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reading activities of staff nurses from states with mandatory or voluntary continuing education.reading activities of staff nurses (n = 269) residing in six states with mandated educational requirements for relicensure were compared with a similar number (n = 275) of staff nurses from states that have no legislative continuing education (ce) requirements. time spent reading both professional and general literature was obtained. nurses spent twice as much time reading general literature as professional literature. both groups stated that conferences were the preferred method of ce; reading ...20061564174
the foreign nurse program: an innovative nclex review.the foreign nurse program was created to respond to a specific need. other cities and states may find that they too have a population of foreign-educated nurses who have not taken or passed the licensure examination. this program creates one more pathway to increase the ranks of the american nursing work force by using foreign-trained nurses who wish to enter the work force.20061564175
increased cholesterol awareness in urban and rural areas--missouri, 1988-1991.elevated serum cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (chd) (1,2). from 1983 through 1990, the percentage of persons who had their cholesterol measured--a first step in reducing risk for chd from serum cholesterol-increased nationwide (3). changes in patterns had not been monitored specifically in rural areas, where access to medical care and other socioeconomic barriers may hinder receipt and use of cholesterol screening (4,5). to monitor trends in cholesterol awareness and oth ...20061569916
acamprosate modulates synaptosomal gaba transmission in chronically alcoholised rats.male sprague-dawley rats were pulmonary alcoholised for 30 days. six were treated with acamprosate (400 mg/kg/day, po) during alcoholisation. the control nonalcoholised group also received acamprosate (400 mg/kg/day, po) during the 30 days. at the end of the experiment, brains areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, and olfactory bulbs) were dissected for the study of synaptosomal 3h-gaba uptake. in another experiment, gaba levels were determined in the same areas using hplc with electro ...19921594633
copulatory analgesia in male rats ensues from arousal, motor activity, and genital stimulation: blockage by manipulation and restraint.the effect of copulation on the vocalization threshold to tail shock (vtts) was assessed in freely-moving, sexually experienced, wistar male rats. mean vtts during the first copulation was 40% above the baseline values and slightly decreased during the first postejaculatory interval (pei; 28% above baseline). vtts mean values further increased during the second copulatory series (93% above baseline and 63% during the pei). testing at the same intervals in noncopulating rats did not induce analge ...19921594675
[clinical aspects of arrhythmias].arrhythmias are frequent and occur in normal individuals as well as in patients with structural heart disease. in supraventricular arrhythmias the indication for treatment is mainly based on symptoms. in atrial fibrillation the thromboembolic risk has to be taken into account. in ventricular arrhythmias, especially in combination with significant structural heart disease, prognostic considerations play an important role in decision-making.20061594843
antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in bangladesh, 1983-1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid.the susceptibility to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz) was determined for 15,824 isolates of shigella obtained from patients attending a treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh, from 1983 through 1990 and for 520 isolates obtained during community surveys from 1988 through 1990. susceptibility to nalidixic acid was determined for isolates obtained after 1985. in 1983 13% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 23.5% to tmp-smz, and 0.8% to both drugs. by 1990 51.2% of isola ...19921600006
fluorescent antibody staining test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 infection.an indirect fluorescent antibody test for rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae 1 in diarrheal stools was developed. a diagnosis could be made within 90 min of submission of specimens to the laboratory. on comparison with culture results, the test had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 93%, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 92%, respectively.19921611852
adhesion of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro.adhesion of bacteria to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro was inhibited by fucose with all the four strains tested (two of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and two of s. flexneri). n-acetyl neuraminic acid and n-acetyl mannosamine also caused inhibition, suggesting a multiplicity of receptors on the epithelial cell. congo-red binding of the strains correlated with their adhesive ability, whereas haemagglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by the bacteria did not.19921613779
antibodies to shiga holotoxin and to two synthetic peptides of the b subunit in sera of patients with shigella dysenteriae 1 dysentery.acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 18 thai patients and convalescent-phase sera from two israeli patients and one bangladeshi patient with shigella dysenteriae 1 (shiga) dysentery were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies that bind s. dysenteriae lipopolysaccharide (lps), shiga holotoxin, or two synthetic peptides representing epitopes from the b subunit of shiga toxin. paired sera from 24 maryland adults with shigella flexneri 2a or shigella sonnei diarrhea serv ...19921629317
bilateral facial palsy caused by the borrelia spirochete.a case of total left peripheral and partial right peripheral facial palsy caused by the borrelia spirochete is presented. the diagnosis was confirmed by the history of the tick-bites and elevated titers of igg in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.19921632233
effects of norethisterone on pressor response to angiotensin ii in men.we examined the effects of norethisterone and/or mestranol on the pressor response to angiotensin ii in 20 healthy men.20061635747
influence of oxygen radicals generating agents on eicosanoid metabolism of human endothelial cells.human umbilical venous endothelial cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0.001-10 mmol/l) of h202 or cumene hydroperoxide. pgi2 was released within the first five minutes, whereas a significant increase in txa2-release was not observed before 10 minutes after stimulation. furthermore the content of intracellular atp and the level of cytosolic free ca2+ were measured. doses of 0.01 mmol/l h202 or cumene hydroperoxide increased the intracellular atp-level. doses higher than 0.1 mmol ...19921636164
adrenal tumours in chinese.patients with adrenal tumours were identified (n = 412). among them, 43% (176 patients) had primary and 57% (236 patients) had secondary tumours. of the primary tumours, 71% were adenomas, but adrenal cortical carcinoma 6.8% (12 cases), phaeochromocytoma 9.7% (17 cases), neuroblastoma 6.2% (11 cases), ganglioneuroma 1.1% (2 cases) and myelolipoma 4% (7 cases) were also seen. rare tumours like lipoma and haemangioma were also found. most of the metastatic tumours were carcinomas (88.2%), mainly f ...20061636245
[eye foreign bodies. patients should be sent to the eye clinic for treatment]. 20061636298
construction of stable lamb-shiga toxin b subunit hybrids: analysis of expression in salmonella typhimurium aroa strains and stimulation of b subunit-specific mucosal and serum antibody responses.the complete shiga toxin b subunit and two n-terminal segments of the b subunit have been inserted into a cell surface exposed loop of the lamb protein, and expression of the hybrid proteins from three different promoter systems, i.e., (i) an in vitro-inducible tac promoter that provides high-level expression, (ii) the iron-regulated aerobactin promoter presumably induced in vivo under the iron-limiting conditions of the intestinal mucosal environment, and (iii) a synthetic, modified beta-lactam ...19921639503
evaluation of the role of shiga and shiga-like toxins in mediating direct damage to human vascular endothelial cells.infection with shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin-producing strains of shigella dysenteriae and escherichia coli, respectively, can progress to the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. it has been hypothesized that circulating shiga toxin, shiga-like toxins, and endotoxins may contribute to the disease by directly damaging glomerular endothelial cells. the effects of these toxins on hela, vero, and human vascular endothelial cells (ec) were examined. confluent ec were sensitive to shiga toxin but were at l ...19911649877
molecular typing of shigella strains using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and genome hybridization with insertion sequences.the genomes of 18 independent shigella isolates (9 shigella sonnei, 5 shigella dysenteriae and 4 shigella flexneri) as well as of 4 epidemic s. flexneri strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and by the distribution of insertion sequences (is1, is2 and is911). despite the close relatedness observed among the 9 independent s. sonnei, all of them could be differentiated from each other. the 4 independent s. flexneri isolates showed clearly distinguishable dna profiles. ne ...19911658885
programmed translational frameshifting and initiation at an auu codon in gene expression of bacterial insertion sequence is911.the proteins expressed by insertion sequence is911, a member of the widespread is3 family of elements, have been analyzed. the results indicate that three major species are produced from two consecutive reading frames. a protein of mr 11,500, orfa, is synthesized from an upstream reading frame. a larger protein, orfab, uses the same initiation codon and is produced by a -1 programmed translational frameshift between orfa and a downstream frame, orfb, whose amino acid sequence shows significant h ...19911660923
gene transfer in enteric bacteria through the formation of r-prime plasmids by an rp4: :mini-mu element.gene transfer in seven pathogenic enteric bacteria was studied using an rp4: :mini-mu element, the plasmid pulb113. from the e. coli k-12 host strain the plasmid could be efficiently transferred to these enteric bacteria, but its transfer back to e. coli k-12 was not as efficient, being detected only in shigella dysenteriae 1, s. flexneri and the 'smooth' variant of s. sonnei. in these three species, transposition of chromosomal fragments into the plasmid to produce r-prime plasmid was also dete ...19911661362
improved method for measurement of rhodanese activity using methanethiosulfonate as sulfur donor substrate and its application to human serum.we have developed a sensitive method for the measurement of rhodanese activity in human serum which is based on the colorimetric method for the determination of thiocyanate produced from methanethiosulfonate and cyanide as substrates. thiocyanate gives a red complex with ferric ion in an acidic condition. the present method is about 70-fold more sensitive than the conventional method using cyanide and thiosulfate as substrates and correlates well (r = 0.997) with the conventional method in bovin ...19911667623
effect of diabetes mellitus on epididymal enzymes of adult rats.diabetes mellitus caused significant reduction in serum testosterone and accessory sex glands weight. the sperm content of epididymal regions also decreased. among the epididymal regions, the cauda epididymidal tissue alone showed significant reduction in na(+)-k+ atpase activity. however, mg2+ atpase activity was lowered in caput epididymidis only. specific activity of ca2+ atpase significantly decreased in caput and cauda epididymides. all three atpases decreased significantly in caput epididy ...19911667646
molecular epidemiologic techniques in analysis of epidemic and endemic shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.during 1988 the number of shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections reported in the united states increased fivefold. to determine if recent isolates from mexico were related to those that caused epidemics of dysentery worldwide, southern hybridization analysis was done with shiga toxin and ribosomal rna gene probes. western hemisphere and eastern hemisphere strains differed by the size of a single ecori fragment carrying the shiga toxin genes. three ribosomal dna (rdna) patterns were observed, whi ...19911671055
[bilateral claw deformity of the fingers due to fasciitis with eosinophilia (shulman's syndrome). apropos of a case].shulman's syndrome or fasciitis with eosinophilia is a disease of unknown origin with unclear relations with scleroderma, characterised by thickening of the fascia superficialis associated with blood eosinophilia. this diagnosis should be considered in a patient presenting with a lesion of the anterior surface of the forearms, which have an "armoured" appearance, associated with claw deformity of the wrist, hand and fingers. the diagnosis is based on cutaneo-muscular biopsy and treatment consist ...20061698089
antigenic conservation of primary structural regions of s-adenosylmethionine synthetase.although the physical and kinetic properties of s-adenosylmethionine (adomet) synthetases from different sources are quite different, it appears that these enzymes have structurally or antigenically conserved regions as demonstrated by studies with adomet synthetase specific antibodies. polyclonal anti-human lymphocyte adomet synthetase crossreacted with enzyme from rat liver (beta isozyme), escherichia coli and yeast. in addition, polyclonal anti-e. coli enzyme and antibodies to synthetic pepti ...19901698095
transient cytokeratin expression in skeletal muscle during murine embryogenesis.cytokeratin expression was investigated in paravertebral skeletal musculature of 10 d and 18 d old embryos as well as in adult nmri-mice. the muscular nature of the evaluated tissue was evidenced by their expression of vimentin and desmin. binding moieties for cytokeratin antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) could be demonstrated only in muscle cells of 10 d old embryos. concerning subtypes, the mouse equivalents of the human cytokeratins nos. 8, 18 and 19 could be made probable. the importanc ...19901698345
decreased monocyte-induced angiogenesis in scleroderma. 20061698391
role of plasmids in virulence-associated attributes and in o-antigen expression in shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.the association of plasmids with virulence characters and o-antigen expression was studied in two virulent and seven avirulent mutant strains of shigella dysenteriae type 1. deletion of a 12-mda segment from a 140-mda plasmid in two smooth avirulent mutants made the derivatives avirulent in the sereny test and non-invasive in hela cells. the mutants were unable to bind congo red, and did not express the virulence marker antigen. mutants completely lacking the 140-mda plasmid also showed similar ...19901700125
characterization of shigella dysenteriae serotypes 11, 12, and 13.we conducted serologic and biochemical studies on strains of three provisional shigella serotypes. included were 19 strains of serotype 3873-50 from three countries (1 from mexico, 1 from netherlands antilles, and 17 from the united states), 13 strains of serotype 3341-55 from three countries (1 from canada, 1 from bulgaria, and 11 from the united states), and 19 strains of serotype 19809-73 from two countries (16 from israel and 3 from the united states). reactions of these strains with homolog ...19901701447
crystal structure of the cell-binding b oligomer of verotoxin-1 from e. coli.the shiga toxin family, a group of cytotoxins associated with diarrhoeal diseases and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, includes shiga toxin from shigella dysenteriae type 1 and verotoxins produced by enteropathogenic escherichia coli. the family belongs to the a-b class of bacterial toxins, which includes the cholera toxin family, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. these toxins all have bipartite structures consisting of an enzymatic a subunit associated with a b oligomer which binds to specific c ...19921741063
possible mechanisms underlying the slow lactose fermentation phenotype in shigella spp.a southern hybridization analysis revealed that the region homologous to escherichia coli lacz was present on the chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-positive shigella strains, such as shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 and shigella sonnei strains, whereas this region was absent from chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-negative strains of shigella flexneri and shigella boydii. we found that the lacy-a region was deficient in s. dysenteriae serovar 1 and believe that this is the reason for the ...19911746953
antimicrobial resistance trends of shigellae isolates from calabar, nigeria.during a 3-year study (january 1986-december 1988), stools of 2200 diarrhoeal or dysenteric patients were examined by culturing and 108 (4.9%) were found positive for shigellae. shigella flexneri was the commonest species isolated (54.6%), followed by sh. dysenteriae (24.1%). patients aged less than or equal to 15 years accounted for 51.4% of cases. shigellae over the 3 years showed high and sometimes rising resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and cotrimoxazole and complete r ...19911758013
amylin is more potent and more effective than glucagon in raising plasma glucose concentration in fasted, anesthetized rats.amylin is a 37 amino-acid peptide secreted from the pancreatic beta-cells. it has actions on carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, including elevation of blood glucose. in this study, the hyperglycemic effect of intravenous bolus injections of amylin was compared with similar injections of glucagon in 20-hour fasted rats lightly anesthetized with halothane. administered doses ranged from 0.01 micrograms to 1000 micrograms (about 7 pmol/kg--750 nmol/kg for amylin and 8 pmol/kg--800 pmol/kg for glucago ...19911764079
rural advanced practice nurses: a decade of growth. 20061764326
the pathogenic mechanisms of shiga toxin and the shiga-like toxins.it is now well documented that some enteric bacteria which cause diarrhoeal and/or dysenteric disease produce, at high levels, one or more of a family of protein toxins referred to as shiga toxin and shiga-like toxins (slts; alternatively called verocytotoxins or vts). within the past few years, there have been considerable advancements made in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of shiga toxin and slts. however, the precise role of the toxins in mediating colonic disease ...19911766367
nucleotide sequence of the ipabcd structural genes of shigella dysenteriae.a 9 kb ecori and two psti fragments from the virulence plasmid of shigella dysenteriae cg097 were shown to contain all ipa genes by probing with shigella flexneri ipab, -c, -d and -a gene probes. the dna sequences of s. dysenteriae ipabc genes were very similar to those of s. flexneri m90t and s. flexneri ysh6000, but ipad differed by 22 codons from that of s. flexneri. the differences in ipad may account for the different in vitro host specificities shown by s. dysenteriae and s. flexneri. the ...19911766387
structure of the o-antigen of francisella tularensis strain 15.the o-specific polysaccharide, obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of francisella tularensis strain 15, contained 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-quinac), 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-d-glucose (d-qui4nfm), and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonamide (d-galnacan) in the ratios 1:1:2. tri- and tetra-saccharide fragments were obtained on treatment of the polysaccharide with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and partial hydrolysis with 0.1 m hydrochloric acid, respectively. on the b ...19911769021
shigella dysenteriae 60r strain adheres to and invades tissue culture cells in the absence of virulence plasmid.evidence is presented that a high level shiga toxin-producing strain shigella dysenteriae 60r adheres to and invades the epithelial cell lines hct8 and henle 407. the invasive phenotype of s. dysenteriae 60r differs in four ways from the heretofore studied invasive shigella phenotypes. first, s. dysenteriae 60r lacks the virulence plasmid characteristic of other invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli. second, hybridization studies show that the known ipa genes are neither pre ...19911769541
mosaic trisomy 8 associated with jejunal duplication. 19911773546
rapid purification of hepatitis b virus dna from serum.we describe two rapid, simple, and reliable procedures for routine purification of hepatitis b virus (hbv) dna from serum. hbv dna could be purified from 24 serum samples in 1.5 to 2 h and was recovered in the initial reaction vessel. both procedures have in common that hbv dna is complexed with silica particles in the chaotropic agent guanidinium thiocyanate (guscn) but differ in lysis conditions and in the conditions used to elute hbv dna from the silica particles after purification of the sil ...19911774300
detection of shiga toxin-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using polymerase chain reaction with incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp.a technique has been developed for the detection of shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin type i (sht/slt-i)-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using the polymerase chain reaction with the incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp. target dna liberated from whole cells was amplified, using primer pairs homologous to the a-subunit genes of sht/slt-i. the ttp analog digoxigenin-11-dutp was incorporated into the reaction mixture, permitting nonradioactive labeling of the amplified ...19911774316
environmental signals induce major changes in virulence of shigella spp.growth conditions play a major role in expression of virulence by shigella spp. both in vitro (adherence and internalization in eukaryotic host cells) and in vivo (keratoconjunctivitis). optimized expression of virulence required anaerobic growth to log phase in particular media such as brain heart infusion broth. kinetic studies of guinea pig eye infections showed that as few as 2 x 10(5) s. dysenteriae cg097 or s. flexneri m90t, grown under these optimized conditions, produced keratoconjunctiv ...19911778444
damage to hepatic thyroxine 5'-deiodination induced by pathogenic factors of keshan disease and the preventive effects of selenium and vitamin e.experiments were performed to investigate the change of hepatic t4 5'-deiodination and the preventive effects of selenium (se) and vitamin e in rats fed grains from a keshan disease (kd) endemic area. the results showed that consumption of the endemic grain for 8 weeks caused a significant reduction in hepatic t4 5'-monodeiodinase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and a marked enhancement of hepatic malondialdehyde content. these changes could be effectively prevented through se or vitamin ...19911781930
new anthracycline derivatives: what for? 20051782058
imerslund-gräsbeck syndrome in two brothers: renal biopsy and ultrastructural findings.in two chinese siblings with imerslund-gräsbeck syndrome, light microscopy of renal biopsies showed no remarkable change. ultrastructurally, there were small possible focal defects in the glomerular basement membrane. neither podocytes nor tubular cells showed evident change. no electron dense deposit was found. our observations on renal ultrastructure differ from the previous five reports. the literature on renal pathology of this syndrome is reviewed.20051782115
management of the palatal ectopic and unerupted maxillary canine.some problems associated with the diagnosis of the ectopic maxillary canine are discussed. a treatment regimen is outlined for the tooth that is displaced palatally and unerupted.20061782194
effect of warfarin on early rat tooth development.rat pups were treated from birth to 5 days of age with the vitamin k antagonist warfarin in order to investigate possible functions of the vitamin k-dependent dentin gla protein (dgp) in tooth development. warfarin completely eliminated the immunocytochemically detectable dgp which is a prominent feature of dentin in control rat pups, and also caused an increased concentration of dgp in odontoblasts. warfarin treatment did not affect the ultrastructure of cells or the extracellular matrix in the ...19911782575
effects of testosterone on the liver of castrated rats: morphologic study.it is well known that castration in rats causes atrophy of the sexual organs and, to a lesser extent, of other organs. we have observed that castration causes a reduction of the liver weight due to a reduction (-10%) of the numerical density of the hepatocytes after castration (p less than 0.01). testosterone administration at high concentration (2.5 mg/100 g b. wt.) as well as at low concentration (0.025 mg/100 g) in the castrated rats causes an increase of the liver weight due to an increase ( ...19911783042
[the effect of the synergistic action of enterotoxin on the specific protective complex of shigella sonnei].the study has first established that enterotoxin enhances the protective potency of s. sonnei specific protective complex. this effect has been revealed both in experiments of the oral immunization of mice and in experiments of the conjunctival immunization of guinea pigs and depends on the dose of enterotoxin used in the experiment. the increase of protection has a specific character. these observations open prospects for further enhancement for the protective properties of s. sonnei specific p ...19911789032
[the culture of discussions and a little bit on the epidemiology of intestinal infections]. 19911789044
["the modern theoretical and practical concepts of the epidemiology of shigellosis" and the culture of discussions]. 19911789045
[continuous noninvasive recording of circulatory parameters while performing the valsalva test under elevated ambient pressure].the results are presented which confirm applicability of the valsalva test as a functional exercise for the cardiovascular system while studying changes of the circulation regulation under high ambient pressure. methods of transthoracic tetrapolar impedance plethysmography, electro- and intervalocardiography and mean arterial pressure measurement by means of the oscillometric servosystem are shown as adequate and highly informative under these conditions.20051790814
on the regulation of collagen-fibril shape and form. 20061794563
transcatheter management of pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis.hemorrhage from rupture of an arterial pseudoaneurysm is a potentially fatal complication of pancreatitis. seventeen patients underwent transcatheter embolization of 23 arteries for the treatment of 20 arterial pseudoaneurysms secondary to pancreatitis. their records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical benefit of transcatheter therapy. at presentation, 15 of the 17 patients had gastrointestinal, intrasplenic, retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal, or postoperative wound bleeding. t ...20061797219
transcatheter management of pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis.hemorrhage from rupture of an arterial pseudoaneurysm is a potentially fatal complication of pancreatitis. seventeen patients underwent transcatheter embolization of 23 arteries for the treatment of 20 arterial pseudoaneurysms secondary to pancreatitis. their records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical benefit of transcatheter therapy. at presentation, 15 of the 17 patients had gastrointestinal, intrasplenic, retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal, or postoperative wound bleeding. t ...20061797219
furosemide inhibits the centrally-mediated pressor response to clonidine in conscious, normotensive rats.1. the effect of furosemide on the pressor response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine was investigated in freely moving, normotensive rats with chronically implanted arterial catheters. 2. when injected i.c.v., clonidine at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms produced a dose-dependent pressor response and a decrease in heart rate. no depressor response was induced by clonidine. 3. systemic (i.v.) pretreatment with furosemide (2-10 mg kg-1) increased urine volume and dos ...19911797326
furosemide inhibits the centrally-mediated pressor response to clonidine in conscious, normotensive rats.1. the effect of furosemide on the pressor response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine was investigated in freely moving, normotensive rats with chronically implanted arterial catheters. 2. when injected i.c.v., clonidine at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms produced a dose-dependent pressor response and a decrease in heart rate. no depressor response was induced by clonidine. 3. systemic (i.v.) pretreatment with furosemide (2-10 mg kg-1) increased urine volume and dos ...19911797326
serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in singapore.serogrouping of 506 shigella strains isolated in singapore from 1986 to 1990 showed that shigella flexneri (60.3%) was the most common, followed by s. sonnei (33.6%), s. boydii (3.2%) and s. dysenteriae (3%). of the 23 shigella serotypes identified, the predominant ones were s. flexneri types 2a and 1b, s. boydii types 1 and 5, and s. dysenteriae types 1 and 3. more than 80% of the shigella species were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug, and the incidence of multiresistance was partic ...19911800565
'occupational hazards to dental staff'. 20071804266
[clinical effect and laboratory observation of ofloxacin in the treatment of typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonorrhea].ofloxacin was used in the treatment of 20 cases of typhoid fever, 32 cases of bacillary dysentery and 50 cases of gonococcal infection. altogether 102 cases were treated, 53 being male and 49 female. the daily dosage was 400 mg to 600 mg, divided into two times. the result showed that the clinical effective rate for typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonococcal infections was 100%, 97% and 94% respectively, while the bacterial eradication rate was 100%, 100% and 94% respectively. the bacteri ...19911806341
changing antibiotic sensitivity patterns in shigellosis.over five and a half months stool cultures were performed in 154 patients admitted with suspected bacillary dysentery to the professorial paediatric unit of the teaching hospital, galle. thirty one patients had a positive stool culture; shigella dysenteriae type 1 was isolated in 23 patients, and s flexneri in 8. in both groups the antibiotic sensitivity pattern was uniform, the only difference being s dysenteriae type 1 being resistant to nalidixic acid while s flexneri was sensitive. this anti ...19911807844
stereoselective disposition of ibuprofen enantiomers in the isolated perfused rat kidney.the renal clearance of ibuprofen enantiomer was studied separately in the isolated perfused rat kidney at initial perfusate concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml (n = 4) and 100 micrograms/ml (n = 4). perfusate and urine samples were measured for r(-) and s(+)-ibuprofen using a stereospecific hplc assay; urine samples were also analyzed after alkaline hydrolysis. functional viability of the kidney was assured by determining the fractional excretion of glucose and glomerular filtration rate (gfr) at ...19911808617
[cloning and expression of shiga-toxin gene from shigella dysenteriae type i].the chromosomal dna of s. dysenteriae type i w30864 was isolated and digested by ecori. the 3-7 kb dna fragments were recovered and ligated with vector puc-19. after transformation, the recombinants were screened by slt gene probe. the positive clones were obtained. the cloned ecori fragment containing both st-a and st-b subunit gene was about 4.5 kb. the cloned st strain was also detected by hela-s3 cell for cytotoxicity, and detected by rabbit ileal loop test for enterotoxicity. besides, the c ...19911814045
thiourea and methionine effects upon glucose and leucine absorption in chicken jejunum.administration of a unique dose of thiourea (7 mg per kg b.w.) in the 7th day of life to broiler chickens affects in different manners the jejunal absorption of glucose and that of leucine. methionine supplementation of the fodder (1.5 g per kg) during 40 days affects--in an age-dependent manner--the glucose absorption, but not that of leucine.19911817667
thiourea and methionine effects upon glucose and leucine absorption in chicken jejunum.administration of a unique dose of thiourea (7 mg per kg b.w.) in the 7th day of life to broiler chickens affects in different manners the jejunal absorption of glucose and that of leucine. methionine supplementation of the fodder (1.5 g per kg) during 40 days affects--in an age-dependent manner--the glucose absorption, but not that of leucine.19911817667
expression of virulence and antibiotic resistance in an escherichia coli transconjugant carrying a large plasmid pcat120 of shigella dysenteriae type i and its spontaneous fragmentations.the role of a 120-kb plasmid in relation to virulence and drug resistance factor in shigella dysenteriae was studied. for characterization of plasmids, the mating system is a useful and efficient means of transferring both large and small plasmids to a new host. the conjugative transfer of a 120-kb (pcat120) ampicillin-resistant plasmid of s. dysenteriae to e. coli k-12 was not successful. introduction of an e. coli fertility factor plasmid f, did not help to mobilize the plasmid. low transfer f ...19911823646
bacterial endotoxins: comparison of mitogenic, polyclonal, antibody-inducing and toxicity activities.the mitogenic effects on mouse spleen lymphocytes were determined in a large series of commercially available and laboratory-prepared lipopolysaccharides (lps) obtained from escherichia, salmonella, serratia and shigella species; part of these lps preparations was chemically modified prior to testing. in order to establish whether the degree of mitogenic activity corresponds with other biological effects of these preparations, polyclonal activity, capability to induce specific antibody formation ...19911823655
occupational contact dermatitis due to acrylonitrile.within dsm chemicals bv, a producer of acrylonitrile, skin complaints are frequent. the majority of these are of an irritant nature, while a smaller portion is based on acquired allergies. allergological examination revealed 5 employees with an allergy to acrylonitrile. 1 of these subjects also developed paraesthesiae in the skin sites affected, a finding not previously described for acrylonitrile. in the guinea pig maximization test (gpmt), acrylonitrile showed strong allergenic potential. for ...19911828409
occupational contact dermatitis due to acrylonitrile.within dsm chemicals bv, a producer of acrylonitrile, skin complaints are frequent. the majority of these are of an irritant nature, while a smaller portion is based on acquired allergies. allergological examination revealed 5 employees with an allergy to acrylonitrile. 1 of these subjects also developed paraesthesiae in the skin sites affected, a finding not previously described for acrylonitrile. in the guinea pig maximization test (gpmt), acrylonitrile showed strong allergenic potential. for ...19911828409
the nature and importance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide bonds in human ige.ige antibodies are best known for their pathological role in allergy. the class-specific effector sites are located in the epsilon chains; these form covalent dimers via two cystine residues (cys241 and cys328) linking opposite c epsilon 2 domains. the nature and biological significance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide-bond arrangement is unresolved. for structural and functional analysis site-specific mutations were introduced into the c epsilon 2 domain of recombinant human ige. the introd ...19911828428
the nature and importance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide bonds in human ige.ige antibodies are best known for their pathological role in allergy. the class-specific effector sites are located in the epsilon chains; these form covalent dimers via two cystine residues (cys241 and cys328) linking opposite c epsilon 2 domains. the nature and biological significance of the inter-epsilon chain disulfide-bond arrangement is unresolved. for structural and functional analysis site-specific mutations were introduced into the c epsilon 2 domain of recombinant human ige. the introd ...19911828428
[social health in east germany]. 20071828554
[calcium channel blockers in the elderly with hypertension].administered alone, calcium entry blockers (ceb) are effective antihypertensive agents in the aged, and their blood pressure lowering action is similar to that of other antihypertensive drugs. ceb may be regarded as alternatives to diuretics in the elderly, and they should be used instead of diuretics when these are contraindicated. the effectiveness of ceb might be explained by some characteristics of old age, such as elevated mean blood pressure, reduced plasma renin activity, blunted sympathe ...20061828570
the use of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser for laparoscopic removal of ovarian endometrioma.from january 1989 through january 1990, 31 patients thought to have ovarian endometrioma at ultrasonography were treated by operative laparoscopy and potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. the endometriomas ranged from 2 to 9.2 cm in diameter by preoperative transvaginal ultrasonography. the operative procedure used was a three-puncture technique with a 600 micron fiber attached to a potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. the power setting was 10 w with a continuous pulse. in all cases endometriomas wer ...20061828651
the use of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser for laparoscopic removal of ovarian endometrioma.from january 1989 through january 1990, 31 patients thought to have ovarian endometrioma at ultrasonography were treated by operative laparoscopy and potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. the endometriomas ranged from 2 to 9.2 cm in diameter by preoperative transvaginal ultrasonography. the operative procedure used was a three-puncture technique with a 600 micron fiber attached to a potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. the power setting was 10 w with a continuous pulse. in all cases endometriomas wer ...20061828651
[physical development and health status of first-year students]. 20061840048
[physical development and health status of first-year students]. 20061840048
molecular epidemiology of shigella infections: plasmid profiles, serotype correlation, and restriction endonuclease analysis.plasmid isolation was used to refine the epidemiologic analysis for 168 shigellosis cases in pima county, ariz. plasmids of less than 20 kb were used for comparison of plasmid profiles. plasmid patterns for each species were distinct. a total of 57 of 74 (77%) shigella flexneri strains could be placed into seven plasmid patterns, 70 of 79 (89%) shigella sonnei strains could be placed into seven patterns, 12 shigella boydii strains could be placed into six patterns, and each of 3 shigella dysente ...19911847148
olfactory dysfunction in parkinson's disease.an olfactory function test in 18 patients with parkinson's disease (pd) and 10 age-matched control subjects was performed. both detection and recognition thresholds were measured with five kinds of synthesized odorants (t & t olfactometry). before each test, rhinoscopic inspections were performed to exclude subjects who could have respiratory hyposmia. both detection and recognition thresholds in patients with pd were significantly elevated in comparison with those of control subjects. auditory ...20071852411
body mass index variations: centiles from birth to 87 years.this report provides body mass index (weight/height2) values for the french population from birth to the age of 87 years. bmi curves increase during the first year, decrease until the age of 6, increase again up to 65 years and decrease thereafter. these variations reflect the total changes of fat body mass during life. the 50th centile values of wt/ht2 at the ages of 20, 40, 60, 80 years are 21.5, 24.6, 25.4, 24.4 kg/m2 for men and 20.6, 22.6, 24.1, 23.4 kg/m2 for women. the values for the 3rd, ...20071855495
perfusion characteristics of hepatic cavernous hemangioma using intravenous ct angiography (ivcta).thirty-three patients with 35 proven hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (hch) were studied with intravenous ct angiography (ivcta). 15 scans were performed during the first 30 s after bolus (6 ml/s) injection of 50 ml iodinated contrast material. thereafter 2 scans/min were obtained up to 30 min. three criteria were utilized at ivcta to make a specific diagnosis of hch: (1) detection of an intense mural nodular enhancement in the arterial phase. the density in the nodular region(s) should have a dens ...20071855518
high blood pressure during pregnancy and working conditions among hospital personnel.the relationship between working conditions and high blood pressure during pregnancy was analysed in a sample of 621 women hospital employees in the paris region over the period 1979-1981. data were collected by interviews during the routine medical visit at the end of postnatal leave. women who had to work standing up for extended periods of time, who had to carry heavy loads or who had to perform heavy cleaning tasks had high blood pressure during their pregnancy more often than women not expo ...19911855606
prospective hospital based study on persistent diarrhoea.a total of 383 children aged less than 5 years suffering from acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery were studied in hospital to determine the rate of persistent diarrhoea. altogether 335 (87.5%) recovered within 13 days. only in 48 (12.5%) did the diarrhoea continue for 14 days or more, and they were considered as having persistent diarrhoea. children aged between 7 and 18 months had a significantly increased incidence of persistent diarrhoea. children suffering from grade ii-iv malnutrition const ...19911855686
tibio-talar stability in bimalleolar ankle fractures: a dynamic in vitro contact area study.a dynamic weight-bearing model has been developed in a cadaveric ankle model to assess the contact areas of the talus in varying degrees of bimalleolar ankle fractures. a surgically created transverse fibula osteotomy with up to 6 mm of displacement did not cause a significant change in the contact area. sectioning of the deltoid ligament, regardless of fibular displacement, created a 15% to 20% decrease in the contact area (p less than .001). this model represents a clinically relevant situatio ...20061855708
tibio-talar stability in bimalleolar ankle fractures: a dynamic in vitro contact area study.a dynamic weight-bearing model has been developed in a cadaveric ankle model to assess the contact areas of the talus in varying degrees of bimalleolar ankle fractures. a surgically created transverse fibula osteotomy with up to 6 mm of displacement did not cause a significant change in the contact area. sectioning of the deltoid ligament, regardless of fibular displacement, created a 15% to 20% decrease in the contact area (p less than .001). this model represents a clinically relevant situatio ...20061855708
[infectious endocarditis]. 20071855806
intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcome.to determine the incidence and outcome of intestinal obstruction during shigellosis, the authors assessed 1211 consecutive patients with shigellosis admitted during a 15-month period to a diarrhea treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh. obstruction was identified in 30 (2.5%) patients. ten (33.3%) of these patients died, compared with 97 (8.2%) of the 1181 patients without obstructions (p less than 0.001; rr = 4.1). in a case-control study, patients with obstructions were compared with 30 control ...19911860627
shigellosis. 19911861289
haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children.of the 4070 children admitted in the department of paediatrics, 830 (24%) presented with diarrhoea. eleven of these had haemolytic ureamic syndrome (hus) characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. only 3 had positive stool cultures (e. coli 2, shigella dysenteriae 1). two children expired while the rest recovered with conservative management and peritoneal dialysis. thus hus should be remembered as a complication of diarrhoea and a cause of ac ...19911861343
which patients see a rheumatologist? swracr (south western regional advisory committee on rheumatology).rheumatology outpatient consultations were recorded throughout the south western regional health authority for one month. of 2987 consultations (equivalent to 32,600 annually), 630 (21%) were new referrals who waited 60 days (mode) before their consultation. rheumatoid arthritis and polyarthritis accounted for 43% of new referrals and 75% of follow-up patients. for these categories, 6.5 follow-up patients were seen for each new referral, but this ratio varied from 3.7 to 11.7. other diagnoses al ...20071863825
human serum stimulates endothelin-1 synthesis more potently than prostacyclin production by cultured vascular endothelial cells.human serum stimulated the synthesis of a vasoconstrictive peptide, endothelin-1 (et-1), and a vasodilatory prostanoid, prostacyclin (pgi2), by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. incubation in 20% concentration of the serum for 24 h stimulated et-1 synthesis almost six-fold while pgi2 production increased two-fold. in addition, a tumor-promoting phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma), inhibited the serum-induced et-1 produ ...19911865754
replantation in children.the authors have replanted 162 parts in 120 children over the past 15 years. the youngest patient, undergoing successful replantation, was aged 7 months, 3 weeks. unlike an adult, any child suffering a traumatic amputation should be considered for a possible replantation. replantation should consist of minimal bone shortening to preserve epiphyseal plates, with repair of all severed structures. longitudinal k-wires usually provide adequate fixation. our survival rate for complete replantation in ...20071865815
severe hypomagnesemia associated with pentamidine therapy.a case of severe hypomagnesemia in a patient with aids that manifested as changes in mental status is presented. the hypomagnesemia was due to renal wasting of magnesium, most probably caused by pentamidine-induced renal tubular injury. this entity has been reported once before and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status in patients with aids.19991866558
[two biotin-labeled probes of gentamicin resistance genes].a 2.0 kb bamhi-hindiii fragment of pdg0103 from australia containing gentamicin 2"-o-adenylytransferase [ant(2")] gene and a 4.9 kb psti-ecori fragment of pby102 were recovered from low-temperature-melting agarose by the slot method. both fragments were labeled with biotin-7-datp by nick translation with a commercial kit. the result of colony and southern hybridization was that: the 2.0 kb probe from australia hybridized with that containing ant(2") from america, while no hybridization occurred ...19911866941
the accuracy of death certificates. implications for health statistics.the death certificate is an important source of data on disease incidence, prevalence and mortality. it should therefore be as accurate and complete as possible. death certificates from 433 autopsied hospital patients were reviewed and matched against the results of post-mortem examinations. significant discrepancies between the two documents were observed in 50% of patients. in 25%, the immediate cause of death was incorrectly stated on the certificate, having been assigned to a different organ ...20061871957
distinction of mesothelioma from carcinoma in pleural effusions. an immunocytochemical study on routinely processed cytoblock preparations.the study was designed to find out whether the commercially available antibodies bma 130 c, bma 120, v 9, kl 1, b 72.3 tag, hea 125 and ber-ep 4 would be of help in distinguishing carcinomas from a mesothelial process (mesothelioma/pleuritis) in pleural effusion specimens routinely processed by the cytoblock method. all of the 20 carcinomas included in the study but also 19 of the 20 mesotheliomas expressed cytokeratin (kl 1), whereas vimentin expression was found in 7 of the 20 carcinomas and 1 ...20071876528
a case of shigellosis caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b.shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b strains were isolated as causative agents of bacterial dysentery in a patient having visited south-east asia. both strains are a rare finding for bulgaria. s. dysenteriae 1 strains have not been isolated since 1962, and there were only single isolates of s. flexneri 5b. the strains were of the same antibiotic resistance patterns. conjugation experiments showed that resistance is determined by transferrable r-plasmids having identical char ...19911880406
simultaneous infection with multiple serotypes of shigellae in a patient.we isolated three different serotypes of shigella on admission from a patient with dysentery as well as a shigella-like organism and campylobacter jejuni upon follow-up. the patient produced serum antibodies to all three serotypes of shigellae.19911889185
effectiveness of fortnightly tooth brushing with amine fluorides in caries-prone subjects.the aim of this study was to assess the caries incidence and plaque accumulation in schoolchildren at caries risk, after brushing the teeth fortnightly with gels containing 0, 0.4% f, 1.25% f as amine fluoride (amf) or the common amine fluoride toothpaste containing 0.125% f. the study was conducted double blind over an 18-month period, and after 6 months discontinuation of brushing. only the group that brushed with the 1.25% amf gel showed a significant decrease in caries development compared t ...20071890532
the influence of contralateral primary afferents on ia inhibitory interneurones in humans.1. contralateral influences on short latency reciprocal inhibition between wrist extensor and flexor muscles were investigated in twenty-two healthy volunteers. reciprocal inhibition, probably mediated through the ia inhibitory interneurone, was measured by conditioning the flexor carpi radialis (fcr) h reflex by weak stimulation of the ipsilateral radial nerve. maximum reciprocal inhibition occurring at a precise delay between conditioning and conditioned stimulations was taken as the test leve ...20051895236
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