Publications

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synthesis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel diethyl 6,6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-aryl-2-oxo-cyclohex-3-enecarboxylates).novel bis cyclohexenone ester derivatives 14-19 were synthesized and characterized by their spectral data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the novel compounds 14-19 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 15, 16, 18 against staphylococcus aureus, 14, 15 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 15, 19 against micrococcus luteus, 17, 18 against salmonella typhii, 14, 17 against shigella flexneri, 15 against escherichia coli, 16 against pseudomon ...201121417963
a comparison of disease caused by shigella and campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of karachi, pakistan.despite the efforts of the international community diarrheal diseases still pose a major threat to children in children less than five years of age. bacterial diarrhea has also emerged as a public health concern due to the proliferation of drug resistant species in many parts of the world. there is a paucity of population-based data about the incidence of shigellosis and campylobacter infections in pakistan. we report country specific results for shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multic ...201121338955
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells fail to respond to shigella flexneri.cd8(+) t lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. surprisingly, cd8(+) t cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, despite the ability of shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to cd8(+) t cells. to determine why cd8(+) t cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to s. flexneri, we investigated whe ...201121357720
microbial safety of tropical fruits.there are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. norovirus and salmonella are the leading vi ...201121328109
crystal structure of the autochaperone region from the shigella flexneri autotransporter icsa.the icsa (intracellular spread gene a) autotransporter from shigella flexneri is a key virulence factor. we identified a stable fragment comprising residues 591 to 758, which corresponds to the autochaperone region of the icsa passenger domain. we showed that thermal unfolding of the autochaperone region is reversible and determined its crystal structure at 2.0-å resolution.201121335457
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
shigella enterotoxin-2 is a type iii effector that participates in shigella-induced interleukin 8 secretion by epithelial cells.we have previously described a protein termed shigella enterotoxin 2 (shet-2), which induces rises in short-circuit current in rabbit ileum mounted in the ussing chamber. published reports have postulated that shet-2 may be secreted by the shigella type iii secretion system (t3ss). in this study, we show that shet-2 secretion into the extracellular space requires the t3ss in shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t and a shet-2-tem fusion was translocated into epithelial cells in a t3ss-dependent manne ...201121219446
shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study.summaryon 13 november 2009, the authorities of flemish brabant, belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of shigella sonnei at a public institution. a study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. we performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. the reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively ...201121281549
structural and functional studies indicate that the epec effector, espg, directly binds p21-activated kinase.bacterial pathogens secrete effectors into their hosts that subvert host defenses and redirect host processes. espg is a type three secretion effector with a disputed function that is found in enteropathogenic escherichia coli. here we show that espg is structurally similar to vira, a shigella virulence factor; espg has a large, conserved pocket on its surface; espg binds directly to the amino-terminal inhibitory domain of human p21-activated kinase (pak); and mutations to conserved residues in ...201121235237
enteric glial cells: new players in mucosal defence against bacteria? 201121282131
autophagy in immunity and cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes.autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. it has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunologic process with a wide array of roles in immunity. the immunologic functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. they range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunologic effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as ...201121349088
isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of shigellae to ht29 cells.lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. we have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of aegle marmelos. the isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. the isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with n-acetylgalactosamine, man ...201121283697
purification and characterization of a ca2+-dependent novel lectin from nymphaea nouchali tuber with antiproliferative activities.a lectin (termed nntl) was purified from the extracts of nymphaea nouchali tuber followed by anion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, hydrophobic chromatography on hitrap phenyl hp and by repeated anion-exchange chromatography on hitrap q ff column. the molecular mass of the purified lectin was 27.0 ± 1.0 kda, as estimated by sds/page both in the presence and in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. nntl was an o-nitrophenyl ß-d-galactopyranoside sugar-specific lectin that agglutinated rat, ...201121291421
[enterobacteriaceae infection - diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention].intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. strains of shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. according to the who there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. this makes intestinal infectio ...201121357995
synthesis, spectral analysis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates and 4,5-dihydro-6-(napthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols.a series of ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates 8-14 and 4,5-dihydro-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols 15-21 were synthesised and characterised by their spectroscopic data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the newly synthesised compounds 8-21 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 9, 12 and 20 against staphylococcus aureus, 10, 12, 20 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 11, 17 against bacillus subtil ...201121299432
extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in shigella isolates - a matter of concern. 201121304205
efficient screening of a novel antimicrobial peptide from jatropha curcas by cell membrane affinity chromatography.a novel method named cell membrane affinity chromatography was used to screen antimicrobial peptides from jatropha curcas . a cationic antimicrobial peptide (kvflglk, jcpep7) was successfully isolated and identified. antimicrobial assays indicated that jcpep7 was active against the tested microorganisms ( salmonella typhimurium atcc 50013, shigella dysenteriae atcc 51302, pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 27553, staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, bacillus subtilis atcc 23631, and streptococcus pneumoni ...201121268582
dysbiosis of the faecal microbiota in patients with crohn's disease and their unaffected relatives.a general dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been established in patients with crohn's disease (cd), but a systematic characterisation of this dysbiosis is lacking. therefore the composition of the predominant faecal microbiota of patients with cd was studied in comparison with the predominant composition in unaffected controls. whether dysbiosis is present in relatives of patients cd was also examined.201121209126
strategies to overcome extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and ampc ß-lactamases in shigellae.oral cephalosporins and mecillinam are used to treat shigella infections, but are compromised by extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and plasmid ampc ß-lactamases. potential solutions include combining an oral or intravenous cephalosporin with a ß-lactamase inhibitor (bli) or using an oral penem. these strategies were examined using escherichia coli transconjugants and clinical isolates with esbls or ampc, as a proxy for shigellae. the clinical and laboratory standards institute agar dilution ...201121276715
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating escherichia coli and shigella sp.to distinguish between escherichia coli and other bacteria that have similar biochemical characteristics, 3 polymerase chain reaction techniques were combined. the primer sets cyda-f2-a2 and cyda-r2-a2 were designed to amplify 605 base pairs of nucleotide sequence specific for the cyda gene of escherichia coli; primer sets lacz-f-a and lacz-r-a to amplify 1,023 bp of nucleotide sequence specific for the lacz gene of escherichia coli; and primers laca-f2-a2 and laca-r2-a2 to amplify 325 bp of nucle ...201121060994
autophagy targeting of listeria monocytogenes and the bacterial countermeasure.autophagy acts as an intrinsic defense system against intracellular bacterial survival. recently, multiple cellular pathways that target intracellular bacterial pathogens to autophagy have been described. these include the atg5/lc3 pathway, which targets shigella, the ubiquitin (ub)-ndp52-lc3 pathway, which targets group a streptococcus (gas) and salmonella typhimurium, the ub-p62-lc3 pathway, which targets mycobacterium tuberculosis, listeria monocytogenes and s. typhimurium, and the diacylglyc ...201121193840
multidrug resistant salmonella concord is a major cause of salmonellosis in children in ethiopia.s. concord in ethiopia. the objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of febrile and diarrhoeic illness in ethiopian children focussing on salmonella.201121330737
shiga toxin and its use in targeted cancer therapy and imaging.shiga and the shiga-like toxins are related protein toxins produced by shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of escherichia coli. these toxins are composed of two non-covalently attached, modular parts: the a moiety (stxa) containing the enzymatically active a1 fragment, and the non-toxic, pentameric binding moiety (stxb). stx binds specifically to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (gb3) at the surface of target cells and is then internalized by endocytosis. subsequently, in toxin-s ...201121255370
structural variability of endotoxins from r-type isogenic mutants of shigella sonnei.the structural variations in the rough-type endotoxins [lipopolysaccharides (lpss)] of shigella sonnei mutant strains (s. sonnei phase ii-4303, r41, 562h and 4350) were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof-ms) and tandem ms. a series of s. sonnei mutants had previously been the subject of analytical studies on the biosynthesis of heptose components in the core oligosaccharide region of lpss. this study gives a complete overview o ...201121184397
seizure and altered mental status in a 12-year-old child with shigella sonnei gastroenteritis.we report a case of shigella-associated altered mental status and seizure in a 12-year-old boy. although seizure is a known complication of shigellosis, it is quite unusual in patients older than 9 years. this case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of shigellosis in any pediatric patient with altered mental status or seizure in the context of gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea.201121293224
role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to cd pathogenesis. we aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production.201121249146
genomic characterization of asymptomatic escherichia coli isolated from the neobladder.the replacement of the bladder with a neobladder made from ileal tissue is the prescribed treatment in some cases of bladder cancer or trauma. studies have demonstrated that individuals with an ileal neobladder have recurrent colonization by escherichia coli and other species that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections; however, pyelonephritis and complicated symptomatic infections with ileal neobladders are relatively rare. this study examines the genomic content of two e. coli i ...201121252277
analysis of shigella flexneri-mediated infections in model organism caenorhabditis elegans.shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and generates a significant global disease burden. the aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenesis and host immune response, at both the physiological and molecular level, using the model organism caenorhabditis elegans, in response to s. flexneri. c. elegans is a nematode that responds to infection with a simple innate immune system, key aspects of which have been shown to be conserved.201121254954
decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among shigella isolates in the united states, 2006 to 2009.we characterized 20 shigella isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. most patients (80%) from whom a travel history was obtained reported travel to south or southeast asia. mutations within the quinolone resistance determining regions of gyra and parc and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants (qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib-cr) were identified. the rise in antimicrobial resistance among shigella isolates may necessitate the increased use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins or ...201121220535
serotypes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase types of clinical isolates of shigella spp. from the zhejiang province of china.to understand the distribution of the serotypes of shigella spp. and to investigate the drug-resistant genes of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) in shigella in zhejiang province, we have collected clinically isolated shigella isolates from 2 hospitals in zhejiang province during august to december of 2006. there are 11 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei isolates, respectively. among the 11 s. flexneri, 9 are serotype f4 and the remaining 2 are f1a and f2a. antimicrobial susceptibilit ...201121146721
volatile compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of the needles of pinus densiflora and pinus thunbergii.to investigate the volatile compounds and the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of the essential oils of pinus densiflora needles (epdn) and pinus thunbergii needles (eptn), the volatile compounds of steam-distilled essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. antibacterial activities were analysed by performing disc-agar diffusion assay and determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of the essential oils. antioxidant activities were analysed via radica ...201121213230
two promoters and two translation start sites control the expression of the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp.the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp proteolytically cleaves the actin-based motility protein icsa from the bacterial surface. the icsp gene is monocistronic and lies downstream of an unusually large intergenic region on the shigella virulence plasmid. in silico analysis of this region predicts a second transcription start site 84 bp upstream of the first. primer extension analyses and beta-galactosidase assays demonstrate that both transcription start sites are used. both promoter ...201121225241
core and panmetabolism in escherichia coli.escherichia coli exhibits a wide range of lifestyles encompassing commensalism and various pathogenic behaviors which its highly dynamic genome contributes to develop. how environmental and host factors shape the genetic structure of e. coli strains remains, however, largely unknown. following a previous study of e. coli genomic diversity, we investigated its diversity at the metabolic level by building and analyzing the genome-scale metabolic networks of 29 e. coli strains (8 commensal and 21 p ...201121239590
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
approach to the patient with infectious colitis.to provide current recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with infectious colitis. infectious colitis is diagnosed in someone with diarrhea and one or more of the following: fever and/or dysentery, stools containing inflammatory markers such as leukocytes, lactoferrin, or calprotectin, or positive stool culture for an invasive or inflammatory bacterial enteropathogen including shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) or clostridium diff ...201222080825
molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing shigella isolates from humans in south africa, 2003-2009. 201221903820
How We Didn't Clean Up Until We Washed Our Hands: Shigellosis in an Elementary and Middle School in North Texas.Shigella outbreaks often continue for months and are linked frequently to poor hygiene and hand washing. Such outbreaks are found often in day care facilities, but rarely are reported in schools. We present the investigation of an outbreak in autumn 2007 at a building that housed an elementary school and a middle school in separate wings in a small Texas city north of Dallas-Fort Worth.201222189658
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
antimicrobial activity of ulopterol isolated from toddalia asiatica (l.) lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.aim of the study: the leaves of toddalia asiatica (l.) lam. (rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in india to treat various ailments. in our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. in the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial ...201222265751
[characterisation of a ctx-m-15-producing shigella sonnei in a spanish patient who had not travelled abroad.]one hundred and seven shigella spp. strains were isolated in our laboratory during the years 2000 to 2010. one shigella sonnei harboured the genes that coded the β-lactamases tem-1 and ctx-m-15, identifying the structure, isecp1+bla(ctx-m-15)+orf477, in their genetic environment. the strain also carried a class 2 integron with the gene cassettes dfra1+sat+aada1. a plasmid group inci1 st31 (cc-31) was detected and its mobilization by conjugation was demonstrated. we describe for the first time a ...201222244530
epidemiological, clinical features and susceptibility pattern of shigellosis in the buea health district, cameroon.abstract: background: shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus shigella; it is clinically manifested by bloody diarrhoea. shigellosis is endemic in many developing countries including cameroon and also occurs in epidemics causing considerable morbidity and mortality. this study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical features of shigella and the resistance pattern of isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the buea health district in camer ...201222264300
analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) isolate e24377a.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) is an important pathogenic variant (pathovar) of e. coli in developing countries from a human health perspective, causing significant morbidity and mortality. previous studies have examined specific regulatory networks in etec, although little is known about the global effects of inter- and intra-kingdom signaling on the expression of virulence and colonization factors in etec. in this study, an e.coli/shigella pan-genome microarray, combined with quantita ...201222215741
characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, sfp10, simultaneously inhibiting both salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. phage sfp10, which revealed effective infection of both s. enterica and e. coli o157:h7, was isolated and characterized. sfp10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded dna genome belonging to the vi01 phage-like family myoviridae. in vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and e. coli o157:h7 were 2.50 × 10(-8) ml/min and 1.91 ...201222020516
the evolution of the escherichia coli phylogeny.escherichia coli are familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. outside of the laboratory, e. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. although usually a commensal, e. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. the study of e. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains in ...201222266241
galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion.autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as lgals8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts salmonella proliferation. galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integri ...201222246324
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
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