distribution of insertion sequence is200 in salmonella and shigella.two dna probes for the detection of insertion sequence is200 by either southern blotting or colony hybridization were constructed. one of the probes is a 300 bp ecori-hindiii fragment of is200 cloned onto pbluescript ks(+); the other is a tail-to-tail dimer of the same fragment cloned onto puc19. a survey of the presence of is200 among enteric bacteria revealed that more than 90% of the pathogenic or food-poisoning isolates of salmonella spp. examined contained one or more copies of insertion se ...19901964174
h(+)-stimulated release of prostaglandin e2 and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphoric acid and their relationship to bone resorption in neonatal mouse calvaria cultures.the addition of protons to the medium of neonatal mouse calvaria cultures stimulated bone resorption and release of calcium into the medium. in addition, added protons significantly increased the release of prostaglandin e2 (pge2) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphoric acid (camp) from the bones. indomethacin significantly inhibited the release of calcium, pge2 and camp from proton-treated cultures. the positive control, parathyroid hormone (pth)-treated cultures, also gave rise to bone resor ...19901964815
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic potential against shiga toxin.four monoclonal antibodies (t2d1, t3b1, t7b2 and t4c4) were produced and characterized against sh. dysenteriae type 1. these monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) were shown to be directed against the same or adjacent determinants on the a-subunit of the shiga toxin. all the anti-shiga toxin mcabs are igg1 (kappa) antibodies and have the capacity to neutralize the cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects of the shiga toxin: the data strongly suggest that both of the activities, associated with the toxin, are du ...19901966939
pivmecillinam-resistant shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection in bangladesh. 19901972232
identification of three amino acid residues in the b subunit of shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin type ii that are essential for holotoxin activity.shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae type i and shiga-like toxins i and ii (slt-i and slt-ii, respectively) of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli are functionally similar protein cytotoxins. these toxin molecules have a bipartite molecular structure which consists of an enzymatically active a subunit that inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and an oligomeric b subunit that binds to globotriaosylceramide glycolipid receptors on eukaryotic cells. regionally directed chemical mutagenesis ...19911991714
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli of serotypes o157:h7 and o26:h11.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4e8c12) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7 and o26:h11 was produced by immunizing balb/c mice with a rough strain of e. coli o157:h7. the antibody reacted strongly by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with each of 36 strains of e. coli o157:h7. no cross-reactivity was observed with strains of salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, shigella dysenteriae, proteus spp., escherichia hermanii, klebsiella pneumoniae, campylobacter jejuni, serratia marcescens, c ...19911993773
synthetic peptides as the basis for vaccine design. 19912017193
unusual association of a plasmid with nalidixic acid resistance in an epidemic strain of shigella dysenteriae type 1 from asia.the association of a 20-mda plasmid with nalidixic acid resistant (nalr) strains of shigella dysenteriae 1 has been examined. the plasmid, which is readily transferable, does not itself code for nalidixic acid resistance but offers a survival advantage to its host under nalidixic acid stress. the plasmid-containing cultures of s. dynsenteriae 1 produced nalr mutants in vitro at a frequency 1000-fold higher than their plasmidless parent strains, after two exposures to nalidixic acid. using a simi ...19912021898
efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic & allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits.the aqueous extract of garlic (allium sativum) and allicin both showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against isolates of multiple drug-resistant shigella dysenteriae 1, sh. flexneri y, sh. sonnei and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the aqueous extract and allicin against sh. flexneri y were 5 and 0.4 microliters/ml, respectively. the two agents also showed promising in vivo antibacterial activity against sh. flexneri y when tested in the r ...19912022399
the association of haemagglutination and adhesion with lipopolysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae serotype this study the ability of strains of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 to agglutinate mammalian erythrocytes is attributed to the polysaccharide fraction of bacterial-cell lipopolysaccharide (lps). lps obtained from a rough, mutant strain of s. dysenteriae serotype 1, lacking the o-antigen polysaccharide side-chain, did not agglutinate erythrocytes, clearly demonstrating a link between o-antigen polysaccharides and haemagglutinating activity (ha). strains of s. dysenteriae serotype 1 adhered we ...19912030501
conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate.we evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in normal healthy dogs. after an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with [u-14c]glucose (16.9 muci/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 +/- 0.03 mm at basal to a peak of 1.04 +/- 0.07 mm at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 +/- 0.07 mm at 240 min. arterial blood [14c]lactate peaked at 60 min and then decrease ...19912040389
four decades of shigellosis in israel: epidemiology of a growing public health problem.despite the improved standard of living in israel, shigellosis remains a common disease. examination of trends in the incidence of shigellosis in israel between 1951 and 1987 showed a period of declining rates followed by an increase in the reported incidence beginning around 1969. this increase was mainly due to shigella sonnei; rates of infection with shigella flexneri remained relatively constant. trends showed marked differences between age groups and between ethnic groups. in comparison, th ...19912041956
shigella dysenteriae type 1--guatemala, 1991.on march 14, 1991, physicians at a hospital in guatemala city reported to the institute of nutrition of central america and panama (incap) that a 2-year-old boy living in an orphanage in guatemala city had been hospitalized with dysentery; stool cultures yielded shigella dysenteriae type 1. another child from the orphanage had recently died from dysentery. during march 18-21, two other young children from the orphanage were diagnosed with s. dysenteriae type 1. on march 21, health officials in r ...19912046650
epidemiologic aspects of shigellosis and other causes of dysentery in thailand.nearly 20% of children seen in the outpatient department of children's hospital in bangkok, thailand, for diarrheal disease had bloody diarrhea. shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli--isolated from 13% and 2% of children with diarrhea, respectively--were the most frequent causes of bloody diarrhea. campylobacter species and nontyphoidal salmonella species were also isolated frequently but were much less often associated with bloody diarrhea. shigella species were rarely isolated f ...19912047642
shigellosis in vietnam: seroepidemiologic studies with use of lipopolysaccharide antigens in enzyme immunoassays.the performance of enzyme immunoassays (eias) with use of o-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharides (lpss) extracted with phenol-water from shigella dysenteriae type 1, shigella flexneri serotypes 1a-5b, and shigella sonnei for determination of the serum antibody responses after onset of bacillary dysentery is reviewed. for the purpose of several studies, serum samples from a total of 175 vietnamese and 47 swedish patients, for whom shigella species had been isolated from fecal specimens, were ob ...19912047643
mortality due to shigellosis: community and hospital data.almost all fatal cases of shigellosis occur in developing countries, and data on mortality are generally compiled from three sources: investigations of epidemics caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1, surveillance of endemic diarrheal disease, and reports from hospitals. attack rates during epidemics of dysentery due to infection with s. dysenteriae type 1 have ranged from 1% to 33%, and case-fatality rates have ranged from 1% to 7%. in matlab, a rural district in bangladesh, most diarrhea-relat ...19912047645
shiga toxin: purification, structure, and function.shiga toxin is a potent toxin produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains. the toxin has three biologic activities--cytotoxicity, enterotoxicity, and neurotoxicity--and one known biochemical effect: inhibition of protein synthesis. it consists of two polypeptide chains, an a chain (molecular weight, 32,225) and a b chain (molecular weight, 7,691). these two peptides associate with a stoichiometry of one a and five b subunits to form the holotoxin. the a chain is responsible for the biochemic ...19912047652
digalactosyl-containing glycolipids as cell surface receptors for shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae 1 and related cytotoxins of escherichia coli.purified glycolipids containing galactose-alpha(1-4)galactose bind with shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae 1 and shiga-like toxins of escherichia coli with high specificity in both thin-layer chromatograms and glycolipid-coated microtiter plates. these glycolipids appear to be the natural cell surface receptors for this class of bacterial toxins since artificial glycoconjugates block cytotoxicity as well as binding of 125i-labeled toxin. cell lines lacking these glycolipids are refractory to to ...19912047653
shiga toxin: intestinal cell receptors and pathophysiology of enterotoxic effects.shiga toxin is enterotoxic in rabbit small bowel and binds to the microvillus membrane (mvm). the toxin exhibits specificity for glycolipids possessing a terminal gal-alpha 1----4gal disaccharide, including the neutral glycolipid gb3 in mvm. gb3, which is developmentally regulated in the rabbit small bowel, is present in very low concentration until the animals reach day 16 of life. in older animals an increase in gb3 content is paralleled by an increase in the ability of mvm to bind toxin, whic ...19912047654
intestinal manifestations of invasive diarrheas and their from studies of 916 children with diarrhea, including 122 from whom shigellae were isolated, and data on patients affected in an epidemic due to shigella dysenteriae type i were analyzed to determine whether a diagnostic clinical profile of shigellosis could be identified. blood and/or mucus in stool, increased frequency of stool, abdominal pain, rectal tenesmus, and fever were noted more frequently in patients with shigellosis. the diagnostic confirmation of shigellosis depends on the isol ...19912047655
antimicrobial therapy for controlled clinical trials, which were first performed with use of the sulfonamides, antimicrobial agents have been shown to shorten the duration of symptoms and lessen the excretion of pathogens during episodes of shigellosis. not all antimicrobial agents that are active in vitro against shigella are effective in vivo, and efficacy of an agent can only be assessed by properly conducted clinical trials. resistance to both ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the drugs of choice for t ...19912047659
site-specific recombinase genes in three shigella subgroups and nucleotide sequences of a pinb gene and an invertible b segment from shigella boydii.inversional switching systems in procaryotes are composed of an invertible dna segment and a site-specific recombinase gene adjacent to or contained in the segment. four related but functionally distinct systems have previously been characterized in detail: the salmonella typhimurium h segment-hin gene (h-hin), phage mu g-gin, phage p1 c-cin, and escherichia coli e14 p-pin. in this article we report the isolation and characterization of three new recombinase genes: pinb, pind, and defective pinf ...19912061288
[a provisional serovar of shigella dysenteriae isolated in japan from travellers' diarrhea].a bacterial strain was isolated that possessed the biochemical characteristics of shigella dysenteriae but did not belong to any of the established s. dysenteriae serovars, from the feces of a diarrheal case who had travelled to turkey, pakistan, india and thailand for about a month. this strain was invasive to tissue culture cells and gave a positive serény test. preparing antiserum against this strain and examining the antigenic relationship with the established o antigens of shigella and esch ...19912066600
[recurrent thromboembolism disclosing protein c deficiency. apropos of a case with familial investigation].every thromboembolic manifestation, especially in young subjects, calls for an aetiological study in which haemostasis is evaluated primarily with assays of physiological coagulation inhibitors: protein c, protein s and antithrombin iii. protein c deficiency is found in 6 to 7% of thromboembolic manifestations. we report the case of a 21-year old man who had phlebitis followed by pulmonary embolism without facilitating factors. protein c level was 50% of normal value (0.50 iu/ml). the patient re ...19902075365
[the drug resistance and dna plasmid profiles of shigella dysenteriae 1 in the ussr and abroad].the medicinal resistance and plasmid profiles of 62 s. dysenteriae strains 1, isolated in the ussr in 1986-1988 from soviet and foreign citizens (from afghanistan, vietnam) and 8 strains obtained from india in 1987 were studied. pronounced similarity between the phenotypes of medicinal, including conjugative, resistance in the strains of soviet and foreign origin was established. in the soviet s. dysenteriae strains 1 the presence of two main types of plasmid dna profiles (140, 6, 4, 2 md and 14 ...19902075761
shiga-like toxin and haemolytic-uraemia syndrome. 19902080009
[effect of maternal virus-specific t-lymphocytes on pregnancy and fetal pathogenesis in experimental congenital influenza infection].inoculation of virus-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (ctl) to pregnant mice infected with influenza virus was shown to result in a decrease of infectious virus concentration in the lungs and blood of mice as well as in the placentas and fetuses. with an increase in the dose of inoculated ctl, however, premature deliveries with stillbirths were observed as well as deaths of the mice, the highest frequency of fetal deaths being observed after infection of pregnant mice in the first half of pregnanc ...19902082546
[effects of ethidium bromide on the viscosity of chromatin secreted by rat liver in normal state and after denervation].the paper studies structural state of chromatin secreted from the rat's liver. for this purpose the authors studied the dependence of relative viscosity of chromatin preparations secreted from the liver of rats and three groups of animals being in different terms of postdenervation process.19902083357
the mechanism of inhibition of s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase by fluorine-containing adenosine analogs.(z)-4',5'-didehydro-5'-deoxy-5'-fluoroadenosine (i), 5'-deoxy-5'-difluoroadenosine (ii), and 4',5'-didehydro-5'-deoxy-5'-fluoroarabinosyl-adenosine (iii) are inhibitors of rat liver s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase. compounds i and ii are time-dependent and irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme. both i and ii are oxidized by e.nad to produce e.nadh, and fluoride anion is formed in the inactivation reaction (0.7 to 1.0 mole fluoride/mole of enzyme subunit, and 1.7 moles fluoride/mole of enzyme ...19902094766
two unrelated cases of single maxillary central incisor with 7q terminal deletion.two unrelated cases of single maxillary central incisor (sm-ci) with 7q terminal deletion of the same breakpoint at 7q36.1 were described. they had mental retardation, microcephaly, hypotelorism, short stature, and normal levels of plasma growth hormone. one case had bilateral caudal ectopic kidneys, double renal pelves, and dilated ureters. the other had bilateral hydroureteronephrosis. the present cases suggest that 7q terminal deletion is one of the causes of smci.19902094780
[aminoacyl-trna synthetases (codases) and their noncanonical functions].the aim of this review is to summarize the data obtained in the author's laboratory during the last decade. the main objects of these investigations were mammalian aminoacyl-trna synthetases, mainly bovine tryptophanyl-trna synthetase (ec the data are discussed and compared with those described in literature. in the course of these studies it turned out that some properties of mammalian aminoacyl-trna synthetases for instance, nuclear location of some of the synthetases, presence of ex ...19902094804
[the characteristics of the biological properties of shigella dysenteriae 1 circulating in the ussr and india: its biochemical activity and agglutinability].the properties of 71 s. dysenteriae 1 strains isolated from patients in the ussr and india in 1986-1988 were studied. the cultures possessed typical biochemical and serological properties. as revealed in this investigation, high fastidiousness of this infective agent to the quality of synthetic nutrient could become the cause of false negative reactions in different substrates used for the identification of enterobacteria, thus leading to diagnostic mistakes. the variability of the biochemical a ...19902097846
outbreak of dysentery due to nalidixic acid resistant s. dysenteriae 1 at agartala, tripura: a hospital based study.during the epidemic of bacillary dysentery at agartala, tripura, a total of 62 hospitalized patients suffering from diarrhoeal diseases were studied during the later part (11-16 june, 1988) of the epidemic. principal features of shigellosis cases were discussed. of these 62 cases investigated, 19(30.6%) cases had the mucoid diarrhoea. from them s.dysenteriae type 1 and s.flexneri had been recovered from 31.6% and 10.5% cases, respectively. all the strains of s.dysenteriae type 1 isolated during ...19902101382
multidrug resistant epidemic shigellosis in a village in west bengal, out break of acute bacillary dysentery in a village called dhamasin in hooghly district of west bengal was investigated during march 1984. forty seven percent of families were affected. a total of 91 cases and 2 deaths occurred amongst 937 people giving an over all attack rate of 9.7% and a case fatality rate of 2.2 percent. highest attack rate (22.7%) was observed in below one year age group. multiple drug resistant shigella dysentery type 1 strains were isolated for the first time from 6 ou ...19902101383
construction and evaluation of live attenuated vaccine strains of shigella flexneri and shigella dysenteriae 1.shigellosis is an invasive disease of the human colon which is particularly prevalent among children of the developing world. no proper vaccine is available to protect against this enteric disease. it is currently accepted that only live strains with attenuated virulence administered orally may elicit protective immunity at the level of the colonic mucosa, which is the exclusive site of multiplication of causative microorganisms such as shigella flexneri and shigella dysenteriae 1. we have const ...19902101481
improved sectioning and ultrastructure of bacteria and animal cells embedded in lowicryl.lowicryl k4m-embedded gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have a tendency to separate between the cell surface and the resin. this often leads to distortion of bacteria and more especially of mycobacteria. we describe attempts made to overcome this technical problem. different assays were made on bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, and mycobacterium avium: 1) modification of the bacterial surface by coating of bacteria with proteinic compounds; 2) treatment of bacteria with metallic salts ...19902110246
[experience in using new drug preparations for treating adult patients with acute intestinal infections].ciprofloxacin (bayer, frg), a derivative of hydroxyquinolone acid, was used for the treatment of patients with shigellosis and salmonellosis and for the sanitation of salmonella carriers. the drug turned out to exert a positive effect on bacteriological sanitation of the body. in order to treat patients with food toxinfection of unknown etiology, use was made of intetrix (farmacos, socialist federal republic of yugoslavia). inclusion of the drug into combined treatment of patients with food toxi ...19902110389
immunodetection of lipopolysaccharide in macrophages during the processing of non invasive shigella dysenteriae.the location of lipopolysaccharide (lps) was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in macrophages infected with a non-invasive shigella dysenteriae 1 strain. bacterial degradation began only 3 h after the end of infection. the first visible sign of degradation was detected by immunogold labelling at the level of lps which detached from the bacterial surface and was transferred to the perinuclear lysosomes. after a few hours, it was found in small vesicles spread over the wh ...19902129020
kinetic analysis of 3-quinuclidinyl 4-[125i]iodobenzilate transport and specific binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in rat brain in vivo: implications for human studies.radioiodinated r- and s-quinuclidinyl derivatives of rs-benzilate (r- and s-125iqnb) have been synthesized for quantitative evaluation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding in vivo. two sets of experiments were performed in rats. the first involved determining the metabolite-corrected blood concentration and tissue distribution of tracer r-iqnb (active enantiomer) and s-iqnb (inactive enantiomer) in brain 1 min to 26 h after intravenous injection. the second involved the measurement of br ...19902134838
effects of chronic non-ketotic diabetes and aging on myocardial function and fatty acid oxidation.the effects of aging and chronic non-ketotic diabetes on contractile properties, oxygen consumption, palmitate oxidation and morphology were studied in isolated, perfused working hearts of 2, 9, 12 and 22 month old rats. the heart rate, coronary flow, and oxygen consumption were no different among the 9, 12 and 22 month control and diabetic hearts. cardiac work was not depressed in control hearts until 22 months of age. depression of cardiac output due to aging in the control hearts progressed i ...19902141842
[antibiotic resistance of shigella isolated in the kara-kalpak a.s.s.r. 1987-1988].sensitivity of shigella spp. isolated in one of the hospitals of nukus within 1987-1988 and earlier in 1977 and 1985 was studied. s. flexneri 1-5 remained the main causative agents of dysentery on the territory. however, beginning from 1987 there were registered cases of dysentery caused by s. dysenteriae 1. the isolates were most sensitive to cefotaxime, cephaloridine, polymyxin b and gentamicin. the majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, levomycetin (chloramphenicol) and stre ...19902144726
transposition in shigella dysenteriae: isolation and analysis of is911, a new member of the is3 group of insertion sequences.twenty-nine clear-plaque mutants of bacteriophage lambda were isolated from a shigella dysenteriae lysogen. three were associated with insertions in the ci gene: two were due to insertion of is600, and the third resulted from insertion of a new element, is911. is911 is 1,250 base pairs (bp) long, carries 27-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generates 3-bp duplications of the target dna on insertion. it was found in various copy numbers in all four species of shigella tested and in esch ...19902163395
associations of escherichia coli k-12 ompf trimers with rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides.the associations of both rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides (lps) with the ompf porin of escherichia coli k-12 were examined in gale strains deleted for ompc. transformation with pss37 and growth with galactose conferred the ability to assemble a shigella dysenteriae o antigen onto the core oligosaccharide of e. coli k-12 lps. the association of lps with ompf trimers was assessed by staining, autoradiography of lps specifically labeled with [1-14c]galactose, and western immunoblotting with a m ...19902168378
neutralization of poliovirus by cell receptors expressed in insect examine the interaction of the poliovirus receptor (pvr) with virus and the role of the pvr in virus entry, the pvr was expressed in insect cells. poliovirus bound to insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus (acpvr) carrying cdna encoding the pvr. antibodies raised against pvr expressed in bacteria immunoprecipitated a 67-kilodalton polypeptide from cytoplasmic extracts of acpvr-infected cells. treatment of acpvr-infected cells with tunicamycin revealed that the pvr is a glycoprot ...19902168959
[shiga and shiga-like toxins]. 19902173117
trimethoprim resistance gene in shigella dysenteriae 1 isolates obtained from widely scattered locations of asia.trimethoprim-resistance genes of shigella dysenteriae 1 strains, isolated from a different location of six different countries of asia over a 5-year period were characterized by using three different dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene probes. the trimethoprim-resistant (tmpr) strains hybridized only with the type i dhfr gene probe by colony hybridization. none of the strains hybridized with types ii and iii dhfr gene probes. southern blot experiments using plasmid dna extracted from these resis ...19902182327
rapid and specific detection of verotoxin genes in escherichia coli by the polymerase chain reaction.a set of four synthetic oligonucleotide probes derived from sequences of the vt1 (shiga-like toxin i [slt-i]) and vt2 (slt-ii) genes were used in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification procedure to detect these genes in some enteric pathogens. a total of 40 verotoxin-producing escherichia coli strains and 43 isolates of other recognized enteric pathogens were studied. pcr amplification products identifying the vt1 and vt2 gene sequences were observed only in nucleic acid extracted from ...19902182671
[antibiotic resistance of strains of shigella dysenteriae and flexneri isolated in tananarive and on the east coast of madagascar].from november 1988 to march 1989, stools from 804 malagasy children were examined, thirty-seven strains of shigella were isolated, from which 5 s. dysenteriae serotype 1 (= shiga bacillus) strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulphonamide and even to trimethoprim. resistance to trimethoprim has appeared only recently in madagascar.19902190702
dna sequence analysis of pgla and mechanism of export of its polygalacturonase product from pseudomonas solanacearum.the pgla gene encodes a 52-kilodalton extracellular polygalacturonase (pga) which is associated with the phytopathogenic virulence of pseudomonas solanacearum. the nucleotide sequence of pgla and the putative amino acid sequence of the pga protein were determined. a computer search identified a 150-residue region of pga which was similar (41%) to the amino acid sequence of a region of the pg-2a polygalacturonase from tomato. comparison of the amino terminus of the pgla open reading frame with th ...19902193922
comparative study of attachment to and invasion of epithelial cell lines by shigella dysenteriae.henle 407 and hela cells were compared as hosts for shigella dysenteriae at a low multiplicity of infection. efficiency of attachment and invasion without centrifugation, as well as selectivity for pathogenic over nonpathogenic s. dysenteriae without congo red, were much greater for henle 407 cells than for hela cells.19902194970
production of shiga-like toxin among escherichia coli strains and other bacteria isolated from diarrhea in são paulo, elevated level of shiga-like toxin i (slt-i) production was found in 1 of 466 escherichia coli strains studied. among the 34 sonic lysates obtained from classical enteropathogenic e. coli, 5 produced slt-i. the aeromonas, citrobacter, edwardsiella, enterobacter, klebsiella, proteus, providencia, pseudomonas, salmonella, serratia, shigella, yersinia, and vibrio strains also studied were not slt producers, except for a shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain. although slt-i-producing e. coli strains ...19902199511
polymerase chain reaction for detection of invasive shigella flexneri in food.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify a 760-base-pair (bp) fragment with the 220-kbp invasive plasmids of enteroinvasive escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, shigella dysenteriae, shigella boydii, and shigella sonnei as templates. this pcr product was easily detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. a 210-bp acci-psti fragment lying within the amplified region was used as a probe in southern hybridization blots and showed that the pcr-generated product was derived from the invas ...19902200336
epidemiology of shigellosis in teknaf, a coastal area of bangladesh: a 10-year survey.the epidemiological data on shigellosis in teknaf, a coastal area of bangladesh, were reviewed for a 10-year period (1975-84). certain similarities and differences were observed in the epidemiology of the disease in teknaf when compared with urban dhaka and rural matlab. similarities included: round-the-year infection with two peaks, one in the monsoon period and the other in the winter period; high male to female attendance ratio at the treatment centre; the predominance of infection in the und ...19902200700
plasmid profile analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella isolates from an epidemiological survey, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 100 shigella isolates in lagos, nigeria was done. all the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. the commonest antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was resistance to ampicillin, colistin sulphate, co-trimoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline. all but 4 of 100 isolates screened contained one or more plasmids. plasmid profile analysis distinguished more strains than did ...19902200702
plasmid profiles of antibiotic-resistant shigella dysenteriae types 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 isolated in ethiopia during 1976-85.plasmid profile analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out on 37 drug-resistant strains of shigella dysenteriae types 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7. these strains were collected between 1976 and 1985 in addis ababa, ethiopia. the plasmid profile of s. dysenteriae type 2 strains with r-type cssut did not show middle-sized plasmids likely to code for cssut resistance. all strains contained a large plasmid of about 120 megadaltons (mda), and a cryptic plasmid of about 2.2 mda. the plasmid profiles ...19902200703
haemolytic uraemic syndrome with shigella.a 49-year-old male developed bloody diarrhoea whilst on a visit to india. sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy showed acute colitis. shigella dysentery type i was isolated from stool culture. cytotoxin production by the organism was demonstrated. the patient developed acute renal failure, thrombocytopaenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. he required mechanical ventilation, haemodialysis, blood transfusion and antibiotic therapy and achieved a complete recovery. this is an unusual case of hae ...19902202698
in vitro activity of ljc10,627, a new carbapenem antibiotic with high stability to dehydropeptidase i.the in vitro activity of ljc10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem and ceftazidime. ljc10,627 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates. the mics of this compound for 90% of members of the family enterobacteriaceae tested (mic90s), including strains resistant to ceftazidime, ranged from 0.1 to 25 micrograms/ml. ljc10,627 inhibited pseudomonas aeruginosa at an mic90 of 3.13 micrograms/ml; it thus was twofold more active than imipe ...19902203313
carboxy-terminal peptides from the b subunit of shiga toxin induce a local and parenteral protective effect.two synthetic peptides corresponding to overlapping sequences from the c-terminus of the b chain of shiga toxin were prepared and characterized. these peptides consisted of residues 54-67 and 57-67 in the protein sequence. this region coincides with the major peak of surface area residues, as predicted from a computer-derived plot. for the purpose of immunization, the peptides were either conjugated with a protein or a synthetic carrier, or were polymerized. polyclonal antibodies against these p ...19902203962
new approach to develop a vaccine design against shigellosis. 19902204244
recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the hemolytic uremic of the requirements for an agent to cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) is its ability to injure endothelial cells. shiga-like toxin (slt) can do this. slt is produced by escherichia coli and shigella dysenteriae serotype 1; both have been implicated as causes of typical hus. endothelial cells have receptors (gb3) for slt and the toxin can inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis, thereby causing cell death. glomerular endothelial cell injury or death results in a decreased glomerular filtrati ...19902205273
[a case of shigellosis due to shigella dysenteriae 1 which was thought to be infected in domestic area].a 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain on january 10, 1989. on laboratory examination s. dysenteriae 1 was isolated from his stool, therefore he was diagnosed as shigellosis. after the administration of ofloxacin was started, s. dysenteriae 1 was immediately eradicated. but his diarrhea persisted until the 19th day from the onset of the illness and his abdominal pain persisted until the 21st day. he had never been overseas and he had never ea ...19902205674
[detection of two shiga-like toxins from escherichia coli o157:h7 isolates by the polymerase chain reaction method].fourteen isolates of e. coli o157:h7 and five isolates of s. dysenteriae type-1 were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the structural genes (slt-i or slt-ii), encoding shiga-like toxins (slts). the two primer pairs (v1; 5'agttaatgtggtggcgaa and v2; 5'gactgcgtcagtgaggtt for slt-i, v3; 5'ttcggtatcctattcccg and v4; 5'tctctggtcattgtatta for slt-ii) used were of the same positions representing the dna sequence covering 471bp of the slt-i or slt-ii. a 5-microliter portion of boiled bacte ...19902205737
cell surface proteins from shigella dysenteriae type 1.a simple extraction procedure was used for preparing cell surface proteins (csps) from shigella dysenteriae type 1. the preparations obtained using either buffer or water extractions were free from lipopolysaccharide (lps), as well as cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins. by sds-page, about 25 polypeptides were detected, and western-blot analysis recognised 15 polypeptide antigens. when analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, using anti-shigella dysenteriae type 1 rabbit sera, 18 antigenic ba ...19902206198
plants used in guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.gastrointestinal disorders are important causes of morbidity in developing countries. natural healing is the traditional way of treating these diseases in guatemala. ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews showed that 385 plants from 95 families are used in guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. the activity of 84 of the most commonly used plants was screened in vitro against five enterobacteria pathogenic to man (enteropathogenic escherichia coli, salmonella enteritidi ...19902214824
immunolabelling of shiga toxin in macrophages infected with shigella dysenteriae 1.immunolabelling of shiga toxin in macrophages infected with a non-invasive shigella dysenteriae 1 isolate showed that bacteria remained alive for 3 h after ingestion within the phagocytic vacuole and synthesized shiga toxin. the normal process of toxin secretion was, however, impaired by the phagosomal environment and toxin molecules accumulated within the bacterial cytoplasm.19902218059
hemolysin as a marker for serratia.all serratia marcescens strains (total of 33) of different sources were hemolytic including clinical strains previously classified as being nonhemolytic. dna fragments of the two hemolysin genes hybridized with the chromosomal dna of s. marcescens, s. liquefaciens, s. kiliensis, s. grimesii, s. proteamaculans, s. plymutica, s. rubridaea which were also hemolytic. the restriction pattern of the hemolysin locus differed in each strain. s. ficaria and s. marinorubra expressed a different hemolysin ...19902222120
differentiation of shiga toxin and vero cytotoxin type 1 genes by polymerase chain reaction.two sets of synthetic oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction technique to distinguish genes for shiga toxin in shigella dysenteriae 1 and type 1 vero cytotoxin (vt1) in escherichia coli. vt1a and vt1b primers directed at a common 130-base-pair (bp) fragment of the stx and slti genes detected template nucleic acid in both shiga toxin-positive s. dysenteriae 1 and vt1-producing e. coli strains. vt1c and vt1d primers, targeting a 140-bp fragment of the promoter region of t ...19902230244
plasmid profiles of shigella dysenteriae type 1 isolates from ethiopia with special reference to r-plasmids.plasmid profiles of 80 shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga's bacillus) strains, collected between 1974 and 1985 in ethiopia, were examined. strains with the dominant antibiotic-resistance (r-) type--resistance to ampicillin (a), chloramphenicol (c), streptomycin (s), sulphadiazine (su) and tetracycline (t)--showed two distinct plasmid profiles (pp). six plasmid bands were demonstrated in "ethiopian strains" with pp-1a isolated between 1974 and 1982. in mating experiments with these strains, esche ...19902231675
[new aspects of intolerance of the aqueous iodinated x-ray contrast medium, adipiodone--fatal interaction of adipiodone-ultrabil with the immunomodulators corynebacterium parvum (cp) and shigella dysenteriae endotoxin (lps)].the authors assume a new type of interaction of the aqueous x-ray contrast substance type adipiodone (ultrabil 50% spofa) with immunomodulators of corynebacterium parvum (cp) and the endotoxin of shigella dysenteriae (lps). the fatal type of interaction developed regularly as a result of the concurrent i.v. administration of the x-ray contrast substance adipiodone with the endotoxin of shigella dys. (lps) to laboratory animals (mice) which had five days previously a single dose of corynebacteriu ...19902237238
mechanism of the vasodilator action of pinacidil.the mechanism of the vasodilator action of pinacidil has been studied in rat mesenteric small arteries. the results show, first, that the use of flux studies to make measurements of ion permeability requires knowledge of the membrane potential, especially as regards k+ permeability. second, the results confirm that the vasodilator effect of pinacidil is due to an increase in k+ permeability. lastly, the results suggest that the k+ channels involved are sensitive to glibenclamide.19902242449
correlation between beta 2-microglobulin and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in plasma of individuals living in a malarial endemic region.beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) levels were related to the expected immunoprotection in 81 individuals living in a malarial mesoendemic area near bobo-dioulasso (burkina faso), who were longitudinally followed. soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sil-2r) levels were positively correlated to those of beta 2m (r = 0.44; n = 237; p less than 0.001). this suggests that most of the beta 2m could have originated from activated t and b cell membrane turnover. in our study, both beta 2m and sil-2r were inver ...19902242964
[bacillary dysentery--1988]. 19902251385
[bacteriology and epidemiology of shigellas isolated at the army hospital in djibouti].in a space of 26 months 108 shigellas were isolated from 104 patients with sporadic and benign diseases. 90% of the subjects were young french. both s. dysenteriae and s. boydii make up 21% of the strains studied. 13% of the germs are multiresistance. multiresistance can enhance development of serious sickness if a virulent strain comes in.19902263188
survey of enteropathogenic agents in children with and without diarrhoea in ghana.a survey was carried out over 1 year in a rural area of ghana on the isolation, detection and/or identification of enteric pathogens from children under 5 years of age with and without diarrhoea. the isolation and detection rate of shigella flexneri, shigella dysenteriae, giardia lamblia and rotavirus were higher in children with diarrhoea than in controls. yersinia enterocolitica, vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus were not isolated during the period of this survey. the incidence of ot ...19902270006
fatty streak development in the vicinity of aortic coarctations in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.the influence of altered local hemodynamics on fatty streak development in rabbits fed high cholesterol diets was investigated. an aortic coarctation was created in the abdominal aorta of nine rabbits by placing a partially constricting gold or silver band (1.7 mm x 10 mm) around the aorta between the renal arteries and aortic bifurcation. controls were 20 rabbits; seven sham operated and 13 unoperated rabbits. the abdominal aorta 1-2 cm proximal to the coarctation showed lipid deposition involv ...19902271758
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse): menace or mirage? 19902271904
[role of protons and bicarbonate in adaptative gastric cytoprotection].the unknown mechanism of adaptative gastric cytoprotection (agc) induced by 20% ethanol and subsequent injury with 70% ethanol was studied in wistar rats. pretreatment with indomethacin or hgii2 did not prevent the agc, there suggesting that neither endogenous pgs nor gastric mucus take part in its mechanism. on the other hand, ranitidine pretreatment blocked and even aggravated the damage induced by ethanol-ethanol. in contrast, the latter phenomenon was reverted by 20% acidified ethanol. it is ...19902275313
in vitro diffusion of lidocaine across endotracheal tube cuffs.smooth emergence from general endotracheal anesthesia is frequently complicated by coughing induced by stimulation from an endotracheal tube. lidocaine and other local anesthetics have been shown to anesthetize important rapidly adpating stretch receptors in the dog trachea. with the aim of providing a reservoir for continuous lidocaine release to adjacent tracheal tissue, we examined the ability of clinically used concentrations of lidocaine to diffuse across a commonly used endotracheal tube c ...19902275911
in vitro diffusion of lidocaine across endotracheal tube cuffs.smooth emergence from general endotracheal anesthesia is frequently complicated by coughing induced by stimulation from an endotracheal tube. lidocaine and other local anesthetics have been shown to anesthetize important rapidly adpating stretch receptors in the dog trachea. with the aim of providing a reservoir for continuous lidocaine release to adjacent tracheal tissue, we examined the ability of clinically used concentrations of lidocaine to diffuse across a commonly used endotracheal tube c ...19902275911
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin ii using p1 glycoprotein from hydatid cysts.shiga toxin from shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains and shiga-like toxins (slt) i and ii from escherichia coli bind to terminal alpha-d-galp-(1----4)-d-galp containing glycolipids. hydatid cyst fluid isolated from sheep infected with echinococcus granulosus contains a glycoprotein (p1gp) with a terminal alpha-d-galp-(1----4)-d-galp disaccharide. preparations of p1gp were shown to interact directly with shiga toxin and to inhibit the binding and cytotoxicity of shiga toxin to hela cells. a sandw ...19902295845
death in shigellosis: incidence and risk factors in hospitalized patients.the total number of admissions and deaths of patients with shigellosis were ascertained at the dhaka treatment centre of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh, 1974-1988, and the characteristics of 67 patients who died were compared with those of 134 discharged alive. of 9780 shigella-infected inpatients, 889 (9.1%) died; 32.3% of deaths occurred in children less than 1 year of age. fatality rates were highest (10.3%) in shigella sonnei-infected patients and lowest ...19902313128
[hepato-renal polycystic disease and liver hydatidosis (a rare association)].a case is presented of a patient with polycystic kidneys and familial history of this disease who was from a zone of hydatid endemism. the patient had a hepatic mass compatible with hydatid cyst. diagnoses by imaging, like echography and cat, confirmed it, aside from evidencing polycystic liver disease. there was operative and anatomopathologic confirmation of both diseases of the liver. after a review of the bibliography that shows a scant incidence of this concomitance, some remarks are offere ...19902346686
kinetics of "p"-site-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and the requirements for substrate.the kinetics of "p"-site-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase was studied with the detergent-solubilized enzyme from rat brain. mn2(+)-activated adenylyl cyclase exhibited typical noncompetitive inhibition by 2'-d3'-amp or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (2',5'-ddado). however, enzyme that was preactivated with guanosine 5'-o-(3-thiotriphosphate) (gtp gamma s) or proteolytically with ninhibin (+ gtp gamma s) exhibited apparently uncompetitive inhibition with either 2'-d3'-amp or 2',5'-ddado and with e ...19902365688
role of bacterial and host factors in the pathogenesis of shigella determine the role of bacterial and host factors in the pathogenesis of shigellemia, blood and fecal shigella isolates were compared for serum resistance and siderophore production, and shigellemic patients were examined for decreased serum bactericidal activity or increased serum transferrin saturation compared to control patients with non-bacteremic shigellosis. the majority of both blood (36/38) and fecal (36/48) shigella isolates were sensitive to normal serum (greater than 2 log kill/60 ...19902373088
a method for detecting shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin-i in pure and mixed culture.shiga toxin and shiga-like toxins (slts, syn. verotoxins) are currently detected by tissue culture assays that are expensive, time-consuming and require specialised facilities and experienced personnel. we have developed a rapid method to detect shiga toxin and slt-i (verotoxin 1) based on their binding to globotriosyl ceramide (gb3). bound toxin was then detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with monoclonal antibodies. the direct detection of cytotoxins from pure culture plat ...19902391709
functional analysis of the shiga toxin and shiga-like toxin type ii variant binding subunits by using site-directed mutagenesis.the b subunit of shiga toxin and the shiga-like toxins (slts) mediates receptor binding, cytotoxic specificity, and extracellular localization of the holotoxin. while the functional receptor for shiga toxin, slt type i (slt-i), and slt-ii is the glycolipid designated gb3, slt-ii variant (slt-iiv) may use a different glycolipid receptor. to identify the domains responsible for receptor binding, localization in escherichia coli, and recognition by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, oligonucleotid ...19902404947
the colon in shigellosis: serial colonoscopic appearances in shigella dysenteriae i.twenty-five patients (16 males and 9 females; mean age 24.7 +/- 8.4 years) with acute colitis caused by shigella dysenteriae i were studied, a total of 115 colonoscopic examinations being performed. twenty-two patients had weekly colonoscopic examinations until the last procedure revealed normal colonic mucosa. six abnormal colonoscopic appearances were documented, namely mucosal edema, ulcers, friability, punctate spots, erythematous areas and luminal exudate. mucosal edema was the dominant fin ...19902407526
axonally transported shigella cytotoxin is neuronotoxic.shigella dysenteriae strains produce an exotoxin (sdt) which inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible cells and is neurotoxic in some species. intraneural microinjection of highly purified sdt into the cervical vagus nerves of rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits produced cytopathic changes within 24 hours in vagal sensory but not motor neurons. these changes consisted of an initial loss of nissl substance followed by progressive cell degeneration and resulted in permanent neuronal loss. indirec ...19852411880
'o'-antigens are essential virulence factors of shigella sonnei and shigella dysenteriae 1.a novel transposon mutagenesis system has been developed for shigella. we have used it to isolate specific mutants of shigella sonnei and shigella dysenteriae 1 that fail to produce lipopolysaccharide 'o' side chains. the virulence of the mutants was evaluated in the sereny test and in a hela cell invasion assay. all ho'-minus mutants failed to provoke a positive sereny reaction but retained the ability to invade hela cells. this demonstrates that 'o' side chains are virulence factors of s. sonn ...19852413650
inactivation by polymyxin b of the endotoxin-mediated interferon production in the rabbit.polymyxin b (pb) completely or at least significantly inhibited the capacity of shigella dysenteriae 1 cells and the lipopolysaccharide (lps) and lipid a (la) subunits of several bacterial endotoxins to induce interferon (ifn) in rabbits. animals injected with lps inactivated by pb to the point of not inducing detectable ifn levels did not develop hyporesponsiveness to secondary ifn induction by a homologous inducer. it was concluded that pb inhibits the ifn-inducing capacity of endotoxin and it ...19852413651
[vital staining of the conjunctiva for prevention of epithelial implantation cysts].selective vital staining with 1% toluidine blue makes short-term intraoperative differentiation of the conjunctiva from tenon's capsule possible. it is used with advantage in operations where the anatomical situation is unclear to avoid displacement of conjunctival epithelium into deeper tissues and subsequent growth of cysts. examples of its application are reoperations with excessive scars after squint or detachment surgery, wound dehiscence after enucleations, lacerated wounds after accidents ...19852415747
growth factors, angiogenesis and metastasis. 19862424027
immunofluorescence detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) procedure was developed for the detection of cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. the procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from dairy cattle. cross-specificity testing of the ifa method revealed no reactivity with yeasts, various amoebae, giardia lamblia, chilomastix sp., or blastocystis sp. and only very weak cross-reactivi ...19862429982
sporidesmin and gliotoxin induce cell detachment and perturb microfilament structure in cultured liver cells.changes in cell morphology and cell adhesion occurred when cultured cells from the rat liver cell strain c3 were exposed to the fungal toxins, sporidesmin or gliotoxin. both toxins caused loss of attachment of the cells to the plastic of tissue culture plates and this effect was preceded by loss of actin cables. other changes included cytoplasmic vacuolation and blocked entry into s-phase of the cell cycle. under these conditions [3h]thymidine incorporation into the cells was also diminished but ...19862432076
monoclonal antibodies specific for shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharides: clones binding to type iv, v, and vi antigens, group 3,4 antigen, and an epitope common to all shigella flexneri and shigella dysenteriae type 1 stains.monoclonal antibodies reactive with shigella flexneri o antigens were generated in both mouse and rat systems. antibody-producing hybridomas were screened in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chemically defined lipopolysaccharides as antigens, and the epitope specificities were determined with a panel of lipopolysaccharides and synthetic o-antigen-specific glycoconjugates as antigens. to verify the specificity seen in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the antibodies were used in ag ...19872437036
[structure of the o-specific polysaccharide chain of shigella dysenteriae type 7 lipopolysaccharide].the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide chain of the shigella dysenteriae type 7 lipopolysaccharide has been established mainly by 13c nmr analysis of the intact and modified (acetylated and de-o-acetylated) polymers, as well as of products of its solvolysis with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. the polysaccharide contains two unusual sugar derivatives. n-acetyl-d-galactosaminuronamide and 4-(n-acetylglycyl)amido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (galnacan and qui4n----glyac, respectively) and is built u ...19872445353
the effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin on the febrile responses to intracerebroventricular injections of bacterial pyrogen, arachidonic acid and prostaglandin e2.1. anisomycin (15 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to cats at ambient temperatures of 5 degrees c, 20 degrees c and 38 degrees c. it produced biphasic effects on body temperature at 5 degrees c and 20 degrees c, an initial fall in temperature followed by a rise in body temperature, and a rise in body temperature of long latency at 38 degrees c. 2. anisomycin (15 mg/kg) attenuated the hyperthermic responses to centrally injected pge2 (1 microgram) at all ambient temperatures studied and also complete ...19872446153
comparative effects of adriamycin and dna-non-binding analogues on dna, rna, and protein synthesis in vitro.drug-dna binding is claimed to be the basis by which the antitumor antibiotic adriamycin (doxorubicin) inhibits dna and rna synthesis in vitro. however, in preliminary studies the dna-non-binding adriamycin analogue n-trifluoroacetyladriamycin-14-valerate (ad 32) showed somewhat greater inhibition of dna and rna synthesis than adriamycin under identical conditions. the kinetics of macromolecule synthesis inhibition induced by adriamycin and ad 32, and the two principal dna-non-binding metabolite ...19872446792
effects of substance p, neurokinin a and calcitonin gene-related peptide in human skin and their involvement in sensory nerve-mediated responses.the effects evoked by intradermal injections of substance p (sp), neurokinin a (nka) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) were studied in 51 non-atopic subjects. sp and nka produced flare and weal, and cgrp produced an indurated erythema. the reactions to sp were strong, the flare being maximal 3-5 min after injection and the weal after 10-15 min. nka evoked a much weaker flare and a slightly weaker weal than did sp. cgrp produced a prominent long-lasting, indurated erythema with pseudopod ...19872446892
structural homology of human complement component c8 gamma and plasma protein hc: identity of the cysteine bond pattern.anti-c8 alpha-gamma specific antibodies were used to isolate cdna clones from a human liver expression library. antibodies affinity-purified on the expressed hybrid protein of one clone bound exclusively to the gamma-chain of reduced c8 alpha-gamma. this clone, as well as a second full length cdna clone obtained by hybridization screening, were sequenced and the complete primary structure for c8 gamma was established. cyanogen bromide cleavage of c8 alpha-gamma released a 12 kda carboxy-terminal ...19872447883
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