[trace elements in lead poisoning]. 20154468559
bronchogenic carcinoma: results of surgery plus rsv or without rsv. 20154429828
chronic bronchitis in foundry workers in vojvodina: ventilatory capacity in foundry workers. 20154422404
professionalism in medicine. 20154741338
[cold thoracic abscess due to histoplasma duboisii. treatment using rifampicin]. 20154360126
parkinsonism. 20154399879
letter: fenfluramine and psychosis. 20154414230
pyloric channel ulcer with betazole-fast achlorhydria. 20154430437
formation of assimilatory nitrate reductase by in vitro inter-cistronic complementation in neurospora vitro complementation of the soluble assimilatory nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (nadph)-nitrate reductase was attained by mixing cell-free preparations of certain neurospora nitrate reductase mutants: induced nit-1 (uniquely possessing inducible nadph-cytochrome c reductase) with (a) uninduced or induced nit-2 or nit-3, or (b) uninduced wild type. the complementing activity of induced nit-1 is soluble while that of nit-2, nit-3, and wild type is particulate but not ...20154391854
a modified baermann apparatus for the recovery of infective nematode larvae from herbage and manure. 20154411676
the acute effects of intravenous infusion of l-tryptophan in normal subjects. 20154416086
biological and immunological activity of exogenous hgh. 20154542152
management of spontaneous broncho-pleural fistula in children. 20154420535
[uterine metastasis from a colloid epithelioma of the appendix]. 20154350561
[treatment of hypertrophic warts with gordeev-2 paste and solution]. 20154386068
carcinoma of the gallbladder. 20154325325
[studies of work hygiene conditions on ore carriers (author's transl)]. 20154445745
the effects of epinephrine and prostaglandin e-1 on cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate levels in wi-38 fibroblasts. 20154364414
[theca-lutein cysts of the ovaries in normal pregnancy]. 20154297229
[the cyclic adenylcyclase amp system as a modulator of thyroid homeostasis. physiopathological and clinical implications]. 20154363426
deferring attention to institutions for the mentally retarded while emphasizing development of community resources. 20154322731
a case of renal dysplasia and relation to "bilateral nephroblastomatosis". 20154297414
keys. 20154481173
[acknowledgement of skeletal sequelae folowing leg amputation]. 20154277090
burns in my lifetime. 20154898657
[infection prevention and surgical management of deep insidious infection in total endoprosthesis]. 20165084870
cost containment--and quality assurance, too. 2. 20165082628
the epidermal component of pityriasis lichenoides. 20165057378
national health care. 20165059462
[comparative estimation of the corticoid and immunosuppressive therapy in nephrotic syndrome]. 20165023105
mesenteric fibrosis simulating the angiographic appearance of ileal carcinoid tumor. 20165015843
[serum concentrations of phenoxymethylpenicillin in a controlled study on volunteers]. 20165001919
cephaloridine in the treatment and prophylaxis of infection in the newborn. 20164964001
[histological study of autografts of dental roots in the eyelid of macacus rhesus. ii]. 20164991838
cerebral electrical activity following soman administration. 20164973155
placentation in the garter snake, thamnophis sirtalis. 20164912310
[problems of drug research]. 20164874723
individual differences at birth. implications for child-care practices. 20164852409
vegetables? 20164847369
[current status of experience and concepts concerning the therapy of progressive muscular dystrophies]. 20164889952
psychology and neuropsychology in migraine. 20164949988
[x-ray diagnosis of early functional gallbladder disorders using a computer]. 20164931629
chemical conversion of the psychotomimetic amine 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane to 5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylindole. 20164836406
urinary tract fibrinolysis. 20164831731
clomipramine and amitriptyline in depressed outpatients. a controlled study. 20164812659
comparison of oral prednisolone and intramuscular methylprednisolone in classical rheumatoid arthritis in out-patients. 20164931625
a resuscitation trolley designed for a communication problem. 20164821283
preparing lower-class patients for group psychotherapy: development and evaluation of a role-induction film. 20164803270
[neurologic, electroencephalographic and brain scintigraphic findings in supratentorial space-requiring processes]. 20164811132
neonatal cold injury in the tropics. 20164782010
[umberto carpi de resmini]. 20164918468
[changes in mitotic activity of cells of the epidermis in pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and spinocellular cancer of the skin]. 20164767949
ivory-tower humanist. 20164763433
proceedings: levels of blood pressure in children: a family study. 20164759734
neurologic manifestations of rheumatic fever. 20164759729
significance of the curriculum and prerequisites for the certification of corrective therapists. 20164752267
experimental studies on the value of archery in paraplegia. 20164750964
unexpected vitamin k deficiency in hospitalized patients.twenty-seven patients developed vitamin k deficiency unexpectedly in the postoperative period or during hospitalization for a variety of medical conditions. twenty-two of the patients were on antibiiotics. nineteen were on no oral intake during part of their hospital stay, and the remainder had a poor food intake. fifty percent developed vitamin k deficiency within seven days. it is suggested that the rapid onset of vitamin k deficiency in these patients may have been due to a combination of the ...20164750303
shock and septic complications. 20164746120
whitefringed beetles: dichlorvos applied as a postharvest treatment to protect wheat. 20164734780
[pruritus therapy in the light of spa methods]. 20164728797
[synovectomy of the hand]. 20164712009
granulomatous hepatitis and prolonged fever of unknown origin. 20164729250
the twin ion technique for detection of metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: intermediates in estrogen biosynthesis. 20164711114
manganese transporters yfe and mnth are fur-regulated and important for the virulence of yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis has a flea-mammal-flea transmission cycle, and is a zoonotic pathogen that causes the systemic diseases bubonic and septicaemic plague in rodents and humans, as well as pneumonic plague in humans and non-human primates. bubonic and pneumonic plague are quite different diseases that result from different routes of infection. manganese (mn) acquisition is critical for the growth and pathogenesis of a number of bacteria. the yfe/sit and/or mnth systems are the two prominent mn trans ...201222222497
physiological levels of glucose induce membrane vesicle secretion and affect the lipid and protein composition of yersinia pestis cell surfaces.yersinia pestis grown with physiologic glucose increased cell autoaggregation and deposition of extracellular material, including membrane vesicles. membranes were characterized, and glucose had significant effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles. these effects were independent of temperature and the biofilm-related locus pgm and were not observed in yersinia pseudotuberculosis.201323686263
evaluation of the murine immune response to xenopsylla cheopis flea saliva and its effect on transmission of yersinia pestis.arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. most rodent reservoirs of yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. we exami ...201425255317
evaluation of the effect of host immune status on short-term yersinia pestis infection in fleas with implications for the enzootic host model for maintenance of y. pestis during interepizootic periods.plague, a primarily flea-borne disease caused by yersinia pestis, is characterized by rapidly spreading epizootics separated by periods of quiescence. little is known about how and where y. pestis persists between epizootics. it is commonly proposed, however, that y pestis is maintained during interepizootic periods in enzootic cycles involving flea vectors and relatively resistant host populations. according to this model, while susceptible individuals serve as infectious sources for feeding fl ...201425276941
the namaqua rock mouse (micaelamys namaquensis) as a potential reservoir and host of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary importance in south africa.the role of endemic murid rodents as hosts of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary significance is well established in the northern hemisphere. in contrast, endemic murids are comparatively understudied as vector hosts in africa, particularly in south africa. considering the great rodent diversity in south africa, many of which may occur as human commensals, this is unwarranted.201425127720
impact of the pla protease substrate α2-antiplasmin on the progression of primary pneumonic plague.many pathogens usurp the host hemostatic system during infection to promote pathogenesis. yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, expresses the plasminogen activator protease pla, which has been shown in vitro to target and cleave multiple proteins within the fibrinolytic pathway, including the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (a2ap). it is not known, however, if pla inactivates a2ap in vivo; the role of a2ap during respiratory y. pestis infection is not known either. here, we show that ...201526438794
effects of land use on plague (yersinia pestis) activity in rodents in tanzania.understanding the effects of land-use change on zoonotic disease risk is a pressing global health concern. here, we compare prevalence of yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, in rodents across two land-use types-agricultural and conserved-in northern tanzania. estimated abundance of seropositive rodents nearly doubled in agricultural sites compared with conserved sites. this relationship between land-use type and abundance of seropositive rodents is likely mediated by changes in roden ...201525711606
new role for fda-approved drugs in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.antibiotic resistance in medically relevant bacterial pathogens, coupled with a paucity of novel antimicrobial discoveries, represents a pressing global crisis. traditional drug discovery is an inefficient and costly process; however, systematic screening of food and drug administration (fda)-approved therapeutics for other indications in humans offers a rapid alternative approach. in this study, we screened a library of 780 fda-approved drugs to identify molecules that rendered raw 264.7 murine ...201627067323
the outer membrane protease pgte of salmonella enterica interferes with the alternative complement pathway by cleaving factors b and h.the virulence factor pgte is an outer membrane protease (omptin) of the zoonotic pathogen salmonella enterica that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe enteric fever. it is surface exposed in bacteria that have a short-chain, i.e., rough lps, as observed e.g., in bacteria residing inside macrophages or just emerging from them. we investigated whether pgte cleaves the complement factors b (b) and h (h), key proteins controlling formation and inactivation of the complement protei ...201525705210
novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. the java 9 strain of y. pestis is a biovar orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in indonesia. although it lacks the y. pestis-specific plasmid pmt, which encodes the f1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. while comparing diverse y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in java 9 that were ...201222479347
humanized tlr4/md-2 mice reveal lps recognition differentially impacts susceptibility to yersinia pestis and salmonella enterica.although lipopolysaccharide (lps) stimulation through the toll-like receptor (tlr)-4/md-2 receptor complex activates host defense against gram-negative bacterial pathogens, how species-specific differences in lps recognition impact host defense remains undefined. herein, we establish how temperature dependent shifts in the lipid a of yersinia pestis lps that differentially impact recognition by mouse versus human tlr4/md-2 dictate infection susceptibility. when grown at 37°c, y. pestis lps is hy ...201223071439
the yfe and feo transporters are involved in microaerobic growth and virulence of yersinia pestis in bubonic plague.the yfe/sit and feo transport systems are important for the growth of a variety of bacteria. in yersinia pestis, single mutations in either yfe or feo result in reduced growth under static (limited aeration), iron-chelated conditions, while a yfe feo double mutant has a more severe growth defect. these growth defects were not observed when bacteria were grown under aerobic conditions or in strains capable of producing the siderophore yersiniabactin (ybt) and the putative ferrous transporter fetm ...201222927049
a new generation microarray for the simultaneous detection and identification of yersinia pestis and bacillus anthracis in food.the use of microarrays as a multiple analytic system has generated increased interest and provided a powerful analytical tool for the simultaneous detection of pathogens in a single experiment. a wide array of applications for this technology has been reported. a low density oligonucleotide microarray was generated from the genetic sequences of y. pestis and b. anthracis and used to fabricate a microarray chip. the new generation chip, consisting of 2,240 spots in 4 quadrants with the capability ...201223125935
yersinia pestis infection and laboratory conditions alter flea-associated bacterial communities.we collected oropsylla montana from rock squirrels, spermophilus varigatus, and infected a subset of collected fleas with yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. we used bar-tagged dna pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities of wild, uninfected controls and infected fleas. bacterial communities within y. pestis-infected fleas were substantially more similar to one another than communities within wild or control fleas, suggesting that infection alters the bacterial communit ...201222895162
insights from genomic comparisons of genetically monomorphic bacterial pathogens.some of the most deadly bacterial diseases, including leprosy, anthrax and plague, are caused by bacterial lineages with extremely low levels of genetic diversity, the so-called 'genetically monomorphic bacteria'. it has only become possible to analyse the population genetics of such bacteria since the recent advent of high-throughput comparative genomics. the genomes of genetically monomorphic lineages contain very few polymorphic sites, which often reflect unambiguous clonal genealogies. some ...201222312053
the exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase influences the virulence and stress responses of yersiniae and many other pathogens.microbes are incessantly challenged by both biotic and abiotic stressors threatening their existence. therefore, bacterial pathogens must possess mechanisms to successfully subvert host immune defenses as well as overcome the stress associated with host-cell encounters. to achieve this, bacterial pathogens typically experience a genetic re-programming whereby anti-host/stress factors become expressed and eventually translated into effector proteins. in that vein, the bacterial host-cell induced ...201324312901
strategy for sensitive and specific detection of yersinia pestis in skeletons of the black death pandemic.yersinia pestis has been identified as the causative agent of the black death pandemic in the 14(th) century. however, retrospective diagnostics in human skeletons after more than 600 years are critical. we describe a strategy following a modern diagnostic algorithm and working under strict ancient dna regime for the identification of medieval human plague victims. an initial screening and dna quantification assay detected the y. pestis specific pla gene of the high copy number plasmid ppcp1. re ...201324069445
the yersinia pestis siderophore, yersiniabactin, and the znuabc system both contribute to zinc acquisition and the development of lethal septicaemic plague in mice.bacterial pathogens must overcome host sequestration of zinc (zn(2+) ), an essential micronutrient, during the infectious disease process. while the mechanisms to acquire chelated zn(2+) by bacteria are largely undefined, many pathogens rely upon the znuabc family of abc transporters. here we show that in yersinia pestis, irp2, a gene encoding the synthetase (hmwp2) for the siderophore yersiniabactin (ybt) is required for growth under zn(2+) -deficient conditions in a strain lacking znuabc. more ...201424979062
gene loss dominates as a source of genetic variation within clonal pathogenic bacterial species.some of the most dangerous pathogens such as mycobacterium tuberculosis and yersinia pestis evolve clonally. this means that little or no recombination occurs between strains belonging to these species. paradoxically, although different members of these species show extreme sequence similarity of orthologous genes, some show considerable intraspecies phenotypic variation, the source of which remains elusive. to examine the possible sources of phenotypic variation within clonal pathogenic bacteri ...201526163675
evaluation of the role of the opggh operon in yersinia pseudotuberculosis and its deletion during the emergence of yersinia pestis.the opggh operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (opgs) from udp-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (acp) as a cofactor. opgs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. opgh also sequesters ftsz in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opggh operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen yersinia pseudotuberculosis. when ex ...201526150539
how old are bacterial pathogens?only few molecular studies have addressed the age of bacterial pathogens that infected humans before the beginnings of medical bacteriology, but these have provided dramatic insights. the global genetic diversity of helicobacter pylori, which infects human stomachs, parallels that of its human host. the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) of these bacteria approximates that of anatomically modern humans, i.e. at least 100 000 years, after calibrating the evolutionary divergence withi ...201627534956
rapid and high-throughput detection of highly pathogenic bacteria by ibis plex-id this manuscript, we describe the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria using an assay coupling biothreat group-specific pcr with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-ms) run on an ibis plex-id high-throughput platform. the biothreat cluster assay identifies most of the potential bioterrorism-relevant microorganisms including bacillus anthracis, francisella tularensis, yersinia pestis, burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, brucella species, and coxiella burnetii. dna from ...201222768173
comparison of two suspension arrays for simultaneous detection of five biothreat bacterial in powder samples.we have developed novel bio-plex assays for simultaneous detection of bacillus anthracis, yersinia pestis, brucella spp., francisella tularensis, and burkholderia pseudomallei. universal primers were used to amplify highly conserved region located within the 16s rrna amplicon, followed by hybridized to pathogen-specific probes for identification of these five organisms. the other assay is based on multiplex pcr to simultaneously amplify five species-specific pathogen identification-targeted regi ...201222690123
concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology.the post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. however, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. we sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, burkholderia pseudomallei, yersinia pestis, and brucell ...201525737810
biocidal and sporicidal efficacy of pathoster(®) 0.35% and pathoster(®) 0.50% against bacterial agents in potential bioterrorism use.the use of products that can neutralize or significantly reduce the microbial load and that are not harmful to human health and the environment represents a milestone in the fight against the spread of infectious diseases. peracetic acid, besides being an excellent sterilizing and sporicidal agent, is harmless to humans and the environment when it is used in a common dosage. however, the high costs and loss of efficacy of the product very quickly after its reconstitution limit its use. we evalua ...201627482880
crystallization of the acyl-coa thioesterase tesb from yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the justinian plague (6th century), the black death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the european population, and more recently the orientalis plague (1894). to date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. one ...201323385765
rapid focused sequencing: a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection and strain typing of bacillus anthracis, francisella tularensis, and yersinia pestis.the intentional release of bacillus anthracis in the united states in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. many of the deadliest bacteria, including the class a select agents bacillus anthracis, francisella tularensis, and yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of their potential ...201323418519
historical variations in mutation rate in an epidemic pathogen, yersinia pestis.the genetic diversity of yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is extremely limited because of its recent origin coupled with a slow clock rate. here we identified 2,326 snps from 133 genomes of y. pestis strains that were isolated in china and elsewhere. these snps define the genealogy of y. pestis since its most recent common ancestor. all but 28 of these snps represented mutations that happened only once within the genealogy, and they were distributed essentially at random among ind ...201223271803
omics strategies for revealing yersinia pestis virulence.omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. in this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. these studies serve as ...201223248778
antivirulence genes: insights into pathogen evolution through gene loss.the emergence of new pathogens and the exploitation of novel pathogenic niches by bacteria typically require the horizontal transfer of virulence factors and subsequent adaptation--a "fine-tuning" process--for the successful incorporation of these factors into the microbe's genome. the function of newly acquired virulence factors may be hindered by the expression of genes already present in the bacterium. occasionally, certain genes must be inactivated or deleted for full expression of the patho ...201223045475
development of bioluminescent bioreporters for in vitro and in vivo tracking of yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis causes an acute infection known as the plague. conventional techniques to enumerate y. pestis can be labor intensive and do not lend themselves to high throughput assays. in contrast, bioluminescent bioreporters produce light that can be detected using plate readers or optical imaging platforms to monitor bacterial populations as a function of luminescence. here, we describe the development of two y. pestis chromosomal-based luxcdabe bioreporters, lux(ptolc) and lux(pcyszk). thes ...201223071730
opposing roles for interferon regulatory factor-3 (irf-3) and type i interferon signaling during plague.type i interferons (ifn-i) broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by interferon regulatory factors (irfs) following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. for bacterial infection, ifn-i signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. in this work, we addressed the role of type i ifn during yersinia pestis infection ...201222911267
a yersinia pestis-specific, lytic phage preparation significantly reduces viable y. pestis on various hard surfaces experimentally contaminated with the bacterium.five y. pestis bacteriophages obtained from various sources were characterized to determine their biological properties, including their taxonomic classification, host range and genomic diversity. four of the phages (ypp-g, y, r and ypsp-g) belong to the podoviridae family, and the fifth phage (ypsp-pst) belongs to the myoviridae family, of the order caudovirales comprising of double-stranded dna phages. the genomes of the four podoviridae phages were fully sequenced and found to be almost ident ...201223275868
the potential of taqman array cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time pcr.the taqman array card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time pcr. ten pcr assays targeting five biological agents (bacillus anthracis, burkholderia mallei, burkholderia pseudomallei, francisella tularensis, and yersinia pestis) were incorporated onto array cards. a comparison of pcr performance of each pcr in array card and singleplex format was conducted using dna extracted from pure bacterial cul ...201222540014
imaging of bubonic plague dynamics by in vivo tracking of bioluminescent yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis dissemination in a host is usually studied by enumerating bacteria in the tissues of animals sacrificed at different times. this laborious methodology gives only snapshots of the infection, as the infectious process is not synchronized. in this work we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging (bli) to follow y. pestis dissemination during bubonic plague. we first demonstrated that y. pestis co92 transformed with pgen-luxcdabe stably emitted bioluminescence in vitro and in vivo, while ...201222496846
novel genomic tools for specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered foodborne pathogens.the bacterial genera escherichia, salmonella, shigella, vibrio, yersinia, and francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents. by extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse, closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified novel genome regions, which we utilized to develop a rapid detection platform for these pathogens. the specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in francisella tularensis subsp. tu ...201222488053
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