acid methyl esters (fame) was useful for species identification as well as for typing: 86% of all strains could be ide ...19921618720
haemolysin and enterotoxin production by aeromonas caviae isolated from diarrhoeal patients, fish and environment.beta-haemolytic activity was shown by 46 (63%) of the 73 aeromonas caviae strains isolated from diverse sources, such as diarrhoeal stools, fish ulcers and water in titres of 16-64 hu/ml. only 2 strains showed alpha-haemolytic activity and the remaining 27% of them were nonhaemolytic. live cells and culture filtrates of 60.3% of the a. caviae isolates caused accumulation of fluid in rabbit gut loops in the initial set of experiments. of the 46 strains showing beta-haemolytic activity only 34 gav ...19921619237
rapid detection of members of the family enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody.six monoclonal antibodies directed against enterobacteria were produced and characterized. the specificity of one of these antibodies (cx9/15; immunoglobulin g2a) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence against 259 enterobacterial strains and 125 other gram-negative bacteria. all of the enterobacteria were specifically recognized, the only exception being erwinia chrysanthemi (one strain tested). bacteria not belonging to members of the family enterobacteriaceae were not detected, except for ...19921622220
application of ribotyping for differentiating aeromonads isolated from clinical and environmental sources.we have investigated the usefulness of ribotyping for the differentiation of aeromonads isolated from five patients with gastroenteritis and from the source water, treatment plant, and distribution system of a small public water supply. aeromonas hydrophila and aeromonas caviae were isolated from fecal specimens preserved in cary-blair transport medium by using blood ampicillin agar or alkaline peptone water (ph 8.4) subcultured to blood ampicillin agar plates. a. hydrophila, aeromonas sobria, a ...19921622269
cloacal flora isolated from wild black-bellied whistling ducks (dendrocygna autumnalis) in laguna la nacha, mexico.cloacal swabs from 110 adult black-bellied whistling ducks trapped at laguna la nacha, tamaulipas, mexico, were cultured to determine the prevalence of normal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. twenty-five gram-negative enterobacteria and four gram-positive cocci were isolated. the most common isolates included escherichia coli (54%), staphylococcus spp. (29%), streptococcus spp. (22%), aeromonas hydrophila (15%) enterobacter cloacae (14%), and micrococcus sp. (14%). the implications of whistl ...19921627117
fish cell lines as targets for bacterial cytotoxins. 19921634436
the aeromonas hydrophila exee gene, required both for protein secretion and normal outer membrane biogenesis, is a member of a general secretion pathway.the aeromonas hydrophila tn5-751 insertion mutant l1.97 is unable to secrete extracellular proteins, and is fragile because of defective assembly of its outer membrane. a kpni 4.1 kb fragment, which complements this mutant when supplied with an exogenous promoter, was isolated and sequenced. it contains two complete genes, exee and exef, plus fragments of two others and may form part of an operon. the exee and exef open reading frames encode 501-residue m(r) 55,882 and 388-residue m(r) 43,431 pr ...19921640836
aeromonas species: role as human pathogens. 19921642802
antibiotic susceptibilities of the vibrionaceae to meropenem and other antimicrobial agents.the in vitro activity of meropenem was compared with imipenem and other selected antimicrobial agents against 115 isolates from the family vibrionaceae. no resistance was observed with meropenem or imipenem against these isolates. however, meropenem was generally four- to 16-fold more active than imipenem against the aeromonads and vibrio cholerae. meropenem showed excellent in vitro activity against the vibrionaceae and may be useful for eradicating infections produced by these organisms.19921643823
aeromonas hydrophila: myofascial necrosis and sepsis.an alcoholic patient with ascites was admitted to the intensive care unit for gastrointestinal bleeding. he subsequently developed spontaneous myonecrosis of the extremities culminating in sepsis syndrome. this was a unique, non-traumatic presentation of aeromonas hydrophila soft tissue injury.19921644966
methods for the identification of dna hybridization groups in the genus aeromonas.among the 269 substrates tested in assimilation tests we found some that may help in the identification of dna hybridization groups in the genus aeromonas. in addition, isoenzyme analysis and ribotyping seem to be accurate although not routine procedures that allow discrimination between genetic species.19911646115
[surveillance study on bacteriological etiology of 8371 children with diarrhea].the results of stool cultures from 8371 children of 0-13 years old with diarrhea during the years of january 1981 to december 1989 in shanghai area are reported. 2906 strains of enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated, with total detection rate of 34.72%. shigella were still the most common pathogens in 1981-1984, and campylobacter jejuni took second place, whereas from 1985 on campylobacter exceeded shigella as the first pathogenic bacteria of children's diarrhea. except in 1987 and 1988 shigel ...19911647837
development of fish peritoneal macrophages as a model for higher vertebrates in immunotoxicological studies. i. characterization of trout macrophage morphological, functional, and biochemical properties.the immune defense mechanisms of fish are not as well characterized as those of mammals but seem to be related and similarly competent. because of this, there is an increased interest in the immune responses of fish as models for higher vertebrates in immunotoxicological studies. prior to such studies, baseline criteria for specific components of the immune response needed to be established. for this study, we have examined trout macrophage morphology using light and scanning electron microscopy ...19911649778
[isolation of enteropathogenic microorganism from patients with infection of the digestive tract during 1976 to 1988 in tenri hospital].enteropathogenic microorganisms isolated from feces of 9,393 patients with diarrhea or enteritis in our hospital between 1976 and 1988 were analyzed. as the result of the examination of 5,443 outpatients, 1,811 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1,686 cases (31.0%). several species including salmonella spp., escherichia coli serotype, vibrio parahaemolyticus, were isolated before 1978, and the incidence of pathogens was low (14.8%). for the 10-year period since 1979, the incidence markedly ...19911655921
dgtp triphosphohydrolase, a unique enzyme confined to members of the family enterobacteriaceae.the enzyme dgtp triphosphohydrolase (dgtpase; ec 3.1.5.1) was assayed in partially purified extracts of several genera of bacteria, and it was found to be strictly confined to members of the family enterobacteriaceae. whereas 11 of 12 enteric bacteria had comparable activity for this enzyme, 8 of 8 nonenteric bacteria, including species in the very closely related genera vibrio and aeromonas, did not assay positively for this enzyme. when challenged with escherichia coli anti-dgtpase antiserum, ...19911657865
in vitro activity of temafloxacin against gram-negative bacteria: an overview.the in vitro activities of temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against gram-negative bacteria are compared. the 90% minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic90s) of temafloxacin for respiratory pathogens such as haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, neisseria meningitidis, bordetella pertussis, and legionella pneumophila are less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml. temafloxacin is also active against bacterial agents of sexually transmitted diseases, including neisseria gonorrhoeae ...19911662890
the specificity of bacterial siderophore receptors probed by bioassays.the ability to utilize siderophores of bacterial and fungal origin has been studied in wild-type and mutant strains of the enterobacterial genera salmonella, escherichia, shigella, moellerella, klebsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, pantoea, ewingella, tatumella, yersinia, and in the non-enterics aeromonas, pseudomonas and aureobacterium. although only a few representative strains were tested, the results show characteristic genus-specific differences in the utilization of hydroxamate and catecholate ...19911663779
the prevalence of enteric pathogens in diarrhoeic thoroughbred foals in britain and ireland.a survey of 77 normal and 326 diarrhoeic foals in britain and ireland from 1987 to 1989 revealed a significantly higher prevalence of group a rotaviruses and aeromonas hydrophila in diarrhoeic foals. the prevalence of cryptosporidia, potentially pathogenic escherichia coli, yersinia enterocolitica and clostridium perfringens was similar in normal or diarrhoeic foals. rotaviruses had a similar prevalence in all age groups of scouring foals up to three months of age, with an overall prevalence of ...19911663866
studies of bacterial, rotaviral and cryptosporidium etiology of acute diarrheal diseases in hospitalized children.657 hospitalized children with acute diarrheal disease were studied for bacterial and rotaviral etiology. cryptosporidium presence was followed in 123 children. intestinal pathogens were detected in 195 (29.6%) cases: 132 (20.3%) enterobacteria, 47 (7.1%) rotaviruses, 4 (3.2%) cryptosporidium sp. and 12 (1.8%) combined infections. among enterobacteria, e. coli was the most frequent (10% cases) with enteropathogenic (epec), enterotoxigenic (etec), enterohemorrhagic (ehec) and enteroinvasive (eiec ...19911666314
research on aeromonas and plesiomonas. papers presented at the 3rd international workshop on aeromonas and plesiomonas, helsingor, september 5-6, 1990. 19911675175
mannose-resistant adhesion of motile aeromonas to int407 cells and the differences among isolates from humans, food and water.aeromonas has been recognized as an important enteropathogen, but factors related to its virulence have not been clarified. for most enteric pathogens, attachment is a prerequisite for infection and for the effective delivery of toxins to the intestinal epithelial cells. we examined a total of 273 strains isolated from stool, food and environmental specimens by an assay for mannose-resistant adhesion to int407 cells in vitro. seventeen of the 102 faecal isolates were adhesive strains with more t ...19911679017
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